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Fifth National Development Plan

2006 - 2010
“Broad Based Wealth and Job Creation through
Citizenry Participation and Technological Advancement”

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GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA


Ministry of Finance and National Planning
Lusaka

October 2009
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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Table of Contents

Acronyms ............................................................................................................. 7
Executive Summary .................................................................................................. 10
Introduction ............................................................................................................... 24
1. Overview ................................................................................................................... 24
2. Methodology.............................................................................................................. 25
3. Field Work ................................................................................................................. 26
4. Data Analysis............................................................................................................. 27
5. Report Outline ........................................................................................................... 27
PART 1: MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND POVERTY
REDUCTION ............................................................................................................ 29
1. Macroeconomic Performance .............................................................................. 30
1.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 30
1.2 Macroeconomic Performance .................................................................................. 30
1.3 Structural reforms .................................................................................................... 33
1.4 Assessment of Macroeconomic Key Performance Indicators ................................. 33
1.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 36
2. Poverty Reduction Performance.......................................................................... 39
2.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 39
2.2 Analysis of Poverty Trends ..................................................................................... 39
2.3 Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction .............................................................. 40
2.4 Pro-poor Budget Allocations and Expenditure ........................................................ 40
2.5 Budget Implementation ........................................................................................... 42
2.6 Performance of Selected Poverty Indicators............................................................ 43
2.7 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 44

PART 2: ECONOMIC SECTORS PERFORMANCE ......................................... 46


3. Agriculture ............................................................................................................. 47
3.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 47
3.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 48
3.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 49
3.4 Assessment of Key Performance Indicators ............................................................ 53
3.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 53
4. Energy .................................................................................................................... 57
4.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 57
4.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 57
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4.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 58


4.4 Assessment of Key Performance Indicators ............................................................ 60
4.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 61
5. Infrastructure and Transport .............................................................................. 63
5.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 63
5.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 64
5.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 66
5.4 Assessment of KPIs ................................................................................................. 68
5.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 69
PART 3: SOCIAL SECTORS PERFORMANCE ................................................. 71
6. Education and Skills Development ...................................................................... 72
6.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 72
6.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 73
6.2.1 Overall Budget Performance .................................................................................... 73
6.2.2 Curriculum Development and Educational Materials Programme ........................... 74
6.2.3 Standards and Assessment Programme .................................................................... 74
6.2.4 Teacher Education Programme ................................................................................. 75
6.2.5 Infrastructure Development for the Sector ............................................................... 75
6.2.6 Distant and Open Learning ....................................................................................... 75
6.2.7 Equity ....................................................................................................................... 76
6.2.8 Management and Administration.............................................................................. 76
6.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 76
6.3.1 Overall performance ................................................................................................. 76
6.3.2 Enrolment and Completion ....................................................................................... 76
6.3.3 Equity ....................................................................................................................... 76
6.3.4 Quality ...................................................................................................................... 77
6.3.5 Expanding Post Primary Opportunities .................................................................... 77
6.3.6 Decentralization ........................................................................................................ 77
6.3.7 Sector Pool Performance. ......................................................................................... 78
6.3.8 Infrastructure Development ...................................................................................... 78
6.3.9 Increase in Tertiary Education .................................................................................. 78
6.4 Assessment of KPI................................................................................................... 78
6.4.1 Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) ..................................................................................... 78
6.4.2 Completion Rate ....................................................................................................... 79
6.4.3 Pupil/Teacher Ratios (PTR) ...................................................................................... 80
6.4.4 Teacher Qualifications .............................................................................................. 80
6.4.5 Gender Parity Index (GPI) ........................................................................................ 80
6.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 80
7. Health ..................................................................................................................... 83
7.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 83
7.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 83
7.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 84
7.3.1 Health Service Delivery .............................................................................................. 84
7.3.2 Environmental Health ................................................................................................. 86
7.3.3 Nutrition ..................................................................................................................... 86
7.3.4 Tuberculosis Control and Prevention. ........................................................................ 86
7.3.5 Human Resource Management ................................................................................... 87
7.3.6 Infrastructure .............................................................................................................. 88

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7.4 Health Systems Management .................................................................................. 88


7.5 Assessment of KPIs ................................................................................................. 89
7.5.1 Overview .................................................................................................................... 89
7.5.2 Indicator 1: Deliveries assisted by trained personnel.................................................. 90
7.5.3 Indicator 2: Child Immunisation ................................................................................ 90
7.5.4 Indicator 3: Malaria Fatality among Under 5 ............................................................. 90
7.5.5 Indicator 4: Utilisation Rate of PHC facilities ............................................................ 90
7.5.6 Indicator 5: MOH Financial Releases to Districts ...................................................... 90
7.6 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 90
8. Water and Sanitation ............................................................................................ 93
8.1 Introduction and Overview ...................................................................................... 93
8.2 Budget Performance ................................................................................................ 93
8.3 Programme Performance ......................................................................................... 94
8.3.1 Overview .................................................................................................................... 94
8.3.2 Water Resources Development................................................................................... 95
8.3.3 Rural Water & Sanitation ........................................................................................... 97
8.3.4 Urban Water Supply & Sanitation .............................................................................. 98
8.4 Assessment of KPIs ................................................................................................. 98
8.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ..................................................... 98
PART 4: CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES .................................................................. 100
9. Gender and Development ................................................................................... 101
9.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................... 101
9.2 Budget Performance .............................................................................................. 101
9.3 Programme Performance ....................................................................................... 101
9.4 Assessment of KPIs ............................................................................................... 103
10.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 104
10. Food and Nutrition............................................................................................ 107
10.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 107
10.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 107
10.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 108
10.4 Key Performance Indicators ................................................................................ 109
10.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 110
11. Environment ...................................................................................................... 112
11.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 112
11.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 112
11.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 113
11.4 Assessment of KPIs ............................................................................................. 114
11.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 114
12. Governance ........................................................................................................ 116
12.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 116
12.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 116
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12.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 116


12.4 Assessment of KPIs ............................................................................................. 117
12.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 118
13. HIV and AIDS ................................................................................................... 121
13.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 121
13.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 121
13.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 122
13.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 122
13.3.2 Coordinating provision of Information ................................................................. 123
13.4 Performance against KPI ..................................................................................... 123
13.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 125
14. Public Safety, Law and Order ......................................................................... 127
14.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 127
14.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 127
14.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 128
9.3.1 Crime Prevention Programme ................................................................................ 128
14.3.2 Capacity Building ................................................................................................. 129
14.3.3 Infrastructure Development .................................................................................. 129
14.3.4 Infrastructure Rehabilitation ................................................................................. 130
14.4 Assessment of KPIs ............................................................................................. 130
9.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................... 132
15. Summary of Sector Performance against KPIs ............................................. 134
15.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 134
15.2 Methodology........................................................................................................ 134
15.3 Assessment .......................................................................................................... 135
16. Regional Development ...................................................................................... 138
16.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 138
16.2 Budget Performance ............................................................................................ 138
16.3 Programme Performance ..................................................................................... 138
16.3.1 Health Programme ................................................................................................ 138
16.3.2 Agriculture ............................................................................................................ 139
16.3.3 Fisheries ................................................................................................................ 140
16.3.4 Buildings............................................................................................................... 140
16.3.5 Forestry ................................................................................................................. 141
16.3.6 Forestry/Bio Diversity Conservation .................................................................... 141
16.3.7 Education .............................................................................................................. 141
16.3.8 Water and Sanitation............................................................................................. 142
16.3.10 Social Welfare .................................................................................................... 144
16.3.11 Economic Empowerment Programme ................................................................ 144
16.3.12 Youth and Child Development ........................................................................... 145
PART 5: FNDP MANAGEMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND WAY
FORWARD.............................................................................................................. 147
17. Management and Monitoring of FNDP .......................................................... 148
17.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................. 148

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17.2 Structural Reforms............................................................................................... 148


17.2.1 Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability ........................... 148
17.2.2 Integrated Financial Management Information System ........................................ 148
17.3 Budget Structure and Execution .......................................................................... 149
17.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................. 149
17.3.2 Tender Process ...................................................................................................... 149
17.3.3 Public Service Management ................................................................................. 149
17.4 Difficulty in Getting Donor Aid .......................................................................... 150
17.5 Human Resource Capacities ................................................................................ 150
17.6 FNDP Monitoring System ................................................................................... 150
17.7 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations ................................................. 152
18. Overall Conclusions and Way Forward.......................................................... 156
18.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 156
18.2 Addressing the M&E Challenges ........................................................................ 156
18.3 Other Considerations ........................................................................................... 158

References .................................................................................................................. 160


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ACRONYMS

ABB Activity-based Budgeting


ACC Anti Corruption Commission
ART Anti-retroviral Treatment
ASP Agriculture Support Programme
CBOH Central Board of Health
CBPP Contagious Bovine Pluero-pnuemonia
CEEC Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission
CDP Cooperative Development Policy
CEDAW Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women
CHAZ Churches Health Association of Zambia
CIDRZ Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
CSEN Children with Special Educational Needs
CSO Central Statistics Office / Civil Society Organisation
CTC Community Therapeutic Care
DDCC District Development Coordination Committee
DEC Drug Enforcement Commission
DIP Decentralization Implementation Plan
ECCDE Early Childhood Care and Education Development
EFA Education For All
EIA environmental impact assessment
EmONC Emergency of Obstetrics Neonatal Care
ENRMP Environment and Natural Resources Mainstreaming Programme
FBOs Faith-based Organisations
ERB Energy Regulatory Board
FAMS Financial and Administration Management System
FDCF Forest Development Credit Facility
FMD Foot and Mouth Diseases
FNDP Fifth National Development Plan
FRA Fiduciary Risk Assessment
FSDP Financial Sector Development Plan
FRA Food Reserve Agency
FTIs Farmers Training Institutes
GBV Gender Based Violence
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GER Gross Enrolment Ratio
GIDD Gender in Development Division (at Cabinet Office)
GPI Gender Parity Index
GRZ Government of the Republic of Zambia
HIV Human Immune Virus
HMIS Health Management Information System
ICT Information Communication Technology
IDF Irrigation Development Fund
IDP Irrigation Development Programme
IFMIS Integrated Financial Management Information System
IMCI Integrated Management of Child Illnesses
IRS indoor residual spraying
ITN ass Insecticide Treated Nets
KPIs Key Performance Indicators
LAB Legal Aid Board
LCMS Living Conditions Monitoring Survey
MACO Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
MCDSS Ministry of Community Development and Social Services

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MDGs Millennium Development Goals


MDR Multi-Drug Resistance
MEWD Ministry of Energy and Water Development
MFEZ Multi-Facility Economic Zones
MLGH Ministry of Local Government and Housing
MMR Maternal Mortality Ratio
MOE Ministry of Education
MOH Ministry of Health
MoHA Ministry of Home Affairs
MPSAs Ministries and Provinces and Spending Agencies
MTEF Medium-term Expenditure Framework
MTR Mid-Term Review
MYSCD Ministry of Youth, Sports and Child Development
MTENR Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources
MSTVT Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training
M&E Monitoring and Evaluation
NAC National AIDS Council
NCC National Constitution Conference
NCMDS National College for Management and Development Studies
NDCC National Development Coordination Committee
NEP National Energy Policy
NER Net Enrolment Ratio
NFNC National Food and Nutrition Commission
NGOs Non-Governmental Organisation
NIP National Irrigation Policy and Plan
OAG Office of the Auditor General
OVCs Orphans and Vulnerable Children
PAF Performance Assessment Framework
PDCC Provincial Development Coordination Committee
PEs Personnel Emoluments
PEMD Planning and Economic Management Department
PEMFA Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Reform
PHC Primary Health Care
PLHA People Living with HIV and AIDS
PMEC Integrated Payroll Management Establishment Control
PMTCT Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (of HIV)
PPPs Public Private Partnerships
PPU Provincial Planning Unit
PRBS Poverty Reduction Budget Support
PRPs Poverty Reduction Programmes
PSD Private Sector Development
PSDA Private Sector Development Association
PSM Public Service Management
PTR pupil-teacher ratio
RES Renewable Energy Sources
R&D research and development
SADC Southern African Development Community
SAGs Sector Advisory Groups
SAP Structural Adjustment Programme
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
SOMP Sustainable Operations Maintenance Programme
STI Sexually Transmitted Infestations
SWAp Sector-wide Approach
TB Tuberculosis
UTH University Teaching Hospital
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VCT Voluntary Counselling and Treatment


WHO World Health Organisation
ZAMNIS Zambia Nutrition Information System
ZDA Zambia Development Agency
ZDHS Zambia Demographic Health Survey
ZPPA Zambia Public Procurement Authority

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Executive Summary
1. Main Findings
1.1 Macro-Economy
1. During the three years under review (2006-2008), real GDP growth rate averaged 6.1
percent, which was below the FNDP target of 7 percent per annum. Notwithstanding this
outturn, real GDP growth rate improved from 5.2 percent in 2005 to 6.2 percent in 2006,
6.3 percent in 2007 and 5.7 percent in 2008. Single digit inflation was achieved at 8.2
percent and 8.9 percent in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Inflation in 2008 rose to double
digits ending the year at 16.6 percent. Interest rates also remained high, averaging 26.4
percent.
2. Export earnings grew by over 100 percent to US$ 4,876 billion in 2008 from US$ 2,178
billion in 2005. In this regard, Gross International Reserves build-up improved from 1.5
months of import cover in 2005 to 2.2, 2.5 and 2.8 months of import cover in 2006, 2007,
and 2008 respectively. The FNDP target of 2.5 months of import cover was, thus, met in
2007 and 2008.
3. The external debt position during the review period remained within sustainable levels and
was aided by external debt relief and budgetary support. However, total external debt
increased from US$ 1,569.5 million at end-2006 to US$ 2,267.2 million at end 2008. The
increase was mainly on account of the rise in private and parastatal debt and Government
contracting concessional loans.
4. During the review period, efforts were made to implement structural reforms under the
Private Sector Development (PSD) as part of the Government’s Public Service Reform
Programme. However, positive change remained marginal in spite of PSD. Some of the
noteworthy developments included the establishment of the Citizen Economic
Empowerment Commission (CEEC).
5. In an effort to enhance efficiency in the public service delivery system, the FNDP sought to
improve the quality, efficiency, cost effectiveness and delivery of services through the
implementation of Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability
(PEMFA) Programme; Public Service Management (PSM); and Decentralisation.
Although the National Decentralisation Policy was approved in November, 2002 and
subsequently launched in August, 2004, the Decentralization Implementation Plan (DIP)
has not been approved by Government. The delay in the approval of the DIP has affected
fiscal decentralization, which has important implications on the pace of FNDP
implementation at the local level.
6. Domestic revenue as percent of GDP averaged 17.2 percent in the review period, thus,
surpassing the FNDP period average of 16.8 percent. In 2006, domestic tax revenue as a
percentage of GDP stood at 16.4 percent and this was above the FNDP target 16.2 percent.
In 2007, domestic revenue as a percentage of GDP stood at 18 percent on account of
exceptional performance of company tax and the widened personal income tax base.
7. During the first half of FNDP implementation, Government endeavoured to keep budgetary
releases to priority sectors such as health, education, energy, agriculture, infrastructure and
water and sanitation above 95 percent of budgetary allocation. In the review period, 91.8
percent of the approved budget was released to the priority sectors. However, releases to
infrastructure, another strategic sector in the FNDP, averaged only 71.3 percent, which was
far below the FNDP target.

