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UNIT – 4 Ignition System, Injection system, Cooling system, Lubrication system and Governing of IC Engines

University questions:

1)

Why cooling of IC engines are essential?

2)

Explain the working of a magneto ignition system with the help of neat sketch. Discuss its

relative merits and demerits over battery ignition system. 3) Describe with the help of suitable sketches i) jerk pump system, ii) common rail system and

iii) distributor system. Discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. 4) Discuss the functions of lubricant in an engine and describe a typical mist lubrication system used for a two stroke engine with its advantages and disadvantages.

5)

6)

7)

Discuss various methods of control for exhaust emission from petrol engines. (Unit 5) Show by a diagram the energy flow in a reciprocating internal combustion engine. What are the various methods of measuring friction power? Decribe Willian’s line method.

Discuss various methods of control for exhaust emission from petrol engines. (Unit 5) Show by a

Explain the terms: i) Quantity governing and ii) Quality governing Explain why vacuum advance mechanism and centrifugal advance mechanism are necessary

To which type of engine it is applicable. (The test is applicable only to compression ignition

engines).

8)

9)

in ignition system. Describe its working with the help of neat sketches. 10) Describe i) Dry sump lubrication system and ii) working of Bosch fuel injection pump, with the help of neat sketches. 11) Name the various types of liquid cooling system and describe with a sketch the forced circulation system. 12) What are the main constituents of exhaust emission from petrol engine. Describe with sketches the following method of petrol exhaust emission control. I) after burner and ii) Catalytic converter. (Unit 5) 13) Write short notes on: i) Battery ignition system, ii) Wet sump lubrication system, iii) various methods of governing of IC engines iv) Necessity of engine cooling, v) Fuel injector and its construction, vi) Liquid cooling of automobile engines, vii) spark plug heat range, viii) working of fuel injector, ix) Merits and Demerits of air and water cooling systems, x) Wet sump lubrication system, xi) Electronic ignition system, xii) Spray penetration and spray direction of injection system, xiii) Antifreeze mixture, iv) Mist lubrication system. 14) Draw the following performance curves of a SI engine and comment on nature of curve. i) Indicated power vs speed at full throttle, ii) specific fuel consumption vs speed at full throttle.

15) What is nozzle lip and why is it provided.(Unit 3, Carburettor Qu.) Answer: It is the difference in the levels of fuel in the float chamber and the fuel-nozzle tip. It is provided to prevent spilling of fuel in the carburettor during vibration or slight non-horizontal position of carburettor or during tilting of a vehicle for air filling task, or during aerobic tasks of an aeroplane (i.e. during take-off or landing of a plane). 16) Describe ‘Morse test’. What is the assumption made in this test? What precautions should be taken in performing this test. (unit 5)

17)

Discuss various methods of control for exhaust emission from petrol engines.

18)

Draw a typical heat release diagram of diesel engine.

19)

Derive an expression for the amount of fuel injected per cycle in terms of brake horse power

and speed of a four stroke diesel engine.

20) Compare the transistorised ignition system with a capacitor discharges system. Highlight the advantages of each system.

21)

What is a flame ionisation detector?

22)

Describe the working principle of: i) Bosch smoke meter, ii) Willin’s line, iii) Light spring

diagram, iv) Inrared gas analyser.

23)

Write the effect of pollution on human health and biosphere.

24)

Write the advantages and disadvantages of air cooling and water cooling system.

25)

Write the operation of wet sump and dry sump lubrication system.

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26)

Discuss with circuit diagram of battery ignition system. Write the operation vacuum ignition

advance.

27)

Explain the crankcase dilution.

_____________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION:

The function of ignition system is to initiate the flame propagation process at the end of compression

stroke.

The spark must be produced in a repeatable manner e.g., cycle by cycle.

When a spark is produced to ignite a homogeneous air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of an engine, it is called the spark ignition system. The ignition systems are classified depending upon how the primary energy is made available to create a spark, as: i) Battery ignition system and ii) Magneto ignition system.

26) Discuss with circuit diagram of battery ignition system. Write the operation vacuum ignition advance. 27)

REQUIREMENTS OF AN IGNITION SYSTEM:

  • 1. It should provide a good spark between the electrodes of the plugs at the correct timing.

  • 2. It should function efficiently over the entire range of engine speed.

  • 3. It should be light, effective and reliable in service.

  • 4. It should be compact and easy to maintain.

  • 5. It should be cheap and convenient to handle.

  • 6. The interference from the high voltage source (waves) should not affect the functioning of

the radio and television receivers inside an automobile.

  • I. BATTERY IGNITION SYSTEM

Most of the modern SI engines use battery ignition system. In this system the energy required for

producing spark is obtained from a 6 or 12 volt battery. Practical applications: Passengers cars, light trucks, some motorcycles and large stationary engines are fitted with battery ignition system. The essential components of the system are:

Elements of battery ignition system

  • 1. IGNITION COIL

Ignition coil is the source of ignition energy in the conventional ignition system. This coil stores the energy in its magnetic field and delivers it at the appropriate time in the form of a ignition pulse through the high tension ignition cables to the respective spark plug. The purpose of the ignition coil is to step up the 6-12 volts of the battery to a high voltage, sufficient to induce an electric spark across the electrodes of the spark plug.

