You are on page 1of 39

0

MCB3083
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

DESIGN PROJECT
SEPTEMBER 2013 SEMESTER

LECTURER : Dr Dereje Engida Woldemichael
AP Dr Chandan Kumar Biswas
GROUP : 15
DATE : 16 December 2013
TITLE : Motorized Treadmill Jogging Machine
GROUP MEMBERS : 1. LEE KIAN SENG (Leader) 14739
2. YIT MAN HENG 15984
3. KHAW YAO SHUN 18293
4. THAM WAI HUNG 15936
5. ALAN A. ALEXANDER 16036
1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This project spans for one month from 16 of November 2013 to 16 of December 2013. From
planning, job dedication, marketing survey, conceptual design, sketching, mechanical engineering
design, detail calculation to execution, a splendid motorized treadmill was being prototyped from
stretch. This machine allows users to jog anytime they want. It is mostly suitable to those living in
the cities who rarely have time to find a suitable garden or natural park to jog. To the matter of
fact, no many suitable jogging spot is available in the big metropolitan without much pollutant to
be inhaled. It is suitable to young and old. Users allow to tune the machine to their desired speed
so to jog comfortably. It came with three speed modes which are 1km/h (0.2778m/s), 5km/h
(1.389m/s) and 10km/h (2.778m/s) and it can accelerate from 0 to 3m/s in 1 second. Thus it makes
much no tedious and much no easy to the users. With the deck of 1 meter, users can jog synchronize
the speed of conveyor belt so that they won't tip over. This report encompass the detail of the
machine. It has detail planning, calculation and a detail engineering drawing. Fault analysis and
costing were considered in the project as well.












2


TABLE OF CONTENTS


No. Title Page
1. Introduction 3
2. Market and User Need 3 - 4
3. Brief Product Design Specification 4
4. Literature Review 5 - 6
5. Methodology 7 - 16
6. Detailed Design Drawing 17 - 18
7. Fault Tree 19
8. Cost Evaluation of Design 20
9. Conclusion 20
10 References 21
11. Appendices 22 - 38







3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

There are 2 types of treadmill in the market which are the manual treadmill and automatic
treadmill. Manual treadmill is much simpler and lighter which passively resists the motion, moving
only when walkers push the belt with their feet. On the contrary, automatic treadmill provides the
moving platform with a wide conveyor belt driven by an electric motor. The belt moves to the rear
requiring the user to walk or run at a speed matching that of the belt. The rate at which the belt
moves is the rate of walking or running.

The first commercial motorized treadmill is developed by William Staub who is a mechanical
engineer born at Philadelphia. He got the inspiration from Dr. Kenneth Cooper who claimed that
people at that time love to excuse from jogging due to weather. Staub then challenged himself to
develop a relatively cheap treadmill to encourage people to jog regardless of when and where.

This further the cause of joining the inspiration to develop an affordable motorized treadmill so
that the people can jog to a healthy lifestyle.

2.0 MARKET AND USER NEED

1
Treadmill utilizes a law of conservation of energy to convert rotational energy to potential energy
or vice versa. Human in the past used treadmill to circulate water or to move water to a higher
altitude (against gravitational potential energy). Currently electrical potential energy was turned
to rotational energy in order to run the conveyor belt in the treadmill.
These days, people use treadmill to exercise. The advantages of using a treadmill are:
a) Easy to use
b) Users can customize the speed, inclination, warm up period, cool down period and energy
spend easily.
c) Users can design custom programs to fit the time to exercise.
d) Multiple users can use the same equipment
e) Step counters and heart rate monitors to regulate fitness progress.
f) Burn calories faster.
Therefore, the product will be marketed to those who want to exercise effectively.
4

Besides from the study done by national health and fitness research group:
i. 65% of people who own a treadmill lost a minimum of 7% of their body weight over the
first year of owning and using the machine.
ii. 90% of treadmill owners who use it at least 3 times a week report feeling more energized
and in better physical condition from using the machine.
iii. 75% of people who bought one believe that they made the right choice in the type of
workout machine they bought.

