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496 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26

Finite Element Based Transformer Operational Model
for Dynamic Simulations
O. A. Mohammed
1
, Z. Liu
1
, S. Liu
1
, N. Y. Abed
1
, and L. J. Petersen
2
1
Florida International University, U.S.A.
2
Office of Naval Research, U.S.A.
Abstract
The transformer model proposed in this paper considers the effects of the excitation levels as well as the
periodic fluctuations of ac excitation on the winding self and mutual inductances during dynamic operation. The
inductance profile is obtained from sequential FE solutions covering a complete ac cycle at various excitation
levels. The values are then used by table-look-up technique. The technical details, the creation of the inductance
tables as well as the Simulink implementation, are explained. Simulation results show that the established model
is capable of restoring the nonlinear magnetization phenomena of transformer iron core. The significance of
this model is due to its accuracy and its applicability for dynamic simulation of interconnected components in
a power system.
Introduction
Accurate electromagnetic transient studies, such as, harmonic load–flow require accurate modeling of network
elements and their components. The modeling of iron-core transformer plays an important role in the dynamic
simulation of power system transients such as inrush currents, short circuits, and fault conditions.
The key point of iron core transformer modeling is the representation of nonlinear magnetization. Two
commonly used methods are the piece-wise linear curve and the simple saturated reluctance function [1-3].
These approaches consider the effects of average excitation level on the flux/inductance but ignore the fluctuating
effects of the ac excitation itself. For cases requiring high-precision modeling, this is not adequate.
Reference [4] developed an FE based method for determining the saturated transformer inductances utilizing
energy perturbation. Reference [5] studied the transformer inductance variations with respect to the average
excitation level and the periodic fluctuations of ac excitation. The 2D profiles are used to describe each induc-
tance. Making use of such an inductance definition, we proposed our new transformer model. As an example,
a 187.8kW, 288/232V three-phase power transformer is studied. The transformer equation, inductance calcu-
lation and 2D inductance table establishment, Simulink implementation in addition to simulation results are
presented.
Transformer’s Equation and Inductances Calculation
A. Basic equation The voltage and flux linkage equations of the three-phase transformer are as follows:

u
abc
u
ABC

=

R
1
0
0 R
2

i
abc
i
ABC

+
d
dt

ψ
abc
ψ
ABC

(1)

ψ
abc
ψ
ABC

=

L
1
M
12
M
21
L
2

i
abc
i
ABC

(2)
Where, u
abc
, i
abc
, R
1
, L
1
, and, ψ
abc
are the voltage, current, resistance, self inductance, and the flux linkage
of the primary winding. u
ABC
, i
ABC
, R
2
, L
2
, and ψ
ABC
are the corresponding parameters of the secondary
winding. M
12
and M
21
are the mutual inductances between the primary and secondary windings.
The inductancesL
1
, L
2
, M
12
, and M
21
are considered as magnetization status dependent so as to accurately
represent the nonlinear magnetization property of iron core. They are determined in terms of the maximum
value and the phase angle of ac excitation during a complete electrical cycle.
B. Inductance calculation and inductance table
Inductances are evaluated using the energy perturbation mehtod [4]. While performing the energy perturba-
tion algorithm, the magnetizing currents of the primary winding are assigned to i
abc
; zero currents are assigned
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 497
Figure 1: waveform of rated magnetizing current Figure 2: inductance profile of Laa
to i
ABC
. The energy of the transformer is calculated based on the nonlinear FE magnetic field analysis of the
transformer. The magnetizing currents of the primary winding is determined through circuit-FE diect coupling,
while the primary winding is fed with sinusodal voltage source and the secondary winding is open-circuited.
Fig. 1 shows the obtained rated excitation current waveform of the 187.8kW, 288/232V three-phase power
transformer.
The excitation level is represented by the magnitude of ψ
m
. The determination of ψ
m
is as follows:
ψ
m
=


2
α
+ ψ
2
β
) (3)
Where, ψ
α
=

(u
α
− R
1
i
α
)dt, ψ
β
=

(u
β
− R
1
i
β
)dt. u
α
, u
β
, i
α
, and i
β
are obtained by transferring the
sinusoidal voltage and magnetizing current of the primary winding from a − b − c coordinate system to α − β
coordinate system. While building the 2D inductance table, the excitation level is adjusted by changing the
magnitude of the sinusoidal voltage source.
The phase angle of the ac excitation during a complete ac cycle is identified by θ. It is calculated uding the
formulation below:
θ = tg
−1

β

α
) (4)
Table 1: 2-dimentional inductance table
θ
ψ
m
1
0
2
0
3
0
· · · 358
0
359
0
360
0
25% 0.0426 0.0425 0.0423 · · · 0.0427 0.0428 0.0431
50% 0.0430 0.0428 0.0426 · · · 0.0423 0.0425 0.0426
100% 0.0424 0.0420 0.0417 · · · 0.0417 0.0421 0.0425
150% 0.0412 0.0410 0.0405 · · · 0.0416 0.0417 0.0419
Using the primary winding self inductance L
aa
as an example, Table I gives the structure of the 2D inductance
table and Fig.2 shows the inductance profile.
Simulink Implementation and Simulation Results
In our previous work, two procedures were proposed to build the machine model in Simulink; equation-
based and circuit component-based [6-7]. For the implementation of the transformer equation (1), the circuit
component-based model is adopted to allow arbitrary connection (Wye or Delta) of the transformer three
phase winding. In the circuit component-based model in reference [7], an adjustable inductance component was
developed to represent the rotor position dependent self inductances. Here, a new procedure is proposed to
represent the magnetization status dependent self inductances.
A constant inductance term is separated from each varying self inductance, as shown in Fig.3. The constant
term is used to apply the initial condition of inductance. The varying term is used to reflect the inductance
variation with the iron core magnetization status. Equation (5) gives the flux equation rewritten in terms of
the separated inductances. Where L

aa
, L

bb
, · · · are the constant inductance terms.
498 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26
Figure 3: inductance separation Figure 4: circuit diagram of phase a winding