  • 2. BATTERY

To provide electrical energy for ignition, a storage battery is used. It is charged by a dynamo driven

by the engine. Due to the electro-chemical reactions, it is able to convert the chemical energy into electrical energy. Two types of batteries are used for spark ignition engines, the lead acid battery and the alkaline battery.

  • 3. CAPACITOR

The principle of construction of the ignition capacitor is the same as that of every capacitor, which is

very simple; two metal plates separated by an insulating material- are placed face to face.

  • 4. CONTACT BREAKER

This is a mechanical device for making and braking the primary circuit of the ignition coil. It consists essentially of a fixed metal point against which, another metal point bears which is being on

a spring leaded pivoted arm. The metal used is invariably one of the hardest metals, usually tungsten and each point has circular flat face of about 3 mm diameter.

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  • 5. DISTRIBUTOR

The function of the distributor is to distribute the ignition surges to the individual spark plugs in the correct sequence and at the correct instants of time. Depending upon the number of cylinders 4, 6 or 8, there are 4, 6 or 8 ignition pulses generated for every rotation of the distributor shaft. There are

two types of distributors, the brush type and the gap type.

Fig. 1 Battery ignition system
Fig. 1 Battery ignition system
  • 6. SPARK PLUG

The spark plug provides the two electrodes with a proper gap across which the high potential discharges to generate a spark and ignite the combustible mixture within the combustion chamber. A spark plug consists essentially of a steel shell, an insulator and two electrodes. The electrodes are usually made of high nickel alloy to withstand the severe erosion and corrosion to which they are subjected in the combustion chamber.

  • 7. BALLAST RESISTOR

A Ballast resistor is provided in series with the primary winding to regulate the primary current. The objective of this is to prevent injury to the spark coil by overheating if the engine should be operated for a long time at low speed.

  • 8. IGNITION SWITCH (Starter key)

The function of ignition switch is to turn on or off the ignition system.

OPERATION OF A BATTERY IGNITION SYSTEM

The source of ignition energy in the battery ignition system is the ignition coil. This coil stores the energy in its magnetic field and delivers it at the instant of ignition (firing point). The ignition coil

consists of two coils (windings), primary and secondary. When the ignition switch is closed, the primary current flow through the primary winding and induces a magnetic field in the secondary winding. The condenser does the job of storage and creation of high voltage impulse in the secondary winding, which assists in production of spark across the terminals of the spark plug. The distributor distributes the ignition surges across the respective surges, as per the firing order.

II.

MAGNETO IGNITION SYSTEM

Magneto is a special type of ignition system with its own electric generator to provide the necessary energy for the system. It is mounted on the engine and replaces all the components of the battery

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ignition system except the spark plug. A magneto when rotated by the engine is capable of
ignition system except the spark plug. A magneto when rotated by the engine is capable of
producing a very high voltage and does not need battery as a source of external energy.
A special type with its own electric generator to provide energy.
It is mounted on engine & replaces the components of battery ignition system except spark plug.
Very high voltage is produced by rotation of magnet.
It doesn’t need a battery as an external source of energy.
Fig. 2 Magneto ignition system
The working principle of magneto ignition system is exactly same as the battery ignition system.
With the help of a cam the primary circuit flux is changed and a high voltage is produced in the
secondary circuit.
The current generated is low when the cranking speed is low. As the engine speed increases the flow
of current also increases. Thus, with the Magneto ignition system there is always a starting difficulty
and sometimes it needs separate battery for starting.
Comparison or difference between Battery and Magneto Ignition system:
Battery Ignition system
Magneto Ignition system
Battery is necessary No battery is required
Difficult to start the engine when battery is
discharged.
Maintenance problems are more due to battery
The current obtained for primary circuit is
obtained from the battery
A good spark is available at lower speeds also
No battery, no discharge and starting problems
Maintenance problems are less
The required current is generated by the
magneto
At low speeds the quality of spark is poor
It occupies more space It occupies lesser space
The efficiency decreases in reduction of spark
intensity as the speed rises
It is employed in cars
The efficiency improves with increasing
intensity of spark at high speeds
Mainly used in racing cars
SPARK PLUG HEAT RANGE
The term heat range refers to spark plug thermal characteristics, ability to transfer
combustion heat from its firing end to engine cylinder head.
The plug operating temperatures are governed by amount of heat transfer.
Heat transfer rate depends on the length of heat transfer path & area exposed to the
combustion heat.
A cold running spark plug transfers heat rapidly from its firing end where as hot running
spark plug transfers less heat.
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A cold plug will have a short insulator tip and short heat rejection path. A Cold spark plug reduces overheating of combustion chamber. A Cold spark plug is used in heavy duty or racing engines. A hot plug will have a long insulator tip and long heat rejection path. Disadvantages of conventional ignition systems (discussed above):

1) Reduction of spark intensity at higher engine speed, (it is due to reduction in time available

2)

to build up the stored energy in the primary circuit, at higher speeds) Electrical wear and mechanical wear, which demands regular maintenance

3)

Short life of breaker points

In order to overcome these disadvantages, modern electronic systems with the use of electronic

circuits came into existence.

