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Library Guide on Harvard Citing

and Referencing
RMIT University Library
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RMIT University Library
This guide was last updated by KM on 2 August 2007
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Library guide on Harvard Referencing
Library guide on Harvard Referencing
Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Choosing a reference style.................................................................................................................................... 2
What is referencing?............................................................................................................................................. 2
Why reference?..................................................................................................................................................... 2
When to reference? (Plagiarism)..........................................................................................................................3
In-text references.................................................................................................................................................. 4
eference !ist....................................................................................................................................................... "
#$$re%iations....................................................................................................................................................... "
&xam'les.............................................................................................................................................................. (
AUTHORS.............................................................................................................................................................................6
BOOKS..................................................................................................................................................................................8
)oo*............................................................................................................................................................ +
)oo* cha'ter................................................................................................................................................ +
e-$oo* from a data$ase................................................................................................................................ +
e-$oo* from the Internet.............................................................................................................................. ,
&ncyclo'aedia or dictionary.........................................................................................................................,
-econdary citation........................................................................................................................................ ,
.o date....................................................................................................................................................... /0
OUR!AL ART"CL#S...........................................................................................................................................................$%
1ournal article............................................................................................................................................. /0
e-2ournal article from a data$ase................................................................................................................/0
In 'ress article............................................................................................................................................ //
3aga4ine article 5 no author...................................................................................................................... //
!#&S'A'#R ART"CL#S......................................................................................................................................................$$
.e6s'a'er article....................................................................................................................................... //
.e6s'a'er article from a data$ase.............................................................................................................//
"!T#R!#T SOURC#S...........................................................................................................................................................$(
7iscussion list message.............................................................................................................................. /2
.e6sgrou' message................................................................................................................................... /2
)logs.......................................................................................................................................................... /2
We$site documents.................................................................................................................................... /3
COURS# !OT#S..................................................................................................................................................................$)
Course notes from 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary reser%e................................................................................./3
Course notes from 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary e-reser%e............................................................................../3
Course notes from :nline ; 3I8.........................................................................................................../4
R#'ORTS............................................................................................................................................................................$*
<o%ernment 'u$lications........................................................................................................................... /4
Parliamentary de$ates................................................................................................................................ /4
#ustralian )ureau of -tatistics.................................................................................................................../"
L#G"SLAT"O! A!+ L#GAL CAS#S.....................................................................................................................................$,
!egislation................................................................................................................................................. /"
!egal cases................................................................................................................................................. /"
OTH#R SOURC#S................................................................................................................................................................$6
Conference 'a'er....................................................................................................................................... /(
8hesis......................................................................................................................................................... /(
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Library guide on Harvard Referencing
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Patent......................................................................................................................................................... /(
C7-:3................................................................................................................................................... /(
=ilm> %ideo> 8? and radio 'rogram............................................................................................................/@
Personal communication............................................................................................................................/@
)i$liogra'hy....................................................................................................................................................... /@
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Introduction
8he author-date system originated at Aar%ard 9ni%ersity> and although they no longer 'roduce a standard
guide to referencing> a %ersion of the author-date system is still commonly referred to as the Aar%ard style.
:ther author-date referencing styles includeB Chicago> #P# and 3!#.
8he Aar%ard -tyle of referencing is 6idely acce'ted in scholarly circles. &ach reference is indicated in the
text $y the author and date of the 'u$lication cited> sometimes 6ith added information such as 'age
num$ers. 8he full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a eference list.
8here are many different styles or 6ays of using the Aar%ard or author-date system. 8his document is meant
only as a guide. "t i- i./ortant t0at you c0ec1 2it0 your Sc0oo3 a- to 20at t0ey re4uire for
referencing. 5ou .ay be /ena3i-ed for not confor.ing to your Sc0oo36- re4uire.ent-.
=urther details and exam'les may $e found in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002).
&lectronic resources are not adeCuately addressed in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers
(2002) and so the 'rinci'les of author-date citing ha%e $een a''lied in de%elo'ing those exam'les.
8he information and exam'les are deri%ed from the follo6ing sourceB

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002> (th edn> 1ohn Wiley D -ons> #ustralia.

Choosing a reference style
8he style (i.e. order in 6hich the details of a reference are cited) may %ary de'ending on the reCuirements of
your de'artment> lecturer or su'er%isor. -ome -chools 'roduce their o6n guidelines for citing references.
C0ec1 2it0 your Sc0oo3 20et0er t0ey 0ave a /referred Referencing Sty3e.
8he !i$rary also has a Sty3e 7anua3- 'age (htt'BEE666.rmit.edu.auEli$raryEreferenceEmanuals) that
'ro%ides lin*s to 6e$sites on %arious referencing styles.