1.2 Poverty Reduction


1. Poverty levels in Zambia have remained high at 64 percent of the total population. This has
been mostly due to the increase in the incidence of poverty in the rural population where
levels rose from 78 percent in 2004 to 80 percent in 2006. Urban poverty reduced
marginally. The high poverty levels have been compounded by the poor performance of the
agricultural sector which employs the majority of people in the rural areas. Provincial
analysis of poverty trends based on the 2006 LCMS findings revealed that significant
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reduction in poverty levels were from Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces. Central, North-
Western and Luapula provinces registered marginal reductions in poverty levels, while
provinces where poverty was on the increase were Western, Northern, Eastern and
Southern.
2. The structure of growth has been oriented to a few sectors, which are also capital intensive
and, thus, labour saving, which has reduced their contribution to FNDP’s goal of
employment creation. Moreover, it is clear that there are low linkages between the earnings
from those sectors that have registered growth with those, like agriculture, that house the
largest number of poor people. The low level of economic diversification in Zambia
significantly contributes to this state of affairs.

1.3 Agriculture
1. During the period under review, growth in the agricultural sector declined from 2.2 percent
in 2006 to 0.4 percent in 2007 and dwindled further to 0.1 percent in 2008. This was due to
unfavourable weather conditions in the country coupled with late distribution of inputs and
constant outbreak of livestock diseases.
2. The total budget in the three year period for the agriculture sector was K1,243.1 billion,
against the total FNDP projections of K1, 542.3 billion. Out of the total budget, K 1,370.6
billion was actually released. This reflected 85.5 percent releases of the FNDP projections.
3. One noteworthy result of the agriculture sector is the huge gulf between what was budgeted
for in the FNDP and the actual expenditure, revealing clear indications that the Plan
provided very little guidance to Government’s expenditure pattern in this field during the
review period. Some of the sectors that were billed as high priority in the FNDP received
the least financing. Such strategic budget lines as irrigation development, agriculture
infrastructure, livestock development and agricultural marketing received marginal funding
in spite of their having been identified in the FNDP as priority. Fertiliser Support
Programme (FSP), on the other hand, did not only receive the largest share of the
agricultural budget in the FNDP but also netted larger than both the budgeted and released
funds during the review period.
4. The food security situation in Zambia has remained very critical in recent years and appears
to have deteriorated significantly in the last three years. This is mainly due to high poverty
levels undermining productivity; unfavourable agricultural practices; high dependence on
rain for food production vis-à-vis the limited attention given to the irrigation programme;
inadequate market access; declining use of improved agricultural technologies; droughts
and floods during some seasons; and the multi-dimensional impacts of HIV and AIDS,
which includes labour shortages and poor dietary intake. Production of maize has also in
most years under review failed to match national demand.

1.4 Energy
1. The energy sector performance in the review period was unsatisfactory with growth
registered at minus 1.2 percent as at end 2008. This was due to, inter alia, failure in
meeting the targets for new electricity generation capacity; inappropriate pricing for
energy; high oil importation bill; insufficient processing and storage as well as
establishment of strategic fuel reserves.
2. Notwithstanding the challenges in the Energy sector, there were several important positive
developments in the sector. They included the rehabilitation and up-rating of generation
plants and the continuation of rural electrification. There have been significant differences
between the provisions of the FNDP and what was actually included in the annual energy
sector budget during the review period.

1.5 Infrastructure and Transport


1. The Infrastructure and Transport sector has been characterized by major problems
associated with under-achieving targets of the FNDP, especially in 2006. Donor funding
has been closer to FNDP targets than GRZ funding. Yellow book estimates have

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consistently been below FNDP annual targets due, in part, to MFNP annual financial
ceilings that have been lower than the projected FNDP expenditures.
2. During the period under review, the total FNDP financing projection for the Roads and
Bridges sub-sector programmes was K2,636.23 billion for both Government and donor
funds. The actual budgetary allocation during the review period was 30 percent more than
what is provided for in the FNDP. The total budget releases amounted to K2,130.5 billion,
representing 81 per cent and 62 per cent of the FNDP projection and the budget allocations,
respectively.

1.6 Education and Skills Development


1. The total budget (domestic and external resources combined) for the sector in 2006 was
K2,043.4 billion. The total Government allocation for the Ministry in that year was
K1,273.2 billion while Government releases to the sector in 2006 amounted to K1,269.6
billion. This represented 96.5 percent of the domestic budget allocation to the sector and a
19 percent rise in total releases to the sector against the 2005 figure.
2. Management and Administration Programme come out as number one in funding priority
of the education sector. Allocations by programme of the 2007 budget shows that the
highest allocation went to management and administration (58.73 percent), which includes
personnel emoluments that account for over 50 percent of this amount.
3. Like in the case of several other education sector programmes, the equity area received
significantly low releases even in years (like 2008) when the budgeted amount was even
higher than the planned allocation under the FNDP.
4. During the period under review, enrolment rates increased at all levels, particularly in
primary school (Grades 1-7). In 2007, the primary Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) reached
130 percent and completion rates rose to 91 percent. The sector has also continued to make
major strides in increasing the enrolment of girls, orphans and vulnerable children and
those with special education needs.

1.7 Health
1. During the period under review, and as one of the priority areas in the FNDP, the health
sector received an average of 10 percent of the national resource allocation. The sector
registered remarkable progress in achieving maternal health and safe motherhood as
demonstrated by the drop in the MMR to 499 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2007 from
729 per 100,000 in 2002. This makes it likely for the country to achieve the MDG 5 of
reducing MMR to 162 per 100,000 live births by 2015.
2. There have been increasing investments in safe motherhood, including facilities for
Emergency of Obstetrics Neonatal Care (EmONC).
3. The Under-Five Mortality rate reduced from 168 per 1,000 live births in 2002 to 119 per
1,000 live births in 2007, exceeding the 2010 target of 134 per 1000 live births.
4. The 2007 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS) preliminary findings showed an
HIV prevalence rate of 14 percent for adults aged between 15-49 years, from 16 percent
observed in 2001/2002. Malaria prevalence levels slightly reduced from 373 per 1,000
population in 2002 to 358 per 1000 population in 2007.

1.8 Water and Sanitation


1. The total budget over 2006-2008 period was K940.66 billion, which was above the FNDP
target of K869.85 billion and the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation got the largest share.
However, the budget performance during the review period against FNDP estimates has not
been satisfactory. The average percentage releases has been around 9 percent. This meant
that programmes could not be implemented as planned, which explains the sector’s low
achievement of outputs. Overall, donors have been consistent in disbursing committed
funds while Government funding has been inconsistent and inadequate.
2. There is dearth of data on Water and Sanitation sector performance over the 2006-2008
period. The 2006 preliminary LCMS indicates that the national access to safe water
increased from 37 percent in 2004 to 58 percent in 2006 while access to sanitation declined
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from 70.1 percent in 2004 to 63.9 percent in 2006. In terms of regional access, Copperbelt
and Lusaka had the highest percent of population accessing safe water and Western
Province had the least. Compared between rural and urban, 43 percent in the rural areas
had access to safe water as compared to 88 percent in urban areas.

1.9 Gender and Development


1. In terms of budget support to the Gender sector, K4.5 billion was projected for expenditure
under FNDP. Of this amount, 98.8 percent (K4, 447,935,520) was budgeted for. However,
only 57.2 percent was actually released for the period under review.
2. The education sector has taken several important steps towards gender mainstreaming. A
Policy was put in place for the re-entry of pregnant girls into school and a gender Policy is
in place in Science and Technology. At the University of Zambia, 25 percent of admission
places are reserved for females while both males and females compete for the remaining 75
percent. Moreover, Government continued to provide special bursaries to girls and women.
As a result, gender parity has almost been achieved at the basic and high school levels of
education and progress has been achieved at tertiary level.

1.10 Food and Nutrition


1. During the period under review, the sector performance was satisfactory. The low
performance in 2006 was compensated by a more than satisfactory performance in 2007
when some of the targets for the KPIs were reached. This performance is supported by
reductions in percentage of underweight, stunted and iron deficient children.
2. There was an improvement in the proportion of under-five children who were underweight,
falling from 19.7 percent in 2007 to 14.6 in 2008, which was below the target of 17
percent.

1.11 Environment
1. The total allocation under the FNDP for both core and non-core programmes for the
Environment sector amounted to K171.93 billion. Against this budget, Government
released a total of K18.79 billion (i.e. only 10.92 percent of the FNDP projected figure).
Hence, there is a significant gap between the FNDP financing projection and the actual
budget and actual releases. This outturn is, in part, due to the large donor component in the
projection of the financing in the FNDP. The difference between the projections and the
actual funding has meant that the sector was unable to meet most of its targets.
2. Inadequate financing to core programmes resulted in uneven allocation of funds. For
instance, of the K7.39 billion released in 2007, K3 billion was allocated to one activity
only, namely, the Forest Development Credit Facility. The remaining K4.39 was thinly
distributed among eleven other sector programmes.

1.12 Governance
1. Due to the multitude of institutions involved in the Governance Sector, it has not been
possible to isolate individual programmes and determine how they have been funded.
Notwithstanding this constraint, it is noteworthy that, during the period under review
(2006-2008), Government allocated K598,837,359 to the Governance sector against the
target of K1, 129, 207, 579, 621, representing 53 percent. Out of this amount, 89 percent
was reported to have been spent.
2. At the level of KPI measurements, the sector failed to report on most indicators due to the
absence of data. It is, nevertheless, clear that there still remain major challenges regarding
access to justice for all and accountability and transparency in national systems are yet to
be improved upon as there continues to exist serious capacity weaknesses in bodies that are
mandated to provide accountability and transparency in public sector management.

1.13 HIV and AIDS


1. The resources for all HIV and AIDS programmes countrywide have steadily increased from
approximately US$198 million in 2006 to US$232 million in 2007 and to US$358 million

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in 2008. The HIV funds released for workplace programmes in each ministry are not
always fully reflected.
2. The most recent HIV prevalence among the adult population (15-49 years) has reduced
from 15.6 percent in 2002 to 14.3 percent in 2007. The number of HIV infected pregnant
women who received antiretroviral drugs to reduce mother to child transmission increased
from 25,578 in 2006 to 35,314 in 2007 and 45,000 in 2008.
3. The number of adults and children with advanced HIV infection receiving antiretroviral
therapy increased from 81,030 in 2006 to 206,000 by September 2008, representing an
increase of 60.6 percent.
4. Paediatric ART uptake increased significantly. Of the 29,100 and 40,000 estimated infants
and children under 15 years in need of ART, 13.7 percent and 33 percent were on ART at
the end of 2006 and the end of 2008, respectively.

1.14 Public Safety, Law and Order


1. The actual sectoral expenditure was K27.7 billion, representing 13.5 percent of the FNDP
financial projection. There has been, by far, a big gap between what was planned during the
review period for the MoHA and actual expenditure. The FNDP financing plan for
programmes under the Ministry of Home Affairs was projected at K206 billion over the
review period. However, government only approved a total budget of K81 billion of which
K42 billion was released, representing 20.4 percent of the FNDP budget for the Ministry
during the review period. Under such conditions, there has been very little relationship
between what has been planned and budgeted for in the FNDP for the sector and what has
actually been made available.
2. The programmes under the Zambia Police Service were allocated K155.37 billion in the
budget during the review period against a FNDP projection of K371.16 billion. The
releases amounted to K124.53, or 33.7percent of the FNDP planned allocation.
3. Capacity building was the least-funded core programme in terms of the approved
allocation. Of the K24.4 billion allocated under the FNDP for capacity building for the
period under review, K2.8 billion, representing only 11 percent, was approved under the
budget. The actual release was 6 percent while 5 percent was the sectoral expenditure
against the total FNDP allocation. The highest amount of money was planned for
Infrastructure Development programme during the FNDP period under review. However,
what was approved was only 32 percent of the K149.7 billion under the FNDP. The
releases accounted for 12 percent though only 5 percent was expended.

1.15 Regional Development


1. During the first three years of implementation of the FNDP, there has been a large increase
in the budgets to provincial administration from a total of K189.0 billion in 2006 to K216.3
billion in 2007 and K239.1 billion in 2008. In 2008, this represented 1.7 percent of the total
Government budget for the year, with four provinces being allocated above K25 billion. In
2008, K224 billion was released to the provincial administration, equivalent to 93.7 percent
of the budget for the provinces. However, much of the money was released to non-core
FNDP programmes.
2. There has been significant bias against poorer provinces in both budgetary allocations and
actual releases of funds. In terms of health programmes during 2008, Western, Central,
Southern, and Eastern provinces were worst affected (with Western Province being at the
tail end); and in terms of agriculture, no allocations were made for Western and North-
western provinces. With respect to fisheries, no budget was provided for Western Province
and although budgetary allocations were made for Central and Luapula Provinces, no
releases were effected during 2008. Similar rural biases were observable in the other sub-
sector allocations, suggesting that rural development still remains a neglected area in both
budgeting and resource allocation.
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1.16 Management and Monitoring of FNDP


1. PDCCs and DDCC continued to serve as forums for discussions of development
programmes at provincial and district levels. However, it was established that these
development committees have unclear reporting channels, which tended to reduce their
worthy in programme monitoring. There is no national level body that oversees the
implementation of the FNDP. The National Development Coordination Committee exists
only in name and never meets. Consequently, there exists no overall oversight body that
could provide guidance to Ministries during the implementation of the Plan.
2. An updated assessment of Zambia’s Public Financial Management (PFM) system was
carried out during mid-2008. Overall, the system during the review period operated fairly
well. There has been improved transparency, comprehensiveness and accountability of
fiscal management. This improvement can be seen in the performance that is reported on an
annual basis for the Poverty Reduction Budget Support (PRBS) programme, as identified in
the Performance Assessment Framework (PAF).
3. There was a major impediment during the review period to efficient budget performance in
the form of the Constitutional provision. This resulted in appropriations continuing being
approved in March or April of the same year as the proposed budget, effectively starting
the budget year three or more months into the fiscal year. This had distorted the quarterly
expenditure profiles and making budget planning difficult.
4. There exist difficulties associated with the tender process that have served as major
impediments to the implementation of programmes. There are acknowledged weak
capacities in the processing of tenders at central levels, leading to calls at provincial level to
strike a balance between financial prudence and timely processing.
5. One of the difficulties in reporting on FNDP performance was accessing information on
donor funds. However, resources coming through General Budget Support and SWAps,
including pool funding, were fully captured in the Government system. Aid estimates are
also poorly captured in the Budget Documents.
6. There are problems across the board with staffing levels in frontline service delivery
institutions. This is even more pronounced in the disparities between urban and rural areas.
7. One of the major challenges in the country that affected the monitoring function during the
review period relates to the existence of fairly dated statistical databases both within the
Government system and outside. Only two Ministries (Health and Education) have
management information systems in place for the collection of routine. Where M&E
systems are in place in line ministries, there is lack of coordination and harmonization of
these systems. The two Annual Progress Reports on the FNDP revealed the inability of
several sectors to report against the KPIs. Six sectors could not report against any of the
indicators (Natural Resources, Land, Housing, Energy, Disability and Development,
Foreign Relations and Defence), while other priority sectors, notably Agriculture and
Water and Sanitation consistently appear to have difficulties in reporting against some of
their major KPIs.
8. There has been little effort on the part of the Government to adequately equip both the
Central Statistics Office; line ministries; and the Monitoring and Evaluation Department
under MFNP to timely generate and process data that is crucial for effective monitoring of
national interventions under FNDP. This has resulted in outdated data and/or data gaps.
9. Most of the SAGs that are expected to play a strategic role in M&E rarely met. When these
met, it was established that the quality and content of meetings were not satisfactory as
issues relating to the budget, including performance against the KPIs, were not adequately
dealt with.

