EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF T I RE

SHEAR FORCE MECHANICS --
A SUMMARY REPORT
P . S . F a n c h e r , J r .
H . Dugof f
K . 6 . Lud,ema
L , S e g e l
Highway Sa f e t y Res ear ch I n s t i t u t e
The Un i v e r s i t y of Mi chi gan
Huron Parkway and Ba xt e r Road
Ann Ar b o r , Michigan 48105
JULY 30, 1970
Summary Fi n a l Repor t
Pr e pa r e d f o r
Ti r e Syst ems Se c t i o n
Of f i c e of Ve hi c l e Syst.ems Resear ch
Na t i ona l Bureau o f St a nda r ds
Washi ngt on, D . C . 2 0 2 3 4
T h i s r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d i n f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e Na t i o n a l
Bu r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s C o n t r a c t CSrI' -928-5 ( f u n d e d b y t h e
Na t i o n a l Hi ghway S a f e t y Bu r e a u t h r o u g h t h e NBS, C o n t r a c t
FH- 1 1 - 6 0 9 0 ) . The o p i n i o n s , f i n d i n g s , a n d c o n c l u s i o n s
e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n a r e t h o s e o f t h e a u t h o r s
a nd n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h o s e o f t h e Na t i o n a l Bu r e a u o f
S t a n d a r d s n o r t h e Na t i o n a l Hi ghway S a f e t y Bu r e a u .
Thi s summary r e p o r t i s a d i g e s t of f i ndi ngs from an
exper i ment al i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e mechanics of t i r e s he a r f o r c e
ge ne r a t i on under ge ne r a l condi t i ons of s t e e r i n g and br aki ng.
The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was conduct ed by t he Highway Sa f e t y Research
I n s t i t u t e {HSRI) of The Uni ve r s i t y of Mi chi gan under t he spon-
s or s hi p of t he Of f i c e of Vehi cl e Systems Research of t h e Nat i onal
Bureau of St andar ds .
INTRODUCTION
---
I n ope r a t i on, t he t i r e i s r e qui r e d t o c a r r y a v e r t i c a l l oa d,
abs or b bumps and shocks wi t hout f a i l u r e , be dur a bl e , and pr ovi de
l a t e r a l and l ongi t udi na l t r a c t i o n f o r c e s . I n s e ve r e ve hi c l e
maneuvers r e l a t e d t o a c c i de nt avoi dance, t he l a t e r a l and l ongi t u-
d i n a l t i r e f or c e s a r e ext r emel y i mpor t ant . These f or c e s a r e
det er mi ned by an exceedi ngl y complex s e t of event s whi ch t ake
pl a c e i n t he c ont a c t pa t c h between t i r e and r oad. To d a t e , t he r e
i s no compl et e o r t o t a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y model of t i r e s h e a r f or c e
ge ne r a t i on. Recent l y, h ~ we v e r , t h r e e s i mp l i f i e d t h e o r e t i c a l
anal ys es of t he mechanics of t i r e t r a c t i o n under s t e e r i n g and
br aki ng c ondi t i ons have been performed [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . The d e r i v a t i v e
mat hemat i cal model s, which agr ee q u a l i t a t i v e l y wi t h each ot he r and
wi t h exper i ment al d a t a , expr es s t he l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l
f or c e s on a gi ven s u r f a c e a t f i x e d v e r t i c a l l oad as f unc t i ons of
l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l s l i p ( s l i p a ngl e ) .
During a s e ve r e maneuver, t he l ongi t udi na l s l i p , s l i p a ngl e ,
and v e r t i c a l l oad of a v e h i c l e ' s t i r e s var y wi del y and hence cause
g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n t he l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l t i r e f o r c e s . How
t he s e f or c e s devel op det er mi nes whet her t he ve hi c l e t ur ns and s t o p s
under c o n t r o l , s p i n s , or s ki ds s t r a i g h t ahead. The t i r e s he a r f o r c e
r e pr e s e nt a t i on devel oped by HSRI has been i nc or por a t e d i n a compre-
hens i ve ve hi c l e s i mul a t i on and employed t o q u a n t i t a t i v e l y anal yze
t he i nf l ue nc e of t i r e t r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on ve hi c l e behavi or
[ I ] . Thi s s i mul a t i on has a l s o been used t o e va l ua t e t he i nf l ue nc e
of a n t i - l o c k br aki ng c ont r ol syst ems on ve hi c l e d i r e c t i o n a l
s t a b i l i t y [ 4 ] and t o s t udy t he l i mi t s of ve hi c l e r esponse t o
s t e e r i n g and br aki ng i nput s [ 5 ] . Cl e a r l y, t he degr ee of v a l i d i t y
of t he devel oped t i r e model has obvi ous and i mpor t ant i mpl i c a t i ons
r e l a t i v e t o t he accuracy of t hes e s i mul a t i on r e s u l t s .
