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Optical Fiber Technology

Manuscript Draft

Manuscript Number: OFT-14-239

Title: Surface plasmon induced polarization filter of the gold-coated photonic crystal fiber with a liquid
core

Article Type: Regular Article

Keywords: Photonic crystal fiber Surface plasmon resonance polarization filter

Abstract: A new gold-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which can achieve a specific wavelength filter
has been proposed. The polarization filter characteristics of the PCF based on the finite element
method are investigated. Numerical results show that moving the two gold-coated holes toward the
central core in longitudinal direction and filling liquid water of refractive index n=1.33 in the central
defected air-hole can effectively enhance polarization extinction ratio around the resonance
wavelength. The resonance strength in y-polarized case is far stronger than that in x-polarized case,
the peak loss of the PCF with different coating thickness in y polarization can reach 529.92 dB/cm and
455.07 dB/cm at the communication wavelength of 1.55 μm and 1.31μm, respectively, while the losses
are very low in x polarization. This is beneficial for the study and application in many polarization filter
devices.





Surface plasmon induced polarization filter of the gold-coated
photonic crystal fiber with a liquid core
Linghong Jiang
1
, Yi Zheng
1
, Lantian Hou
2
, Kai Zheng
1
, and Jiying Peng
1
1
Insitute of Laser, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 ,China
2
State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004,
China

A B S T R A C T
A new gold-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which can achieve a specific wavelength filter has
been proposed. The polarization filter characteristics of the PCF based on the finite element
method are investigated. Numerical results show that moving the two gold-coated holes toward
the central core in longitudinal direction and filling liquid water of refractive index n=1.33 in the
central defected air-hole can effectively enhance polarization extinction ratio around the resonance
wavelength. The resonance strength in y-polarized case is far stronger than that in x-polarized case,
the peak loss of the PCF with different coating thickness in y polarization can reach 529.92 dB/cm
and 455.07 dB/cm at the communication wavelength of 1.55 μm and 1.31μm, respectively, while
the losses are very low in x polarization. This is beneficial for the study and application in many
polarization filter devices.
keywords: Photonic crystal fiber Surface plasmon resonance polarization filter
1. Introduction
Since their first experimental demonstration [1], photonic crystal fibers (PCFs),
optical fibers with an array of air holes running along their length, have become a
major topic of research due to their unique light guiding properties. Besides, many
extraordinary optical properties of silica-air PCFs can be extended by infiltrating with
liquid crystal [2], polymer [3], filling or coating metal [4, 5] in the cladding holes and
hollow core. In the metal-filled or -coated PCF, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can
form on the surface of metal[6], and the energy of the core-guided modes can be
transferred to the SPP modes when the phases of them match. In recent years,
metal-filled or -coated PCFs have been demonstrated or suggested for use as various
tunable all-in-fiber devices. Kuhlmey B.T. et al. have provided a theoretical formalism
for metal-coated PCFs and showed that their guidance can be combined with


Corresponding author. E-mail address: no1shajia@163.com

*Manuscript
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plasmonic resonances effects [7]. X. Zhang et al. have demonstrated selective silver
coating of holes in PCFs, expected to be applicable as an in-fiber absorptive polarizer
[8]. A. Hassani et al. have analyzed in detail design principles for two different PCF
structures with metallic coating for sensor application[9]. Otherwise, the
polarization-dependent properties of PCFs based on SPPs have already been reported
by some people. Akira Nagasaki et al. theoretically investigated the polarization
properties of the PCF selectively filled with metal wires and showed strong
polarization-dependent coupling characteristics in PCFs with closely-aligned metal
wires [10]; however, there were multiple resonance peaks with not strong enough
resonance strength. Y. Du et al designed two kinds of AU-filled high-birefringence
PCF with polarization splitting and filtering characteristics [11], but two structures
presented required holes of four different sizes and there were asymmetrical structures
in the cladding. J. R. Xue et al presented and numerically characterized the
polarization filter characters of the gold-coated PCF [12]; however, to increase the
loss in y-polarized direction, four holes (including the gold-coated holes) must be
filled with liquid, and the loss is only more than twenty times stronger in y
polarization than that in x polarization in the resonance peaks.
In this work, we numerically investigated the polarization filter characteristics
based on surface plasmon polaritons within selectively coated PCF by the finite
element method[13]. A defected circular air hole is introduced in the core of the PCF
structure, which can lower the refractive index of the two-polarized core modes to
better match with that of the SPP modes. Numerical calculation results demonstrate
that the proposed PCF has good polarization filter characteristics at special
wavelengths by changing the positions of the two gold-coated holes and filling liquid
water of n=1.33 in a central defected air hole. At the communication wavelengths of
1.33μm and 1.55μm, the loss of unwanted polarization mode (y-polarized core mode)
can reach 455.07 dB/cm and 529.92 dB/cm in two PCF structures respectively and the
corresponding insertion loss( in x polarization) is only down to 1.85 dB/cm and 5.83
dB/cm. The loss is more than two hundred times stronger in y polarization than that in
x polarization in the resonance peak of 1.31μm. This fiber will play an important role