3.0 BRIEF PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATION

No. Features Specifications
1. Drive Motor 4 HP AC Motor

2. Timing Belt Dimension: 20mm (w) X 3mm (t)
Material: Neoprene

3. Conveyor Belt Dimension: 475 mm (w) X 5mm (t) X 3960 mm (l)
Material: PVC

4. Rollers Dimension: 114.6mm (d) X 500mm (l)
Material: Steel

5. Shaft Dimension: 75mm (d) X 800mm (l)
Material: Steel 1020CD

5. Deck Dimension: 1400mm (l) x 850mm (w) x 18mm (t)
Material: MDF (Medium-Density Fiberboard)

6. Speed Range 1, 5, 10 km/h

7. Weight 100 kg

8. Max. User Weight 150 kg

9. Overall Dimension Height: 1.5m, Length: 2.28m, Width: 1m




5

4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

4.1 The Advancement of Treadmill

Top Treadmill Brand:
Lifespan Fitness
Nordic Track
Have 14 treadmills on the market that priced $1000 to $1299
Feature a Google Maps feature that simulates the inclines and declines of various
roadways as well as online fitness tracking and wireless pulse and heart tracking
tools.
Precor
The Ground Effects Impact Control System uses shock absorbers built into the deck
to cushion the foot and minimize the impact felt by the body.
Its Integrated Footplant Technology varies the belt speed to accommodate for when the foot pushes
off and lands, allowing you to run naturally and not with the pulling and dragging that happens
with other treadmills.
2


Treadmill lies with the "turnspit"used to turn meat cooking over a fire.
Treadmill was used for milling, churning or shelling, running by dogs, sheeps and horses
The Colby family make carpet mills for the purpose to keep dogs fit not just for the purpose
of work
William Staub then invented the latest treadmill that we seen today for people to jog and walk
6

4.3 Objective Tree & Evaluation of the Design Concepts

Reliable and Affordable Motorized
Treadmill
Cheap (0.3)
Prototype cost less than
$2000 (0.3)
Production cost less than
$1500 per unit (0.7)
Supply Cost less than
$700 per unit (0.5)
Overhead cost less than
$400 per unit (0,2)
Profit more than $400
per unit (0.3)
Safe (0.3)
No sharp part
(0.1)
No Slippery (0.1)
Moving parts
shrouded (0.5)
Secure
assembly (0.2)
No electrocution
(0.1)
Reliable (0.4)
To be able to use 8hrs straight
(0.1)
Maintenance
free (0.2)
Easy to get
changeable parts (0.4)
Mechanical parts (motor, belt,
sprockets)can sustain long
usage for years (0.2)
Easy to clean
(0.1)
7

5.0 METHODOLOGY

5.1 Selection of Motor
Jogging speed,

1
=
1

1000
1

1
3600
= 0.2778
1

2
=
5

= 1.389
1

3
=
10

= 2.778
1

Velocity ratio of the driving sprockets to the driver sprockets connected to roller is 3:1
Velocity ratio of the driver sprocket to the roller is 1:2
Hence velocity ratio of driving sprocket to roller is
3
1

1
2
=1.5:1
Required velocity of driving sprocket is therefore,

= 0.2778
1
, 1.389
1
, 2.778
1

Loading capacity,
= = 150 (9.81
1
) = 1471.5
When a person is running at speed about 3 m/s (more than 2.778 m/s), the force exerts o ground
or treadmill is,
= 2 = 2(1471.5 ) = 2943
The coefficient of friction of the timing belt with MDF (medium-density fibreboard) deck is
0.15. Hence, when a 150 kg person is running at 3 m/s, the friction is

= = 0.15(2943) = 441.5
If the belt should be able to drive the running track from 0 m/s to 3 m/s with 150 kg user jogging
on it is 1 s, then the acceleration should be
=

=
3 0
1
= 3 /
2


8

So, the belt needs a pulling force,


= ;

= 150 (3
2
) + 441.45 = 891.45
The maximum power needed from the motor to drive running track with acceleration of 3 m/s
2
to
3 m/s is
=