2. Main Recommendations
2.1 Macroeconomic Area
1. Government’s annual budget should closely follow the prioritisation of the FNDP and
ensure that allocations to the Plan’s core programmes are adhered to so as to reflect the
level of FNDP goals.

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2. There is need to have clear definition and revision of Key Performance Indicators in order
to effectively monitoring FNDP resource utilisation and programme/project
implementation. In the same vein, there is need to prioritise and provide adequate resources
for critical surveys, MISs and policy relevant research that would provide the requisite data
and information that supports effective M&E.
3. For economic growth to translate into employment creation and poverty reduction, it has to
be broad-based with strong linkages to those sectors that accommodate the majority of the
poor. Pro-poor focus should, therefore, focus primarily on agriculture and agro-based
industries and the provision of financial resources that support pro-poor growth, e.g. the
lowering of lending rates for small-scale farming businesses.
4. There is need to prioritise the putting up of infrastructures in rural areas in order to attract
investment to those areas and to subsequently empower the people to make a transition
from poverty.
5. There is need to revisit the conditions for allocating funds under the Citizens Economic
Empowerment Programme in a manner that positively discriminate in favour of the poor. In
particular, more resources should be allocated to priority agriculture programmes, focusing
on, inter alia, irrigation support.
6. Annual budget allocations should be based on the prioritised programmes of a sector under
the FNDP and not on short term objectives, guided by the unique needs of a particular area
rather than standardising/uniform sharing of resources.
7. There is need to put in place mitigating measures in order to lessen the impact of external
shocks introduced by the global economic crisis. The diversification of the economy away
from mineral dependence is particularly important in this respect
8. There should be more debt oversight authority extended to Parliament. This with upscale
closer monitoring of how loans are being applied, based on the country’s debt management
strategy. With this in mind, Government’s external debt policy should be anchored upon a more
comprehensive view of fiscal risks arising from the broader public sector and the economy as a
whole. The development of a Debt Policy and Strategy is cardinal in this regard.
9. There is an urgent need for Cabinet to approve the Decentralisation Implementation Plan.
This would speed up fiscal decentralization and ensure that local authorities are better
funded and better capacitated to collection revenue and better deliver their delegated
mandates.
10. There is need to upscale MPSAs’ absorptive capacity for budget execution/programme
implementation. This calls for carefully tailor-made capacity enhancing training
programmes.

2.2 Poverty Reduction


1. There is need to put in place specific interventions to improve the welfare of the extreme
poor and vulnerable population through a well targeted system of transfers. This is aimed at
reducing the prevalence of extreme poverty which stands at 54 percent.
2. Efficiency of resource allocation and decentralized programme funding, implementation
and strong monitoring of poverty reducing and capital programmes is key to achievement
of rural development.
3. Rural Financing is critical to the growth of rural economies and enhancement of private
investment by rural populace. The poor are generally characterised by lack of productive
assets, other than their labour power. Hence, improved access to land and credit is an
important prerequisite to improve their position.
4. Infrastructure should be provided to rural areas to stimulate the rural economy and improve
livelihoods.

2.3 Agriculture
1. The current situation where funding to agriculture is skewed towards Fertiliser Support
Programme (FSP) and Food Reserve Agency (FRA) should be reviewed to ensure that
more funding is equally released for other important programmes. In the same light, the
Budget Lines for FSP and FRA should be separated and detached from the core MACO
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budget to ensure better focus and targeting. Similarly, Government should urgently
examine the implications of continuing implementation of the FSP in its present design.
2. The Irrigation Development programme should be revamped to align it to the expectations
of the FNDP. In this regard, the decision to transfer the funds from MACO to the CEEC
should be reversed as a matter of urgency so that resource allocation and application should
be for the intended purposes.
3. A more balanced approach to livestock development should be put in place in order to
ensure that sufficient funds are equitably utilised on both cattle as well as small livestock
programmes.
4. There is need for a pragmatic policy approach to increase livestock production through
improved cattle restocking and expansion and well capacitated extension services. Apart
from restocking cattle, there is need to step up other livestock, which are less prone to
disease outbreaks. All animal restocking should be preceded by measures against diseases.
5. Modalities for operationalising the Aquaculture Development Strategy should be
developed. This should include improvements in fish management; better targeting
resources. The funding the Fisheries Development Plan should be increased for both
improved contribution of the sector to overall fish production as well as enhanced benefits
from it by participating households.
6. Government should promote, through the creation of an enabling environment, the
development (mainly by the private sector) of bio-fuels and other alternative sources of
energy. This should entail MACO and MEWD harmonising their policies on food and bio-
fuel production
7. land administration should be streamlined, focusing on faster processing of land
allocation/titles; decentralisation of land administration; and enhanced capacity to open up
land for different uses through improvement of land surveys.
8. MACO, as the lead government institution in the sector, should initiate the process of
revising the FNDP Key Performance Indicators with a view to adopting more appropriate
indicators for reporting on performance and impact.

2.4 Energy
1. There is need to act decisively on the priority of power generation and transmission in view
of the national (and regional) power deficit. The development of the Investment Plan for
the electricity sector is recommended, which should go hand-in-hand with the
implementation of the Electrification Master Plan.
2. There is need to ensure that electricity tariffs are cost-clearing taking into account,
nevertheless, the need to ensure that the management of the inevitable periodic price
adjustment is sensitive to the need to avoid undue stifling of economic activities that could
have far reaching adverse effects to the larger economy.
3. The current focus on the development of Mini-Hydro Stations should be stepped up,
focusing on the identification of more potential areas that could be developed; and the
promotion and consolidation, through the extension of special incentives, of private-sector
participation in the development of the mini-hydros.
4. The country should create capacity to stock at least 3-month national oil import cover
through the rehabilitation of existing storage facilities and the construction of new ones.
5. There is need to develop good inter sectoral linkages to secure effective implementation of
programmes in the Energy sector. Synergies with sectors such as agriculture, tourism,
environment, industry, science and technology and manufacturing are particularly
important in this regard.
6. There is need to strength the Energy Sector Advisory Group (SAG) to secure more
inclusive and consultative platform for stakeholders engagement on decisions pertaining to
the energy sector
7. There is need to strengthen the Management Information System in the Energy sector
through the establishment of the integrated management information system. The
strengthening of the Energy SAG should be undertaken to make it more inclusive of the

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other stakeholders and allow it serve as an important M&E tool for resource application
resource and resource tracking.
8. Given the increasing cost of energy and the opportunities being offered by more
environmentally-friendly options, there is need to look at alternative energy sources,
focusing on instituting well-funded research on alternative energy sources such as bio-fuel,
solar, wind, etc. In this regard, there is need to develop environmentally sustainable
investment framework in renewable energy sources.

2.5 Infrastructure and Transport


1. There is need to strengthen the Local Road Authorities & Rural Road Unit (RRU) to put
them in good stead to respond to the emerging challenges of rural road rehabilitation and
construction in order to supplement the contracted projects under the Road Development
Agency
2. Treasury Authority should be granted to employ the required professionals at Headquarters
and Provinces in order to empower the Ministry of Works and Supply to better supervise
works and produce quality building plans in a timely manner. Similarly, Government
should create an effective framework for supervising all public and private infrastructure
works.
3. There is need to review and enforce road use standards and regulations through increased
coordination between RTSA, RDA and other institutions, including law enforcement
agencies.
4. There is need to establish the required level of railway system rehabilitation/restoration
with an eye on improving both passenger and cargo transportation. In this regard, focus
should be on investment in the rehabilitation of already existing rail-lines such as
Mulobezi, Njanji Commuters and former Zambia Railways.
5. There is need to establish gemstone processing, exchange and auction centres as planned to
allow the country benefit from gemstone proceeds.
6. Government should develop an incentives regime that aims to encourage value addition in
the minerals and chemicals produced in the country.

2.6 Education and Skills Training


1. The Ministry of Education should reorient its budget structure in a manner that reflects
resource allocation priority to the core programmes in the sector. Presently, Management
and Administration takes up a disproportionate share of the total sector budget, leaving
little resources to the actual programmes.
2. The allocation to university education is woefully insufficient to meet qualitative and
quantitative improvements especially in the light of the reluctance on the part of
Government to transfer a significant amount of the cost of delivery to the users of
university services (students). In this regard, it is recommended that more resources are
allocated to tertiary-level education while at the same time gradually increase the tuition
and related fees.
3. There is need for a comprehensive teacher retention strategy which brings together various
efforts aimed at reducing teacher attrition rate. In this light, sponsorship for further training
should give priority to teachers in rural areas as a measure to encourage more teachers to
work there. Similarly, there is a need to improve incentives to keep qualified teachers in the
worst off areas, and keep degree holders there.
4. The situation of female teachers in rural areas requires special attention. A study to
evaluation the challenges and possible improvements at this level should be commissioned.
5. There is need to streamline the current textbook procurement and distribution procedures.
Decentralized procurement of education materials to school level is recommended.
6. To improve qualitative standards, MOE should put in place clear and comprehensive
Guidelines on community school.
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2.7 Health
1. There is urgent need to train, recruit, and retain adequate and appropriate staff at all levels
of the health sector, focusing on improving the availability of an appropriate mix of human
resources; strengthening systems for human resource management, planning, and
development; and enhancing the regulatory role of certification and registration of health
professionals.
2. There is need for Government to put in place an attractive incentive structure for the
recruitment and retention of health personnel especially in rural areas.
3. There is need to improve the ability of Health System to deliver a free package of basic
health interventions, such as assisted deliveries, emergency obstetric care and integrated
management of child illnesses.
4. Focus on health infrastructure improvement should focus on the rehabilitation of the
existing facilities rather than on the expansion of the network. This calls for, inter alia, the
up-scaling of preventive maintenance supported by an enabling policy and clear
Maintenance Guidelines.
5. Gender mainstreaming in the health sector should be scaled up, focusing on conceptual
understanding of gender and the linkages between gender and health.
6. There is need to strengthen the HMIS capacity to monitor health sector performance in
Zambia. To do this, there is need for concerted effort to secure the availability of relevant,
accurate, timely, and accessible health care data that effectively supports the planning,
coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of health care services In the same vein there is
need to design a system that will work towards the full integration of health sector
indicators in performance audits, supportive supervision, and accreditation activities at
provincial, hospital, and district levels.
7. There is an urgent need to develop and maintain a well coordinated, reliable, and
transparent procurement and supply system that is acceptable to all stakeholders, including
Cooperating Partners. This calls for the development and enforcement of procurement
management Regulations and Guidelines at all levels, based on the national tender
procedures as guided by FAMS regulations and the newly established Zambia Public
Procurement Authority (ZPPA).

2.8 Water and Sanitation


1. There is need to increase government allocation to the sector in order to achieve planned
activities more effectively. To put the sector on a more sustainable mode, a conscious effort
should be initiated to progressively reduce the current high dependence on donor funds.
2. There is need to invest efforts on designing modalities of enhancing community
participation in the sector. This should include stakeholder sensitisation on water and
sanitation issues.
3. There is need to strengthen MIS and M &E systems in the Ministry of Local Government
and Housing for effective planning and management, including the tracking of sector
activities.
4. Institutional capacity building is urgently required at all levels, focusing on staffing levels.
5. There is need for an integrated approach in the water sector that covers other sectors as
well, such as health (cholera and water borne diseases), education (sanitation in school),
and agriculture (irrigation).

2.9 Gender and Development


1. GIDD should strive to mainstream gender into macro and sectoral policies and
programmes, focusing more on facilitating compliance by sector ministries and offering
well reasoned solutions to addressing the many remaining stumbling blocks.
2. There is need to extend concerted effort to implement Zambia’s National Gender Policy,
taking care of capacity, institutional, regulatory and legislative constraints to the Policy’s
operationalisation.

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3. Government should make concerted efforts to reduce the disproportionate exposure to the
HIV and AIDS pandemic by women through civic education and support towards the
strengthening of law enforcement.
4. There is need to work towards the reduction of gender-based violence (GBV) against
women and girls, focusing on improved service delivery for victims; improved monitoring
and reporting on GBV; and community mobilization to ensure communities take charge in
prevention of GBV. To complement this, there is an urgent need to domesticate
international human rights instruments, particularly those that have important gender
dimensions.
5. GIDD should positively respond to the FNDP provision and immediately develop and
implement a comprehensive gender training programmes in all government ministries and
institutions. This should include capacity enhancement for all Gender Focal Points (GFP),
focusing on the imparting of gender mainstreaming skills.
6. There is need to establish an effective M&E mechanism within GIDD, which is well
coordinated with, and aligned to, the different sectoral/national M&E systems. Improved
collection and analysis of gender disaggregated data is essential at this level.

2.10 Food and Nutrition


1. There is need to establish a functional multi-sectoral coordinating mechanism for food and
nutrition covering all the main sectors and actors. This should include coordination among
nutritionist and other interveners at various levels (national, provincial and district) in ways
that encourage cross learning and sharing of ideas and experiences.
2. There is need to address the cases of severe acute malnutrition backed up by strong national
institutional commitment to tackle its many dimensions from prevention to treatment.
Complementary to this, emerging illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, obesity and
hypertension require serious attention from a nutrition dimension.
3. There is need to resolve the issues surrounding the maize meal fortification project as
resources aimed at accelerating Vitamin A and Iron programmes have been held up since
2007.
4. The structural relationship between the Ministry of Health and NFNC should be re-
examined as a matter of urgency, focusing on the level of autonomy the latter should enjoy
and the form of its relationship with other sector ministries beyond the parent one.
5. There is need to recruit adequate human resource with the right skills mix and experience.
This may entail a complete review of the organisational structure of the Commission and
the repositioning of its complement of staff.
6. In conjunction with the Health Management Information System, there is need to set up
practical and adequately funded Integrated Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation system.

2.11 Environment
1. There is need to strengthen cross-sectoral linkages and collaboration in the protection,
management of the environment and sustainable utilisation of natural resources.
2. There is need to enhance national and regional-level coordination of environmental policies
and interventions. This should be enhanced by the domestication of international
environmental conventions into national laws and local programmes.
3. All sectors, in particular those in charge of energy, agriculture, environment, health, and
water need to develop capacity to manage and coordinate undertaking of environment and
climate change interventions, which involves collecting evidence to inform policy and
interventions formulation, vulnerability and adaptation assessments, and mitigation
analysis.
4. There is need to enhance the process to derive benefits from provisions of the Conventions
and Kyoto Protocol on carbon markets. This will result in embracing cleaner energy supply
and energy efficiency, thus, reducing costs, making production more competitive, as well
as tapping on the clean development mechanism.
5. There is need to strengthen the national disaster response system and risk management
through, inter alia, integrating climate risk management into the implementation of FNDP
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programmes. This should be aimed at developing the resilience capacity for the structures,
in particular the community, and putting in place the appropriate infrastructure for an
integrated, coordinated and comprehensive response to cyclical disaster such as drought,
floods and disease outbreaks.
6. There is need to develop a comprehensive Public Participation and Awareness Programme
that aims to promote public involvement and a sense of responsibility for the environment.
This should include the use of environmental education methodology to publicize the
vulnerability of the environment to human actions.