Under NBS Cont r act No. CST- 928- 5, HSRI has gat her ed and
anal yzed a comprehensive body of s t r u c t u r e d da t a on t he devel op-
ment of t i r e s he a r f or c e s over a wide r ange of ope r a t i ng c ondi t i ons .
The da t a were obt ai ned us i ng two complementary pi e c e s of t e s t
equi pment : a l a bor a t or y- i ns t a l l e d f l a t b e t t e s t e r (FBT) permi t ki ng
p r e c i s e c ont r ol of t e s t condi t i ons a t low speed, and a ve hi c l e -
towed mobi l e t i r e t e s t e r (MTT) pr ovi di ng a c a p a b i l i t y f o r over -
t he - r ead measurements a t r e a l i s t i c highway speeds . Complete
de s c r i pt i ons of t he s e two t i r e t e s t e r s appear i n Ref. 6 , A de-
t a i l e d accourit of t he conduct and f i ndi ngs of t he exper i ment al
program w i l l appear i n a subsequent publ i c a t i on.
The purpose of t h i s r e por t i s t o pr ovi de a conci s e suinmary
of t he exper i ment al f i ndi ngs and t o make s p e c i f i c recommendations --
f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d towards t he development of a s c i e n-
t i f i c ba s i s f o r t he c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on and s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t i r e
t r a c t i o n performance.
SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENTAL - RESULTS
A. Combined S l i p and S l i p Angle Data from t he Mobile Ti r e Te s t e r
The mobi l e t i r e t e s t e r pr ovi des t he uni que c a p a b i l i t y of on-
t he- r oad measurements of t i r e s he a r f or c e s under combined : ; l i p and
s l i p angl e ope r a t i on a t highway s peeds . The da t a pr e s e nt e d he r e
was obt ai ned by l oweri ng a t i r e ont o tile r oad a t a f i x e d s l i p angl e
and var yi ng t he t e s t wheel speed from f r e e r o l l i n g t o l ockup by
an e l e c t r o - h y d r a u l i c c ont r ol syst em. Each of t he curves pr e s e nt e d
i n Fi gur es 1-10 i s t he average of f i v e r e p l i c a t i o n s . They have
been s e l e c t e d from a much l a r g e r s e t of cur ves t o i l . l us t r al ; e t he
t ype of r e s u l t s obt ai ned.
Dry Concr et e Dat a. Fi gur e 1 shows t h e r e s u l t s obt a i ne d
f o r a b e l t e d b i a s t i r e wi t h a f or war d MTT s pe e d of 30 mph, wi t h
t h e t i r e s e t a t 0°, l o, Z O , 4 " , 8" , and 16" s l i p a n g l e s . The
g r e a t i n f l u e n c e of s l i p a ngl e on l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r c e , t h a t :is,
br a ki ng f o r c e i n t he wheel p l a n e , i s a ppa r e nt . As t h e s l i p a ngl e
i s i n c r e a s e d , t he peak of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r c e ve r s us s l i p cur ve
occhr s a t h i g h e r va l ue s of s l i p . At hi gh s l i p a ngl e s t h e peak
l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r c e i s obt a i ne d a t l ockup. The l a r g e r e duc t i on i n
l a t e r a l f o r c e caused by i n c r e a s i n g l o n g i t u d i n a l s l i p can be s e e n
i n Fi gur e I .
Fi gur e s 2 and 3 show s i mi l a r r e s u 1 . t ~ f o r a r a d i a l t i r e and
a c r o s s b i a s t i r e . For bot h of t h e s e t i r e s , as wi t h t h e b e l t e d
b i a s t i r e , t h e l a t e r a l f o r c e f a l l s o f f wi t h i n c r e a s i n g s l i p and
t he peak of t he l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r c e ve r s us s l i p cur ve becomes l e s s
pr onounced as s l i p a ngl e i n c r e a s e s .