= 891.45 (2.778
1
) = 2476.45
1
745.7
= 3.32
The torque exerted by the motor is =
(63025)


When the motor is turning to give rise to maximum treadmill speed at 10 km/h, = 3.32
and = 694.42 as shown in part 3
=
3.32(63035)
694.42
= 301.32
4.448
1

0.0254
1
= 34.04
Horsepower required at different speed, =

63025

1
=
301.32(69.44)
63025
= 0.332

2
=
301.32(347.21)
63025
= 1.660

3
=
301.32(694.42)
63025
= 3.32
Which
1
= 69.44 ,
2
= 347.21 and
3
= 694.42 (verified in part 3)
The specification of motor required for the treadmill is
Horsepower, = 3.32 ,
Torque, = 34.04 ,
Rotational speed, = 694.42 adjustable to lower RPM


9

5.2 Design of the Timing Belt
PowerGrip

Timing Belt is used


From Table of Basic PowerGrip

Service Factors, for service up to 8 hours per daily for treadmill


purpose, service factor required is 1:1
Design = 3.32 1.1 = 3.65
Assumption 1: The RPM of motor shaft is less than 700 RPM (verified in part 4)
From belt pitch selection guide graph, 3.65 hp, 700 rpm give rise to 8 mm PowerGrip GT2 to be
chosen
Pitch, = 8
From Table of 8mm Pitch PowerGrip

GT

2 Belt Drive Selection, for speed ratio of 3.000 and


center distance of 6.36 in
Belt Pitch length = 33.071 = 840
Belt length factor = 0.90
Number of teeth the belt has is
840
8
= 105
To choose an appropriate belt width, 8 mm Pitch PowerGrip

GT

2 Power Rating Table is


referred. For RPM of motor shaft 700 rpm and groove number of 30, the base rated horsepower
for smallest width of 20 mm is about 5.32,
The maximum horsepower that the belt can withstand
= > 5.32 0.90 = 4.788 > 3.32
Hence, width of 20 mm is sufficient
Specifications of the timing belt,
Pitch = 8mm
Pitch length = 840 mm
No. of teeth of the belt = 105 teeth
Belt width = 20 mm
Material = Neoprene
Advantages of timing belt:
Does not stretch significantly or slip and consequently transmits power at a constant
angular-velocity ratio.
No initial tension is needed.
Have efficiencies in the range of 97 to 99 percent
Requires no lubrication
10

5.3 Design of Driving and Driven Sprocket
As specified earlier the speed ratio of driving and driven sprocket is 3:1
From 8 mm Pitch PowerGrip

GT

2 Belts Drive Selection Table, for speed ratio of 3.000 and


center distance of 6.36 in
Driver sprocket will have 30 number of grooves, whereas, Driven sprocket will have 90 number
of grooves
Hence, the pitch diameter sprocket, = 3.008 (Assumption 2 is verified) and pitch diameter
for driven sprocket, = 9.023
The minimum recommended Sprocket Outside Diameters for Horsepower of 3.32 hp and motor
RPM of 700 rpm is 2.7 in which less than = 3.008 ,
Hence, the selected pair of sprockets is acceptable
Assumption 2: The sprocket diameter of driving sprocket is 3.0008 in (verified in part 3)
Speed of the belt is fpm is
<
3.008 700
3.82
= 551.20
Since the belt speed is less than 6500 rpm, the sprocket size is acceptable
From Table of 8 mm Pitch PowerGrip

GT

2 Sprocket Specifications,
Driver sprocket requires 1210 bushing whereas, Driven sprocket requires 2517 bushing.

Bore diameter for the driving sprocket should be more than 0.500 in and less than 1.250 in, 0.75
in is chosen.
Bore diameter for the driven sprocket should be more than 0.500 in and less than 2.688 in, 1.5 in
is chosen
Width of both sprockets are 1.13 in