What is referencing?
eferencing an information source used in an academic 6or* means to e./3oy a -tandardi-ed .et0od of
ac1no23edging t0at -ource. 8he full details of the source must $e gi%en. #ll information used in your
assignment> thesis> etc.> 6hether 'u$lished> or un'u$lished> must $e referenced.
Why reference?
When 6riting a 'iece of academic 6or* (ie. essay> thesis> etc.) you are reCuired to ac*no6ledge the sources
of information that you ha%e usedB
to 'ro%e that your 6or* has a su$stantial> factual $asis
to sho6 the research youF%e done to reach your conclusions
to allo6 your readers to identify and retrie%e the references for their o6n use
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Information o$tained from the Internet is co%ered $y co'yright la6. =or this reason it is im'ortant to cite
Internet references 2ust as you 6ould cite 'rint references. 3any style guide 'roducers ha%e extended the
system used for 'rint resources and a''lied this to electronic resources. # date of access is %ery useful as
Internet resources change ra'idly.
When to reference? (Plagiarism)
Gou must reference all sources used in a 'articular 6or* 6hether you areB
directly co'ying the 6ords of another author (Cuoting)> or
'utting their ideas into your o6n 6ords ('ara'hrasing)
If you do not ac*no6ledge these sources> then you are 'lagiarising their 6or*. Plagiarism is defined as the
ta*ing> using> and 'assing off as your o6n> the ideas or 6ords of another. It is a %ery serious academic
offence> and may result in your 6or* $eing failed automatically. 8here is more information on this su$2ect in
Co/yrig0t8 /3agiari-. and fair u-e (htt'BEE666.rmit.edu.auEli$raryEinfo-tre*Eco'yright).
R7"T Univer-ity definition of /3agiari-.
3I8 has an assessment charter> 6hich ela$orates *ey res'onsi$ilities common to all staff and students in
relation to assessment and defines the 9ni%ersityHs 'olicy on 'lagiarism. Plagiarism is defined (3I8
2003a) as stealing some$odyHs intellectual 'ro'erty (IP) $y 'resenting their 6or*> thoughts or ideas as
though they are your o6n. It is cheating. It is a serious academic offence and can lead to ex'ulsion from
3I8.
Plagiarism can ta*e many forms - 6ritten> gra'hic and %isual forms> and includes use of electronic data and
material used in oral 'resentations. Plagiarism may e%en occur unintentionally> such as 6hen the origin of
the material used is not 'ro'erly cited.
&0at con-titute- /3agiari-.9
9nder the charter> you may $e accused of 'lagiarism if you do any of the follo6ingB
Co'y sentences or 'aragra'hs 6ord-for-6ord from any source> 6hether 'u$lished or un'u$lished
(including> $ut not limited to $oo*s> 2ournals> re'orts> theses> 6e$sites> conference 'a'ers> course
notes> etc.) 6ithout 'ro'er citation.
Closely 'ara'hrase sentences> 'aragra'hs> ideas or themes 6ithout 'ro'er citation.
Piece together text from one or more sources and add only lin*ing sentences 6ithout 'ro'er citation.
Co'y or su$mit 6hole or 'arts of com'uter files 6ithout ac*no6ledging their source.
Co'y designs or 6or*s of art and su$mit them as your original 6or*.
Co'y a 6hole or any 'art of another studentHs 6or*.
-u$mit 6or* as your o6n that someone else has done for you.
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&na$ling Plagiarism is the act of assisting or allo6ing another 'erson to 'lagiarise your o6n 6or* (3I8
2003a). It is also a serious academic offence. 3ore detail on 6hat constitutes 'lagiarism is found in the
1anuary 2003 'o3icy: '3agiari-. (htt'BEEmams.rmit.edu.auE/oa%dg0$dd/.'df).
&0at i- t0e /ena3ty for /3agiari-.9
Plagiarism is not 'ermitted in 3I8 9ni%ersity. #ny use of another 'ersonHs 6or* or ideas must $e
ac*no6ledged. If you fail to do this> you may $e charged 6ith academic misconduct and face a 'enalty
under R7"T Regu3ation- 6.$.$ ; Student +i-ci/3ine (htt'BEEmams.rmit.edu.auE24l$(+xx3(o2/.'df.)
Penalties for 'lagiarism (3I8 2003c) includeB
recording of a failure for the assignment or course
cancellation of any or all results
sus'ension from the 'rogram
ex'ulsion from the 'rogram
AcknowledgementB 8he information in this section on Plagiarism has $een su''lied from the Written
reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation (3I8 )usiness 2003> '. ").
In-text references
In the text of your essay or thesis you should identify your source $y gi%ing> in 'arentheses> the authorFs
name and year of 'u$lication of the 6or* to 6hich reference has $een made. =rom the textual reference> the
reader can turn to the al'ha$etical list of references for full 'u$lication details. Page num$ers are essential if
directly Cuoting from a 6or*> use single Cuotation mar*s and rele%ant 'age num$er. If a 6or* $eing referred
to is long then 'age num$ers may $e useful to the reader.