2.12 Governance
1. There is need to strengthen the linkages and collaboration between institutions and various
stakeholders that dispense or are instrumental in the dispensing of justice to the people. The
aim should be to strengthen their capacity to administer or contribute to the administration
of justice for all. This should include the development of sufficient courts and recruit
adequate personnel to enhance the administration of justice. The consolidation of the
autonomy of the Director of Public Prosecutions should be part of this. Complimentary to
this is the decentralisation of the Judicial Complaints Committee as well as civil litigation.
2. There is need to modernise the administration of justice through the introduction of
electronic systems in case flow management, databases, etc.
3. The Ministry of Justice should strive to domesticate all international conventions and
covenants on human rights to which Zambia has acceded.
4. There is need to establish an effective mechanisms for prevention of corruption in public
bodies, focusing on the following:
(a) Creation of efficient and effective procedures for investigations and
prosecutions by oversight bodies such as the Anti Corruption
Commission (ACC), OAG and Drug Enforcement Commission
(DEC)
(b) Cultivate collaborative and consultative mechanisms with
stakeholders towards curbing corrupt practices.
(c) Put in place mechanisms that would expedite the processing and
disposal of complaints against state institutions.
5. Give Parliament and its Committees more legislative and budgetary roles in ways that
would enhance its oversight functions over the Executive.
6. Government should support capacity improvements in the implementation of the
Constitution and related legal provisions, focusing on the following::
(a) Exploration of factors that impede the smooth implementation of the
provisions of the Constitutions, particularly those that relate to
human rights.
(b) Support of initiatives that target the protection of social, cultural and
economic rights of Zambian citizens.
(c) Addressing Gender and Human rights by supporting government and
Civil Society initiatives to ensure gender equality through advocacy
and support to legislative changes in line with the Constitution and
CEDAW.
7. There is need for capacity enhancement for securing transparency and accountability in
public sector management: This should include the following:
(a) Support the strengthening of public finance management, targeting
carefully-selected institutions that possess the capacity to generate
and disseminate timely information on the public budgeting and
expenditure processes.
(b) Foster inclusive participation that provides effective, practical
support to addressing inequalities and promote inclusion of
vulnerable people, including women.

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(c) Strengthen national partnerships between Government, Civil Society


and the private sector to identify ‘together’ solutions to development
challenges.

2.13 HIV and AIDS


1. The fight against HIV and AIDS required strong collaboration, coordination, partnerships
and networking with different levels of all stakeholders. In this regard, there is need to
strengthen NAC’s coordination function by ensuring that interventions from different
partners, donors, etc are included in the Annual Multi-sectoral Work plans.
2. There is need to prioritize the provision of life-protecting services to women and girls, the
socially marginalized, the very poor and most vulnerable.
3. Strengthen institutional arrangements at the district and provincial levels and provide them
with adequate resources to implement effective HIV and AIDS interventions.
4. There is need to enhance the provision of appropriate care, support and treatment to HIV
infected persons and those affected by HIV and AIDS. This should entail integrating
Voluntary Counselling and Testing with treatment; provision of universal access to ART;
strengthening home/community-based care and support; utilisation of alternative and/or
traditional medicines; and promotion of appropriate nutrition

2.14 Public Safety, Law and Order


1. The restructuring of the Ministry of Home Affairs should be given utmost priority, focusing
on identifying gaps in the organisational system and staffing structures.
2. There is need to review curriculum for the different levels of training for the sector with an
eye on the changing strategies for law enforcement and order maintenance in the light if
major advancements in ICT.
3. There is need to design and implement effective systems for monitoring and evaluating the
effectiveness of crime prevention mechanisms. In this regard, the database on crime on
crime should be modernised/computerised and periodically updated for easier recording
and tracking of criminal occurrences and their association to criminal groups and/or
individuals. This also calls for improvement of mechanisms for reporting/disseminating
information on crime.

2.15 Management and Monitoring of FNDP


1. The National Development Coordination Committee (NDCC), complimented by PDCC
and DDCC, should be reconstituted and be mandated to provide oversight over the FNDP
implementation.
2. There is need to ensure that there is full ownership of the National Development Plans and
the terms of reference of ministers and permanent secretaries should adequately encompass
the requirements of the Plan
3. There is need to develop stronger linkages between the FNDP, MTEF, annual budgets and
ministerial strategic plans. As opposed to what has thus far taken place, the changes in the
chart of accounts between the budget and FNDP should always be discussed in detail. For
instance ministerial budgets do not necessarily represent sector budgets.
4. The legal framework needs to be reviewed to harmonize accountability for resource
use/application. This would minimize the current confusion whereby, for example, at
district level, the responsibility for procurement lies with Council Secretaries but when it
comes to accounting for district resources, the responsibility lies with the District
Commissioners.
5. Government should move swiftly and decisively towards decentralisation, in general, and fiscal
decentralisation, in particular.
6. Government funding of Councils should be significantly up-scaled to ensure that DIP is
implemented effectively and that its success is not overly dependent on external assistance. To
address this issue, the Ministry of Finance and National Planning, in liaison with MLGH, should
earmark for Councils a minimum percentage of the total government expenditure (say, 10
percent). A clear effort on the part of MFNP should be made to ensure that Central
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Government transfers to Councils are predictable and timely. It is further recommended


that fiscal transfers to Councils are made directly rather than through MLGH.
7. To effectively assess performance at the sector level, there is a need to improve on data
collection. This should be addressed through the development of sector information
systems. The importance of ensuring gender disaggregated data in these systems is
cardinal, as is ensuring that the MISs provide in-depth information that allows for
geographical and intra sectoral comparisons.
8. Considering the capacity limitations that characterise Zambia, the number of KPIs should be
aligned to the ability of the national monitoring systems to meaningfully apply them with
reasonable level of dependability. In this regard, only a handful of indicators for FNDP outcomes
should be selected. The FNDP monitoring system should also possess an effective feedback
system that allows information to be fed back into the national system’s decision-making
processes, thus, making M&E a vital management tool.
9. The Ministry of Finance and National Planning needs to develop, as a matter of urgency, an
efficient system for tracking donor flows into the country especially towards FNDP
Programmes.
10. The functioning of the SAGs needs to be addressed, paying particular attention to the
management of meetings and the quality and content of their deliberations. In addition,
SAGs should be allowed to discuss proposed sector budgets to ensure that they are in line
with the priorities of the FNDP. Further, Sector performance against the KPIs should form
key part of SAG discussions.

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Introduction
1. Overview
Zambia launched the Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP) in 2006. This followed a long
spell following the adoption of structural adjustment programme (SAP) in the mid-1980s. The
return to National Planning followed the realisation that even in a liberalised economy,
development planning is necessary for guiding priority setting and resource allocation. In this
regard, The FNDP has, since 2006, remained Zambia’s development planning and resource
programming tool. As the Government facilitates the Mid-Term Review (MTR) of the FNDP, it
is important to recognise that the Plan is not independent of other public planning instruments
and processes such as the National Vision 2030, the Medium Term Expenditure Framework
(MTEF), and the Annual National Budget. The Annual Government Budget remained the
primary instrument for implementing the FNDP. Thus, while the FNDP has provided the
overall framework and specific programmes within the context of the projected resource
envelope, the Annual Work Plans for respective sectors actually guided, and continue to guide,
specific interventions. In this regard, all the activities that have been implemented annually
were expected to primarily focus on the realisation of one or more of the FNDP’s objectives
during the 2006-2010 period.

During the implementation of the FNDP thus far, the overall coordination of the
implementation of the Plan has rested with MFNP with the full participation of line ministries,
other government institutions, civil society, and international Cooperating Partners. The
Planning and Economic Management Department (PEMD) in MFNP remained the focal point
for FNDP coordination, monitoring, and evaluation. Existing departments in sectoral ministries
constituted the FNDP’s main implementation organs.

This MTR ought to be understood in the context of the virtue of monitoring and evaluation
(M&E) and how these two processes are expected to improve the prospects for the attainment
of the FNDP goals. Firstly, M&E provides essential data and insights for drawing lessons,
priority setting and informed review of FNDP implementation processes. Secondly, it offers the
assurance that resources, including donor funds, are used for agreed purposes. Thus, the FNDP
has purposely been designed as a results-based instrument that focuses on agreed targets and
results. The Plan has incorporated a system to monitor outputs, outcomes, and impacts so that
resources can be strategically managed and progress tracked. This MTR, on the other hand,
aims to determine the degree to which the set targets and expected outcomes/impact have thus
far been realised during the first half of the Plan period. Thus, evaluation is expected to
complement monitoring in that, when signals from the monitoring processes suggest that the
FNDP is going off track, the recommendations from this MTR should help to point out the
causes and suggest corrective measures.

With regard to the institutional framework for FNDP monitoring and evaluation, PEMD in
MFNP has remained responsible for the coordination, supervision, and management of all
elements of the monitoring system, including the consultative bodies, the consolidation and
production of reports, and the coordination of analytical work undertaken. The Central
Statistical Office (CSO) is the key institution in the provision of statistical data. At the centre of
the technical arm of the M&E institutional framework for FNDP monitoring is MFNP. Within
this, the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit, established in 2001, has a number of vital functions,
including coordinating the regular monitoring and evaluation of all Government and donor
supported projects and programmes; facilitating the development of M&E guidelines for use by
sectors ministries, NGOs and other stakeholders; and designing and developing national
systems and databases for monitoring and evaluating projects, programmes, and national
policies. At sectoral level, line ministries have been expected to be the major providers of
information. In terms of coordination, the institutional framework has included the existing
horizontal coordination bodies such as the NDCC, PDCC, and DDCC, as well as the SAGs.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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SAGs, comprising members from the Government, civil society, NGOs, and Cooperating
Partners were, by design, expected to have a major role to play in the monitoring of FNDP
progress. It is SAGs that are expected to provide forums for sharing of results from various
monitoring exercises. Under the FNDP, each SAG is expected to meet at least quarterly to
discuss the results of various monitoring exercises being undertaken in the sector and review
progress towards meeting the FNDP targets. In this way, dialogue among the major
development stakeholders was expected to be institutionalised. At district and sub-district
levels, for example, the monitoring system is expected to be open to the participation of
relevant stakeholders. In particular, it is expected that these actors will provide synergies in
monitoring and evaluating the FNDP, utilising qualitative data and participatory approaches.
Civil society organisations, through their participation, have been expected to share their
findings, which were expected to feed into the Government information systems. So far, the
M&E function has worked fairly well. At sector level, annual progress reports that encompass
sector performance on actual programme implementation are produced and consolidated into
the FNDP Annual Progress Report.

2. Methodology
This MTR Report provides an assessment of the performance of the FNDP mid way in its
implementation. The focus is to ascertain the degree to which the set targets and expected
outcomes are being realised. In undertaking the consultancy, the overall approach was
analytical, dynamic, interactive and highly participatory. Thus, the Report is based on
information gathered through desk review of relevant literature and interviews with key
implementing agencies in Lusaka and in all the nine provinces. In this regard, the report is a
reflection of the views and perspectives of many stakeholders. This is appropriate given that the
process of developing the FNDP was itself participatory in nature.

In undertaking the MTR, a multi-faceted approach was used that incorporated systematic
enquiry and analysis of the FNDP. The overall approach was analytical, dynamic, interactive
and highly participatory. This was found to appropriate given that the process of developing the
FNDP was itself participatory in nature. The process therefore included the following:

(a) a participatory consultative process in form of informal, semi-structured and structured


individual interviews and focus group discussions with key stakeholders, both those
responsible for and involved in the implementation as well as intermediaries and
beneficiaries.
(b) Field work included data collection in all nine provinces and two districts in each
province. The aim was to strike a balance between rural and urban and between those
districts where implementation is perceived to have been effective and those which
faced serious challenges in implementing the FNDP.
(c) An in-depth review of policies, FNDP reports, Annual Economic Reports, annual
sectoral reports. This included the review of all relevant documents which included
Vision 2030, FNDP, National Budgets, Sector policies (e.g. the Financial Sector
Development Plan), and Sector Advisory Group (SAG) Reports.

Although the quantitative data remains important, the key focus was on qualitative analysis. In
this regard, a favoured approach was one which is predominantly analytical over one that is
primarily descriptive; one that is more interpretative and less judgemental.

The primary focus of the MTR was on the seven expenditure priority sectors of the FNDP,
namely, Agriculture, Infrastructure, Health, Education and Skills Development, Water and
Sanitation, Public Order and Safety, and Energy. In addition to this, the exercise attempted to
include a broad analysis of progress in other sectors of the FNDP. This included a review of the
mainstreaming of crosscutting issues as outlined in the ToR for the Mid Term Review. It was
also felt imperative to assess the responses (positive or otherwise) from various stakeholders

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(especially the primary beneficiaries) to development initiatives and interventions that are
critical to the success of the FNDP. This helped in the analysis of the factors contributing to the
achievement of FNDP objectives or those that inhibited progress of FNDP programmes and
activities. To the extent possible, there was an attempt to determine the consequence of
unanticipated outcomes and impacts of the FNDP.

The sources of data included the following:


(a) The MTR Inter-ministerial Committee
(b) Government Ministries
(c) Central Statistical Office surveys and reports
(d) The Sector Advisory Groups (SAGs)
(e) Private Sector (Private Sector Development Association - PSDA)
(f) Provincial Development Coordination Committee (PDCC)
(g) District Development Coordination Committee (DDCC)
(h) Provincial Planning Units (PPUs)
(i) Academic and research institutions
(j) Parliament
(k) PEMFA reports
(l) PSCAP reports
(m) Development partners (donor representatives – both bilateral and multilateral)
(n) Civil society organisations (e.g. Civil Society for Poverty Reduction)
(o) Beneficiaries (e.g. entrepreneurs, farmers associations, marketeers, other informal
sector representatives)

The review drew on existing macroeconomic and institution-based frameworks such as the
following:
(a) the Macroeconomic Sector Advisory Group (SAG);
(b) the PEMFA Working Group;
(c) the Financial Sector Development Plan Working Groups; and
(d) the Budget Execution Monitoring Committee.
(e) Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of Zambia
(f) the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) Committee at MoFNP and
(g) the Central Administration Sectoral Advisory Group

3. Field Work
Working in two teams, fieldwork was conducted in a framework shown below. Each team was
assigned particular sectors (focusing on the seven priority sectors) while ensuring that quality
assurance during the Fieldwork was divided into two teams. Team A covered Southern,
Luapula, Northern, and Eastern Provinces. Team B visited Central, Copperbelt, North-Western,
Western, and Lusaka Provinces. For each province, two districts were included, namely, (a) the
district that houses the provincial headquarters; and (b) a district that is less urban in character.

In the light of the above, it is noteworthy that this MTR is not an external one but one
undertaken by different arms of Government through collaborative effort of various
stakeholders under the Coordination of the Ministry of Finance and National Planning. A team
of sector specialists was constituted to come up with an initial draft that was discussed at wider
stakeholders’ forum comprising Cooperating Partners, quasi-government institutions, the
private sector, Faith Based Organisations, Civil Society Organisations, Members of Parliament
and Civic and Traditional Leaders. At the tail end of the process, an External Consultant was
retained by MFNP to finalise the MTR, taking on board the comments received from various
stakeholders on the Draft MTR. The final output has culminated into this Final Mid-term
Review of the FNDP.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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MTR Fieldwork Framework

TEAM A TEAM B

Leader 1 Leader 2 Leader 1 Leader 2

RA3/RA4 RA3/RA4 RA3/RA6 RA7

DATA ANALYSIS DATA ANALYSIS

Quality Assurance Team

REPORT WRITING & FINAL EDITING

4. Data Analysis
Data was collected, compiled, and treated using popular economic frameworks for assessing
development impact. This ensured that progress achieved at this half-way point of the FNDP
implemented theoretically was articulated and documented in a pragmatic and meaningful
manner. Some of the analytical dimensions included:

(a) outputs to objectives analysis;


(b) outcomes to outputs analysis;
(c) trend analysis of achievements in the priority sectors;
(d) analysis of poverty trends;
(e) other performance analysis methods.

