Chilled Water Piping

Chilled Water Piping
J.ILANGUMARAN
J.ILANGUMARAN
Chilled Water Piping
Chilled Water Piping
The following organizations in the United States issue codes The following organizations in the United States issue codes
and standards for piping systems and components and standards for piping systems and components
ASME ASME — — American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTM ASTM — — American Society for Testing and Materials American Society for Testing and Materials
NFPA NFPA — — National Fire Protection Association National Fire Protection Association
BOCA BOCA — — Building Officials and Code Administrators, Building Officials and Code Administrators,
International International
MSS MSS — — Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc. Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
AWWA AWWA — — American Water Works Association American Water Works Association
Steel Pipe
Steel Pipe
Steel pipe is manufactured with wall thick Steel pipe is manufactured with wall thick
nesses identified by schedule and weight. nesses identified by schedule and weight.
Although schedule numbers and weight Although schedule numbers and weight
designations are related, they are not constant designations are related, they are not constant
for all pipe sizes. for all pipe sizes.
Standard weight (STD) and Schedule 40 pipe Standard weight (STD) and Schedule 40 pipe
have the same wall thickness through 10 in. have the same wall thickness through 10 in.
NPS. For 12 in. and larger standard weight pipe, NPS. For 12 in. and larger standard weight pipe,
the wall thickness remains constant at 0.375 the wall thickness remains constant at 0.375
in., while Schedule 40 wall thickness increases in., while Schedule 40 wall thickness increases
with each size. with each size.
A similar equality exists between Extra Strong A similar equality exists between Extra Strong
(XS) and Schedule 80 pipe through 8 in.; above 8 (XS) and Schedule 80 pipe through 8 in.; above 8
in., XS pipe has a 0.500 in. wall, while Schedule in., XS pipe has a 0.500 in. wall, while Schedule
80 increases in wall thickness 80 increases in wall thickness. .
Steel Pipe
Steel Pipe

Joints in steel pipe are made by welding or
Joints in steel pipe are made by welding or
by using threaded, flanged, grooved, or
by using threaded, flanged, grooved, or
welded outlet fittings. Unreinforced
welded outlet fittings. Unreinforced
welded
welded
-
-
in branch connections weaken a
in branch connections weaken a
main pipeline, and added reinforcement is
main pipeline, and added reinforcement is
necessary, unless the excess wall
necessary, unless the excess wall
thickness of both mains and branches is
thickness of both mains and branches is
sufficient to sustain the pressure.
sufficient to sustain the pressure.
Copper Tube
Copper Tube
Because of their inherent resistance to corrosion Because of their inherent resistance to corrosion
and ease of installation, copper and copper alloys and ease of installation, copper and copper alloys
are often used in heating, air are often used in heating, air- -conditioning, conditioning,
refrigeration, and water supply installations. refrigeration, and water supply installations.
There are two principal classes of copper tube. There are two principal classes of copper tube.
ASTM Standard B88 includes Types K, L, M, and ASTM Standard B88 includes Types K, L, M, and
DWV for water and drain service. ASTM Standard DWV for water and drain service. ASTM Standard
B280 specifies air B280 specifies air- -conditioning and refrigeration conditioning and refrigeration
(ACR) tube for refrigeration service. (ACR) tube for refrigeration service.
Copper Tube
Copper Tube
Types K, L, M, and DWV designate descending wall thick Types K, L, M, and DWV designate descending wall thick
nesses for copper tube. All types have the same outside nesses for copper tube. All types have the same outside
diameter for corresponding sizes. diameter for corresponding sizes.
Usually Tables are used to know the properties of ASTM B88 Usually Tables are used to know the properties of ASTM B88
copper tube. In the plumbing industry, tube of nominal size copper tube. In the plumbing industry, tube of nominal size
approximates the inside diameter. approximates the inside diameter.
The heating and refrigeration trades specify copper tube by The heating and refrigeration trades specify copper tube by
the outside diameter (OD). ACR tubing has a different set of the outside diameter (OD). ACR tubing has a different set of
wall thick nesses. wall thick nesses.
Types K, L, and M tube may be hard drawn or annealed Types K, L, and M tube may be hard drawn or annealed
(soft) temper. (soft) temper.
Copper Tube
Copper Tube
The heating and air The heating and air- -conditioning industry conditioning industry
generally uses Types L and M tubing, which have generally uses Types L and M tubing, which have
higher internal working pressure ratings than the higher internal working pressure ratings than the
solder joints used at fittings. solder joints used at fittings.
Type K may be used with brazed joints for higher Type K may be used with brazed joints for higher
pressure pressure- -temperature requirements or for direct temperature requirements or for direct
burial. burial.
Type M should be used with care where exposed Type M should be used with care where exposed
to potential external damage to potential external damage
Joining methods
Joining methods
Soldering and Brazing Soldering and Brazing
Flared and Compression Joints Flared and Compression Joints
Flanges Flanges
Welding Welding
Steel pipe joints over 2 in. in diameter that have Steel pipe joints over 2 in. in diameter that have
been welded offer the following been welded offer the following
Other Joints Other Joints
Unions Unions
Plastic piping systems Plastic piping systems
WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM
WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM
Open System
Open System
In this system, the water flows thru heat In this system, the water flows thru heat
exchanger and then exposed to atmosphere. exchanger and then exposed to atmosphere.
such as in Cooling tower and air washer. such as in Cooling tower and air washer.
Closed system Closed system Closed system Closed system
Closed system Closed system Closed system Closed system
In this system, the water flow is not exposed to In this system, the water flow is not exposed to
the atmosphere at any point. the atmosphere at any point.
But some times contains an expansion tank that But some times contains an expansion tank that
is open to the atmosphere but water area is open to the atmosphere but water area
exposed is insignificant. Such as Chilled water exposed is insignificant. Such as Chilled water
system system
Closed Water Piping System
Closed Water Piping System

Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System
Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System
Reverse return piping Reverse return piping
Reverse return header with direct return Reverse return header with direct return
risers risers
Direct return piping Direct return piping

Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system
Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system
(Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System)
(Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System)
Reverse Return Piping
Reverse Return Piping
Reverse Return Headers with
Reverse Return Headers with
Direct Return Risers
Direct Return Risers
Direct Return Water Piping
Direct Return Water Piping
Primary & Secondary Piping
Primary & Secondary Piping
FRICTION LOSSES
FRICTION LOSSES
When water flows in a pipe, friction is
When water flows in a pipe, friction is
produced by the rubbing of water particles
produced by the rubbing of water particles
against each other and against the wall of
against each other and against the wall of
the pipe. This friction produced by the
the pipe. This friction produced by the
flowing water causes a loss in pressure,
flowing water causes a loss in pressure,
which is called Friction Loss.
which is called Friction Loss.
The Friction losses depends upon
The Friction losses depends upon
: :: :
: :: :
Water velocity Water velocity
Interior surface roughness Interior surface roughness
Pipe length Pipe length
Pipe diameter Pipe diameter
Flow Rate Limitation
Flow Rate Limitation

Services
Services

Erosion
Erosion

Noise
Noise

Installation Cost
Installation Cost

Operating Cost
Operating Cost
All above limit Maximum and
All above limit Maximum and
minimum velocities in piping
minimum velocities in piping
system.
system.
Recommended Water
Recommended Water
Velocities
Velocities
Based on Services
Based on Services

Pump Discharge
Pump Discharge
8
8
-
-
12 FPS
12 FPS

Pump Suction
Pump Suction
4
4
-
-
7 FPS
7 FPS

Header
Header
4
4
-
-
15 FPS
15 FPS

Riser
Riser
3
3
-
-
10 FPS
10 FPS

Drain Line
Drain Line
4
4
-
-
7 FPS
7 FPS

General Service
General Service
5
5
-
-
10 FPS
10 FPS

City Water
City Water
3
3
-
-
7 FPS
7 FPS
Erosion Erosion Erosion Erosion
Erosion Erosion Erosion Erosion

Erosion in water piping system is
Erosion in water piping system is
the impingement on inside surface
the impingement on inside surface
of pipe of rapidly moving water
of pipe of rapidly moving water
containing air bubbles, sand and
containing air bubbles, sand and
other solid matter.
other solid matter.