<or e=a./3e:
!arsen (/,@/) 6as the first to 'ro'ound the theory.
:
8he theory 6as first 'ro'ounded in /,@0 (!arsen /,@/).
<or e=a./3e:
!arsen (/,@/> '. 24") noted Imany of the facts in this case are incorrectH.
:
H3any of the facts in this case are incorrectH (!arsen /,@/> '. 24").
<or e=a./3e:
!arsen (/,@/> '. 24") Cuestions certain as'ects of this case.
:
3any as'ects of this case ha%e $een Cuestioned (!arsen /,@/> '. 24").
If citing .u3ti/3e 2or1- at one /oint in t0e te=t it is recommended that the authorsH names $e ordered
al'ha$etically inside the 'arentheses> 6ith a semicolon to se'arate them.
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<or e=a./3e:
:ther studies of glo$ali4ation focus on its cultural and human im'lications ()auman /,,+J 8omlinson
/,,,).
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Reference List
#t the end of your 6or* you should include a list of #!! the references you ha%e cited in your text. In the
Aar%ard -tyle sources that are not cited in the text $ut are rele%ant to the su$2ect may $e listed se'arately as
a $i$liogra'hy. 8he same method of 'resentation is used for $oth a list of references and a $i$liogra'hy.
8he eference !ist is arranged al'ha$etically $y author> and thereafter chronologically> starting 6ith the
earliest date.
<or e=a./3e:
1ones> #) 2000> K
1ones> ) /,,"> K
-mith> #L /,,0> K
-mith> #L /,,"> K
-tein> ) 2003 K
-tein> ) D eynolds> 1- /,,"> K
-tein> ) D eynolds> 1- 2000> K
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002> K
Gar$ro> CA> =rogge> 3A> <oodman> 3 D <roen6ald> -! 2000> K
Goung> 1C /,++a> K
Goung> 1C /,++$> K
8he format of the citation de'ends on the nature of the 6or*> ie. 6hether it is a $oo*> 2ournal article>
6e$site> etc.
In general the order of elements contained 6ithin each reference should includeB author 5 date 5 title of
6or* 5 title of larger 6or* (if any) 5 'u$lishing details 5 date of access (if electronic).
#'art from the author and date> each element is se'arated from the others 6ith a comma and the citation
finishes 6ith a full sto'.
Abbreviations
#cce'ta$le a$$re%iations in the reference list for 'arts of $oo*s and other 'u$lications includeB
a//.
c.
c0.
ed. >ed-.?
edn.
et a3.
n.d.
n./.
no.
/.8 //.
/ara.
/t.
rev.
-u//3.
a''endix
circa
cha'ter
editor (&ditors)
edition
and others
no date
no 'lace
num$er
'ageEs
'aragra'h
'art
re%ised
su''lement
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vo3.
vo3-.
%olume (as in ?ol.4)
%olumes (as in 4 %olumes)
Examles
Authors
Whate%er ty'e of 6or* you are referencing> the 6ay you list the authorsH names de'ends on the num$er of
authors.
"n@te=t citation Reference 3i-t
One aut0or (1ones /,,")
or
1ones (/,,") statesKK
1ones> ) /,,"> Sleepers,
wake!: technology and the
future of work> 4th edn> :xford
9ni%ersity Press> 3el$ourne.
T2o or t0ree aut0or-
Where there is more than one
author> the in-text citation in
'arentheses 6ill use an
am'ersand (D) to 2oin them>
6hilst if the reference is 'art of
the sentence you use the 6ord I
and .H
(-tein D eynolds 2000)
or
-tein and eynolds (2000)
argueK..
-tein> ) D eynolds> 1- 2000>
Mechanical and electrical
equipment for buildings> ,th
edn> 1ohn Wiley D -ons> .e6
Gor*.
<our or .ore aut0or-
If there are four or more
authors only include the first
author in your in-text citation>
adding the 6ords I et al. H
meaning Iand others.H Ao6e%er
the eference !ist should
include all authors.
(Gar$ro et al. 2000)
or
Gar$ro et al. (2000) ha%e
foundKK
Gar$ro> CA> =rogge> 3A>
<oodman> 3 D <roen6ald>
-! 2000> Cancer nursing> "th
edn> 1ones and )artlett>
)oston.
7u3ti/3e 2or1- at one /oint
in t0e te=t
AuthorsH names should $e
ordered al'ha$etically inside
the 'arentheses> 6ith a
semicolon to se'arate them.