Sprockets Selections:
18408MGT 20 PowerGrip

GT

2 belt
1P308MGT 20 Driver Sprocket 1210 0.500 1.1250 AF-1 1.13in
11210 Bushing with a 0.75 in bore
1P90 8MGT 20 Driven Sprocket 2517 0.500 C-2 1.13in
13020 Bushing with a 1.5 in bore

11

Specifications of Sprocket
Specifications Driver Driven
Number of groove 30 90
Pitch diameter 3.008 in 9.023 in
Bushing 1210 2517
Bore diameter 0.75 in 1.5 in
Width 1.13 in 1.13 in
Outside Diameter 2.954 in 8.969 in

5.4 Other Calculations of Timing Belt Drive
Center-to-center distance of the two sprockets,
= 0.25 {

2
( +) +

2
( +)]
2
2( )
2
}
= 0.25 {33.071

2
(9.023 +3.008)
+

[33.071

2
(9.023 +3.008)]
2
2(9.023 +3.008)
2
}
= 6.36
Driver speed, =

1
=
( 0.2778
1
)(
60
1
)
3.008 (
0.0254
1
)
= 69.44

2
=
( 1.389
1
)(
60
1
)
3.008 (
0.0254
1
)
= 347.21

3
=
( 2.778
1
)(
60
1
)
3.008 (
0.0254
1
)
= 694.42 < 700
(Assumption 1 verified)


12

All the rotational speed of driving sprockets are lower than 1100 rpm used in the design analysis
of sprockets and belt. Therefore, our design is safe under the three speeds.

5.5 Designation for Running Belt and Rollers
Speed of the roller calculation
Assume:
Belt width = 500 mm
Centre distance = 1800 mm
Roller Length = 500 mm
Calculate Speed of the roller, =

1
=
(0.2778
1
) (60 )
4.5115
0.00254
1

= 46.298

2
=
(1.389
1
) (60 )
4.5115
0.00254
1

= 231.494

3
=
(2.778
1
) (60 )
4.5115
0.00254
1

= 462.988
Calculate the velocity of the conveyor belt which attach to the roller, =

1
= (9.023
0.00254
1
) (
23.149
60
) = 0.2778
1

2
= (9.023
0.00254
1
) (
115.747
60
) = 1.389
1

3
= (9.023
0.00254
1
) (
231.494
60
) = 2.778
1

The power supply from the is able to reached the speed of 10km/h
(proven)

13

It is proven that the velocity of the conveyor belt is
Front roller diameter = Back roller diameter =

=
Calculate the length of the conveyor belt
= [4
2
( )
2
]
0.5
+
1
2
(

)
= [4(1.8)
2
(0)
2
]
0.5
+
1
2
(0.1146 +0.1146)
= 3.96

5.6 Designation for Shaft
Calculation for the tension of the motor belt
Calculate the Centrifugal tension

2.4
)
2

= 0.965 (Select the position B from Table 17.16)


= 4.167 / (velocity of motor belt)

= 0.965 (
4.167
1
2.4
)
2
= 2.909
Calculate difference in tension of the motor belt, where
=

= 5.48 = 4086.436

= 1
= 1041.63
= 3.008
=
4086.436
(1041.63 )(3.008 )(0.0254 )
= 16.334

14

Calculate the tension
1
, where

1
=

+
exp ()
exp() 1

=

= 2
1

2
= 2
1
(9.023 3.008 )(0.0254 )
2(6.36 )(0.0254 )
= 2.1526
= 0.5123 (Coefficient of friction for grooves)

1
= 2.909 +
16.344 exp [(0.5123)(2.1565)]
exp[(0.5123)(2.1565)] 1
= 27.35
Calculate the tension
2
, where

2
=
1

2
= 27.35 16.344 = 11.006

5.7 Analysis of Tension in Conveyor Belt
Calculate the Centrifugal tension, where
= = (3.32)(745.7)(0.5)(0.0016) = 1.981 /

2
=
1.981
9.81
(2.7782)
2
= 1.559
Calculate the torque
=

2
=
(3.32)(745.7)(1.25)(1.1)
2 (
462.998
60
)
= 70.2097
Calculate the initial tension of the conveyor belt
= 0.7 (Table 17-2)

exp() +1
exp() 1
= (
70.21
9.023
2
(0.0254 )
)[
exp(0.7) +1
exp(0.7) 1
] = 765.54
Calculate the tension
1
and
2