The analysis drew on modern development theories such as: social theories of development;
structural theories and neo-classical theories. The analysis sought, to the extent possible, to
establish both direct and indirect links between growth and development within the context of
the FNDP and broader national aspirations.

5. Report Outline
This MTR has five Part. Part 1 begins with Chapter 1 on Macroeconomic and present’s the
country’s economic performance and the associated policy regime. It shows the overall
performance of the Zambian economy over the Mid-term Review (MTR) period (2006-2008).
This is followed by Chapter 2 on Poverty Reduction Performance. Part 2 of the Report reviews
the performance of the main economic sectors, beginning with Agriculture (Chapter 3); Energy
(Chapter 4); and Infrastructure and Transport (Chapter 5). Part 3, in turn, focuses on Social
Sector Performance, beginning with Chapter 6 on Education and Skills Development; Health
(Chapter 7); and Water and Sanitation (Chapter 8). Part 4 of the MTR examines Cross-cutting

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Issues that include Gender and Development (Chapter 9); Food and Nutrition (Chapter 10);
Environment (Chapter 11); Governance (Chapter 12); HIV and AIDS (Chapter 13); and Public
Safety, Law and Order (Chapter 14). Part 4 also includes Chapter 15 on the Summary of Sector
Performance against the Key Performance Indicators. This Part ends with Chapter 16 on
Regional Development. Lastly, Part 5 of the MTR focuses on the sector-wide aspects of FNDP
Management, Implementation and the Way Forward. Under this Part, Chapter 17 looks at
Management and Monitoring of the FNDP while Chapter 18 offers Overall Conclusions and
Way Forward.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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Part

Macroeconomic Performance and


Poverty Reduction

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Macroeconomic Performance
1
1.1 Introduction and Overview
The main macroeconomic objective in the FNDP is to secure and sustain fiscal and financial
stability as well as deepen structural reforms to achieve economic growth. It is anticipated that
this will be achieved through accelerated pro-poor economic growth; sustained single digit
inflation; financial and exchange rate stability; viable current account position; and reduced
domestic debt to sustainable levels. With respect to the acceleration of pro-poor growth, the
primary focus of economic policy remains that of reducing poverty through the implementation
of policies that are both growth-oriented and pro-poor. The FNDP focus on pro-poor growth
aims to ensure that the poor participate in the development process. The main growth objective
is, therefore, twofold: (a) increase the overall growth rate to an average 7 percent; and (b)
ensure that growth benefits the poor. In the light of this, the key FNDP growth strategies
include supporting rural development, especially agriculture; encouraging stronger linkages
between agriculture and manufacturing, especially through upstream linkages to agro-related
processing; stimulating stronger tourism growth; and supporting the expansion of a strong and
diversified export base.

1.2 Macroeconomic Performance


During the first half of the FNDP implementation, a number of factors contributed to a general
macroeconomic environment. They included political stability; improved gross international
reserves; significant reduction in external debt; continued prudent monetary and fiscal policies;
availability of planning tool for guiding development in the country (e.g. FNDP, MTEF, ABB);
and healthy cooperation between the Government, cooperating partners, civil society and
NGOs.

Notwithstanding the above, the 2006-2008 period also witnessed a number of challenges that
included the adiverse effects following the onset of the global economic crisis; high oil and
food prices; poor performance of the agriculture sector due mainly to adverse climatic
conditions; weak links in many cases between planned resources under the FNDP and actual
resource allocation; and ineffective monitoring of performance due, in part, to weak
management information systems.

During the three years under review (2006-2008), real GDP growth rate averaged 6.1 percent,
which was below the FNDP target of 7 percent per annum. Notwithstanding this outturn, real
GDP growth rate improved from 5.2 percent in 2005 to 6.2 percent in 2006, 6.3 percent in 2007
and 5.7 percent in 2008. (see Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Selected Macroeconomic Indicators, 2006-2008


2005 FNDP 2006 2007 2008
Baseline target outturn Outturn Outturn
Real GDP growth rate 5.2 7.0 6.2 6.3 5.7
Money Supply (annual % change) 0.4 - 45.1 26.3 14.9
Inflation (end year) 15.9 5.0 8.2 8.9 16.6
Commercial Bank Lending rates (end year) 28.2 - 27.9 24.4 26.9
Employment Rate 59 - 55 - -
Gross International Reserves (months of imports) 1.5 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.1
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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The positive growth, although below the FNDP target of 7 percent, was mainly driven by
several sectors that included construction, mining, tourism, transport and communications, and
community social and personal services (see table 1.2). The below target outturn was mainly
attributed to lower than projected growth in the primary sector, which consists of major growth
sectors of the economy, particularly agriculture and mining. The average output growth for the
period in the primary sector was recorded at 0.8 percent. This slow growth was attributed to
the poor performance of the agriculture sector arising from low crops yields due, in part, to
unfavourable weather conditions, particularly during 2007 and 2008. It can, thus, be concluded
that FNDP’s priority of supporting pro-poor growth targeting agriculture and rural development
has not been realised. Consequently, rural poverty has not been reduced in any significant way.
Notwithstanding, the poor performance of the primary sector, the secondary and tertiary
sectors’ performance was generally satisfactory with the latter recording above the FNDP
targets primarily on account of the good performance of the tourism and transport
communications sectors.

Table 1.2: FNDP Growth Targets and Outturn, 2005-2008


FNDP period outturn
Average Baseline (Constant 1994 Prices)
FNDP target 2005 2006 2007 2008
(2006-2010)
Primary Sector 8.5 2.5 4.1 1.7 2.3
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 7.2 (0.6) 2.2 0.4 (0.1)
Mining and Quarrying 10.6 7.9 7.3 3.6 5.9
Secondary Sector 8.3 10 9.8 10 6.0
Manufacturing 7.5 2.9 5.7 4.9 3.6
Electricity, Gas and Water 10.2 5.4 10.5 1.0 (1.2)
Construction 8.8 21.2 14.4 20 9.9
Tertiary sector 5.7 5.4 6.7 7.1 7.3
Wholesale and retail trade 5.7 2.4 2.0 2.4 2.8
Restaurants and Hotels (tourism) 11.5 11.7 16.1 9.6 5.7
Transport, storage and communications 9.1 11 22.2 19.2 15.8
Financial intermediation and insurance 4.5 3.3 4.0 4.1 5.4
Real estate and business services 6.0 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1
Community, social and personal services 3.0 11.4 9.0 12.5 14.5
GDP at market prices 7.0 5.3 6.2 6.3 6.0
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

The performance of the monetary and financial sector during the period under review was
mixed with fluctuations recorded in inflation and exchange and interest rates. Single digit
inflation was achieved at 8.2 percent and 8.9 percent in 2006 and 2007, respectively. This was
above the FNDP target of 5 percent (see figure 1.1). Notwithstanding this development,
inflation in 2008 rose to double digits ending the year at 16.6 percent. This rise in inflation was
attributed to the high international oil and rising food prices. Interest rates also remained high,
averaging 26.4 percent. Nevertheless, reduced Government borrowing aided the easing of
pressure on interest rates. However, access to financial services within the economy remained
poor, as the interest rates were still high for most borrowers.

The external sector performance was favourable with external debt servicing maintained within
sustainable levels and overall balance of payments remaining positive. The Balance of
Payments position in 2006 improved remarkably with an overall surplus of US$821.6 million,
compared to the deficit of US$115.8 million the previous year. This remarkable improvement
was attributed to improvements in current, capital and financial accounts. However, the surplus
narrowed to US$310.5 million and US$12.7 million in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The
decline was mainly on account of the widening current account deficit arising from reduced
trade surplus. Export earnings grew by over 100 percent to US$ 4,876 billion in 2008 from US$
2,178 billion in 2005. In this regard, Gross International Reserves build-up improved from 1.5
months of import cover in 2005 to 2.2, 2.5 and 2.8 months of import cover in 2006, 2007, and
2008 respectively. The FNDP target of 2.5 months of import cover was, thus, met in 2007 and

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2008. The favourable export earnings performance in the review period was a positive stride in
achieving the FNDP strategy of promoting export development as one of the economic growth
drivers. Nonetheless, the continued instability in the exchange rates may adversely impact the
export sector.
Figure 1.1: Inflation trends 2006-2008

25

20

15

10
Inflation rate
5

0
2005 2006 2007 2008
-5
Period

FNDP target Annual inflation Food inflation Non-food inflation

Source: Central statistics office

The external debt position in the review period remained within sustainable levels and was
aided by external debt relief and budgetary support. Regardless of this position, the total
external debt increased from US$ 1,569.5 million at end-2006 to US$ 2,267.2 million at end
2008. The increase was mainly on account of the rise in private and parastatal debt and
Government contracting concessional loans amounting to US$ 351.84 million over the review
period (see table 1.3). This is in spite of the fact that the FNDP projected that new borrowing
should not exceed US$60 million per annum (FNDP, pg 351). Although the borrowing was
done for priority sectors, this was way above the planned levels. Concern has been raised in
some quarters that unless the external debt stock is maintained within sustainable levels, the
country could slide back into the debt trap.

Table 1.3: Concessional Loans Contracted in the FNDP Period 2006-2008


Creditor Purpose of loan 2006 2007 2008
Public Service management support 29.75
IDA Water Sector performance improvement 22.57
Road Rehabilitation and maintenance project 24.74
Regional trade facilitation project 17.09
Economic management and growth facility credit 10.00
Increased access to electricity 33.00
IFAD Smallholder livestock investment 10.31
P.R. China TAZARA Protocol 6.25
OPEC Fund Water Supply to six towns 4.00
ADF Poverty Reduction Budget support 30.00
Water Supply and Sanitation 22.43
Exim Bank of
China Earth moving equipment 39.90
OFID Copperbelt feeder road rehabilitation 6.00
ADB Poverty Reduction Budget support II 24.00
Nkana Water and Sanitation project 57.00
Water supply to six towns 6.80
BADEA Copperbelt feeder road rehabilitation 8.00
TOTAL 79.68 140.16 132.00
Period total 351.84
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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1.3 Structural reforms


During the review period, efforts were made to implement structural reforms under the Private
Sector Development (PSD) as part of the Government’s Public Service Reform Programme.
Positive change remained marginal in spite of PSD. Some of the noteworthy developments
included the establishment of the Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission (CEEC); the
putting in place of the one-stop border post at Chirundu border post; and the reviewing of the
trade licenses. Other key PSD achievements in the financial sector included the commencement
of the implementation of Financial Sector Development Plan (FSDP), which saw the granting
of a license and the launch of the Credit Reference Bureau that aim to strengthen the credit
culture in the country. In addition, Cabinet approved the Country’s plan of getting the
Sovereign Credit Rating. However, the pooling of resources of most empowerment
programmes into one pool under CEEC continued to pose the challenge of how these resources
could best be apportioned in response to the various needs of a multiplicity of potential
beneficiaries.

In an effort to enhance efficiency in the public service delivery system, the FNDP sought to
improve the quality, efficiency, cost effectiveness and delivery of services through the
implementation of Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability (PEMFA)
Programme; Public Service Management (PSM); and Decentralisation. The key achievements
under PEMFA have included the contracting of a firm to develop and piloting of Integrated
Financial Management Information System (IFMIS) in at least eight spending agencies.
However, progress in the implementation of this effort was delayed due to administrative
constraints. Other achievements were decentralisation of office of Auditor General to the
provincial level; support to Parliamentary Reforms; and enactment of Public Procurement
Authority Act.

As regards enhancing governance at local levels, although the National Decentralisation Policy
was approved in November, 2002 and subsequently launched in August, 2004, the
Decentralization Implementation Plan (DIP) has not been approved by Government. The delay
in the approval of the DIP has affected fiscal decentralization, which has important implications
on the pace of FNDP implementation in this area.

At the level of poverty reduction, Zambia has so far fallen short of meeting the set FNDP target
and, consequently, poverty levels have worsened in several regions, particularly those that are
more disadvantaged in the rural areas. Given this situation, the country is unlikely to meet the
Millennium Development Goal No.1 of “Halving the proportion of people living in extreme
poverty by 2015.” Most importantly, there are little indications from the progress registered
thus far that the FNDP theme of “Broad based wealth and job creation through citizenry
participation and technological advancement,” would be met.
1.4 Assessment of Macroeconomic Key Performance Indicators
1.4.1 Overview
Monitoring of progress of the FNDP macroeconomic targets, especially in terms of impact on
poverty and welfare of the population, has been done using the process and outcome key
performance indicators (KPIs). The mid term assessment of the macro-economic performance
indicators has revealed that little or no progress has been made in meeting the FNDP set
targets. Table 1.4 reveals this clearly.

1.4.2 Government Domestic Borrowing


During the review period, Government over-shot the FNDP target for domestic borrowing. The
FNDP set 0.5 percent of GDP as the ceiling for domestic borrowing. At mid point of the
implementation of the Plan, this stood at 1.5 percent. This state of affairs has been explained by
a number of factors that included a large amounts of carryover funds; expansion in the
monetary policy; and the introduction of long-term government bonds. As expected, this

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outturn impacted negatively on access to credit by private sector due to continued high interest
rates.

Table 1.4: Key Performance Indicators and progress made in Macroeconomic Sector
2006-2008
Baseline Value FNDP
KPI 2005 target 2006 2007 2008 Assessment
by
2010
1 Domestic Borrowing 1.95 <0.5 1.6 1.2 1.5 Not met
as % of GDP
2 Stock of Domestic 532.8 0 491.8 248 196.2 Improving
Suppliers Debt**
(ZK billion)
3 Annual Broad Money 5,842.0 - 8,476.9 10,707.0 13,044.3 -
Supply (ZK billion)
4 Budgetary releases
for Key Sectors as a
ratio of the allocation (a) 1.11 ≥1 1.05 0.93 1
a) Health (b) 1.16 ≥1 0.96 1.06 1
b) Education (c) 0.95 ≥1 0.91 0.74 0.91 Partially met
c) Energy (d) 0.98 ≥1 1.12 1.02 1
d) Agriculture (e) 0.84 ≥1 0.85 0.71 0.84
e) Infrastructure (f) 0.41 ≥1 0.84 1.00 0.91
f) Water and
Sanitation
5 Domestic Tax 17.3 >18 17.1 18.7 17.2 Not met, but
revenue as % of GDP improving
7 Debt Service to 6.8 - 1.7 1.4 1.2
Export Ratio
8 Number of Ministries 0 48 0 0 0 Not met
and Provinces
operating IFMIS
9 Percent of key Heads 73 >95 69.4 55.1 100 met
whose total actual
expenditures is
between 95% and
105% of total funding
10 Variance between - <20 15.6 15.6 14.4 Not met
original budget and
primary budgeted
expenditure across
budget key heads
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

1.4.3 Stock of Domestic Arrears


The key performance indicator for the Stock of Domestic Arrears reveals that the FNDP mid-
term performance has been satisfactory. Domestic arrears, excluding pension arrears, declined
from K491.8 billion in 2006 to K196.2 billion in 2008(see table 1.5). This significant decline
was largely on account of settlements of all principal amounts by Government, particularly
with respect to money owed to road contractors. Despite Government’s commitment to reduce
the arrears to manageable levels, the target of zero arrears at the mid-term of the FNDP was not
met. The difficulty in monitoring the Stock of Domestic Arrears KPI is the definitional
problem. The KPI is stated as “stock of domestic suppliers’ debt” while the monitoring indices
measured total domestic arrears.