Si nc e t h e d a t a i n Fi gur e s l t hr ough 3 were c o l l e c t e d on
d i f f e r e n t days wi t h va r yi ng t e mpe r a t ur e and humi di t y and on d i f -
f e r e n t s e c t i o n s of roadway, t he y do n o t c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e
b a s i s f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e compar i sons of t i r e q u a l i t i e s . Fu r t h e r ,
t h e t h r e e t e s t e d t i r e s d i f f e r i n t r e a d compounds and t r e a d p a t -
t e r n s , a s we l l a s i n c a r c a s s c o n s t r u c t i o n . The d a t a a r e i nt e nde d
onl y t o i l l u s t r a t e q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t i r e s h e a r f o r c e
per f or mance. I n Fi gur e 4 , t he 0" and 16" s l i p a ngl e d a t a f o r aPP
t h r e e t i r e s have been p l o t t e d on t he same gr aph t o emphasi ze t h e
wi de r ange of r e s u l t s p o s s i b l e .
For t h e r a d i a l t i r e and t h e b e l t e d b i a s t i r e , t he form of
t h e t i r e f o r c e cur ves does n o t change wi t h v e l o c i t y . For t h e
c r o s s b i a s t i r e , a l ower peak and a hi ghe r s l i d i n g l o n g i t u d i n a l
f o r c e were obt a i ne d a t 50 mph t ha n were obt a i ne d a t 30 mph. Thi s
r e s u l t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fi gur e 5 .
Wet Sur f a c e Condi t i ons . The mobi l e t i r e t e s t e r c a r r i e s
-
a s uppl y of wa t e r and ha s a pump and noz z l e s ys t em f o r we t t i n g
t he r oa d ahead of t h e t e s t t i r e . The noz z l e openi ng i s changed
BELTED BIAS TIRE
30 YPH 1000 LBS.
DRY CONCRETE
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 00 90100
WHEEL SLIP%
Fi gur e 1
CROSS BIAS TIRE
30 MPH 1000 LBS.
DRY CONCRETE
O O
BELTED RADIAL TIRE
30 MPH 1.000 LBS.
DRY CONCRETE
WHEEL SLIP %
Fi g u r e 2
RANGE OF RESULTS
30 MPH 1000 LEE
DRY CONCRETE
- ~I - T- . v]
B E L T E D BIAS
0
WHEEL SLIP %
Fi g u r e 3
WHEEL SLIP $
Fi g u r e 4
CROSS BIAS TIRE
0' 1000 LBS.
DRY
Fi gur e 5
cr r hI , "
h
k x i crr
WHEEL SLIP %
wi t h t e s t ve hi c l e s peed t o l a y wat er t o a dept h of about 0, , 0ZM.
Dat a f o r each of t he t hr e e t ypes of t i r e s ope r a t i ng on we t t e d
concr et e a r e shown i n Fi gur es 6 , 7 , and 8.
As expect ed, t he peak l ongi t udi na l f or c e on t he wet r oad i s
lower t han on t he dr y r oad, though t he l o s s i s onl y 10 t o 1 5 %.
The f a l l o f f of l ongi t udi na l f or c e beyond t he peak i s much nor e
pronounced on t h e wet concr et e s u r f a c e t han on t he dry c onc r e t e .
The l a t e r a l f or c e a t zer o s l i p r eaches a maximum a t a s l i p angl e
of 16' o r l e s s on t he wet s u r f a c e . I n ge ne r a l , t he same t ype
of performance was obt ai ned on t he wet concr et e as on dry con-
c r e t e , wi t h t he except i on t h a t t he l ongi t udi na l f o r c e f a l l s o f f
more r a p i d l y wi t h s l i p .
Fi gur e 9 , l i k e Fi gur e 4 , i s i nc l ude d t o show t h e wi de r ange
of r e s u l t s obt ai ned f o r t he t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t i r e s .
BELTED BIAS TI RE
30 MPH 1 0 0 0 LBS.
WET CONCRETE
9- 18- 69 T=63OF
' . O o
BELTED RADIAL TI RE
3 0 MPH 1 0 0 0 LBS.