()auman /,,+J 8omlinson
/,,,)
Bauman, !""#,
$lobali%ation and culture,
&olity &ress, '(ford)
*omlinson, + !""",
$lobali%ation: the human
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consequences, ,outledge,
-ondon)
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Severa3 2or1- by -a.e
fir-t aut0or and year
-ingle author entries 'recede
references 6ith multi'le
authors $eginning 6ith the
same name.
# 2-em rule can $e used to
re'lace the authorsH name(s)
that are re'eated.
(Aeyland 200/)
or
Aeyland (200/) re'ortsK..

(Aeyland D .o%a* 200/)
or
Aeyland and .o%a* (200/)
re'ortsK..
Aeyland> 7L 200/> IIn search
of the magic nutraceuticalB
'ro$lems 6ith current
a''roachesH> +ournal of
nutrition> %ol. /3/> no. ,> '.
2",/-.
------ D .o%a*> = 200/>
IImmunonutrition in the
critically ill 'atientB more harm
than good?H> +&./: +ournal of
parenteral and enteral
nutrition> %ol. 2"> no. 2> '. -"/.
Severa3 2or1- by -a.e
aut0or and year
If you are referring to se%eral
6or*s $y the same author or
grou' of authors from the same
year> designate these a> $> c> K.
6ith the order of the listing
$ased on the letter-$y-letter
al'ha$etical order of the title of
the 6or*.
(Porter 200/a)
(Porter 200/$)
or
Porter (200/a) statesK.
or
according to Porter (200/$) K
Porter> 3& 200/a> F1a'anB 6hat
6ent 6rongF> Wall Street
+ournal 0 .astern .dition> %ol.
23@> no. "(> '. #22.
---- 200/$> F-trategy and the
InternetF> 1ar2ard Business
,e2iew> %ol. @,> no. 3> '. (2.
!o aut0or given
Where an item has no named
author it is cited $y its title.
Style manual for authors,
editors and printers (2002)
or
#ccording to the Style manual
for authors, editors and
printers (2002) K
Style manual for authors,
editors and printers 2002> (th
edn> 1ohn Wiley D -ons>
#ustralia.
#ditorA-
9se the a$$re%iation ed. for
editor or ed-. for multi'le
editors.
(eds. 3uller> Cloete D )adat
200/)
or
edited $y 3uller> Cloete and
)adat (200/)
3uller> 1> Cloete> . D )adat> -
(eds.) 200/> Challenges of
globalisation: South 3frican
debates with Manuel Castells>
3as*e6 3iller !ongman>
Pinelands> Ca'e 8o6n.
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Books
!oo"
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear> *itle of book> &dition> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication.
#=a./3e:
1ones> ) /,,"> Sleepers, wake!: technology and the future of work> 4th edn> :xford 9ni%ersity Press>
3el$ourne.
!oo" chater
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear> I8itle of cha'terH> MinN #uthor of $oo* (if different)> *itle of book> &dition>
Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication> Page num$er(s).
#=a./3e-:
Cra6ford> 1 /,,+> FPlastics a%aila$le to the designerF> in &lastics engineering> 3rd edn> Aeinemann-
)utter6orth> :xford> ''. (-/+.
or
Christians> C< 2000> I&thics and 'olitics in Cualitati%e researchH> in 7en4in .L D !incoln G- 1andbook of
qualitati2e research> 2nd edn> 8housand :a*s> C#> -age> ''. /33-/"4.
e-boo" from a database
Note: Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish $et6een 'rinted sources
and those sourced electronically. 8he follo6ing is a suggested 'rocedure for referencing e-$oo*s.
If an e-$oo* is retrie%ed electronically from a li$rary data$ase in 'age image format> eg. in an #cro$at
(P7=) file> cite it the same as the original 'rinted $oo*. Where alternati%e formats are a%aila$le> it is
recommended to choose 'age image format.
If an e-$oo* is retrie%ed from a li$rary data$ase 6here it has $een reformatted> eg. as A83! or 'lain text> or
from a 6e$site> you should cite the source you ha%e used> as images> charts> 'age num$ers> etc. may ha%e
$een remo%ed. Where the source is a li$rary data$ase gi%e the data$ase name> or if it is from the internet
gi%e the 9!.
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of book> &dition> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication> %ie6ed
day month year> data$ase name.
#=a./3e:
Lung> -G> 3a*> 3W D !in> -A 2004> Biometric authentication: a machine learning approach, Prentice
Aall> 9''er -addle i%er> .1.> %ie6ed " #ugust 200"> -afari 8ech )oo*s :nline.
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e-book from the Internet
Note: Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish $et6een 'rinted sources
and those sourced electronically. 8he follo6ing is a suggested 'rocedure for referencing e-$oo*s.
If an e-$oo* is retrie%ed electronically from a li$rary data$ase in 'age image format> eg. in an #cro$at
(P7=) file> cite it the same as the original 'rinted $oo*. Where alternati%e formats are a%aila$le> it is
recommended to choose 'age image format.