in the fields of polarization-dependent wavelength selective optical filtering and other
fiber-based plasmonic devices.
2. Theoretical modeling
Fig.1 shows a schematic illustration of the proposed PCF, which is composed of
circular air-holes in the cladding arranged in a triangular array with lattice constant of
Λ=2.2 μm and diameters of d=1.4 μm. The central core region is perturbed by
including an extra air-hole with diameter of d
c
=0.4 μm, which depicted in gray is
filled with liquid of water (n=1.33). The black sections of the two holes of d
1
in
y-polarized direction are coated with gold and the thickness of the gold layer is
depicted as t. To perform a much simpler structure, the outside diameter of
gold-coated holes is same as the other cladding holes diameters d. To properly
estimate the fiber confinement loss, a perfectly matching layer (PML) [14] is also
added to the outmost layer. Moreover, a scatting boundary condition outside the PML
region is used to reduce the reflections.

Fig.1. Cross-section of the proposed PCF
The background material is pure silica and its material dispersion is determined by
the Sellmeier equation, in which optical constants are based on experimental results
[15]. And the material dispersion of gold is characterized by a Drude-Lorentz model

and its dielectric constants are based on empirical results [16].The dispersion of SPP
modes was described by wire helix approximation model [17, 18].It is pointed out in
[19] that higher order modes do not contribute to the core power transfer, hence, only
the fundamental core-guided modes were discussed in this paper. A finite element
method was used to find the complex propagation constants of the core-guided and
the plasmonic modes. The effective refractive indices (
eff
n ) of various modes were
obtained, and the modal loss can be expressed by the following equation [13]:
4
10 ) Im(
2
686 . 8    
eff
n



(1)

where  is the wavelength of light and the ) Im(
eff
n is the imaginary part of the mode
effective refractive index. The confinement loss  is proportional to the ) Im(
eff
n .
The units of the confinement loss and the wavelength are dB/cm and micrometer,
respectively. When the phases of the core modes and the SPP modes match, the
core-guided light can be strongly coupled to the SPP modes on the surface of the gold
layer at some particular wavelengths where the fiber losses increase rapidly.
2. Simulation results and analysis
Fig.2 (a) represents the losses of the x-polarized and y-polarized core modes in the
PCF with a solid core and a central air hole of d
c
=0.4 μm, and the other structure
parameters are fixed as Λ=2.2 μm, d=1.4 μm, t= 0.055 μm. It is obvious from the
figure the resonance strength of the PCF with a defected central air hole is much
stronger than that of the PCF with a solid core. The central air hole is able to reduce
the average refractive index of the fiber core, which offers an easier phase matching
between the fiber mode and surface plasmon mode. The dispersion relation of SPP
modes for various orders and the core-guided modes, the loss dependence on the
wavelength of the x-polarized and y-polarized core modes in the PCF for Λ=2.2 μm,
d=1.4 μm, t= 0.055 μm with a central circular air hole d
c
=0.4 μm are shown in
Fig.2(b). As can be seen from Fig.2 (b), the fundamental and first-order SPP modes
have much higher effective refractive indices, and hence, their dispersion curves do
not intersect with those of the fiber core-guided modes. Extremely high loss of the

y-polarized core modes is observed at wavelength of 1.41μm where the modal
refractive index in the core of the fiber and the second-order SPP mode on the metal
match, strong coupling occurs between them. It can be noted that the resonance
wavelengths of the x-polarized and y-polarized core modes are almost the same and
high polarization extinction ratio cannot be achieved at resonance wavelength 1.41μm,
where the losses of x-polarized and y-polarized modes are 35.14 dB/cm and 231.15
dB/cm, respectively. It is difficult to achieve the polarization filter characteristics. In
the following section, some structural parameters of the proposed PCF such as the
positions of the two gold-coated holes, the impact of liquid in the central hole and the
coating thickness were adjusted in order to obtain specific polarization filter
characteristics. It can be known from the figure that the third-order SPP mode and the
core-guided mode are weakly coupled, thus the following study will concentrate on
the coupling and filtering properties analysis of the second-order SPP mode.