WET CONCRETE
WHEEL SLI P $
Figure 6
CROSS BIAS TI RE
30 MPH 1 0 0 0 LBS.
WET CONCRETE
1.0117-
WHEEL SLI P $
Fi g u r e 7
RANGE OF RESULTS
3 0 MPH 1 0 0 0 LEIS.
. B E L T E D BIAS TI RE
CROSS BI AS TI RE
WHEEL SLI P %
F i g u r e 8
WHEEL S LI P %
Figure 9
Typi cal d a t a i l l u s t r a t i n g t he i nf l ue nc e of v e l o c i t y on
wet s ur f a c e s a r e pr e s e nt e d i n Fi gl i re 10. Si mi l a r r e s u l t s
were obt ai ned f o r a l l t hr e e t ypes of t i r e s .
CROSS BIAS TIRE
8 O 1-000 LBS.
WET CONCRE'I'E
Figure 10
WHEEL SLEP %
B. e e r i m e n t a l Res ul t s - f o r Locked Wheels
I n P a r t A , exper i ment al da t a a r e pr e s e nt e d f o r l ongi t udi na l
s l i p , s , r angi ng from 0 t o 1 . 0 ( 0 t o 100% wheel s l i p ) . Locked
wheel ope r a t i on of t he t i r e cor r esponds t o s = 1. 0. For t he
l ocked wheel c ondi t i on ( a t any s l i p angl e a ) , t he s l i d i n g ve l oc -
i t y a t ever y p o i n t i n t he c ont a c t pa t c h between t i r e and r oad
i s t he same and t he d i r e c t i o n of s l i d i n g cor r esponds t o t he s l i p
angl e of t he t i r e . I f t h e f r i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t he
t i r e - r o a d i n t e r f a c e a r e i s o t r o p i c , t hen t he t i r e s he a r f or c e
w i l l oppose t he d i r e c t i o n of s l i d i n g as shown i n Fi gur e I l a .
I n t h i s c a s e , F / F = t a n a .
Y x
Direction of
I Wheel Center
Direction of
1 Wheel Center
Velocity
Direction of
Total Shear
Force
a. Isotropic, p=p =p
X Y
Direction of
Total Shear
Force
Velocity
I Wheel Plane
I
Orientation
b. Px f. Py
Figure 11.Directional Characteristics of Tire/Road Friction
I f t he r e s u l t a n t s hear f or c e does not oppose t he di r e c t i on of
s l i d i n g , t hen, as shown i n Fi gure l l b , F / F does not equal t a n a.
Y X
Thus the qua nt i t y F /F t a n a equal s 1. 0 i f t he t o t a l s hear f or c e
Y X
opposes t he d i r e c t i o n of s l i d i n g and does not equal 1. 0 ot her wi se.
Tabl e I i s a t a bul a t i on of F / F t an a val ues computed from dat a
Y X
f o r l ocked wheels towed a t s l i p angl es of 8' and 16'.
These r e s u l t s i ndi c a t e t h a t t he d i r e c t i o n of t i r e s he a r f or c e
i s not c o l l i n e a r wi t h t he di r e c t i on of s l i d i n g on a wet s ur f a c e .
This may be due t o t he t r e a d p a t t e r n and t he di f f e r e nc e between
l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l wi pi ng a c t i on on t he wet r oad. Cl ear l y,
t he di f f e r e nc e i n t he di r e c t i on of s hear f or c e between wet and
dry roads i s very l a r ge . On t he wet r oad, F i s much l a r g e r t han
Y
AVERAGE VALUES, V = 20, 30, 40, 50 MPH: F, = 1000 LB,
TRAFFIC PAINT*
CROSS BI AS
BELTED BI AS
RADI AL
F x t a n a , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t he r a t i o of l a t e r a l f o r c e t o l l ongi t udi nal
f o r c e i s g r e a t e r on a wet r oad t han on a dr y r oad.