1.4.4 Annual Broad Money Supply (M3)


In the review period, broad money supply (M3) slowed down by 42.7 percent from K8, 476.9
billion in 2006 to K13, 044.3 billion in 2008. The outturn was largely on account of expansion
of net foreign assets resulting from improved performance of the external sector and the
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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resultant improvements in the international gross reserves build up; and the effects of debt
cancellation that was delivered under Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI).

Table 1.5: Summary of Domestic Debt Stock (K’ Billion), 2005 – 2008
End- %
End-Dec. End-Dec. End-Dec.
2008 Change
2005 2006 2007
Debt Category 2008/2007
Government Securities 6,983.70 7,827.41 7,595.28 8,026.51 5.7
Treasury Bills 2,088.64 3,261..99 3,416.36 3,280.40 (3.9)
GRZ Bonds 4,895.06 4,565.42 4,196.16 4,746.11 13.1
Domestic Arrears 532.84 491.88 248.17 196.25 (20.9)
(Capital) 335.45 340.40 132.74 23.94 (81.9)
(PE's & RDC's) 173.81 174.90 90.32 173.96 92.6
Pension Arrears 414.00 417.7 302.70 149.61 (50.6)
Awards & Compensations 87.49 92.50 158.01 143.30 (9.3)
Total Domestic Debt Stock 8,283.41 8,841.83 8,296.29 8,517.33 2.6
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

1.4.5 Domestic Tax Revenue as Percent of GDP


Domestic revenue as percent of GDP averaged 17.2 percent in the review period, thus,
surpassing the FNDP period average of 16.8 percent (see table 1.6). In 2006, domestic tax
revenue as a percentage of GDP stood at 16.4 percent and this was above the FNDP target 16.2
percent. In 2007, domestic revenue as a percentage of GDP stood at 18 percent on account of
exceptional performance of company tax and the widened personal income tax base. The good
performance of domestic revenue in 2007 was largely on account of exceptional performance
of the company tax.
Table 1.6: Revenue and Grants as Percentage of GDP, 2006-2008
2006 2007 2008
FNDP FNDP FNDP
Actual Actual Actual*
target target target
Revenue and Grants 20.9 21.3 22.2 22.4 22.5 25.6
Revenue 16.9 17.1 17.6 18.7 17.8 19.1
Tax Revenue 16.2 16.4 17.0 18.0 17.2 17.2
Non-Tax Revenue 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 1.4
Grants 4.1 4.3 4.7 3.6 4.7 6.4
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning
 
1.4.6 Debt Service to Export Ratio
The external debt service declined by 8.5 percent from US$ 65.2 million in 2006 to US$ 60.1
million in 2008. The lower external debt service payments were on account of reduced external
debt stock as a result of debt relief. As regards the debt service to export ratio, a downward
trend was registered in the review period with a ratio of 1.7 in 2006, 1.4 in 2007 and 1.2 in
2008. The good performance in the debt service to export ratio can be attributed to the positive
growth in the export sector.

1.4.7 Budgetary Releases to Key Sectors


During the first half of FNDP implementation, Government endeavoured to keep budgetary
releases to priority sectors such as health, education, energy, agriculture, infrastructure and
water and sanitation above 95 percent of budgetary allocation. In the review period, 91.8
percent of the approved budget was released to the priority sectors (see table 1.7). Although this
is a major achievement compared to earlier years, the trends indicate that the FNDP target of 95
percent was not met. However, if the Government continues with the same fiscal discipline,
there are indications that the FNDP target could be met by 2010.

Notwithstanding the above, two of the FNDP’s strategic sectors, Agriculture and Education,
received higher than the planned target of 95 percent of the budget allocation during the review

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period. However, releases to infrastructure, another strategic sector in the FNDP, averaged only
71.3 percent, which was far below the FNDP target. If this trend continues, the attainment of
several macroeconomic and social targets that are intimately linked to improved infrastructure
will not be achieved by 2010.

Table 1.7: Releases to key heads as a percentage of budgetary allocation 2006-2008


Period
Head MPSA 2006 2007 2008 Average
7 Office of Auditor General 90.49 86.8 85.4 87.6
13 Ministry of Energy and Water Development 91.38 74.2 84.9 83.5
29 Ministry of Local Government and Housing 95.55 100.1 71.4 89.0
37 Ministry of Finance and National Planning 100.83 102.8 77.2 93.6
46 Ministry of Health 108.70 93.1 71.6 91.1
64 Ministry of Works and Supply 84.95 71.4 57.6 71.3
80 Ministry of Education 100.24 105.6 100.8 102.2
89 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives 112.16 101.8 99.3 104.4
Total of specified target heads 102.5 91.98 81.0 91.8
Total including head 99 87.69 84.27 78.3 83.4
Source: Budget Office, MFNP

1.4.8 Expenditure Vs Funding


In the review period a total of 49 Ministries and Provinces and Spending Agencies (MPSAs)
met the criteria of having total expenditures between 95 percent and 105 percent of the total
funding. Mid way implementation of FNDP, the KPI of Expenditure vs. Funding has,
therefore, been met. Notwithstanding this positive performance, the absorptive capacity of
most MPSAs that had failed to meet the set target needs to be enhanced.

1.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


On the overall, there have been important positive achievements during the first half of the
FNDP implementation in the macroeconomic sphere. There have, however, been several
challenges that continued to compromise the realisation of the set targets. These challenges
have provided opportunities, through learned experience, for reviewing the way forward. The
matrix below identified the main outstanding challenges and recommended course of action to
address the problems is offered.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. There still remain significant (a) There is need to have clear definition and revision of
weaknesses in the M&E system Key Performance Indicators in order to effectively
that aims to measure the FNDP monitoring FNDP resource utilisation and
performance. Some of the Key programme/project implementation.
Performance Indicators (KPIs) (b) There is need to prioritise and provide adequate
are not appropriate for measuring resources for critical surveys, MISs and policy relevant
the desired outcomes. Moreover, research that would provide the requisite data and
certain KPIs do not have targets. information that supports effective M&E.
This has exposed the evident Complementary to this is the need to prioritise and
difficulties in meaningfully provide adequate resources for the development of
tracking and measuring progress M&E tools and systems.
towards the FNDP objectives.

2. Although the country’s (a) One important lesson learnt from the first half of FNDP
macroeconomic performance implementation is that, for economic growth to translate
recorded some measure of into employment creation and poverty reduction, it has
improvement in important to be broad-based with strong linkages to those sectors
respects, thanks to a combination that accommodates the majority of the poor. Pro-poor
of both external and internal focus should include agro-based industries and the
factors, the achievements have provision of financial resources that support pro-poor
not resulted in significant poverty growth, e.g. the lowering of lending rates for small-
reduction, in general, and scale farming businesses.
employment creation, in (b) The maximisation of value addition in agriculture,
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particular. Consequently, poverty, particularly peasant agriculture through the revival of


particularly rural poverty, has agro-based industries, is recommended as a pro-poor
persisted amidst sustained intervention.
economic growth and (c) There is need to prioritise the putting up of
macroeconomic stability. infrastructures in rural areas in order to attract
investment to those areas and to subsequently empower
the people to make a transition from poverty.
(d) There is need to revisit the conditions for allocating
funds under the Citizens Economic Empowerment
Programme in a manner that positively discriminate in
favour of the poor. In particular, more resources should
be allocated to priority agriculture programmes,
focusing on, inter alia, irrigation support.
(e) Annual budget allocations should be based on the
prioritised programmes of a sector under the FNDP and
not on short term objectives, guided by the unique
needs of a particular area rather than
standardising/uniform sharing of resources.
3. During the later part of the review There is need to put in place mitigating measures in order to
period, the impact of global lessen the impact of external shocks introduced by the
recession and the associated global economic crisis. The diversification of the economy
dampened demand for Zambia’s away from mineral dependence is particularly important in
major exports posed a challenge this respect
on the national economy, which is
highly vulnerable to external
shocks. The financial crisis and
the fall in copper prices, in
particular, have negatively
impacted on the growth sectors,
particularly the mining sector,
resulting in significant job losses.
4. The rate at which the country is (a) One important lesson here is that broad-based growth
contracting debt may reduce and socio-economic impact, which include job creation,
fiscal space for the future cannot be achieved without significant investment,
generations and stifle which, in turn, may require external borrowing. What is
opportunities for investments. clear is that, as expressed in Zambia’s Aid Policy and
The challenge of striking a Strategy that was launched during the first half of the
realistic balance between FNDP implementation, Government should keep debt to
maintaining sustainable debt manageable and sustainable levels.
levels while still accessing new (b) In the light of (a) above, any new borrowing should be
external financial resources for aligned to the country’s capacity to repay and on terms that
accelerating social economic would not unduly expose the country to preventable risk of
development still remains. defaulting. What is particularly important is that
Government should ensure that arrears accumulation
due to bad loan and/or investment decisions is
eliminated.
(c) There should be more debt oversight authority extended
to Parliament. This with upscale closer monitoring of
how loans are being applied, based on the country’s
debt management strategy. With this in mind,
Government’s external debt policy should be anchored upon
a more comprehensive view of fiscal risks arising from the
broader public sector and the economy as a whole.
(d) There is urgent need for a debt policy and strategy that
would guide sustainable contraction of debt.
5. There is still lip service given to (a) There is an urgent need for Cabinet to approve the
the decentralisation of Decentralisation Implementation Plan. This would
government services delivery in speed up fiscal decentralization and ensure that local
spite of the approval of the authorities are better funded and better capacitated to
National Implementation Policy collection revenue and better deliver their delegated

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many years ago. mandates.


(b) There is need to improve the capacity for local
authorities and traditional leaders on the land
administration to take into account the local interests.
6. Lack of absorption capacity by There is need to upscale MPSAs’ absorptive capacity for
ministries, provinces and other budget execution/programme implementation. This calls for
spending agencies has reduced carefully tailor-made capacity enhancing training
the realisation of some of the programmes.
targets during the period under
review. In some cases, money
has been returned to the Treasury
by under-spending ministries and
agencies. A typical example is the
returning of about K8 billion in
2007 by Ministry of Agriculture
and Cooperatives meant for
irrigation programmes.
7. Tax base is not broad and (a) There is an urgent need to put in place a more efficient,
equitable enough productive, and equitable tax system covering all
sectors for the purpose of improving domestic resource
mobilisation. This calls for the review of tax policy to
ensure that it is equitable. This would ensure that more
people are made to contribute to the national resource
envelope.
(b) There is need to broaden the tax base by crafting smart
strategies for capturing the large informal sector that
currently is left out in tax collection. Similarly,
Government should put measures to ensure that the
gemstone industry fully contributes to national revenue
through better registration and regulation.
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Poverty Reduction Performance


2
2.1 Introduction and Overview
The FNDP recognises the challenge of high poverty levels in the Country and plans to reduce
these levels. This is envisaged to be achieved through increased investments in the key priority
growth sectors of the economy. The priority focus is on achieving broad-based wealth and job
creation through enhanced pro-poor spending in areas that include rural development,
agriculture and manufacturing. These efforts should help in the attainment of the Millennium
Development Goal number one, which aims at halving poverty by 2015.
During the review period, overall poverty levels in the country reduced slightly, mainly as a
result of a marginal reduction in urban poverty levels. However, rural poverty levels showed an
upward trend. Expenditures on pro-poor sectors increased in 2006 and 2007, while 2008
experienced a marginal reduction. Notwithstanding the above, social sector indicators have
generally performed well as most of them have shown significant improvements. Thus, there is
potential to meet some of the country’s MDG targets for social sectors, particularly access to
basic education.
 

2.2 Analysis of Poverty Trends


Poverty levels in Zambia have generally remained high at 64 percent of the total population
(CSO: 2006). This has been mostly due to the increase in the incidence of poverty in the rural
population where levels rose from 78 percent in 2004 to 80 percent in 2006 (See Table 2.1)
The high poverty levels have been compounded by the poor performance of the agricultural
sector which employs the majority of people in the rural areas. On the other hand, the increase
in overall economic activity exhibited over the past few years has predominantly been an urban
phenomenon as demonstrated by rapid developments particularly in the sectors of construction,
mining and transport. This has mostly contributed to a remarkable drop in urban poverty
(LCMS: 2006). For example, urban poverty drastically dropped to 34 percent in 2006 from 53
percent in 2004. The reduction in urban poverty on the Copperbelt was largely on account of
improvements in employment opportunities in the mining sector as well as in those firms that
are associated with mining activities. On the other hand, rural poverty remained more
pronounced as it rose to 80 percent in 2006 from 78 percent in 2004. The national incidence of
poverty fell marginally to 64 percent from 68 percent between 2004 and 2006. Furthermore,
extreme poverty declined from 53 percent to 51 percent over the same period.
Table 2.1: Poverty trends, 2004 - 2006
Residence/Province Indicators 1998 2004 2006
Total Zambia Total Poor 73 68 64
Extremely Poor 58 53 51
Moderately Poor 15 15 14
Non-Poor 27 32 36
Rural Areas Total Poor 83 78 80
Urban Areas Total Poor 56 53 34
Provinces
Central Total Poor 77 76 72
Copperbelt Total Poor 65 56 42
Eastern Total Poor 79 70 79
Luapula Total Poor 82 79 73
Lusaka Total Poor 53 48 29
Northern Total Poor 81 74 78
North-western Province Total Poor 77 76 72
Southern Total Poor 75 69 73
Western Total Poor 69 83 84
Source: CSO, Living Conditions Monitoring Survey, 1998, 2004 and 2006.

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Provincial analysis of poverty trends based on the 2006 LCMS findings revealed that
significant reduction in poverty levels were from Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces. Central,
North-Western and Luapula provinces registered marginal reductions in poverty levels, while
provinces where poverty was on the increase were Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern.
As Table 2.1 above reveals, on average, poverty levels exceeded 70 percent in all provinces
except in Lusaka and Copperbelt.
 
2.3 Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction
Zambia has experienced sustained positive economic growth averaging 5 percent since 1999,
which has mainly been due to growth in mining and quarrying, construction, manufacturing as
well as transport, storage and communications sectors. This pattern of growth has had little
positive effect on the income levels of the poor who significantly depend on a sector
(agriculture) that is outside those that performed better. Agricultural performance during the
period under review improved from 2.2 percent in 2006; 0.4 percent in 2007; and 2.6 percent in
2008. Nevertheless, productivity has been on the decline. Moreover, 70 percent of agricultural
workers in Zambia are involved in informal agricultural activities. Thus, despite Zambia’s GDP
per capita increasing from US$635 in 2005 to US$934 in 2007, this positive growth has not
translated into significant reduction in poverty levels. Moreover, income distribution continues
to be skewed as the Gini-coefficient stood at 0.60 in 2006 (LCMS 2006).It is clear from the
foregoing that the growth experienced over the years, without complementary appropriate
resource targeting, has not been able to reduce the high levels of poverty in Zambia. (Table
2.2).

Table 2.2: Growth and Poverty Trends 1998-2008


Indicator /Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Goss Domestic (1.9) 2.2 3.6 4.9 3.3 5.1 5.4 5.2 6.2 6.2 5.7
Product
Poverty 73 68 64
Population Growth 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Rate
Life Expectancy at 49.7 49.7 50.0 51.8 51.9 52.4 52.4 52.6 51.9 51.4 51.3
Birth
Source: Central Statistical Office.

