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You are on page 1of 5

**Finite Element Based Transformer Operational Model
**

for Dynamic Simulations

O. A. Mohammed

1

, Z. Liu

1

, S. Liu

1

, N. Y. Abed

1

, and L. J. Petersen

2

1

Florida International University, U.S.A.

2

Oﬃce of Naval Research, U.S.A.

Abstract

The transformer model proposed in this paper considers the eﬀects of the excitation levels as well as the

periodic ﬂuctuations of ac excitation on the winding self and mutual inductances during dynamic operation. The

inductance proﬁle is obtained from sequential FE solutions covering a complete ac cycle at various excitation

levels. The values are then used by table-look-up technique. The technical details, the creation of the inductance

tables as well as the Simulink implementation, are explained. Simulation results show that the established model

is capable of restoring the nonlinear magnetization phenomena of transformer iron core. The signiﬁcance of

this model is due to its accuracy and its applicability for dynamic simulation of interconnected components in

a power system.

Introduction

Accurate electromagnetic transient studies, such as, harmonic load–ﬂow require accurate modeling of network

elements and their components. The modeling of iron-core transformer plays an important role in the dynamic

simulation of power system transients such as inrush currents, short circuits, and fault conditions.

The key point of iron core transformer modeling is the representation of nonlinear magnetization. Two

commonly used methods are the piece-wise linear curve and the simple saturated reluctance function [1-3].

These approaches consider the eﬀects of average excitation level on the ﬂux/inductance but ignore the ﬂuctuating

eﬀects of the ac excitation itself. For cases requiring high-precision modeling, this is not adequate.

Reference [4] developed an FE based method for determining the saturated transformer inductances utilizing

energy perturbation. Reference [5] studied the transformer inductance variations with respect to the average

excitation level and the periodic ﬂuctuations of ac excitation. The 2D proﬁles are used to describe each induc-

tance. Making use of such an inductance deﬁnition, we proposed our new transformer model. As an example,

a 187.8kW, 288/232V three-phase power transformer is studied. The transformer equation, inductance calcu-

lation and 2D inductance table establishment, Simulink implementation in addition to simulation results are

presented.

Transformer’s Equation and Inductances Calculation

A. Basic equation The voltage and ﬂux linkage equations of the three-phase transformer are as follows:

u

abc

u

ABC

=

R

1

0

0 R

2

i

abc

i

ABC

+

d

dt

ψ

abc

ψ

ABC

(1)

ψ

abc

ψ

ABC

=

L

1

M

12

M

21

L

2

i

abc

i

ABC

(2)

Where, u

abc

, i

abc

, R

1

, L

1

, and, ψ

abc

are the voltage, current, resistance, self inductance, and the ﬂux linkage

of the primary winding. u

ABC

, i

ABC

, R

2

, L

2

, and ψ

ABC

are the corresponding parameters of the secondary

winding. M

12

and M

21

are the mutual inductances between the primary and secondary windings.

The inductancesL

1

, L

2

, M

12

, and M

21

are considered as magnetization status dependent so as to accurately

represent the nonlinear magnetization property of iron core. They are determined in terms of the maximum

value and the phase angle of ac excitation during a complete electrical cycle.

B. Inductance calculation and inductance table

Inductances are evaluated using the energy perturbation mehtod [4]. While performing the energy perturba-

tion algorithm, the magnetizing currents of the primary winding are assigned to i

abc

; zero currents are assigned

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 497

Figure 1: waveform of rated magnetizing current Figure 2: inductance proﬁle of Laa

to i

ABC

. The energy of the transformer is calculated based on the nonlinear FE magnetic ﬁeld analysis of the

transformer. The magnetizing currents of the primary winding is determined through circuit-FE diect coupling,

while the primary winding is fed with sinusodal voltage source and the secondary winding is open-circuited.

Fig. 1 shows the obtained rated excitation current waveform of the 187.8kW, 288/232V three-phase power

transformer.

The excitation level is represented by the magnitude of ψ

m

. The determination of ψ

m

is as follows:

ψ

m

=

(ψ

2

α

+ ψ

2

β

) (3)

Where, ψ

α

=

(u

α

− R

1

i

α

)dt, ψ

β

=

(u

β

− R

1

i

β

)dt. u

α

, u

β

, i

α

, and i

β

are obtained by transferring the

sinusoidal voltage and magnetizing current of the primary winding from a − b − c coordinate system to α − β

coordinate system. While building the 2D inductance table, the excitation level is adjusted by changing the

magnitude of the sinusoidal voltage source.