PAMF+ZETERS F OR CHAIIACTERIZING TI RE TRACTION PEKFORJIANCE
-- - - - - - - - - -
One goal of our t h e o r e t i c a l and exper i ment al i nve s t i , ga t i ons
of t i r e mechani cs i s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t he s h e a r f o r c e per f or mance
*The HSRI t e s t f a c i l i t y a t Willow Run Ai r p o r t has a s p e c i a l l y
pr epar ed s t r i p of a s p h a l t whi ch has been p a i n t e d wi t h t r a f f i c
p a i n t . When wet , t h i s s u r f a c e has low f r i c t i o n and wa t e r does n o t
d r a i n t hr ough i t e a s i l y . Al t hough t h i s t.ype of s u r f a c e i s a r t i -
f i c i a l , i t pr ovi des a r e l a t i v e l y low c o e f f i c i e n t of f r i c t i o n which
i s easy t o mai nt ai n.
of a t i r e i n terms of a few c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d par amet er s t h a t
can be conveni ent l y measured. By means of t he s e par amet er s ,
and formul ae ( c ha r a c t e r i z i ng f unc t i ons ) r e l a t i n g them t o s he a r
f or c e out put , we a r e at t empt i ng t o obt a i n a mat!lsmatical cles-
c r i p t i o n o r pr e di c t i on of performance t h a t i s v a l i d over t:he
f u l l range of oper at i ng v a r i a b l e s .
I n Ref. 1, t he t i r e i s c ha r a c t e r i z e d i n terms of two
e l a s t i c par amet er s , Cs and Ca and a " f r i c t i o n e xpr e s s i on. "
?
For exper i ment al work, t he l ongi t udi na l e l a s t i c par amet er , Cs ,
i s def i ned as t he a bs ol ut e val ue of t he s l ope of t h e curve of
l ongi t udi na l f or c e ver s us l ongi t udi na l s l i p , s , e va l ua t e d a t
s = 0 , f o r t he s l i p a ngl e , a , equal zer o. Si mi l a r l y , t he l a t -
e r a l e l a s t i c par amet er ,
Ca '
i s def i ned as t he a bs ol ut e val ue
of t h e r a t e of change of l a t e r a l f or c e wi t h r e s pe c t t o s l i p
angl e e va l ua t e d a t a = 0 f o r s = 0. For s mal l val ues of
l ongi t udi na l s l i p and s l i p angl e ( l a t e r a l s l i p ) , t h e pr e di c t e d
t i r e f or c e s a r e i ndependent of t he f r i c t i o n expr es s i on which i s
used t o compute t he maximum s he a r f or c e i n t e n s i t y between t h e
t i r e and t he r oad. Thi s expr es s i on account s bot h f o r t he de-
c r e a s e i n br aki ng f or c e beyond t he maximum of t he l ongi t udi na l
f or c e ver s us s l i p cur ve, and f o r a decr eas e i n cor ner i ng f or c e
a t l a r ge l a t e r a l s l i p . I n our pr evi ous s t udy [ I ] , a formul a
expr es s i ng f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t as a l i n e a r f unc t i on of s l i d i n g
v e l o c i t y was used t o obt a i n t i r e s he a r f or c e s i n q u a l i t a t i v e
agreement wi t h exper i ment al r e s u l t s a t l a r ge val ues of l ongi t u-
d i n a l and l a t e r a l s l i p .
Exami nat i on of t he e xt e ns i ve da t a c o l l e c t e d dur i ng t he
pr e s e nt s t udy l eads t o t he f ol l owi ng concl us i ons r e l a t i v e t o
t i r e c ha r a c t e r i z i ng par amet er s and f unc t i ons :
(1) The cor ner i ng s t i f f n e s s , Ca, and t he br aki ng
( l ongi t udi na l ) s t i f f n e s s , C s , a r e good par amet er s
f o r r e pr e s e nt i ng t i r e s he a r f or c e i n t he low s l - i p
angl e and l ongi t udi na l s l i p r ange, r e s pe c t i ve l y.
( 2 ) A par amet er ( or par amet er s ) c ha r a c t e r i z i ng t he
l o n g i t u d i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of normal pr e s s ur e i n
t he c ont a c t pa t c h ( d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t t ypes
of c a r c a s s c ons t r uc t i ons ) , i s needed t o de s c r i be
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c di f f e r e nc e s i n s h e a r f or c e pe r -
formance observed i n t he 3" t o 8' s l i p angl e r ange.
( 3) A l a r ge i nc r e a s e i n t he v e r t i c a l l oad c a r r i e d Iby
t he t i r e r e s u l t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t r e duc t i on i n t he
i n t e r f a c i a l f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Thi s phenomenon
s houl d be s t u d i e d i n more d e t a i l . None of t h e
t hr e e s i mp l i f i e d t i r e models s i t e d pr e vi ous l y
t r e a t s t he i nf l ue nc e s of v e r t i c a l l oad adequat el y.