MODERN IGNITION SYSTEMS OR ELECTRONIC IGNITION SYSTEM

c) It increases the reliability d) It extends the life of spark plug 1. Transistorized coil
c) It increases the reliability
d) It extends the life of spark plug
1. Transistorized coil ignition system
e) It assists the ignition of lean mixture.
b) It reduces the wear of the components
2. Capacitive discharge ignition system
1. TRANSISTORIZED COIL IGNITION SYSTEM
a) It reduces the ignition system maintenance
There are two types of electronic ignitions systems:
Following are the advantages of electronic ignition system:
These electronic systems are also called high energy electronic ignition systems.

The circuit diagram is as shown in Figure 3. The contact breaker and the cam assembly of the conventional ignition system are replaced by a magnetic pulse generating system which detects the distributor shaft position and sends electrical pulse to an electronic control module. The module then switches-off the flow of current to the primary winding, which induces a high voltage in the secondary winding which is distributed to the spark plugs.

Fig. 3. Transistorized coil ignition system

  • 2. Capacitive discharge ignition (CDI) system

In a capacitor discharge ignition system, a capacitor is used as a means of energy storage. The

ignition transformer (coil) steps up the primary voltage, generated at eh time of spark by the discharge of the capacitor through the resistor (thyristor, RC), to the high voltage required at the spark plug.

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Four cylinder engine firing orders are 1-3-4-2 or 1-2-4-3 Six cylinder engine firing orders are
Four cylinder engine firing orders are
1-3-4-2 or 1-2-4-3
Six cylinder engine firing orders are
1-5-3-6-2-4 or 1-5-4-6-2-3
The main purpose of firing order is: i) to minimize engine vibrations by reducing load on the
bearings, ii) to assist engine cooling and iii) to minimize development of back pressure by exhaust
gases from the exhaust gas manifold.
FIRING ORDER
Fig. 4. Capacitive discharge ignition system (TDI)
The CDI trigger box contains the capacitor, thyristor (RC), power switch, charging device and
The capacitor can store several thousands times more energy per unit of capacitance.
The internal resistance is very small, the system is insensitive to side tracking.
The order in which various cylinders of a multi cylinder engine fire is called the firing order.
control unit. The main advantages of CDI system are:
The breaker points serve as a trigger only. This avoids frequent maintenance and prolongs
contact point life.
The current drawn from the magneto is less at low speeds and increase with increase in speed
of the engine. Whereas higher current is drawn at low speeds in electronic ignition systems.
The output voltage is relatively independent of engine speed. This eliminates chances of
misfiring of even the fouled spark plugs.
Disadvantage: Because of fast discharging of the capacitor the spark is strong but short. This
can lead to ignition difficulties under rich mixture operation.
IGNITION TIMING
To obtain more power ignition timing is required.
Factor affecting it are as
Type of fuel
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Part load operation
Engine speed
Mixture strength

INJECTION SYSTEM

The fuel injection system is the most vital component in the working of CI engines. Functional requirements of fuel injection system • Accurate metering of the fuel per cycle: The quantity of fuel metered should vary to meet changing speed and load requirements of the engine.

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Timing the injection of fuel correctly in the cycle so that maximum power is obtained.

Proper control of rate of injection: It is for the desired heat release pattern

Proper atomization of the fuel in to very fine droplets

Proper spray pattern to ensure rapid mixing of the fuel and air

Uniform distribution of fuel droplets throughout the combustion chamber

To supply equal quantities of metered fuel to all cylinders in case of multi-cylinder engines

No lag during beginning and end of injection.

TYPES OF SOLID OR MECHANICAL INJECTION SYSTEM

Individual pump and nozzle system The details of the individual pump and nozzle system are shown in Fig. (a) and (b). In this system each cylinder is provided with one pump and one injector. In this arrangement a separate metering and compression pump is provided for each cylinder. The pump may be placed close to the cylinder as shown in Fig. (a) or they may be arranged in a cluster as shown in Fig. (b).

• Timing the injection of fuel correctly in the cycle so that maximum power is obtained.

Unit injector system The unit injector system is one in which the pump and the injector nozzle are combined in one housing. Each cylinder is provided with one of these injectors. Common rail system ( It is used in today’s modern four wheelers) In this system, a HP pump supplies fuel, under high pressure to a common fuel heater. High pressure in the heater forces the fuel to each of the nozzles located in the cylinders. Distributor system In this system, the pump which pressurises the fuel also meters and times it. The fuel pump supplies metered fuel to a rotating distributor at the correct time.