1
=

2 exp()
exp() +1
= 1.559 +765.54
2 exp(0.7)
exp(0.7) +1
= 1379.79

2
=

2
exp() +1
= 1.559 +765.54
2
exp (0.7) +1
= 154.41
15

5.8 Analysis for the Maximum Moment of Shaft
By considering the tension of conveyor belt and motor belt, calculate the maximum moment
experience by the shaft.
Refer to the Figure 1, 2, and 3
In x-y plane,
+

= 0; (11.006 +27.35)(cos 28.235)(75) (308.82 +2759.58)(0.5)(400) (

= 763.93 = 763.93
+

= 0; (

+(11.006 +27.35)(cos 28.235) (308.82 +2759.58)(0.5)


+763.93 = 0
(

= 736.48 = 736.48
In x-z plane,
+

= 0; (27.35 11.000)(sin28.235)(75) +800(

= 0
(

= 0.725 = 0.725
+

= 0; (

+(27.35 11.000) sin28.235 0.725 = 0


(

= 7.007 = 7.007
In x-y plane,

= 209.69 , = 401.4
In x-z plane,

= 0.525 , = 75.36
Since the moment in x-z plane is very small as compared to x-y plane, the maximum moment is
209.69 Nm at 401.4 mm

16

5.9 Shaft Design

Maximum Moment,

= 209.69
Steady Torsion Moment,

= (

2
) = 1534.2 (
0.1146
2
) = 87.91
From Table 7-1,
Choose retaining groove, where

= 5,

= 3.0 =


Choose material 1020 CD steel,

= 470 ,

= 390 (Table A-20)


Calculate the endurance limit


Where


From Table 6-2, = 4.51, = 0.265
= 4.51(470)
0.265
= 0.883
Assume,

= 0.9,

= 1 (),

= 0.9(400 ),

= 1,

= 1

= (0.883)(0.9)(0.9)(470 ) = 336.581
Calculate the diameter for the shaft, where
= {
16

(
2

+
[3(

)
2
]
0.5

)}
1
3

= {
16(462.998/60)

(
2(5)(209.69)
336.1581 10
6
+
[3(3 87.91)
2
]
0.5
470 10
6
)}
1
3
= 0.066

This minimum diameter to support the load of the motor pulley and the roller is 66 mm.





17

6.0 DETAILED DESIGN DRAWINGS
Figure 6.1: The whole treadmill

Figure 6.2: The whole treadmill with dimensions
18

Figure 6.3: Power transmission system

Figure 6.4: Power transmission system with dimensions

Please refer to Appendix 3.
19

7.0 FAULT TREE
7.1 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
20

8.0 COST EVALUATION OF DESIGN

No. Part/Component Cost (US $)
1. 4 HP AC Motor 40.00
2. 18408MGT 20 PowerGrip

GT

2 Neoprene
Timing Belt
4.75
3. PVC Conveyor Belt 40.00
4. Steel Drive Rollers 10.00
5. MDF Deck 6.00
6. 11210 Bushing with a 0.75 in bore 0.90
7. 13020 Bushing with a 1.5 in bore 2.00
8. 1P308MGT 20 Driver Sprocket 19.00
9. 1P908MGT 20 Driven Sprocket 20.00
Total 142.65