( 4 ) The rnaximum s he a r f or c e p o t e n t i a l a t t h e t i r e - r o a d
i n t e r f a c e ( f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ) ge ne r a l l y v a r i e s
as a compl i cat ed f unc t i on of s l i d i n g v e l o c i t y and
v e r t i c a l l oad. A l i n e a r f unc t i on of s l i d i n g vel oc-
i t y i s adequat e f o r r e pr e s e nt i ng t h e s he a r forlzes
produced under c e r t a i n i n t e r f a c e c ondi t i ons .
( 5 ) The l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l t i r e f or c e s produced
a t hi gh val ues of s l i p on wet s ur f a c e s s ugge s t t he
pr eval ence of e f f e c t i v e l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l
c o e f f i c i e n t s of f r i c t i o n which a r e unequal i n mag-
n i t ude .
A. Work Towards - Es t a bl i s hi ng a Conci se Se t of Par amet er s and
Cha r a c t e r i z i ng Funct i ons Des cr i bi ng Ti r e Shear Force Pe r -
---- -
formance Shoul d be Cont rnued
--
The t h r e e models devel oped i n Ref s. 1 - 3 r e pr e s e nt a good
s t a r t towards de f i ni ng us e f ul par amet er s and c h a r a c t e r i z i ~z g
f unc t i ons . Based on t he r e s e a r c h r e por t e d he r e , t he t e s t
program o u t l i n e d i n Fi gur e 1 2 i s pr oposed as a means of qua nt i -
f yi ng t i r e s he a r f or c e performance, e va l ua t i ng s p e c i f i c t i r e
par amet er s , and r e f i n i n g e x i s t i n g c ha r a c t e r i z i ng function:^.
Desi gnat i on
of Test Machine
Type Used
-7
1.
Determine I FBT
2.
Determine FBT
Cs
F ";.=soand Fz 1 FBT
- - - - - -
ElTT
-
5.
Combined I FB1
F and F
x Y
- - - - -
Ve r t i c a l
Loads
t Required
Condi t i ons and Form of Res ul t s
1. Saf et y Walk
2. Low s l i p angl es , F <. 3F maximum a t t ha F
Y Y
used
3. 400 l b s ( FZ ( 2,000 l b s
I I
4. Pl o t s of F vs. u a t var i ous F val ues
Y
1. Saf et y walk
2 . Low s l i p val ves such t h a t r < . 3 F max.,
e . g . , s e t Fx t o FZ/ 5, FZ/ l O, 0, -FZ/lO,
-F / 5 , and r ead s l i p
3. 400 1bs ( / F = I 5 2,000 l b s
4. Pl ot s of F v s , s a t var i ous F val ues
1. Concrete s l a b
2. Carpet Pl ot F f o r a = 2O t o 20° and
Y
F = 400 I bs t o 2,000 l b s
1. Wet and dr y concr et e s ur f aces
2 . F f o r a = 2O, 4O, 6O, El0, l o o , and l b O a t
v
t he speeds and l oads shown i n Chart A
1. Concrete s l a b
2. Carpet Pl ot F f o r s = 0 t o max. pos s i bl e,
Fz = 400 t o 2,000 l b s
1. Wet and dry concr et e s ur f aces
2. F f o r 0 ( s ( 1. 0 a t t he speeds and l oads
shown i n Chart A
-- -
1. Concrete s l a b
2. F vs . F a t a = Z O , 4O, eO, B O , l o 0 , 12O,
Y
160, 20° f o r FZ = 400 t o 2,000 l b s
1. Wet and dr y concr et e s ur f aces
2. F a n d F vs. s f o r a = Z O , 4O, e O, e O,
x Y
l o 0 , and 16O a t t he speeds and l oads shown
i n Chart A
Paramet ers or
Char act er i zi ng
Funcr i ons Invol ved
and
2. C vs. r
and
1. A paramet er char ac-
t er ' i zi ng t he pr es s ur e
d i s t r i b u t i o n
2 . y VS. Fz
Y
3. )J vs . Vs , wet and dry
Y
1 , i? paramet er charac-
termizing t he pr es s ur e
d i s t r i b u t i o n
2. p vs . Fz
3. px vs Vs , wet and dr y
1. Fr i c t i on r u l e appi i ed
t o combined f or ce
gener at i on
2. Check on a l l t h e ot he r
papameters
Note: FBT = Fl a t Bed Tes t er
MTT = Mobile Ti r e Tes t er
ux = Longi t udi nal Fr i c t i on Coef f i ci ent
)J = Lat er al Fr i c t i on Coef f i ci ent
Y
0 Opt i onal
CHART A
FIGURE 12. A PROF'OSED TEST PROGRAM
The pr oposed t e s t program i s di vi ded i n t o f i v e t e s t s e r i e s .