Due to this impingement, pipes
Due to this impingement, pipes
gets eroded over a period of time
gets eroded over a period of time
if
if
Recommended velocity not
Recommended velocity not
maintained in piping systems.
maintained in piping systems.
MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO
MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO
MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION
MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION
Normal Operation
Normal Operation
Velocity Range
Velocity Range

1500 Hrs/Year
1500 Hrs/Year
15 FPS
15 FPS

2000
2000


14 FPS
14 FPS

3000
3000


13 FPS
13 FPS

4000
4000


12 FPS
12 FPS

6000
6000


10 FPS
10 FPS

8000
8000


8 FPS
8 FPS
Noise Generation
Noise Generation
Velocity
Velocity
-
-
dependent noise in piping systems
dependent noise in piping systems
results from any or all of four sources:
results from any or all of four sources:
Turbulence Turbulence
Cavitation Cavitation
Release of entrained air Release of entrained air
Water hammer Water hammer
In investigations of flow In investigations of flow- -related Noise, Marseille, related Noise, Marseille,
Ball and Webster and Rogers reported that Ball and Webster and Rogers reported that
velocities on the order of velocities on the order of 10 to 17 10 to 17 fps lie within the fps lie within the
range of allowable noise levels for residential and range of allowable noise levels for residential and
commercial buildings. commercial buildings.
Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations
Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations Ashrae Recommendations
For
For
Hydronic System
Hydronic System

Friction Loss Rate should be taken as
Friction Loss Rate should be taken as
1 to
1 to
4
4
Feet/100 feet of Pipe
Feet/100 feet of Pipe
Eq.Length
Eq.Length
.
.

A Value of
A Value of
2.5 Feet/100
2.5 Feet/100
Feet is the mean
Feet is the mean
to which most systems are designed.
to which most systems are designed.

For 2 Inch and below pipes, Velocity limit
For 2 Inch and below pipes, Velocity limit
is
is
4 FPS.
4 FPS.

For above pipes,
For above pipes,
FLR limit is
FLR limit is
4 Feet/100
4 Feet/100
Feet.
Feet.
And
And
As per Carrier Guide Line FLR is 8 As per Carrier Guide Line FLR is 8- -10 feet /100 10 feet /100
feet and velocity limit 10 FPS. feet and velocity limit 10 FPS.
PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA
PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA

Water Flow
Water Flow
Based on Cooling load on respective AHU Based on Cooling load on respective AHU
/FCU/BCU /FCU/BCU
Can be calculated as: Can be calculated as:
Tonnage X 24 Tonnage X 24
Flow In GPM= Flow In GPM= --------------------------------- ---------------------------------
Temperature difference Temperature difference

Friction Loss Rate / Velocity Limitation
Friction Loss Rate / Velocity Limitation
specified by consultant or ASHRAE.
specified by consultant or ASHRAE.
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Step
Step
-
-
1
1
Make a layout sketch showing individual Make a layout sketch showing individual
AHU,FCU and BCU on Master layout plan. AHU,FCU and BCU on Master layout plan.
Step
Step
-
-
2
2
Mark selected /design flow on individual AHU, Mark selected /design flow on individual AHU,
FCU and BCU. FCU and BCU.
Step
Step
-
-
3
3
Review layout sketch w.r.t. space available , Review layout sketch w.r.t. space available ,
other services,economy and consultant other services,economy and consultant
concurrence. concurrence.
Conclude layout. Conclude layout.
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
…… …… …… ……
…… …… …… ……
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
Step
Step
-
-
4
4
Starting from most remote terminal working Starting from most remote terminal working
towards the pump, Mark the Cumulative flow in towards the pump, Mark the Cumulative flow in
mains and branch circuits. mains and branch circuits.
Step
Step
-
-
6
6
Select pipe size for required Flow and as per Select pipe size for required Flow and as per
selected Friction Loss Rate from Friction chart selected Friction Loss Rate from Friction chart
for respective application. for respective application.
Re Re- -check Chart water velocity with check Chart water velocity with
recommended velocity. recommended velocity. If within limit.Selection If within limit.Selection
is ok. is ok.