Fig. 2.Wavelength dependence of (a) losses of the core modes in the PCFs for Λ=2.2 μm, d=1.4
μm, t= 0.055 μm with a solid core and a central air hole of d
c
=0.4 μm; (b) dispersion relation of
SPP modes for various orders and the core mode, and the loss spectra of the core modes in the
PCF with a defected air hole. The red lines represent SPP modes of the specific mode orders and
the insets show the magnitude of the longitudinal Poynting vector of the SPP modes.
Firstly, we investigate the polarization coupling properties of PCF with two
gold-coated holes moving toward the central circular air hole in the longitudinal
direction, and reveal that it is possible to achieve strong polarization-dependent
coupling characteristics. The dispersion relation of second-order SPP modes, the fiber
core modes of the proposed PCF, and the losses of the core modes are shown in Fig.3.
The structure parameters are fixed: Λ=2.2 μm, d=1.4 μm, t=0.055 μm, and d
c
=0.4 μm,
and we change the positions of the two gold-coated holes. The two gold-coated holes
are moved s=0.4 μm shown in the inset of Fig.3 (a) (The gold-coated holes are moved
0.4 μm in the longitudinal direction, which is toward the central circular air hole.) In
Fig.3(a), the second-order SPP mode in x polarization and y polarization is
overlapping as the two gold-coated holes are not moved( s=0 μm); when the two
gold-coated holes are moved s=0.4μm, the second-order SPP mode in x polarization
and y polarization is separated by a distance and can couple to the core mode, this

phenomenon can be explained that the refractive index of the surrounding material of
the metal is not the same as we have introduced asymmetry factors around the
coatings by changing the positions of the two gold-coated holes. As the two
gold-coated holes are moved s=0.4μm toward the central air hole, it is obvious from
Fig.3(b) that the resonance peaks of x-polarized and y-polarized directions are
separated, and the resonance wavelengths of the two-polarized directions shift to the
shorter wavelengths, this is because the effective refraction indices of the
two-polarized SPP modes decrease, and the effective refraction index of core modes
are unchanged, so the intersection points of the dispersion curves (see Fig.3(a)) for the
plasmonic mode and core mode, which corresponding to the resonance wavelengths
shift to the short wavelengths. Moreover, an overall increase in the modal losses of
y-polarized core-guided mode for the two gold-coated holes moving toward the
central air hole, the loss peak of the y polarization increases by a large amount, while
the x-polarized peak decreases, that is can be explained as: the two gold-coated holes
become closer to the fiber core in the longitudinal direction, leading to the
enhancement of the coupling from the y-polarized core guided mode to SPP modes.



Fig.3. Wavelength dependence of (a) the real part of the effective indices of the core modes
and SPP modes; (b) losses specrtra of the core modes in the PCFs with s=0 μm and s=0.4 μm.
Next, the impact of filling liquid water (n=1.33) in a center air hole on the
characteristics of gold-coated PCF is discussed. Fig.4 illustrates losses and effective
refractive indices of both liquid filled and no liquid PCF under the same structure
parameters of Λ=2.2 μm, d=1.4 μm, t=0.055 μm, and s=0.4 μm. In Fig.4(a), the
second-order SPP mode in x polarization and y polarization is also separated by a
distance and can couple to the core mode. When the central air hole is filled with
water, one can observe an overall increase in the effective refractive indexes of the
two-polarized core-guided modes, and the effective refraction indices of the
x-polarized and y-polarized SPP modes are almost unchanged, so the resonance
wavelengths shift to the shorter wavelength as the central air hole is filled with liquid
water. In Fig.4 (b), we get that filling liquid in the central air hole can improve the
polarization-dependent transmission characteristics; the loss peak of y polarization is
increased, while the x-polarized resonance strength is decreased. It is evident from the
figure that the resonance point of the y polarization moves to the wavelength of 1.31
μm, a high polarization extinction ratio is achieved at 1.31 μm, where the losses of
y-polarized and x-polarized modes are 455.08 dB/cm and 1.85 dB/cm, respectively.

This is caused by the phase matching the y-polarized mode to the SPP mode, while
the x-polarized mode strongly confined into the central core. These results suggest
that the metal-coated PCFs have the potential to be in-fiber filter.