The phase angle of the ac excitation during a complete ac cycle is identiﬁed by θ. It is calculated uding the

formulation below:

θ = tg

−1

(ψ

β

/ψ

α

) (4)

Table 1: 2-dimentional inductance table

θ

ψ

m

1

0

2

0

3

0

· · · 358

0

359

0

360

0

25% 0.0426 0.0425 0.0423 · · · 0.0427 0.0428 0.0431

50% 0.0430 0.0428 0.0426 · · · 0.0423 0.0425 0.0426

100% 0.0424 0.0420 0.0417 · · · 0.0417 0.0421 0.0425

150% 0.0412 0.0410 0.0405 · · · 0.0416 0.0417 0.0419

Using the primary winding self inductance L

aa

as an example, Table I gives the structure of the 2D inductance

table and Fig.2 shows the inductance proﬁle.

Simulink Implementation and Simulation Results

In our previous work, two procedures were proposed to build the machine model in Simulink; equation-

based and circuit component-based [6-7]. For the implementation of the transformer equation (1), the circuit

component-based model is adopted to allow arbitrary connection (Wye or Delta) of the transformer three

phase winding. In the circuit component-based model in reference [7], an adjustable inductance component was

developed to represent the rotor position dependent self inductances. Here, a new procedure is proposed to

represent the magnetization status dependent self inductances.

A constant inductance term is separated from each varying self inductance, as shown in Fig.3. The constant

term is used to apply the initial condition of inductance. The varying term is used to reﬂect the inductance

variation with the iron core magnetization status. Equation (5) gives the ﬂux equation rewritten in terms of

the separated inductances. Where L

′

aa

, L

′

bb

, · · · are the constant inductance terms.

498 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26

Figure 3: inductance separation Figure 4: circuit diagram of phase a winding

ψ

a

ψ

b

ψ

c

ψ

A

ψ

B

ψ

C

=

L

aa

L

ab

L

ac

M

aA

M

aB

M

aC

L

ba

L

bb

L

bc

M

bA

M

bB

M

bC

L

ca

L

cb

L

cc

M

cA

M

cB

M

cC

M

Aa

M

Ab

M

Ac

L

AA

L

AB

L

AC

M

Ba

M

Bb

M

Bc

L

BA

L

BB

L

BC

M

Ca

M

cB

M

cC

L

CA

L

CB

L

CC

i

a

i

b

i

c

i

A

i

B

i

C

=

L

′

aa

0 0 0 0 0

0 L

′

bb

0 0 0 0

0 0 L

′

cc

0 0 0

0 0 0 L

′

AA

0 0

0 0 0 0 L

′

BB

0

0 0 0 0 0 L

′

CC

i

a

i

b

i

c

i

A

i

B

i

C

+

L

′′

aa

L

ab

L

ac

M

aA

M

aB

M

aC

L

ba

L

′′

bb

L

bc

M

bA

M

bB

M

bC

L

ca

L

cb

L

′′

cc

M

cA

M

cB

M

cC

M

Aa

M

Ab

M

Ac

L

′′

AA

L

AB

L

AC

M

Ba

M

Bb

M

Bc

L

BA

L

′′

BB

L

BC

M

Ca

M

cB

M

cC

L

CA

L

CB

L

′′

CC

i

a

i

b

i

c

i

A

i

B

i

C

(5)

For simplicity, the back EMF of phase “a” is given below as an example:

e

a

=

dψ

a

dt

= L

′

aa

di

a

dt

+ e

a

′′

(6)

Figure 5: Block diagram of the transformer model in Simulink

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 499

e

′′

a

=

d

dt

L

′′

aa

i

a

+ L

ab

i

b

+ L

ac

i

c

+ M

aA

i

A

+ M

aB

i

B

+ M

aC

i

C

(7)

The circuit diagram of phase “a” winding is shown in Fig. 4. The controlled voltage source is used to

represent the back EMF term e

′′

a

.