Fig. 5. Types of solid injection system

FUEL INJECTION PUMP (Bosch)

The main objective of the pump is to deliver accurately the metered quantity of fuel under high pressure (in the range of 120 to 200 bars). Injection pumps are of two types, 1) Jerk type pump,

2) Distributor type pump. 1) Jerk type pump It consists of a reciprocating plunger inside a barrel. The plunger is driven by a camshaft. The working principle of jerk pump is shown in Fig. Fig. (a) A sketch of a typical plunger Fig. (b) A schematic diagram of the plunger within the barrel. Near the port ‘A’ fuel is always available under relatively low pressure. The axial movement of the plunger is through camshaft and

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its rotational movement about its axis is by means of rack ‘D’ (connected to accelerator of the vehicle). Port ‘B’ is the orifice through which fuel is delivered to the injector. It is closed by means of spring loaded check valve. When the plunger is below port A, the fuel gets filled in the barrel above it. As the plunger rises and closed port A the fuel will flow out through port C. Fig. (c) At this stage rack rotates the plunger and as a result port C also closes. The only escape route for the fuel is past the check valve through orifice B to the injector. This is the beginning of injection and also the effective stroke of the plunger. Fig. (d) The injection continues till the helical indentation (groove) on the plunger uncovers port C. Now, the fuel will take the easy way out through C and the check valve will close the orifice B. The fuel injection stops and the effective stroke end. Maximum quantity of fuel in injected for this plunger position. Fig. (e) and (f) The plunger is rotated to the position shown. The same sequence of events occurs. But in this case port C is uncovered sooner. Hence the effective stroke is shortened and minimum quantity of fuel is injected for this plunger position.

its rotational movement about its axis is by means of rack ‘D’ (connected to accelerator of

Fig. 6 Bosch Injection fuel Pump

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(Bosch fuel injection pump)
(Bosch fuel injection pump)

TYPES OF FUEL INJECTOR Blast injector Mechanically operated injector Automatic injector FUNCTIONS OF NOZZLE

a) Atomization of fuel, b) Proper and uniform distribution of fuel, c) Higher should be the injection pressure for better dispersion and penetration of the fuel. d) Nozzle design should be such that fuel is prevented from impinging on the walls. e) Mixing of fuel and air should be taken care of by the nozzle.

TYPES OF NOZZLE

  • 1. The pintle nozzle

The stem of nozzle valve is extended to from a pin or pintle which protrudes through mouth of nozzle. It provides a spray operating at low injection pressures of 8 to 10 MPa. Advantage of this

nozzle is such that it avoids weak injection and dribbling. It prevents the carbon deposition on the nozzle hole.

  • 2. The single nozzle

At the centre of the nozzle body there is a single hole which is closed by the nozzle valve. Major

disadvantage of such nozzle is that it tend to dribble.

  • 3. The Multi hole nozzle

It consists of number of holes bored in tip of the nozzle. The number of holes varies from 4 to 18 and

the size is from 35 to 200 µm. Its advantage lies in the ability to distribute the fuel properly even with lower air motion available in open combustion chambers.

  • 4. Pintaux nozzle

It is a type of pintle nozzle which has an auxiliary hole drilled in the nozzle body. It injects a small

amount of fuel through this additional hole slightly before the main injection (during low acceleration or starting condition of the vehicle). The needle valve doer not lift fully at low speeds and most of the fuel is injected through the auxiliary hole. Main advantage of this nozzle is better cold starting performance.

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Fig. 7. Types of Nozzles
Fig. 7. Types of Nozzles
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Lubrication System: Functions of lubricating system, properties of lubricants. Wet, Dry and Mist lubrication system. Lubrication:-
Lubrication System: Functions of lubricating system, properties of lubricants. Wet, Dry and
Mist lubrication system.
Lubrication:- It is an art of admitting a lubricant (oil, grease, etc.) between two surfaces that
are in contact and in relative motion to reduce friction and wear between them.
Functions –
1.
To reduce friction and wear between the moving parts and to increase the life of the engine.
2.
It reduces friction losses and increases the efficiency of the engine.
3.
To provide sealing action of piston rings effectively to reduce the leakage of high pressure
gates from the cylinder to crankcase.
4.
To cool the surfaces by carrying away the heat generator in the engine components.
5.
To clean the surfaces by washing away carbon and metal particles caused by wear.
6.
The lubrication film between two surfaces which are in contact reduces vibrations.
Lubrication of Engine components [which are mainly req.] – In I.C. Engine there are many
surfaces in contact which requires lubrication. The principal friction surfaces requires lubrication
are –
i.
Piston and cylinder,
ii. Crankshaft and their bearings,
iii.
iv.
Crankpin and their bearings,
Wrist pin and their bearings,
v.
Value gear.
Lubrication System Types –
The different types of lubrication system used in I.C. Engine are:
I.
MIST Lubrication System.
II.
WET SUMP Lubrication system.
A.
The splash system.
B. The splash and pressure system
C.
The pressure feed system.
III.
DRY SUMP Lubrication System
I – MIST Lubrication Systems:
This system is used where crankcase lubrication is not suitable for an engine.
It is used in specially is Two-Stroke Engines. [Because is such engines charge is
compressed is the crank case and not possible to have the lubricating oil in the sump]
In this system, the lubricating oil is mixed with fuel [3% to 6%] and this mixture is
induced into cylinder through carburetor.
The oil in the form of mist goes into the cylinder via the crank case.
The oil
which strikes the crankcase walls lubricates the main and connecting rod
bearings.
The rest of the oil lubricates the piston, piston rings and the cylinder.
Advantages:
1.
The system is very simple.
2.
The cost is low,
3.
It does not require oil pump and filter.
Disadvantages:
1.
It gives heavy exhaust smoke due to burning of lubricating oil.
2.
It forms carbon deposits on piston crown and exhaust part which effect engine
efficiency and due to which maintenance problems also increases.
3.
It increases the corrosion because the oil contacts with acidic vapours produced in
combustion.
4.
It requires a proper mixing of oil with feed for effective lubrication.
5.
It requires some additives to give the oil good mixing characteristics.
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  • 6. During close throttle operation, the engine will suffer from insufficient lubrication as the supply of fuel is less.