If an e-$oo* is retrie%ed from a li$rary data$ase 6here it has $een reformatted> eg. as A83! or 'lain text> or
from a 6e$site> you should cite the source you ha%e used> as images> charts> 'age num$ers> etc. may ha%e
$een remo%ed. Where the source is a li$rary data$ase gi%e the data$ase name> or if it is from the internet
gi%e the 9!.
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of cha'terH> MinN #uthor of $oo* (if different)> *itle of
book> &dition> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication> %ie6ed day month year> O9!P.
#=a./3e:
Chen> C D =arruggia> - 2002> ICulture and adolescent de%elo'mentH> in !onner> W1> 7innel> 7!> Aayes> -#
D -attler> 7. (eds.)> 'nline ,eadings in &sychology and Culture> 9nit //> Cha'ter 2> Center for Cross-
Cultural esearch> Western Washington 9ni%ersity> )ellingham> Washington 9-#> %ie6ed /" -e'tem$er
200"> Ohtt'BEE666.ac.66u.eduEQcultureEChenR=arruggia.htmP.
Encycloaedia or dictionary
&ncyclo'aedias and dictionaries should $e cited in the in@te=t reference on3y> .:8 in the eference !ist.
#=a./3e-:
(-iteracy in 3merica: an encyclopedia 200/> '.2") statesKK
*he Macquarie dictionary (/,,@) defines it asKK
#econdary citation
While 'rimary sources are essential> sometimes the source you 6ish to refer to may $e una%aila$le and you
must refer to someone elseFs citation of that source. 8his is a secondary source and in this case you must
include $oth names in the in-text reference. 8he eference !ist exam'le 6ould include only the source you
ha%e seen.
"n@te=t citation e=a./3e:
3ac7onald (/,,3> cited in -aunders> !e6is D 8hornhill 2003> '. 4+) states K
or
(3ac7onald /,,3> cited in -aunders> !e6is D 8hornhill 2003> '. 4+)
Reference Li-t e=a./3e:
-aunders> 3> !e6is> P D 8hornhill> # 2003> ,esearch methods for business students> 3rd edn> Pearson
&ducational> &ssex> '. 4+.
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No date
Wor*s that do not ha%e a 'u$lication date may $e cited using the ex'ression n.d. (no date).
"n@te=t citation e=a./3e:
()ro6n n.d.)
or
)ro6n (n.d.)
Reference Li-t e=a./3e:
)ro6n> - n.d. B) B) Bernard> -unshine Press> !ondon.

Journal articles
NoteB Ca'italise the first letter of the first 6ord> and each of the ma2or 6ords of the 2ournal name.
7o not use ca'ital letters for 6ords such as on> for> in> and
exam'leB 8he #ustralian 1ournal of !anguage and !iteracy
$ournal article
<or.at:
#uthor(s) of article - surname and initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of articleH> +ournal name, %olume
num$er> issue num$er> 'age num$er(s).
#=a./3e:
Si%*o%ic> ) D =u2ii> I 200/> F#n analysis of isothermal 'hase change of 'hase change material 6ithin
rectangular and cylindrical containersF> Solar .nergy> %ol. @0> no./> ''. "/-(/.
e-%ournal article from a database
Note: Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish $et6een 2ournal articles
from 'rinted sources and articles sourced electronically. 8he follo6ing is a suggested 'rocedure for
referencing electronic 2ournal articles.
If a 2ournal article is retrie%ed electronically from a li$rary data$ase in 'age image format> eg. as an #cro$at
(P7=) file> cite it the same as the original 'rinted article. Where alternati%e formats are a%aila$le> it is
recommended to choose 'age image format.
If a 2ournal article is retrie%ed from a li$rary data$ase 6here it has $een reformatted> eg. as A83! or 'lain
text> or from a 6e$site> you should cite the source you ha%e used> as images> charts> 'age num$ers> etc may
ha%e $een remo%ed. Where the source is a li$rary data$ase gi%e the data$ase name> not the 9!.
<or.at:
#uthor(s) of article - surname and initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of articleH> +ournal name> %olume
num$er> issue num$er> 'age num$er(s)> %ie6ed day month year> data$ase name.
#=a./3e:
&astho'e> < 2004> FConsuming healthB the mar*et for com'lementary and alternati%e medicineF> 3ustralian
+ournal of &rimary 1ealth> %ol. /0> no. 2> ''. (+-@"> %ie6ed 30 3arch 200"> #ustralian Pu$lic #ffairs =ull
8ext.
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In press article
<or.at:
#uthor(s) of article - surname and initials in 'ress> I8itle of articleH> +ournal name> %ie6ed day month year>
data$ase name (if a''lica$le).