The f i r s t two t e s t s e r i e s a r e i nt ended t o e va l ua t e t h e low
s he a r f or c e (normal dr i vi ng) performance of t h e t i r e . The ne xt
two cover l a t e r a l and l ongi t udi na l f or c e s e p a r a t e l y , but i nvol ve
al most a l l of t he condi t i ons t o whi ch a t i r e i s l i k e l y t o be
s ubj e c t e d dur i ng s e ve r e ve hi c l e maneuvers on a l e v e l s ur f a c e .
F i n a l l y , combined l ongi t udi na l and l a t e r a l f or c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
a r e cons i der ed i n t he f i f t h cat egor y.
The machine us ed, t he t e s t s u r f a c e , t h e range of t e s t con-
d i t i o n s , and t he form of t he out put da t a a r e l i s t e d f o r each
t ype of t e s t . The f i n a l column i n Fi gur e 1 2 i n d i c a t e s t he
par amet er or c ha r a c t e r i z i ng f unc t i on which would be e va l ua t e d
from each p a r t i c u l a r t e s t .
B. At t empt s -... .- Shoul d Be Made t o Develop, Pr ocedur es f o r Gradi ng
--------
Ti r e Tr a c t i on Performance i n Terms of a Se l e c t e d Subs et of
---.---- --.--
t he Par amet er s * and Cha r a c t e r i z i ng Funct i ons Mentioned i n
P
Recommendation A
- - - - . -
Si nce t i r e t r a c t i o n i s dependent upon many v a r i a b l e s , no
one s i mpl e par amet er o r measure would be adequat e t o e qui t a bl y
r a t e di f f e r e nc e s i n t i r e s . Those par amet er s and c ha r a c t e r i z i ng
f unc t i ons most i mpor t ant i n a c c i de nt avoi dance maneuvers s uch
as a s t o p , a swerve, and a combined s t o p and swerve, s houl d be
s e l e c t e d f o r r a t i n g t i r e t r a c t i o n ,
Al s o, s i n c e t he t i r e must oper at e under a wide ran;e of
c ondi t i ons and of i nput commands, one t i r e can be s u p e r i o r i n
some q u a l i t i e s and r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r i n ot he r s . Thus, a ga i n,
more t han one measure i s needed t o adequat el y r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n t
t ypes of t i r e s he a r f or c e performance.
A proven worki ng s e t of t i r e par amet er s and c ha r a c t e r i z i ng
f unc t i ons i s n o t a v a i l a b l e now, I n t he l a s t column of Fi gur e 1 2 ,
a pos s i bl e s e t of par amet er s and c ha r a c t e r i z i ng f unc t i ons i s
i ndi c a t e d. They a r e : Ca, Cs, a par amet er f o r c ha r a c t e r i z i ng t he
pr e s s ur e d i s t r i b u t i o n ;
p~
and \ as f unc t i ons of Vs and FZ;
and a f r i c t i o n r u l e whi ch a ppl i e s t o combined l ongi t udi na l
and l a t e r a l f or c e c ondi t i ons .
Means f o r deduci ng t he pr e s s ur e d i s t r i b u t i o n par amet er
and p and px from t he exper i ment al r e s u l t s have not been
Y
devel oped y e t . Use of t he proposed approach i s hi ghl y de-
pendent upon devi s i ng s i mpl e t e s t s t o e va l ua t e t he neces s ar y
t i r e par amet er s and c h a r a c t e r i zi ng f unc t i ons .