The structure of growth has been oriented to a few sectors, which are also capital intensive and,
thus, labour saving, which has reduced their contribution to FNDP’s goal of employment
creation. Moreover, it is clear that there are low linkages between the earnings from those
sectors that have registered growth with those, like agriculture, that house the largest number of
poor people. The low level of economic diversification in Zambia significantly contributes to
this state of affairs.
 
2.4 Pro-poor Budget Allocations and Expenditure
The areas identified in the FNDP for pro-poor public spending include, health, education,
agriculture (i.e. irrigation and livestock development), HIV and AIDS, rural infrastructure
development (i.e. feeder roads), rural financing and small and medium scale employment
promotion. The Plan has actually set expenditure targets for priority sectors of agriculture,
infrastructure, health, education and skills development, public order and safety and water
supply and sanitation. Under the agriculture sector, funding levels were targeted to rise from 5
percent of the domestic budget in 2006 to 9 percent by 2010. By 2008, however, funding to
agriculture stood at 5.8 percent of the domestic budget, representing only a minuscule increase
of 0.8 percent. This significantly explains the worsening poverty levels in rural areas that
depend on this sector for much of their livelihoods.

For infrastructure, Government expenditure emphasis in the FNDP is placed on road


infrastructure development and maintenance. For the FNDP period, spending was to be raised
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to 5.3 percent of the budget by 2009 and maintained in 2010. During the review period, total
releases to road sector amounted to K2, 130.5 billion, compared to the FNDP target of K2,
636.23 billion. In 2006 and 2007, the proportion of the domestic budget released to the road
sector was 3.4 percent, while releases for 2008 accounted for 4.2 percent. The expenditures to
this area, thus, seem to be on track.

In terms of spending on health, the FNDP targeted to raise the health sector expenditures for
both donors and Government from 10.6 percent in 2006 to around 14.1 percent by 2010.
During the same period, government spending would have to rise from 7 percent to 11.5
percent. The proportion of the domestic budget spent on health rose to 10.7 percent in 2007 and
dropped to 9.7 percent in 2008 respectively. For 2007, this represented an increase of only
0.1percent, while the 2008 outturn was a decline of 0.9 percent over the 2006 figure. FNDP
performance in the area of health during the review period has, thus, been below target.

Furthermore, the FNDP targets to increase spending on education and skills development to
22.4 percent by 2010, from 16.3 percent achieved in 2006. The proportion of the domestic
budget spending on education and skills development in 2007 and 2008 were 22.7 percent and
19 percent respectively. The outturn for 2007 was 0.3 percent above the end year while the
2008 achievement was a 2.7 percent increase over the 2006 figure. This was a generally
positive performance for the education sector.
Spending on water supply and sanitation from the domestic budget was envisaged to increase to
0.6 percent of the domestic budget by 2010 from 0.2 percent in 2006. Actual releases to the
water supply and sanitation sector accounted for 0.5 percent of the domestic budget in 2007.
From the foregoing, it can be concluded that the target of 0.6 percent in 2010 can be met if the
current expenditure levels are sustained with only marginal improvements.

The budget implementation data shows that that spending on priority and pro-poor sectors has
generally been satisfactory. Thus, achievement of the overall funding targets to these sectors
may be attained but there is still need for intra-budgetary re-alignment for more effective
results.
Figure 2.1: Releases as Percentage of Discretionary Budget for Selected Sectors, 2006 -
2008

25.00

20.00

15.00

Percentage
10.00

5.00

0.00
Health Water & Sanitation Education Social Protection Agriculture Infrastructure
(Feeder Roads)

2006 2007 2008

Source: Economic Reports 2006 – 08

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2.5 Budget Implementation


During the review period, annual budget allocation to Poverty Reduction Programmes (PRPs)
recorded an increase from 42.6 percent in 2006 to 47.2 percent in 2008. Total allocations to
PRPs over the review period averaged 45.78 percent of the total budget from all the sectors and
provinces. The budget releases out of the total allocations in the three years, however, were less
than programmed and stood at an average of 64.1 percent. (figure 2.2). In 2006, a total of
K2,343.7 billion (or 42.57 percent of the budget) was released to programmes classified as
PRPs. During 2007, a total of K5, 645.7 billion (or 46.9 percent of the total budget) was
allocated to poverty reduction programmes while the 2008 PRP budget allocation was K6,
488.8 billion, representing 47 percent of the total budget for the year. The actual percentage
releases in respect of PRP allocations are shown in figure 2.3.

Figure 2.2: Percentage of PRP Allocations to Budget 2006 – 2008

Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

Figure 2.3: Percentage PRP releases against PRP budget allocation, 2006-2008

Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

The bulk of the PRP allocations were meant for capital programmes especially for road and
other infrastructure development. Budget implementation over the period was, however,
affected by low absorption capacity on account of the slow pace of implementation of most
capital programmes.
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2.6 Performance of Selected Poverty Indicators


Performance of selected FNDP poverty indicators from the base period to the mid term review
period has generally been positive although varied trends have been recorded for the different
sectors. Poverty levels in the country have slightly declined showing an improvement over the
last trends. However, the slow rate of decline would render the MDG target of halving poverty
rates to 29 percent challenging. The general trend in performance for economic indicators
shows sustained improvements and even over-performance against set targets, although
employment and annual inflation targets may not be attained as trends in these indicators show
declines in performance. This is indicated by the higher than programmed outturn of 16.6
percent in 2008 against a single digit target of 5 percent in 2010. Similarly, employment rates
have declined by 4 percent from 2004 to 2008, thus, rendering achievement of the FNDP goal
of “Broad-based wealth and job creation through citizenry participation and technological
advancement,” difficult by 2010 (See table 2.3).

Table 2.3: Overview of Performance against selected Poverty Indicators


Baseline Current
Indicator (Year) (Year) Target 2010 Comment
Total Poor 68 (2004) 64 (2006) 29 Improved
Of which Urban (%) 53 34 (2015) Improved
Of which Rural (%) 78 80% Worsened
Annual Real GDP Growth (%) 5.4 6.0 7 Improved but
(2004) (2008) below target
Annual Inflation % 8.9 16.6 5 Increased
(2006) (2008) (2010)
Employment % 59 55 No target set Declined
(2004) (2006)
Real per capita GDP (in US$) 635 962 676 Improved
(2005) (2008)
Life expectancy at Birth 51.9 51.3 No target set Declined
(2006) (2008)
Population Growth Rate % 3.0 2.9 2.0 Declined
(2006) (2008) (2010)
Population with access to safe water % 57 59 75 Improved
(2004) (2006) (2015)
HIV Prevalence % 15.6 14.3 16 or less Improved and
(2001/2) (2007) (2015) above target
Infant Mortality Rate 95/1,000 70/1,000 30/1,000 Improved
(2001/2) (2007) (2015)
Child Mortality Rate 81/1,000 52/1,000 No target set Improved
(2001/2) (2007)
Households with access to sanitary % means 10 35 Improved
of Waste disposal1 (2004)
Maternal Mortality Rate 729/100,000 449/100,000 162/100,000 Improved
(2001/2) (2007) (2015)
Stunting Prevalence % 46.8 45.4 37 Improved
(2001/2) (2007)
Wasting Prevalence% 5.0 5.2 2.5 Worsened
(2001/2) (2007)
Source: Central Statistical office

Performance of the social indicators has shown some improvements during the period under
review as demonstrated by positive outcomes for health, HIV and AIDS and Water Supply and
Sanitation. The Health Sector indicators of infant and maternal mortality rates declined from 95
per 1,000 to 70 per 1,000 and 729 per 100,000 to 449 per 100,000 between 2001-2002 and
2007. Similarly, the HIV prevalence rate declined from 15.6 percent in 2001-2002 to 14.3
percent in 2007, thereby exceeding the MDG target. In addition, access by households to

1
This is a proxy indicator for households with access to sanitary means of excreta disposal

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sanitary means of excreta disposal increased from 76.4 percent in 2004 to 85.5 percent in 2006.
(MLGH 2007).

The improvements in economic indicators during the period are largely a result of the
favourable macroeconomic environment and increased investment and economic activity in the
growth sectors (see Chapter 1). On the other hand, the poor performance of employment could
be attributed to high attrition rates due to among other factors; HIV and AIDS, brain-drain and
low recruitments in health, education and agriculture sectors. As for the Consumer Price Index,
the poor performance was mainly due to high food and non-food prices.

The favourable performance of social sector indicators is mainly due to consistent and high
investments in the sector, coupled with a supportive policy environment towards the
achievement of both domestic and global targets. Further, Government’s commitment and
leadership in the implementation and monitoring of programmes in the social sectors has had a
positive impact on social outcomes.

2.7 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


Overall, poverty levels, on the average, declined during the review period and a number of
social indicators showed signs of improvement. Notwithstanding this, poverty levels worsened
in poorer provinces. A number of challenges remain unaddressed. The matrix below identified
the main outstanding challenges and offers recommended courses of action to address the
problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. Poverty has persisted amidst sustained (a) There is need to put in place specific interventions
economic growth and macroeconomic to improve the welfare of the extreme poor and
stability. The high Gini-Coefficient, vulnerable population through a well targeted
high prevalence of informal economic system of transfers. This is aimed at reducing the
activities and declining growth in prevalence of extreme poverty which stands at 54
agriculture, as well as the pattern of percent.
growth skewed toward sectors which (b) It is clear that rapid economic growth is better than
are predominantly urban based, are slow growth in eradicating poverty. However,
drivers of poverty in the country. since economic structures and policy environment
are constantly changing, economic growth benefits
will only accrue to the poor if these are well
targeted
(c) Appropriate targeting of Economic Empowerment
programmes aimed at wealth and job creation is
critical to achieve increased levels of employment
in the country through the private sector.
(d) Efficiency of resource allocation and decentralized
programme funding, implementation and strong
monitoring of poverty reducing and capital
programmes is key to achievement of rural
development.
(e) In terms of Policy responsiveness, Government
policies need to be re-assessed periodically to
ascertain whether they are adequate to lift the poor
out of poverty. For instance this needs to be done
for policies that create jobs for the poor, invest in
human resources, expenditures directed to the poor
in rural finance and credit
2. Rural poverty is on the increase and is (a) Rural Financing is critical to the growth of rural
related to low productivity and slow economies and enhancement of private investment
growth of the agriculture sector, which by rural populace. The poor are generally
employs the majority of the rural characterised by lack of productive assets, other
populace. Moreover, the informal than their labour power. Hence, improved access
nature of employment in the agriculture to land and credit is an obvious strategy to
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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sector has also contributed to stagnation improve their position. Improved access to land
in household incomes for communities and credit could make a considerable impact on
engaged in the agriculture sector. rural poverty alleviation. The poor though they
lack collateral need credit for their basic
consumption and to finance working capital
(b) Infrastructure should be provided to rural areas to
stimulate the rural economy and improve
livelihoods.
3. Though most budget allocations to pro- (a) Pro-poor programmes should be clearly identified
poor sectors were on target, intra- in the priority spending sectors and allocated
budget allocations in some instances adequate funding to achieve desired poverty
were skewed toward one or two outcomes.
programmes in the sector to the (b) There is need to establish employment creation
detriment of other programmes, e.g. schemes such as the Multi-Facility Economic
agriculture sector. Zones (MFEZ) to address the high levels of
unemployment in the country.
(c) Efforts should be made to ensure adherence of
planned expenditure especially in health and
education and other pro-poor priorities.

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Part 2

Economic Sectors Performance


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3
Agriculture
3.1 Introduction and Overview
The main policy objective of the agriculture sector during the FNDP period is “to promote
increased and sustainable agriculture production, productivity and competitiveness in order to
ensure food security; employment and reduction in poverty levels.” The Plan envisaged
increasing resource allocations to the sector
FNDP AGRICULTURE KEY POLICY
from 1.6 percent of GDP to at least 2.3 percent OBJECTIVES
by 2010. During the FNDP period, the overall goal for the
agricultural sector is “to promote increased and
sustainable agricultural production, productivity and
In the light of the above objectives, the FNDP competitiveness in order to ensure food security;
priority areas in the agriculture sector include income generation; creation of employment
opportunities; and reduction in poverty levels.”
financing the control of pests and diseases; Governments’ focus was on the provision of rural and
provision of agriculture and integrated rural agricultural infrastructure, research and extension,
infrastructure; research and extension; and pest and disease control, agri-business and
cooperative development.
capacity building. The expected outcomes from these FNDP
programmes are the following:
During the period under review, growth in the (a) Attainment of food security for the majority
of households;
agricultural sector declined from 2.2 percent in (b) An increased contribution of the agricultural
2006 to 0.4 percent in 2007 and dwindled further sector to total foreign exchange earnings;
(c) Agricultural sector growth of 10 percent per
to 0.1 percent in 2008. This was due to annum from 2006 onwards;
unfavourable weather conditions in the country (d) Increased contribution of agriculture to
coupled with late distribution of inputs and GDP; and
constant outbreak of livestock diseases. (e) Increased incomes for those involved in the
agricultural sector
However, some crops such as rice, sunflower,
and mixed beans registered favourable growth.
 
To attain the FNDP objectives, Government embarked on the review of legal and institutional
framework of the sector. In this regard, the key policy measures undertaken included the
following:
(a) Formulation of a draft Cooperative Development Policy (CDP).
(b) Revision of legal framework governing the cooperative movement under the
Cooperative Societies Act of 1998.
(c) Review of Fisheries Act in order to bring it in line with current
developments in the sector;
(d) review of the agricultural marketing and credit acts in order to promote a
competitive, efficient and transparent public and private sector driven
marketing system for agricultural commodities.
(e) Formulation of Aquaculture (fish farming) Development Strategy aimed at
improving and promoting fish farming.
(f) Introduction of the Plant Breeder’s Rights Bill in Parliament aimed at
facilitating investment in Zambia Seed industry.
(g) Launch of the National Irrigation Policy and Plan (NIP) aimed at mitigating
the dependence on rain for agricultural production and harmonizing
increased investments in the irrigation sub sector.
(h) Launch of the Irrigation Development Fund (IDF) whose objective is to
mobilize irrigation funds to be disbursed to small holder farmers for
acquisition of irrigation equipment.

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3.2 Budget Performance


The total budget in the three year period for the agriculture sector was K1,243.1 billion, against
the total FNDP projections of K1, 542.3 billion. Out of the total budget, K 1,370.6 billion was
actually released. This reflected 85.5 percent releases of the FNDP projections and 110.3
percent of the budget allocation. The budget over performance was mainly attributed to the
Fertilizer Support Programme and Strategic Food Reserve. It should be noted that the budget
releases to the sector is not disaggregated between Government and Donor because it was
difficult to trace the donors’ direct support to the sector programmes (Table 3.1).