II – WET SUMP Lubrication System.

This system contains a pump placed in the oil sump at the bottom of the crankcase of the engine.

And the pump supplies oil to various engine components.

After lubrication, the oil returns back by gravity and is re-circulated.

A.

Splash System:-

It is used in light duty engines. The lubricating oil is charged into the bottom of
It is used in light duty engines.
The lubricating oil is charged into the bottom of the crankcase and maintained at a
predetermined level.
The oil is pumped to oil (splash) troughs located under the big end of all the
connecting rods and a constant level is maintained.
A splasher or dipper is provided under each connecting rod cap which dips into the
oil in the trough at every revolution and oil is splashed all over the interior of the
crankcase, into pistons and onto the oil the exposed portions of the cylinder walls.
A hole is drilled through the connecting rod cap through which oil will pass to the
bearing surface.
Oil pockets are also provided to catch the splashing oil, over main bearings and also
over camshaft bearings.
From oil pockets the oil will reach the bearing surface through a drilled hole.
After lubrication the oil return back to sump by gravity and it is cooled by the air and
it is recalculated.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

B – The splash and pressure lubrication system.

In this system, the lubricating oil is supplied under pressure to main and cam

shaft

bearings. Oil is also supplied under pressure to pipes which direct stream of oil against the dippers on the big end of connecting rod bearing cup. The crankpin bearing are lubricated by the splash or spray of oil thrown up by the dipper.

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C – Pressure Feed System:

Wet Sump Lubrication System: The basic components of the wet sump lubrication system are (1) pump
Wet Sump Lubrication System:
The basic components of the wet sump lubrication system are (1) pump (2) Strainer (3)
Pressure regulator (4) Filter (5) breather.
In this system, the oil is drawn from the sump is forced to all the main bearings of the
crankshaft through distributing channels.
A pressure relief value also fitted near the delivery point of the pump which opens when
the pressure in the system attains as predetermined value.
A hole is drilled in the crankshaft from the centre of each crankpin to the centre of an
adjacent main journal through which or can pass from the main bearings to the crankpin
bearing from there it reaches piston pin bearing through a hole drilled in the connecting
rod.
Oil is drawn from the sump by a gear or rotor type of oil through an oil strainer.
The strainer is a fine mesh screen which prevents foreign particles from entering the oil
circulating systems.
A pressure relief value is provided which automatically keeps the delivery pressure
constant and can be set to any value.
When the oil pressure exceeds that for which the value is set the valve opens and allows
some of the oil to return to the sump there by reliving the oil pressure is the system.
Most of the oil from the pump goes directly to the engine bearings and portion of the oil
passes through a cartridge filter which removes the solid particles from the oil.
This reduces the amount of continuation from carbon dust and other impurities in the oil.
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Dry Sump Lubrication System . ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ In this system, the oil

Dry Sump Lubrication System.

∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

In this system, the oil is supplied from an external tank. The oil pump draws oil from the tank and circulates it under pressure to the various bearings of the engine. Oil dripping from the cylinders and bearings into sump is removed by a scavenging pump which in turn the oil is passed through a filter and is fed back to the supply tank. This prevents accumulation of oil in the base of engine. A filter with a bypass valve is placed in between the scavenging pump and supply tanks. A separate oil cooler with either water of air as the cooling medium is provided to remove heat from the oil.

Properties of Lubricants

The lubricants should have the following properties:

  • i. Suitable viscosity. Oiliness to ensure less friction and wear and as a protective covering against corrosion.

ii.

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iii.

High strength to prevent the metal to metal contact and seizure under heavy load.

iv.

Should not react with the lubricating surfaces.

v.

Should have a low pour point to allow flow of the lubricant at low temperatures to the oil

vi.

pump. No tendency to form deposits by reacting with air water, fuel of the products of combustion.

vii.

Should have cleaning ability.

viii.

Should have non-foaming characteristics.

ix.

Should be nontoxic and non-inflammable.

x.