C. - Ef f o r t s Shoul d Be Made Toward t he Development of a De t a i l e d
Model t o Aid i n t he Under st andi ng of How Shear Force - i s
Gener at ed by t he Ti r e
-- -
I n a pr evi ous publ i c a t i on [ 7 ] , Frank and Hof f e r be r t h
di s c us s e d b a s i c phi l os ophi c a l and concept ual c ons i de r a t i ons of
t he mat hemat i cal model i ng of t i r e t r a c t i o n mechani cs. I n par -
t i c u l a r , t hey di s t i ngui s he d between two b a s i c approaches : (1)
a d e t a i l e d f or mul at i on pr oceedi ng from a mi cr os copi c exami nat i on
of ma t e r i a l p r o p e r t i e s and mechani cs, and ( 2 ) a s i mp l i f i e d
approach employing " phys i c a l - e qui va l e nt " models on a macro!jcopic
s c a l e ( e . g. , t he s t r e t c h e d s t r i n g concept ) . They poi nt e d o u t
t he l i mi t a t i o n s of t h e s i mpl f i e d appr oach, but concl uded t h a t
t he comput at i onal d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h any s u f f i c i e n t l y
comprehensi ve d e t a i l e d model pr obabl y r ul e d out t he f e a s i b i l i t y
of t h a t approach gi ven t he anal og and d i g i t a l computer t e c h-
nol ogy of t h e day ( 1967) . I n t h e s h o r t t i me s i n c e , t he hybr i d
computer has been devel oped i n t o a uni quel y power f ul t o o l f o r
s ol vi ng p a r t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l e qua t i ons . The i t e r a t i v e and
s t o r a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e hybr i d computer al l ow t i me s ha r i ng
of anal og equi pment which i n t u r n makes t he s o l u t i o n of d e t a i l e d
f i n i t e el ement models of cont i nuous syst ems p r a c t i c a l . I t now
appear s a ppr opr i a t e t o at t empt t o e x p l o i t t he new hybr i d t ech-
nol ogy t o implement a d e t a i l e d f i n i t e el ement t i r e model. Such
a model ( i f s uc c e s s f ul l y devel oped) would pr ovi de r e a l i n s i g h t
i n t o t he mechanisms o f s he a r f o r c e ge ne r a t i on and would s e r ve as
a u s e f u l r e f e r e nc e f o r e va l ua t i ng s i mp l i f i e d r epr es ent at i or i s such
a s t he WSRI model pr e s e nt e d i n Ref. 1.
14
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The f i r s t use of t he mobi l e t i r e t e s t e r was p a r t i a l l y
s uppor t ed by t he Ford Motor Company. Thanks a r e due t o
Messr s. Warren Van Wi ckl i n and Al l en Wri ght of Ford f o r t h e i r
cooper at i on.
REFERENCES
1. H. Dugoff, P. Fancher , and L. Se ge l , " Ti r e Performance
Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s Af f e c t i ng Vehi cl e Response t o
St e e r i ng and Braki ng Cont r ol I nput s ," Fi n a l Repor t ,
Nat i onal Bureau of St andar ds Cont r act CST- 460,
August 1969.
2 . H. Sa ka i , " The or e t i c a l St udy of t h e Ef f e c t of Tr a c t i ve
and Braki ng For ces on Cor ner i ng Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of Ti r e s , " Paper No. 4 , JSAE Sa f e t y Tour i n U.S.IZ.,
Oct . - Nov. 1969.
3. D. Li vi ngs t on and J. Brown, "Physi cs of t h e Sl i ppi ng
Wheel 11. S l i p Under Both Tr a c t i ve and La t e r a l
For ces , " pr e s e nt e d t o t he Di vi s i on of Rubber
Chemi st ry, American Chemical Soc i e t y, Buf f al o, N. Y. ,
Oct . 14- 17, 1969.
4. B. Y i m , G . Ol sson, P. Fi e l di ng, and G. Balmer, "Highway
Vehi cl e S t a b i l i t y i n Braki ng Manuevers, " SAE Paper
No. 700515, May 1970.
5. H. Dugoff, R. D. Er vi n, and L. Segel , "Vehi cl e Handl i ng
Te s t Pr ocedur es ," F i n a l Repor t , Nat i onal Highway
Sa f e t y Bureau Cont r act FH-11- 7297, t o be publ i s hed.
6. 11. Dugoff and B. J. Brown, "Measurement of Ti r e Shear
For ces , " SAE Paper No. 700092, J anuar y 1970.
7. F . Frank and W , Hof f e r be r t h, "Mechanics of t h e Pneumat i c
Ti r e , " Rubber Chemi st ry and Technol ogy, Vol . 40 ?
No. I , Febr uar y 1967.