9.0 CONCLUSION

1 months of tedious planning, marketing survey, conceptual design, detail calculation and detail
prototype drawing, the hard-work has paid off. A brand new motorized treadmill has been
produced to meet the market demand, readily to be mass produced to spur a new business venture.
The new motorized treadmill will meet the requirement depicted in the objective tree. It must be
reliable, affordable and secure. In order to troubleshoot the possible dismay of the machine, a fault
tree analysis has been done. It will pass on to the respective technical department for further
warranty claim and repair job.
Detail calculation on stress and strain whereabouts has been done to locate the weak spot on the
machine so that further enhancement can be done. Choosing of the material must be scrutinized
tightly to fulfil the following requirement:
Must be easily be located. Supply can be obtained easily.
Material itself must be strong.
Can support and enhance the weak spot on the machine
Follow the ASTM standard (worldwide recognition)
With the detail calculation and required material in hand, we can sketch out the design and further
modify it using engineering drawing. AUTOCAD is used to make the drawing more explicit and
detail. With 3D modelling, clients will have the ideas of the look of the machine. As the technology
progressed, amendment can be made on the technical drawing based on the fault tree analysis. It
made it possible for the manufacturers to manufacture the product easier and faster using the
prototype printer in the future using .dwg files

21

10.0 REFERENCES

[1] J.L Hanson. Home Treadmill Benefits Statistics. Retrieved on 6th December 2013 from
http://ezinearticles.com/?Home-Treadmill-Benefits---Statistics&id=3367034

[2] Top Treadmill Brands. Retrieved on 6th December 2013 from
http://www.livestrong.com/article/392132-top-treadmill-brands/

[3] Medium Density Fibreboard. Retrieved from http://www.makeitfrom.com/material-
data/?for=Medium-Density-Fiberboard-MDF

[4] Habasit Product Data Sheet NAO-10ELAV. Retrieved from
http://www.habasit.com/HNET/proden.nsf/(LuAllByUNID)/975E9E65CB3D3D72C1256A7D00
4ED432?openDocument

[5] Richard G. Budynas, J. Keith Nisbett, Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design, Ninth
edition in SI Units, McGraw-Hill.

[6] Fault Tree Analysis (FTA):Concepts and Applications by Bill Vesely at NASA HQ.

[7] Fault Tree Handbook with Aerospace Applications" Version 1.1, NASA Publication,
August 2002.

[8] "History of the Treadmill" by J Whatmore from J W'S K9 TREADMILL MAKER

[9] http://www.cad.sun.ac.za/catalogs/MachineComponents/powergripdesignmanual17195.PDF




22

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: Conceptual Design Sketch
23


Figure 1 Force distribution on the roller and shaft

Figure 2 Moment Diagram for x-y plane

Appendix 2: Diagrams for Shaft Analysis
24



Figure 3 Moment Diagram for x-z plane















25



Figure 1: The whole treadmill
Figure 2: Display, control and support of treadmill
Appendix 3: Detailed Drawings
26

Figure 3: Support of the upper part
Figure 4: Cover for the power transmission system

27


Figure 5: The power transmission system
Figure 6: Motor

28

Figure 7: Sprockets and timing belt
Figure 8: Shaft

29

Figure 9: Rollers and conveyor belt


Figure 10: Deck of treadmill

30


31














32

Appendix 4: PowerGrip Timing Belt Tables

33


34




35



Table 6.1 Conservative Value of Factor C and Exponent m



Table 7-1 First Iteration Estimates for Stress Concentration Factor Kr and Kts

Appendix 5: Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design Tables
36

Table 17-2 Properties of some Flat and Round-Belt Materials

Figure 17-16 Some V-Belt Parameters
37








38

Appendix 6: Break down of the jobs done by each member
No. Name Job
1. Lee Kian Seng
(Design)
I. Calculations of timing belts and sprockets
II. Calculations of motor and shaft
III. Drawing of sprockets and timing belts
IV. Drawing of upper portion of treadmill
V. Literature Review
VI. Fault Tree analysis
VII. Compilation

2. Khaw Yao Shun
(Research)
I. Summary
II. Introduction
III. Identification of Market and User Need
IV. Literature Review
V. Conceptual Design
VI. Fault Tree analysis

3. Alan A. Alexander &
Yit Man Heng
(Research)
I. Methodology
II. Overall Set of Calculations & Design Calculations
III. Cost Evaluation of Design
IV. Fault Tree analysis
V. References
VI. Compilation

4. Tham Wai Hung &
(Design)
I. Detailed Design & Calculations
II. Fault Tree analysis
III. Selection of Components