ψ
a
ψ
b
ψ
c
ψ
A
ψ
B
ψ
C








=








L
aa
L
ab
L
ac
M
aA
M
aB
M
aC
L
ba
L
bb
L
bc
M
bA
M
bB
M
bC
L
ca
L
cb
L
cc
M
cA
M
cB
M
cC
M
Aa
M
Ab
M
Ac
L
AA
L
AB
L
AC
M
Ba
M
Bb
M
Bc
L
BA
L
BB
L
BC
M
Ca
M
cB
M
cC
L
CA
L
CB
L
CC
















i
a
i
b
i
c
i
A
i
B
i
C








=








L

aa
0 0 0 0 0
0 L

bb
0 0 0 0
0 0 L

cc
0 0 0
0 0 0 L

AA
0 0
0 0 0 0 L

BB
0
0 0 0 0 0 L

CC
















i
a
i
b
i
c
i
A
i
B
i
C








+









L
′′
aa
L
ab
L
ac
M
aA
M
aB
M
aC
L
ba
L
′′
bb
L
bc
M
bA
M
bB
M
bC
L
ca
L
cb
L
′′
cc
M
cA
M
cB
M
cC
M
Aa
M
Ab
M
Ac
L
′′
AA
L
AB
L
AC
M
Ba
M
Bb
M
Bc
L
BA
L
′′
BB
L
BC
M
Ca
M
cB
M
cC
L
CA
L
CB
L
′′
CC

















i
a
i
b
i
c
i
A
i
B
i
C








(5)
For simplicity, the back EMF of phase “a” is given below as an example:
e
a
=

a
dt
= L

aa
di
a
dt
+ e
a
′′
(6)

Figure 5: Block diagram of the transformer model in Simulink
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 499
e
′′
a
=
d
dt

L
′′
aa
i
a
+ L
ab
i
b
+ L
ac
i
c
+ M
aA
i
A
+ M
aB
i
B
+ M
aC
i
C

(7)
The circuit diagram of phase “a” winding is shown in Fig. 4. The controlled voltage source is used to
represent the back EMF term e
′′
a
.
Fig.5 is the circuit diagram of the transformer model. Subsystems 1 and 2 are used to calculate the magnitude
of ψ
m
and the phase angle θ. According to ψ
m
and θ, the inductances are picked up from the 2D tables stored
in blocks L1, M12, L2, and M21. The flux linkage and back EMF of the primary and secondary windings are
calculated using equations (1) and (5).
Table 2
L
aa
=43.9 L
ab
=-22.1 L
ac
=-21.4 M
aA
=35.4 M
aB
=-17.8 M
aC
=-17.3
L
ba
=-22.1 L
bb
=44.4 L
bc
=-22.1 M
bA
=-17.8 M
bB
=35.9 M
bC
=-17.8
L
ca
=-21.4 L
cb
=-22.1 L
cc
=43.8 M
cA
=-17.3 M
cB
=-17.8 M
cC
=35.4
M
Aa
=35.4 M
Ab
=-17.8 M
Ac
=-17.3 L
AA
=28.6 L
AB
=-14.4 L
AC
=-13.9
M
Ba
=-17.8 M
Bb
=35.8 M
Bc
=-17.8 L
BA
=-14.4 L
BB
=29.0 L
BC
=-14.4
M
Ca
=-17.3 M
Cb
=-17.8 M
Cc
=35.4 L
CA
=-13.9 L
CB
=-14.4 L
CC
=28.6

Time (s)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

(a)
Time (s)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

(b)
Figure 6: Magnetizing current waveform obtained by, (a) using inductances in Table 1, (b) using inductances
in Table 2
For comparison purpose, the mean values of the transformer winding inductances are calculated also, which
are given in Table 2. Then, the no load experiment is performed using the inductances in Table 1 and Table 2
respectively.
Fig.6 shows the magnetizing current waveform obtained from simulation. Comparison of Fig.6(a) and
Fig.6(b) indicates that the proposed transformer model restores the nonlinear magnetization phenomenon of
the iron core. Comparison of Fig.6(a) with Fig. 1 shows that the proposed FE based transformer model can be
considered as accurate as the full FE model. In addition, the FE based transformer model supports very fast
simulation speed, while the full FE model is computational cumbersome.
Conclusion
An accurate transformer model is proposed for dynamic simulation purposes. It uses the magnetization
status dependent inductances to restore the nonlinear magnetization behavior of the transformer iron core. The
inductance variations due to the excitation level and the periodic fluctuations of ac excitation are considered,
which are obtained from sequential FE solutions. The definition of 2D inductance table is given and its im-
plementation in Simulink is studied. Verification examples show the correctness and validity of the developed
transformer model. Compared with the conventional transformer models, the proposed model provides an
accurate description of the iron core magnetization behavior and its applicability to dynamic simulations.
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500 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26
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