Should be low cost.

iii. High strength to prevent the metal to metal contact and seizure under heavy load. iv.
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Cooling System:- Cooling System: cooling requirement, air cooling, liquid cooling, type of liquid cooling system, Advantages
Cooling System:-
Cooling System: cooling requirement, air cooling, liquid cooling, type of liquid cooling system,
Advantages and disadvantages of air cooling system, Antifreeze mixture.
Introduction:-
Only a part of the total fuel energy supplied to the I.C.E. is converted into useful work. The rest of
energy is rejected as follows.
i.
Heat from the engine boundaries due to radiation, convection and to a small extent
conduction.
ii. Heat rejected to exhaust gases.
iii. Heat rejected to coolant.
Heat balance for a typical C.I. Engine
Heat to exhaust
Gases (33%)
Heat to
Cooling water (31%)
Heat to F.P
(10%)
Heat supplied
Heat to I.P
Heat to B.P
(100%)
(36%)
(26%)
Necessity of Engine cooling:-
1.
The lubrication properties of oil depends upon temperature and ability decreases with
increase in temperature. Due to increase in temperature and it might even evaporate and burn
and also damages piston and cylinder surfaces.
2.
Due to overheating, the piston may seizure from failure of lubrication.
3.
The strength of the materials usually decreases with an increase in temperature. This permits
maximum operating temperature.
Ex.:-
For water cooled Engine; the maximum temperature of cylinder head should not
exceed 270 o C and it is 200 o C for an Air cooled engine.
4.
The high temperatures in engine results in excusive thermal stresses due to uneven expansion
of various engine parts and may result in cracking.
5.
High temperatures in Engine may result in very hot exhaust value which in turn may give rise
to pre ignition and detonation.
6.
If the cylinder head temperature is high, the volumetric efficiency and power output of the
Engine is reduced.
Hence to avoid the above problems and to increase efficiency of the engine, the cooling of
engine is necessary.
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Cooling Systems:-

They two types cooling systems used to cool the engine arc (i) Air cooling [Direct], (ii) Liquid cooling [Indirect Cooling]

  • 1. Air – Cooling (Direct):

Applications: weight is important. (Air Crafts) A.C.S. is usually used for small engines and for (motor
Applications:
weight is important. (Air Crafts)
A.C.S. is usually used for small engines and for (motor cycle etc.) applications where
A.C.S. is used is small stationary engines.
A.C.S. is used in Industrial and agricultural engines where water cannot be used as
coolant.
The height of the fins controls the distance between the two cylinders and size of the
engine. [from 15 to 25 mm]
* Air cooling results in higher engine temperatures. This makes the provision of bigger
clearances between piston and cylinder and also between value and the rocker arm.
The rate of heat transfer is increased by fins, which reduces surface area also. The length of
the fins and the spacing between them is important for efficient cooling.
Larger inter spacing between the fins offers larger area for cooling air but the heating of the
air is less, so more cooling air is required.
Smaller inter spacing between the fins results in smaller flow area for cooling air and hence
air is heated more and input to the cooling air is less.
In A.C.S. a current of air is made to flow past the outside of the cylinder barrel and
There fins are either cast integral with the cylinder and cylinder head of can be fixed with the
cylinder block separately.
*
1.
2.
3.
  • 2. Water Cooled System (In-Direct)[Liquid Cooling System] In this system water is mode to circulate through the jackets provided around the cylinder, cylinder head value parts and seats where it extracts most of the heat. The heat is transferred from the cylinder walls and other parts by convection and conduction to the surrounding liquid. The heat from liquid in twin is transferred to air. Hence it is called the “Indirect Cooling System.” The following methods are used for circulating the water around the cylinder and cylinder head. They are –

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1.Thermo-Syphon Cooling:-

2. Forced or Pump Systems:- The main principle is that water becomes light on heating. The
2.
Forced or Pump Systems:-
The main principle is that water becomes light on heating.
The top of the radiator is connected to the top of water jacket by a pipe and bottom is
connected to the bottom.
Water travels down the radiator across which air is passed to cool it.
The air flow can take place due to vehicle motion or by a fan.
The main drawback is cooling depends only on the temperature and is independent of
the engine speed.
The circulation of water is slow and insufficient and it starts only after the engine has
become not enough to cause thermo-syphon action.
The radiator should be located above the engine for gravity flow of water.
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In this system a pump is used to cause positive circulation of water in the water jacket

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and it is belt driven by the engine. The advantage of this system is that the cooling of the engine done under all

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operating conditions. The water is passed through the radiator where it is cooled by air which is drawn by a fan and by the air draft due to the forward motion of the vehicle.

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RCET, BHILAI

This system mainly four components a radiator, fan, water pump. The main drawback is cooling is insufficient when the vehicle is moving uphill due to more fuel is burned and coolant circulation is reduced due to declare in speed. * The cooling system is stopped when engine is not in a running condition, this is undesirable because cooling must continue till the temperature is reduced to normal. The cooling is independent of temperature, this may result in overcooling the engine.