#=a./3e:
3undermann> #> Wa*eling> 13> .igg> )3> Aum$le> . D -tefanyshyn> 71 in 'ress> F=oot orthoses affect
freCuency com'onents of muscle acti%ity in the lo6er extremity F> $ait and posture> %ie6ed /" -e'tem$er
200"> -cience7irect.
&aga'ine article ( no author
Note: if the maga4ine article does .:8 ha%e an author then 'ro%ide details as an in-text citation only> .:8
in the eference !ist.
=or exam'leB .lectronics Weekly (// 1uly 200@> '.4) statesKK

Newspaper articles
NoteB Ca'italise the first letter of the first 6ord> and each of the ma2or 6ords of the ne6s'a'er name.
Note: if the ne6s'a'er article does .:8 ha%e an author then 'ro%ide details as an in-text citation only> .:8
in the eference !ist.
=or exam'leB *he 3ustralian (/0 1uly 2002> './) statesKK
)e*saer article
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of articleH> /ewspaper name> day month> 'age
num$er(s).
#=a./3e:
8o$ler> L D Lerin> 1 2002> IAormone alert for cancerH> *he 3ustralian> /0 1uly> '. /.
)e*saer article from a database
Note: Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) does not distinguish $et6een articles from
'rinted sources and articles sourced electronically. 8he follo6ing is a suggested 'rocedure for referencing
electronic ne6s'a'er articles.
If a ne6s'a'er article is retrie%ed electronically from a li$rary data$ase in 'age image format> eg. as an
#cro$at (P7=) file> cite it the same as the original 'rinted article. Where alternati%e formats are a%aila$le> it
is recommended to choose 'age image format.
If a ne6s'a'er article is retrie%ed from a li$rary data$ase 6here it has $een reformatted> eg. as A83! or
'lain text> or from a 6e$site> you should cite the source you ha%e used> as images> charts> 'age num$ers> etc
may ha%e $een remo%ed. Where the source is a li$rary data$ase gi%e the data$ase name> not the 9!.
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<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of articleH> /ewspaper name> day month> 'age
num$er(s)> %ie6ed day month year> name of data$ase.
#=a./3e:
8immins> . 200"> I7elay raises dou$t in 'u$lic sectorH> 4inancial *imes> 20 1uly> %ie6ed 2/ 1uly 200">
=acti%a.

Internet sources
+iscussion list message
<or.at:
#uthor OauthorHs email addressP Gear of 'osting> I8itle of 'ostingH> descri'tion of 'osting> date and month
of 'osting> name of list owner> %ie6ed day month year> O9!P.
#=a./3e:
-hi%ely> & Ochminf-l;listser%.indiana.eduP /,,@> IC# 're-/,(@ informationH> list ser%er> / 1uly> Chemical
5nformation Sources 6iscussion -ist, %ie6ed 3 1uly 2003> Ohtt'BEElistser%.indiana.eduEarchi%esEchminf-
l.htmlP.
)e*sgrou message
<or.at:
#uthor OauthorHs email addressP Gear of 'osting> I8itle of 'ostingH> descri'tion of 'osting> date and month
of 'osting> name of newsgroup owner> %ie6ed day month year> O9!P.
#=a./3e:
3ilin*o%ich> 3 200"> I:racle P!E-T! in &cli'seH> ne6sgrou'> /2 1uly> /ews).clipse)*echnology> /"
-e'tem$er 200"> Ohtt'BEEde%.ecli'se.orgEne6slistsEne6s.ecli'se.technologyEmsg0/04".htmlP>
!logs
<or.at:
#uthor OauthorHs email addressP Gear of 'osting> I8itle of 'ostingH> descri'tion of 'osting> date and month
of 'osting> name of list owner> %ie6ed day month year> O9!P.
#=a./3e:
-teffen> # 200"> I)ird flu can 6e out-colla$orate a 'andemic?H $log> /" #ugust> World Changing: another
world is here> %ie6ed /" -e'tem$er 200"> Ohtt'BEE666.6orldchanging.comEarchi%esE0033/0.htmlP.
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Website documents
3any electronic sources do not 'ro%ide 'age num$ers> unless they are in P7= format. If Cuoting or
'ara'hrasing from a 6e$site> that is .:8 a P7=> then use as 'art of the in-text reference eitherB
a section heading> (eg. -tone 2004> 9sage and 'rognosis section)
a 'aragra'h num$er (eg. -tone 2004> 'ara.//)
<or.at:
#uthorEeditor. Gear of document> *itle of document> name of the s'onsor of the source> date of %ie6ing>
O9!P.
Reference 3i-t e=a./3e:
-tone> # 2004> 1eadaches due to Wind Cold> #l -tone #cu'uncture and 8raditional Chinese Aer$al
3edicines> %ie6ed /0 -e'tem$er 200(> O htt'BEE$eyond6ell$eing.comEheadachesE6ind-cold.shtml P.
