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Some Mechanical Properties of FRP Materials (Chapter 3-FRP Code)

1- Tensile Strength of FRP Bars

FRP bars are manufactured with different diameters. The tensile strength is based on the
minimum strength available (400 N/mm2). The bars could be manufactured with higher
tensile strength as shown in Table (2-9). For design purposes the tensile strength for the FRP
bars could be chosen between F60 and F300 without the need of choosing a specific
commercial FRP bars.

Steel ST 360/520, ST 400/600 f
= 360 & 400

2- Modulus of Elasticity of FRP Bars

The modulus of elasticity is determined during the measurement of the tensile properties of
the bars, the lowest value modulus value for each type of fibers should be determined.
Designers should choose the lowest modulus of elasticity value for the corresponding fiber
type used. If the manufacturer produced FRP bars with higher modulus value than those
given in Table (2-10), this will result in FRP bars of higher tensile strength which in turn will
result in reduction in the used FRP reinforcement in some applications. Table (2-10) gives
the minimum modulus of elasticity values for FRP bars with different fiber types. The
maximum tensile strain for FRP bars should be measured during tensile strength test.

Steel ST 360/520, ST 400/600 200

3- Density

4- Surface Texture

FRP bars are manufactured with different manufacturing processes which produces various
surface textures. The surface texture of the bars is important for its role in developing the
bond strength between the bars and the concrete.

5- Bar Identification

With the variation in grades, sixes, and fiber type of FRP bars, it is essential to provide the
bars with identification. The following information shall be included in the label ticket:
a- Manufacturer identification symbol.
b- A letter to identify the fibers type (G for Glass fibers, C for Carbon Fibers, A for Aramid
Fibers, and H for hybrid fibers), this should be followed by the bar nominal bar size
according to the standards.
c- Identification for the tensile strength grade.
d- Identification for the modulus of elasticity grade.
e- For non-traditional bars (non circular cross section or hollow) identification for the
external diameter or maximum bar cross sectional dimension shall be included.

Example for bar identification:
XXX G # 4-F60 E 6.0
XXX = Manufacturer identification symbols
G # 4 = FRP bar made of Glass fibers number 13 (nominal diameter 12.7 mm)
F60 = Tensile strength grade 400 N/mm2
E6.0 = Modulus of Elasticity grade 40 kN/mm2
6- Reduction factors for the Ultimate Strength and Ultimate Strain for Various
Environmental Exposure Conditions

a) The surrounding conditions of the structural element have direct effect on the FRP system.
b) The extent of the effect of the surrounding environment depends on the type of fibers, polymers and
the type and concentration of the polymeric matrix used. In addition to, the extent at which the surface
of the FRP system is exposed.
c) The severe environmental conditions reduce the creep rupture time. This is why the
ultimate strength of the section enhanced by FRP shall be calculated and the ultimate tensile
strength and the ultimate strain shall be reduced according to equations (3-4) and (3-5).
d) The modulus of elasticity is taken as is because it is not affected by the surrounding
environment and is calculated as shown in equation (3-6).

* = CE* f

* = CE
= f

Where, ffu* : Ultimate tensile strength
fu* : Ultimate strain
CE : Environmental reduction factor
Ef : Modulus of elasticity