Fig.4. Wavelength dependence of (a) the real part of the effective indices of the core modes
and SPP modes; (b) losses specrtra of the x- and y-polarized core modes in the PCFs with
liquid filling and no liquid filling in the defected-core.
The SPP modes are relevant to the thickness of the gold layer. Fig.5 illustrates

losses and effective refractive indices of the PCFs for Λ=2.2 μm, d=1.4 μm, s=0.4 μm
with the coating thickness of 0.0195 μm and 0.055 μm, respectively. In Fig.5 (a), the
second-order SPP mode can also separated by a distance and can couple to the core
mode, the effective refractive indices of two-polarized SPP modes increase when the
coating thickness decreases, and the effective refraction indices of the core-guided
modes are almost unchanged, so the resonance wavelengths shift to the longer
wavelength with the coating thickness decreasing. It should be noted that when the
coating thickness is 0.055 μm and 0.0195 μm, the resonance wavelength in y
polarization can be tuned to 1.31μm and 1.55μm, respectively. Fig.5 (b) shows that
the extremely enhanced losses of x-polarized and y-polarized core modes are
observed at the intersection points shown in Fig.5 (a), so the strong resonance
coupling occurs between the core-guided mode and SPP mode. The resonance
strength in the y-polarized case is much stronger than that in x-polarized case, which
is because the y-polarized core mode couples to the SPP mode, whereas the
x-polarized core mode is strongly confined into the central core (see Figure 6). The
loss peak of the PCF with t=0.0195 μm in y polarization reach 529.92 dB/cm at the
wavelength of 1.55 μm, where the loss in x polarization is low to 5.83 dB/cm. The
resonance wavelength in y polarization of the PCF with t=0.055 μm is 1.31 μm, where
the loss of the y polarization reaches 455.07 dB/cm and the x polarization is low to
1.85 dB/cm. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the loss curve corresponds
to the bandwidth of the polarization filter .The full width at half maximums (FWHMs)
of the loss peaks with the coating thickness of 0.0195 μm and 0.055 μm are 38 nm
and 16 nm, respectively. These characteristics make such PCF a promising candidate
for the single polarization filter devices. Compared to the previously published work
[10-12], we obtained a higher polarization extinction ratio on the communication
wavelength, and there is only one strong resonance peak over the wide wavelength
range of 0.6 to 2 μm. The fiber design is more suitable for polarization filtering on the
communication wavelength.



Fig.5. Wavelength dependence of (a) the real part of the effective indices of the core modes and
SPP modes; (b) losses specrtra of the x- and y-polarized core modes in the PCFs with t=0.0195
μm and 0.055 μm.
Fig. 6 illustrates the fundamental mode field distributions of the x- an y-polarized
core modes at the resonance wavelength of 1.55 μm. One can clearly see that
x-polarized mode is strongly confined into the central core, the mode field of the
y-polarized mode strongly couples to the second-order SPP mode. The resonance

coupling of the core-guided mode to the SPP mode is much stronger in the y-polarized
direction which agrees with the viewpoint obtained from Fig.5.


(a) (b)
Fig.6. The electric field distributions of (a) x-polarized core mode and (b) y-polarized core mode
at the resonance wavelength of 1.55 μm achieved in Fig.5.

4. Conclusion
We have proposed a selectively coated PCF structure for a single polarization filter
based on surface plasmon polaritons. The second-order SPP mode can be strongly
coupled to the core mode when the phase matching condition is satisfied and it also
can be separated by a distance once we introduce asymmetry factors around the
gold-coated holes. Obvious enhancement of the resonance strength between the core
modes and SPP modes in y polarization can be obtained by moving the two
gold-coated holes toward the central core and introducing a small liquid-core. The
strongest resonance strength in y-polarized case of the SPP-based PCF polarization
filter with two different coating thicknesses can reach 529.92 dB/cm and 455.07
dB/cm on the communication wavelength λ=1.55 μm and 1.31μm, where the losses in
x polarization are low to 5.83 dB/cm and 1.85 dB/cm, respectively. All these
properties make the PCF a promising candidate for designing polarization filters and
other single polarization fiber devices.

Acknowledgment
This work is supported by the 973 Program (Grant No.2010CB327604) and the
Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No.4102048).
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1. A new gold-coated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which can achieve a specific
wavelength filter has been proposed. By moving the two gold-coated holes toward
the central core, the second-order SPP mode can be separated by a distance and
obvious enhancement of the resonance strength in y polarization can be obtained.
2. There is only one strong resonance peak over the wide wavelength range of 0.6 to
2 μm.
3. We have obtained two specific communication wavelengths filter; one is that the
resonance strength of the y-polarized mode can reach 529.92 dB/cm at 1.55μm,
where the loss of x-polarized mode is low to 5.83 dB/cm in one of the structures
with the coating thickness of 0.0195μm.
4. The other one is that the resonance strength of the y-polarized mode can reach
455.07 dB/cm at 1.31μm, where the loss of x-polarized mode is low to 1.85
dB/cm in one of our structures with the coating thickness of 0.055μm.



*Highlights (for review)