Repeat for other flow requirements.
Repeat for other flow requirements.
Friction Loss Rate Vs Flow Charts
Friction Loss Rate Vs Flow Charts
-
-
Sch
Sch
. 40 pipes
. 40 pipes
Head Loss & Calculation
Head Loss & Calculation
It is the total loss of pressure energy due to
It is the total loss of pressure energy due to
friction/resistance offered by Pipes & Fittings
friction/resistance offered by Pipes & Fittings
in the piping system
in the piping system
T
T
he
he
Head Loss
Head Loss
is equal to the
is equal to the
Total
Total
Frictional Losses
Frictional Losses
in highest resistant
in highest resistant
circuit of piping system.
circuit of piping system.

To Calculate Head Loss, Calculate the Total
To Calculate Head Loss, Calculate the Total
Frictional Losses
Frictional Losses
of pipes of pipes
of fittings of fittings
of equipments of equipments
Valve & Fitting Losses
Valve & Fitting Losses

Valves & Fitting cause pressure losses greater than
Valves & Fitting cause pressure losses greater than
those caused by the pipe alone.
those caused by the pipe alone.

Fitting Losses are frequently expressed in Equivalent
Fitting Losses are frequently expressed in Equivalent
length of pipe,
length of pipe,

It can be expressed as per following equation
It can be expressed as per following equation
h = K x V h = K x V
2 2
/
/2g 2g

h
h
-
- Head/Pressure loss in Feet Head/Pressure loss in Feet

K
K
-
- Geometry & Size dependent loss coefficient Geometry & Size dependent loss coefficient

V
V
-
- Average velocity of water Average velocity of water

g
g
-
- Gravitational force as 32.20 Gravitational force as 32.20
K Factors
K Factors
-
-
Screwed Fittings
Screwed Fittings
K Factors
K Factors
-
-
Flanged Fittings
Flanged Fittings
Fitting Losses in Equivalent Length of
Fitting Losses in Equivalent Length of
Pipe
Pipe
Valves Losses in
Valves Losses in
Eq
Eq
. Length of
. Length of
Pipes
Pipes
System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses
System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses
Relation between
Relation between
Flow & Head Losses
Flow & Head Losses
for a system
for a system: :
1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 - -- - - -- -1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1)
Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows
H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses
Water Piping Diversity
Water Piping Diversity
When the air conditioning load is determined for When the air conditioning load is determined for
each exposure of a building, it is assumed that the each exposure of a building, it is assumed that the
exposure is at peak load. Since the sun load is at a exposure is at peak load. Since the sun load is at a
maximum on one exposure at a time, not all of the maximum on one exposure at a time, not all of the
units on all the exposures require maximum water units on all the exposures require maximum water
flow at the same time to handle the cooling load. flow at the same time to handle the cooling load.
Units on the same exposure normally require Units on the same exposure normally require
maximum flow at the same time; units on the maximum flow at the same time; units on the
adjoining or opposite exposures do not. adjoining or opposite exposures do not. Therefore, Therefore,
if the individual units are automatically controlled if the individual units are automatically controlled
to vary the water quantity, the system water to vary the water quantity, the system water
quantity actually required during normal operation quantity actually required during normal operation
is less than the total water quantity required for is less than the total water quantity required for
the peak design conditions for all the exposures the peak design conditions for all the exposures. .
Diversity Application
Diversity Application

The principle of diversity allows the
The principle of diversity allows the
engineer to evaluate and calculate
engineer to evaluate and calculate
the reduced water quantity.
the reduced water quantity.

For applying diversity two
For applying diversity two
conditions must be satisfied:
conditions must be satisfied:

The water flow to the units must he
The water flow to the units must he
automatically controlled to compensate
automatically controlled to compensate
for varying loads.
for varying loads.

Diversity may only be applied to piping
Diversity may only be applied to piping
that supplies units on more than one
that supplies units on more than one
exposure.
exposure.