Fig.5 is the circuit diagram of the transformer model. Subsystems 1 and 2 are used to calculate the magnitude

of ψ

m

and the phase angle θ. According to ψ

m

and θ, the inductances are picked up from the 2D tables stored

in blocks L1, M12, L2, and M21. The ﬂux linkage and back EMF of the primary and secondary windings are

calculated using equations (1) and (5).

Table 2

L

aa

=43.9 L

ab

=-22.1 L

ac

=-21.4 M

aA

=35.4 M

aB

=-17.8 M

aC

=-17.3

L

ba

=-22.1 L

bb

=44.4 L

bc

=-22.1 M

bA

=-17.8 M

bB

=35.9 M

bC

=-17.8

L

ca

=-21.4 L

cb

=-22.1 L

cc

=43.8 M

cA

=-17.3 M

cB

=-17.8 M

cC

=35.4

M

Aa

=35.4 M

Ab

=-17.8 M

Ac

=-17.3 L

AA

=28.6 L

AB

=-14.4 L

AC

=-13.9

M

Ba

=-17.8 M

Bb

=35.8 M

Bc

=-17.8 L

BA

=-14.4 L

BB

=29.0 L

BC

=-14.4

M

Ca

=-17.3 M

Cb

=-17.8 M

Cc

=35.4 L

CA

=-13.9 L

CB

=-14.4 L

CC

=28.6

Time (s)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

(a)

Time (s)

C

u

r

r

e

n

t

(

A

)

(b)

Figure 6: Magnetizing current waveform obtained by, (a) using inductances in Table 1, (b) using inductances

in Table 2

For comparison purpose, the mean values of the transformer winding inductances are calculated also, which

are given in Table 2. Then, the no load experiment is performed using the inductances in Table 1 and Table 2

respectively.

Fig.6 shows the magnetizing current waveform obtained from simulation. Comparison of Fig.6(a) and

Fig.6(b) indicates that the proposed transformer model restores the nonlinear magnetization phenomenon of

the iron core. Comparison of Fig.6(a) with Fig. 1 shows that the proposed FE based transformer model can be

considered as accurate as the full FE model. In addition, the FE based transformer model supports very fast

simulation speed, while the full FE model is computational cumbersome.

Conclusion

An accurate transformer model is proposed for dynamic simulation purposes. It uses the magnetization

status dependent inductances to restore the nonlinear magnetization behavior of the transformer iron core. The

inductance variations due to the excitation level and the periodic ﬂuctuations of ac excitation are considered,

which are obtained from sequential FE solutions. The deﬁnition of 2D inductance table is given and its im-

plementation in Simulink is studied. Veriﬁcation examples show the correctness and validity of the developed

transformer model. Compared with the conventional transformer models, the proposed model provides an

accurate description of the iron core magnetization behavior and its applicability to dynamic simulations.

REFERENCES

1. leon, F. de and A. Semlyen, “Complete Transformer Model for Electromagnetic Transients,” IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 1, 231-239, 1994.

500 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26

2. Chen, X. and S. Venkata, “A Three-phase Three-winding Core-type Transformer Model for Low-frequency

Transient Studies,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 2, 775-782, 1997.

3. Pedra, J., F. Corcoles, L. Sainz and R. Lopez, “Harmonic Nonlinear Transformer Modeling,” IEEE Trans.

on Power Delivery, Vol. 19, No. 2, 884-890, 2004.

4. Mohammed, O. A. and N. A. Demerdash, “A 3 D Finite Element Perturbational Method for Determining

Saturated Values of Transformer Winding Inductances Including Experimental Veriﬁcation,” IEEE Trans.

on Magnetics, Vol. 21, No. 5, 1877-1879, 1985.

5. Mirafzal, B. and N. A. Demerdash, “Eﬀects of Inductance Nonlinearities in a Transformer-rectiﬁer DC Motor

Drive System on the AC Side Harmonic Distortion Using a Time-stepping Coupled Finite Element-circuit

Technique,” proceedings of Electric Machines and Drives Conference, IEMDC’03, Vol. 3, 1755-1759.

6. Mohammed, O. A., S. Liu and Z. Liu, “Physical Modeling of PMSynchronous Motors for Integrated Coupling

with Machine Drives,” IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, 2005.

7. Mohammed, O. A., S. Liu and Z. Liu, “A Phase Variable Model of Brushless DC motor Based on Physical

FE Model and Its Coupling with External Circuits,” IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, 2005.

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