"n@te=t citation e=a./3e:
It is stated thatB Uthis formula is a$out +"V targeting the sym'toms of headache and stuffy nose> 6hile only
/"V directly addresses the cold or allergiesW (-tone 2004> 9sage and 'rognosis section)
or
It is stated thatB Uthis formula is a$out +"V targeting the sym'toms of headache and stuffy nose> 6hile only
/"V directly addresses the cold or allergiesW (-tone 2004> 'ara. //)

Course notes
Course notes from ,&I- .niversity /ibrary reserve
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of work> course notes from (num$er)> Pu$lisher> Place
of 'u$lication> %ie6ed day month year> 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary.
#=a./3e:
7ixon> C 2002> Mechanical design 7: pro8ect resource material> course notes from3I&8/0(+> 3I8
9ni%ersity> 3el$ourne> %ie6ed 22 1uly 200"> 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary.
Course notes from ,&I- .niversity /ibrary e-reserve
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of work> course notes from (num$er)> Pu$lisher> Place
of 'u$lication> %ie6ed day month year> 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary O9!P.
#=a./3e:
Aolland> 1 2004> -ecture notes 9: bulldo%ers and land clearing> course notes from CI?&/0"@> 3I8
9ni%ersity> 3el$ourne> %ie6ed 22 1uly 200"> 3I8 9ni%ersity !i$rary
Ohtt'BEEeresources.li$.rmit.edu.auEereser%eEnotes02Eci%e/0"@E3/2",00(,3"@+2.'dfP.
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Course notes from Online @ RMIT
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of work> course notes from (num$er)> Pu$lisher> Place
of 'u$lication> %ie6ed day month year> :nline;3I8.
#=a./3e:
-mith> A 200"> Metadata> course notes from I-G-((""> 3I8 9ni%ersity> 3el$ourne> %ie6ed + 1uly 200">
:nline;3I8.

Reports
0overnment ublications
8hese may include de'artmental re'orts> re'orts of commissions of inCuiry> committees of re%ie6 and
committees of 'arliament.
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of report> e'ort series code and num$er> -'onsoring
$ody or $ody issuing re'ort series> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication.
#=a./3e-:
Logan> P> 3oses> I D &l-Lha6as> &A /,,4> Staffing higher education : meeting new challenges : report of
the 5M1. pro8ect on policies for academic staffing in higher education> Aigher education 'olicy series> no.
2@> 1essica Lingsley Pu$lishers> !ondon.
:
#ustralia> Parliament /,@(> 6epartment of 4oreign 3ffairs annual report !":;> Parl. Pa'er /42> Can$erra.
3any go%ernment 'u$lications are a%aila$le on the Internet. 8he follo6ing document a''eared as a
Parliamentary 'a'er> $ut is also a%aila$le from the rele%ant authorityFs 6e$site. 8he 6ay you access a
document may affect your citation.
#=a./3e-:
#ustralia> Parliament 2003> 4raud control arrangements in the 3ustralian Customs Ser2ice> Parl. Pa'er 32>
Can$erra.
#.7
#ustralian .ational #udit :ffice 2003> 4raud control arrangements in the 3ustralian Customs Ser2ice>
%ie6ed #ugust 4 2003> Ohtt'BEE666.anao.go%.auEWe$-ite.nsfE
Pu$licationsE2=+=&/73,(/3#+)+C#2"(C=300@0,#(2P.
Parliamentary debates
=or 'arliamentary de$ates and the official records of 6hat has $een said in 'arliament.
#=a./3e:
#ustralia> -enate 2000> 6ebates> ?ol -2"> '. (".
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Australian !ureau of #tatistics
<or.at:
#uthorHs name> Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of report> cat. no.> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication.
#=a./3e:
#ustralian )ureau of -tatistics 200"> 3ustralian social trends 7<<;> cat. no. 4/02.0> #)-> Can$erra.
:
<or.at:
#uthorHs name> Gear of 'u$lication> *itle of report> cat. no.> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication> %ie6ed day
month year> data$ase name.
#ustralian )ureau of -tatistics 2004> Mental 1ealth 5n 3ustralia: 3 Snapshot> cat. no. 4+24.0."".00/> #)->
Can$erra> %ie6ed /+ #ugust 200"> #us-tats.

Legislation and Legal cases
/egislation
When referring to Common6ealth #cts> :rdinances and egulations> the title must $e re'roduced exactly>
6ithout changing the ca'italisation or s'elling. 8he 6ords #ct and )ill are generally 6ritten 6ith a ca'ital
letter.