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  • 3. Thermostat Cooling – [Forced or pump system with thermostat]

hot. * The draw back is there is no method to increase cooling action when engine
hot.
* The draw back is there is no method to increase cooling action when engine is very
This system is similar to forced system except a thermostat which controls the flow of
coolant.
This system overcomes the problem of overcooling of the engine.
The flow of coolant depends upon cylinder temperature.
Most of modern cooling systems equipped with a thermostatic device which prevents.
Water from circulating through the radiator for cooling until its temperature has
reached to a value suitable for efficient on operation.
The thermostat is fitted between the engine and the radiator top.
A the temperature increases the value is opened to allow coolant to go to the radiator,
when temperature falls the value is closed by passing the water.
The main advantage is that engine warms up quickly after starting.
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RCET, BHILAI
  • 4. Pressurized Water Cooling:-

5. Evaporative Cooling:- [Steam of vapour cooling]
5. Evaporative Cooling:- [Steam of vapour cooling]
5. Evaporative Cooling:- [Steam of vapour cooling]

The boiling point of the coolant can be increased by increasing its pressure. This allows a greater heat transfer in the radiator due to a large temperature differential. The water pressure is kept between 1.5 bar to 2.0 bar. This system consists of a vaccum value to avoid formation of vaccum when the water is cooled after engine has been stopped. A safety value is also provided so that whenever pressure is relieved; when required.

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In this system, the cooling water is allowed to reach a temperature of 100 o C. This method of cooling utilizes the high latent heat of vaporization to obtain cooling with minimum of water. The steam formed is flashed off in a separate vessel.

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The make up water so formed is sent back for cooling.

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This system is used for cooling of Industrial Engines.

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RCET, BHILAI

Applications of Water Cooling System.

1.

W.C.S. is usually used for larger size engines [Cars, buses, etc.]

2.It is used in Industrial applications.

Comparison of Liquid and Air Cooling Systems.

Advantages of Water Cooling –

1.

High specific output engines have no problem with water cooling with power required for cooling system.

2.

Due to high rate of heat transfer, the size of engine is compact.

3.

The fuel consumption of high compressor liquid cooled engines is lower than the air cooled engines.

4.

5.

6.

Cost is high. Even cooling of cylinder barrel and head may be possible. Requires maintenance.
Cost is high.
Even cooling of cylinder barrel and head may be possible.
Requires maintenance.

The cooling system can be conveniently located wherever required. This is not possible in case of ACS.

The size of engine does not involve serious problems as for as the design of cooling system is concerned.

Disadvantages Water Cooling –-

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

This is a dependent system in which water circulation in the jackets is to be ensured.

Power absorbed by the pump is considerable and its affects the power output.

In case of failure of the cooling system serious damage may be caused to the engine.

Advantages of Air Cooling-

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Design of engine is simple

Absence of cooling pipes, radiator

No danger of coolant

Weight is less as compared to liquid system

Installation is easier

Engine is not subject to freezing troubles

Disadvantages of Air Cooling-

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Applied to small and medium sized engine

Cooling is not uniform

Higher working temperature compared to liquid cooling

Produce more aerodynamic noise

Specific fuel consumption is slightly higher

Anti-freeze Mixture:

These are the chemical substances added to the water in water cooling system to reduce the freezing point of water and to avoid freezing. They helps in easy starting of engine in cold weather

conditions. The commonly used anti-freeze materials are Kerosene, Wood Alcohol, Glycerin, Sugar solution, Calcium or Magnesium Chloride.

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Governing System Necessity of governing, various methods of governing Function of Flywheel: The function of a
Governing System
Necessity of governing, various methods of governing
Function of Flywheel:
The function of a flywheel is to limit the cyclic variations of speed due to fluctuation of
energy.
The flywheel stores the energy in the form kinetic energy during power stroke and it delivers
the same to complete the compression and exhaust strokes.
The is not able to control the changes in speed due to variation of load on the engine.
Governor and Function:
The speed of the engine increases with decrease in load because the power developed by
engine is same .
The speed can be maintained constant by decreasing the fuel supply or by other means. The
device by which the above can be achieved is called “Governor”
When the fuel supply is decreased by the governor, the speed of the engine will decrease till
the equilibrium is again maintained between the power developed by the engine and new load.
The function of governor is to control the fluctuations of speed the engine within limits with
variation of load from no-load to maximum load on the engine over period of time.
Governing in I.C. Engines:
In S.I. Engines the method of governing is simple and usually by throttle governing.
In C.I. Engines of variable load, the requirement of control of fuel are more demanding since
the engine is required to adjust fuel not only to meet the requirement of load, in addition it needs to
meet the power requirements of variable frictional loads with speed.
The various methods employed for governing of I.C. Engines and they are,
1)
2)
3)
Hit and miss governing: In this method the fuel supply is completely cut-off in one or
more number cycles producing an idle stroke.
Quality governing: In this method of governing the air-fuel ratio is varied by varying the
mass of fuel to be supplied per cycle as in case of C.I. Engine.
Quantity governing: In this method the air-fuel ratio is constant and quantity of mixture
per cycle is varied. This is achieved by the varying the quantity of both air and fuel supply to
the engine as in case of S.I. Engine.
1.
Hit and Miss Governing:
The speed of the engine increases with decrease in load because the power developed by
engine is same . In this method the speed is controlled by restricting the combustion process in one
or more number cycles.
In S.I. Engines the gas supply is cut-off while in case of C.I. Engines the fuel supply is cut-
off.
1.1 Hit and Miss Governing for S.I. Engines:
When the speed is normal the gas valve is lifted from seat in every stroke and the gas is supplied to
the engine.
The lift of valve is obtained with the help of cam and lever (EFG) arrangement as shown in fig. The
end(E) is lifted once in two revolutions of the crankshaft.
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When the speed of the engine increases beyond the certain limit of mean speed due to
When the speed of the engine increases beyond the certain limit of mean speed due to

When the speed of the engine increases beyond the certain limit of mean speed due to decrease in load on the engines, the balls of the centrifugal governor will fly-out due to increased centrifugal force, the sleeve (A) lifts in the upward direction. This operates the bell-crank lever(ABC) and its end (C) moves to the right. It also makes the end(D) to move to the right due to motion of link(CD). It prevents the lifting of gas valve from its valve seat and the gas supply to the engine is cut- off. When the speed of the engine drops, the valve is again operated due to the movement of point(D) to the left consequent to the sleeve movement in the downward direction.

1.2 Hit and Miss Governing for C.I. Engines:

When the shaft rotates, it operates the end (C) of the lever (ABC) once in two revolutions of the crankshaft. The other end of the lever(A) connected to pecker piece(R), strikes against the distance piece(F) which is connected to the fuel pump plunger and fuel is supplied to cylinder. The operation of fuel injection pump continues up to a certain speed of the engine. When the speed of the engines exceeds the limiting speed due to reduction in load one the engine, the balls of the governor fly out due to increased centrifugal force and the sleeve is lifted. This causes the distance piece to be lifted from its position and pecker piece misses the hit to distance piece making the fuel injection pump to be out of action during that stroke. When the speed of the engine falls the regular action of fuel supply continues.

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RCET, BHILAI

Advantages:

1.

Provides better fuel economy at low speeds.

2.

System is simple and cheap.

Disadvantages:

1.

Engine needs bigger size of flywheel since the fluctuation of energy increases

during the period of omission of power strokes.

2.

Engine is subjected to large variations in speed during the cycle.

3.

Engine efficiency is reduced.

Application:

This type of governing is usually employed for small capacity engines upto 20kW and the

engines not requires strict speed variations.

  • 2. Quality Governing:

Advantages: 1. Provides better fuel economy at low speeds. 2. System is simple and cheap. Disadvantages:

In this method of governing the air-fuel ratio is varied by varying the mass of fuel to be supplied (mass of air remains constant) according to load on the engine. In other words the air fuel ratio is changed from cycle to cycle. In case of C.I. Engines the amount of fuel is varied usually by Spring loaded mechanical governors or by hydraulic governors. The system may vary the quantity of fuel injected to the cylinder either by varying the stroke of the fuel pump or it may by-pass part of the fuel back to the fuel tank or it may delay the closing action of the fuel pump.

2.1 SPRING LOADED MECHANICAL (HARTNELL)GOVERNER:

The spindle of the governor and the yoke receives its rotation from the crankshaft through gearing. The governor has two fly balls fixed at the end of vertical arm of a bell-crank lever pivoted at(A) and (B) mounted on the yoke. When the engine runs at a certain speed, the centrifugal force exerted by the governor balls is controlled by the spring force and the sleeve weight. When the engine speed is constant the power developed by the engine equals to the load on the engine and the governor also rotates at uniform speed.

Working:

Consider a case when the speed of the engine therefore that of the governor increases due to

reduced load on the engine. The governor balls will fly out due to increased centrifugal force.

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RCET, BHILAI

The bell crank lever will be actuated about their fulcrums A and B which pushes the sleeve to move in the upward direction and turns the lever DE such that it reduces the fuel supply to the engine. Reverse will be the action of governor if the load on the engine increases from its equilibrium condition. Increased load will reduce the speed of the governor since the power developed by the engine would becomes less than the load on the engine.

2.2 Hydraulic Governor:

The bell crank lever will be actuated about their fulcrums A and B which pushes the

In order to overcome the disadvantages of the spring loaded governors of supplying low fuel at reduced load it requires an arrangement to supply an independent source of energy which can operate the fuel control mechanism. One method is to supply this energy by the oil under pressure controlled by an oil pump. The governors using such methods are called hydraulic governors. Consider a case when the load on the engine falls, the speed on the engine and the governor increases. The fly balls fly out due to increased centrifugal force and lifts the sleeve along with the pilot valve. It allows the oil to flow from power piston via the needle valve and across pipeline to the oil sump. It reduces the oil pressure on power piston and the spring ‘B’ forces this piston to move towards right which simultaneously operates the fuel control mechanism and reduces the fuel supply to the engine. The engine now develops less power and allows the engine and governor speed to reduce.

Disadvantage: It tends to hunt continuously in order to maintain the equilibrium speed.

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RCET, BHILAI
  • 3. Quantity Governing:

3. Quantity Governing: In this method of governing the power of the engine is regulated by

In this method of governing the power of the engine is regulated by the quantity of charge which enters the cylinder. This is achieved by throttling the charge supplied by the carburetor before entering the cylinder. The throttle valve opening and closing is controlled with help of centrifugal governor .This method is used in static S.I. Engines and gas engines. In case of automobiles, the throttle valve is either hand operated or by accelerator pedal.

3. Quantity Governing: In this method of governing the power of the engine is regulated by