#n #ct or :rdinance may $e cited $y the short title> 6hich is usually drafted into modern legislation. 8he
first reference must al6ays include the short title in italics. -u$seCuent references may refer to it $y an
undated> descri'ti%e title in roman ty'e.
!egislation is usually num$ered as 6ell as dated. 8he num$er follo6s the date.
=or #ustralian -tate legislation> the -tate must $e included in roman ty'e.
#cts of Parliaments of the 9nited Lingdom> .e6 Sealand> Canada and the 9nited -tates> use roman ty'e.
)ills currently $efore Parliament are 'resented in roman ty'e> not italics.
#=a./3e-:
Interstate oad 8rans'ort #ct /,+" (C6lth)
Interstate oad 8rans'ort #ct
#ir .a%igation #ct /,20 (.o. "0) (C6lth)
=irearms #ct /,3( (.-W)
)adgers #ct /,@4 (9L)
/egal cases
8o fully cite legal authorities list name of caseJ (date) or %olume num$er> or $othJ a$$re%iated name of
re'ort seriesJ and $eginning 'age.
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#=a./3e:
$reutner 2) .2erard (/,(0) /03 C! /@@

Other sources
Conference aer
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 'u$lication> I8itle of 'a'erH> MinN &ditor (if a''lica$le)> *itle of published
proceeding which may include place held and date=s>> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication> 'age num$er(s).
#=a./3e:
Lo%acs> <! /,,4> I-imulation-scheduling system using hy$rid soft6are technologyH> in Computer
5ntegrated Manufacturing and 3utomation *echnology: &roceedings of the ?th 5nternational conference,
*roy, /ew @ork, 'ctober !<0!7, !""?> I&&& Com'uter -ociety Press> !os #lamitos> California> ''.3"/-3"(.
-hesis
<or.at:
#uthorHs surname> Initials Gear of 're'aration of thesis> I8itle of thesisH> #6ard> Institution under 6hose
aus'ices the study 6as ta*en.
#=a./3e:
<arland> CP /,+(> I-tructure and remo%al of non-cellulosic com'onents of eucaly't 6oodsH> 3#''l-ci
thesis> oyal 3el$ourne Institute of 8echnology.
Patent
<or.at:
.ame(s) of in%entor. .ame(s) of assignees> &atent title> Patent num$er 7ate of 'atent (including day and
month).
#=a./3e:
Wilmott> 13 D Snaiden> #P #%on Products Inc.> Cosmetic preparation incorporating stabili%ed ascorbic
acid, 9.-. 'atent 4>,+3>3+2 1an. + /,,/.
C+-,1&
<or.at:
#uthorEeditorHs name> Initials Gear> *itle, &dition> C7-:3> Pu$lisher> Place of 'u$lication.
#=a./3e:
Goung> ) D Aeath> 1 2000> WheaterAs functional histology : a te(t and colour atlas, 4th edn> C7-:3>
Churchill !i%ingstone> &din$urgh.
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ilm! "ideo! T# and radio pro$ram
<or.at:
*itle of program 7ate of recording> format> 'u$lisher> 'lace of recording> date %ie6ed.
#=a./3e:
What are we going to do with the moneyB /,,@> tele%ision 'rogram> -)- 8ele%ision> -ydney> + #ugust.
:r
Swiss ball: e(ercises for performance and function /,,,> %ideo recording> <alaxy !eisure Cor'oration> 3
=e$ruary.
!ote: the in-text reference 6ould $e to the title of the 'rogram> also in italics.
Personal communication
Information gained through 'ersonal communication> either 5 face-to-face inter%ie6 or con%ersation>
tele'hone call> facsimile> letter> email> etc. 5 should $e 'ro%ided as an in-text citation. 7etails of 'ersonal
communications do not need to $e included in the eference !ist.
8he information> including day> month and year> is 'ro%ided in the text> or 'arenthically. 7etails of the
organisation that the 'erson re'resents may also $e included. !ote that initials precede the family name.
#=a./3e-:
When inter%ie6ed on 24 #'ril /,,,> 3s - -a%ieri confirmedK..
3s - -a%ieri confirmed this $y facsimile on 24 #'ril /,,,.
It has $een confirmed that an out$rea* occurred in -he''arton (- -a%ieri /,,,> 'ers. comm.> 24 #'ril).
3s - -a%ieri (#ustralian Institute of Criminology) confirmed this $y email on 24 #'ril /,,,.
It has $een confirmed that an out$rea* occurred in -he''arton (- -a%ieri M#ustralian Institute of
CriminologyN /,,,> 'ers. comm.> 24 #'ril).
!ibliograhy
3I8 )usiness 2003> Written reports and essays: guidelines for referencing and presentation in ,M5*
Business> 3I8 9ni%ersity> 3el$ourne.
Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002> (th edn> 1ohn Wiley D -ons> #ustralia.
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