Table 3.1: Budget Allocation and Releases for Core FNDP Programmes 2006-2008
(K billion)
Total 2006-2008
% %
Programmes as indicated in FNDP FNDP Budget Releases Releases / Releases /
Projection FNDP Budget
1. Irrigation development 177.4 43.8 23.5 20.0 53.6
2. Agriculture infrastructure & Land 151.9 27.4 15.2 10.0 55.4
development
3. Livestock development 194.4 46.3 49.5 25.5 106.9
4. Agricultural services & Tech 198.3 75.7 55.2 27.8 72.9
Development
5. Fisheries Development 56.3 38.0 30.5 54.1 80.2
6. Policy formulation and Coordination 67.6 49.8 43.0 63.6 86.3
7. Agric Marketing, Trade & 85.2 16.0 11.5 13.5 71.9
Agribusiness
8. Cooperative Development 12.6 21.2 13.1 103.8 61.6
9. Human Resources and Management 31.0 65.5 63.0 203.1 96.1
Dev
10. Fertilizer Support Programme 497.6 523.8 664.0 133.8 127.2
11. Strategic Food Reserves 130.0 335.5 400.2 307.9 119.3
TOTAL 1,542.3 1,243.1 1,370.6 88.9 110.3
Source: Economic Reports 2006-2008, FNDP 2006-2007progress reports and 2006 FNDP

One noteworthy result of the agriculture sector is the huge gulf between what was budgeted for
in the FNDP and the actual expenditure, revealing clear indications that the Plan provided very
little guidance to Government’s expenditure pattern in this field during the review period. Some
of the sectors that were billed as high priority in the FNDP received the least financing, a
phenomenon that definitely contributed to the worsening poverty levels in those areas,
particularly rural regions, which depend on agriculture for livelihood. Such strategic budget
lines as irrigation development, agriculture infrastructure, livestock development and
agricultural marketing received marginal funding in spite of their having been identified in the
Plan as priority areas and despite their holding promise for poverty reduction and,
consequently, improved social welfare of the larger segment of the poor. Fertiliser Support
Programme (FSP), on the other hand, did not only receive the largest share of the agricultural
budget in the FNDP but also netted larger than both the budgeted and released funds during the
review period. It is particularly noteworthy that the efficiency and effectiveness of the Fertiliser
Support Programme has remained questionable, which raises legitimate questions regarding the
rationale of its amassing such a disproportionate share of the agriculture sector budget. During
the field assessment, this MTR established that the FSP is not reaching the intended
beneficiaries due to leakages and poor targeting. In its current form, the FSP is likely to
undermine the overall performance of the agricultural sector and defeat the very purpose of the
FNDP in the agricultural sector, in general, and with respect to poverty reduction, in particular
to the extent that the majority of poor people depend on agriculture. In addition, the FSP’s
skewed support towards one crop (maize), important though it is the national staple food, has
distorted funding to the entire sector and continued to undermine the larger FNDP goal of crop
diversification. In addition, most cooperatives registered during the review period were
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agriculture-oriented principally because they want to benefit from subsidized inputs under the
FSP.
 
3.3 Programme Performance
3.3.1 Irrigation Development
In the period under review, the Irrigation Development Programme focused on infrastructure
development and irrigation support. Irrigation schemes in nine Farmer Training Institutes as
well as dams and weirs were constructed and rehabilitated throughout the country. A total of
nine irrigation schemes, three dams and one weir were completed, while works in 13 other
irrigation schemes were on going. A total of 3,885 hectares were brought under irrigation in
2007, which was below the target of 10,000 hectares. Whilst this is a critical area in the
development of the agricultural sector, the programme has been faced with a number of
constraints in terms of poor coordination; inadequate funding; weak absorption capacity by
some spending ministries and agencies; and poor coordination among responsible ministries
and cooperating partners. The disjointed efforts and inadequate coordination with beneficiaries
has affected ownership and utilization of irrigation infrastructure.
Monitoring of the activities under irrigation has been weak and this has adversely affected
successful implementation of programmes. With regard to funding, the MTR established that
much of the money failed to trickle down from the Ministry of Agriculture headquarters to
lower organs, a state of affairs that is explained principally by weak fiscal decentralization. In
2007, irrigation funds were moved to the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission
(CEEC). In that year, there were no disbursements made to irrigation development
programmes. There are concerns that, under the current arrangement within CEEC, irrigation
development programmes may not be accorded the required attention to register positive
change in the sub-sector. This is because the funds under CEEC are administered as one pool
fund for any investment proposal. The progress achieved during the review period is presented
in the table3.2.
Table 3.2: Irrigation schemes 2006-2008
Province Location Project Name Status
Lusaka Chongwe Chalimbana FTI Irrigation demo Completed
Lusaka NRDC Irrigation Scheme Completed
Lusaka Cooperative College Irrigation Scheme Completed
Kafue Shantumbu Irrigation Scheme 30% Completed
Southern Monze Kanchomba FTI Irrigation demo on going
Monze Kanundwa Irrigation Scheme 60% Completed
Choma Ndondi dam Completed
Sinazongwe Kwenga Dam Spillway Surveyed
Namwala Kabulamwanda Dam Spillway Completed
Eastern Chipata Kacholola FTI Irrigation demo Completed
Chipata Mucheleka Irrigation Scheme 40%Completed
Lundazi Tigone Dam Completed
Western Mongu Namushekende FTI Irrigation demo Completed
Luapula Mansa Mansa FTI irrigation demo Completed
Milenge Mulumbi Irrigation Scheme 80% Completed
Kawambwa Kapaku Weir Completed
Northern Kasama Kasama FTI Irrigation Scheme Completed
Kasama Lukulu North Irrigation Scheme 50%
Mbala Chineke Irrigation Scheme 75%
Central Kabwe Kembe FTI Irrigation Demo Completed
Kapirimposhi Mulila Kazembe Irrigation Scheme Completed
Copperbelt Masaiti Masaiti FTI Irrigation Scheme On going
Kalulushi Chapula Irrigation Scheme On going
North Western Solwezi Kiyafukuma FTI Irrigation Demo On going
Solwezi Kiyafukuma FTI Irrigation Scheme On going
Solwezi Kalubamba Irrigation Scheme 60%
Mwinilunga Ikelenge Irrigation Scheme 40%
Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives

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The condition of Farmers Training Institutes (FTIs) and small irrigation schemes were in bad
condition prior to the activities undertaken during the FNDP period. Since then, irrigation
demonstrations are being done in these FTIs and some small scale farmers are slowly beginning
to engage in irrigation focusing mainly on vegetable production.

3.3.2 Agriculture Infrastructure and Land Development


During the period under review, the sector continued with the development of the Nansanga
farm block while works on the Luena Farm Block were deferred due to inadequate funding
although the agriculture sector received 110 percent of its allocated budget. Works on the
Nansanga Farm block were mainly towards electrification, demarcation surveys, and
rehabilitation and construction of Milima-Nansanga road and bridges. Furthermore, the
designing and planning of one small irrigation scheme is on-going. The feasibility studies for
the other farm blocks (Kalumwange, Mikilingi and Mwasemphangwe) were also done during
the period under review.

3.3.3 Livestock Development


In the livestock sub-sector, the main thrust was to control livestock diseases such as Contagious
Bovine Pluero-pnuemonia (CBPP) and Foot and Mouth Diseases (FMD). Various control
measures were put in place. They included vaccination campaigns; immunization of calves
against East Coast fever; livestock movement controls mainly in Southern Province; and the
construction of the cordon line. Despite these efforts, disease outbreaks continued to be a
challenge, which has adversely affected animal draft power and breeding stock. In 2007,
livestock population was estimated to have declined by 1.5 percent to 5,155,178 from
5,231,364 in 2006 (Economic Report, 2007). However, cattle population increased from an
estimate of 2, 215,189 in 2006 to 2,437,563 in 2007 (MACO annual report, 2007).

In order to mitigate the impact of livestock disease outbreak, 1,037 animals were distributed to
beneficiaries in Southern Province while 252 heifers were distributed to 42 farmer groups in
Central Province as part of the 2007 Cattle Restocking Programme. In some provinces, the
cattle restocking programme was at a slow pace. However, no restocking was done in 2008 as
the funds allocated for this programme were not released. In addition to the cattle restocking
programme, Dairy farming was implemented in collaboration with cooperating partners such as
Agriculture Support Programme (ASP), GART, and Heifer International. Land O’ Lakes
constructed milk collection centres most of which were linked to dairy processors.

3.3.4 Agricultural Services and Technology Development


Under Agricultural Services and Technology Development, activities focused on research,
extension, farm power mechanisation and seed control and certification. Achievements were
reported in the areas of soils research, plant quarantine and phyto-sanitary services (PQPS),
variety testing and registration, variety releases, research, adoption and promotion of small
scale equipment, conservation tillage and farm power mechanisation. However, maize
production and yields continued to decline despite increase in the area planted as shown in table
3.3. Sorghum, groundnuts, barley tobacco and wheat production also declined. However,
production of crops such as rice, sunflower, millet, and mixed beans increased over the review
period largely due to increases in area planted. The poor performance in crop production was
mainly due to a number of factors that included adverse weather conditions; inadequate
extension staff to provide technical support; high cost and untimely and insufficient supply of
inputs; and weak crop marketing systems.

3.3.5 Fisheries Development


The fisheries sub-sector showed remarkable growth between 2006 and 2008. Quantities of fish
production under capture fisheries increased by 20 percent from 65,927 metric tonnes in 2006
to 79,403 metric tonnes in 2008 while kapenta production grew by 90 percent over the same
period from 6,251 metric tonnes in 2006 to 11,890 metric tonnes in 2008. This growth was as a
result of the promotion of community-based resource management as well as intensified patrols
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on all fishery areas aimed at enforcing regulations such as the fish ban and monitoring of
fishing gear. However, there are indications that, over the years, the number of fishers and
fishing gear has increased resulting in greater fishing pressure and the subsequent decline in
catch per unit effort, (Bangweulu Frame Survey, 2007).

Table 3.3: Area Planted and Crop Production 2006/7 – 2007/8


Crop Area Planted Yeild (Mt/ha) Crop Production
2006/7 2007/8 % Change 2006/7 2007/8 % Change 20606/7 2007l8 % Change
Maize 872,812 928,224 6 1.57 1.31 -17 1,336,158 1,211,566 -9
Sorghum 31,596 24,349 -23 0.40 0.41 2 12,773 9,992 -22
Rice 20,067 25,349 26 0.91 0.98 8 18,317 24,023 31
Millet 56,817 45,508 -20 0.38 0.74 95 21,707 33,943 56
Sunflower 28,829 32,491 13 0.31 0.38 23 8,953 12,662 41
Groundnuts 147,320 5,425 -96 0.37 0.48 30 55,215 1,329 -98
Soyabeans 38,947 32,404 -17 1.42 1.75 23 55,194 56,839 3
Seed Cotton 89,312 111,307 25 0.61 0.64 5 54,886 71,820 31
Mixed Beans 55,532 59,588 7 0.43 0.70 63 24,164 44,463 84
Barley Tobacco 10,000 1,815 -82 1.00 2.56 156 10,000 4,659 -53
Virginia Tobacco 8,265 9,299 13 1.88 1.82 -3 15,562 17,005 9
Wheat 19,188 19,480 2 6.42 9.80 53 115,843 113,242 -2

Source: Ministry of agriculture and Cooperatives/CSO


 
3.3.6 Agricultural Marketing, Trade and Agribusiness Development
In improving agricultural input and output market, the agriculture sector, through the Fertilizer
Support Programme (FSP) continued to administer the subsidized inputs with a total of 8,099
metric tonnes of certified seed and 214,000 metric tonnes of fertilizer being provided to a total
number of 553,000 small-scale farmers. As indicated in table 3.1 above, of the total FNDP
financial projection of 85.2 billion for agricultural marketing, trade and agribusiness during the
review period, only K11.5 billion was actually released.

During the review period, a number of trade transactions involving non-traditional agriculture
commodities were carried out, with primary agriculture (consisting of crops such as cotton,
tobacco, tea, coffee, and maize) generating foreign exchange amounting to US $605.7 million.
Floriculture export earnings amounted to US$243.5 million while Horticulture contributed
US$96.6 million (figure 3.1).

For primary agriculture export earnings, coffee faired quite well as it generated significant
foreign exchange. However, the country could not meet the high demand for this commodity as
production levels had declined. Export earnings from the maize tremendously increased by 441
percent. This could have been higher had the ban on export, especially in 2008, not been
effected. For cotton, the export earnings declined due to reduced national production and
unfavourable international prices. These developments negatively impacted on the FNDP
objective of increasing the agricultural sector’s contribution to foreign exchange from 3 -5
percent to 10-20 percent.

3.3.7 Cooperative Development


During the period under review, the Government continued revamping the cooperatives in
order to stimulate an effective and sustainable cooperative movement. In 2007, a total number
of 1,344 new cooperatives were registered, bringing the cumulative figure to 14,713. In 2008,
about 610 new cooperatives were registered, pushing the total to 15,323. The cooperative
development programme, however, experienced numerous constraints that included inadequate
logistical support; low human resource capacity; and inadequate legal framework, which
continued to impact on its capacity to deliver services effectively.

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Figure 3.1 Export Earnings for selected crops: 2006-2008


100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0 2006
US $ million 60.0
50.0 2007
40.0
30.0 2008
20.0
10.0
0.0
Floriculture Horticult. Tobacco Cotton Maize Coffee
Commodities
Source: Zambia Development Agency, 2007 Export Audit report
 
3.3.8 Human Resource Development
During the period under review, the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives had
establishment vacancies totalling 1,119 for agriculture technical staff, mainly extension
officers. In order to address this human resource shortfall, more than 1,000 technical staff of all
categories were recruited. The positive impact of the recruited staff are yet been felt by the
targeted farmers.

3.3.9 Food Security


The MTR discovered that Zambia’s food security situation is poor as the proportion of food-
insecure population varies from year to year despite the occasional surpluses the country
produces during good agricultural seasons. The food security situation in Zambia has remained
very critical in recent years and appears to have deteriorated significantly in the last three years.
This is mainly due to high poverty levels undermining productivity; unfavourable agricultural
practices; high dependence on rain for food production vis-à-vis the limited attention given to
the irrigation programme; inadequate market access; declining use of improved agricultural
technologies; droughts and floods during some seasons; and the multi-dimensional impacts of
HIV and AIDS, which includes labour shortages and poor dietary intake. Production of maize
has also in most years failed to match national demand. This implies that poor Zambian
households cannot access adequate food to meet their nutritional requirements. Hunger and
malnutrition are a direct consequence of household food insecurity and the period under review
did not reveal significant improvements at this level.. Combined with HIV and AIDS and
inappropriate maternal and child care, the nutritional status of vulnerable populations in the
country has been severely undermined.

The main nutritional problems prevailing in the country are protein energy malnutrition,
presenting as stunting among children and micronutrient deficiencies, particularly iron
deficiency. Malnutrition has also continued to occur even when access to food is sufficient.
Factors influencing nutrition status include access to safe water and sanitation, feeding
practices, maternal hygiene, and morbidity and HIV and AIDS. These factors pose a challenge
to food utilization as clean water is essential for proper food preparation, while poor sanitary
conditions increases the risk of exposure to disease, reducing the conversion efficiency of food
by the body. Access to safe drinking water during the review period was heavily compromised
by recurring drought conditions and poor water management and weak implementation of
policies relating to water and sanitation. The repercussions have been far reaching: Poor access
to water and sanitation leads to exposure to harmful and potentially life-threatening micro-
organisms, which have been a major contributory factor to mortality and morbidity from
diarrhoea and other intestinal disorders, particularly among children. It is estimated that at least
80 percent of all sicknesses in the average poor country can be traced back to unsafe water,
directly or as a breeding ground for diseases and insect vectors. The frequent outbreaks of
cholera during the rain season in Zambia are a reflection of the limited provision of safe
drinking water in both rural area and the unplanned settlements of urban centres.
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HIV and AIDS, which is an underlying factor of household food insecurity in Zambia given the
pandemic’s high prevalence level, will continue to pose various threats to household food
security, particularly where the loss or incapacitation of the breadwinner in a family puts
pressure on household income through medical expenses, reduced income and time spent in
caring for the sick. With regards to the treatment of the pandemic, the efficiency of ART
interventions has also been compromised when the target population is drinking
contaminated/polluted water.

Limited opportunities for income generation have worsened poverty levels, in general, and food
insecurity, in particular. In Zambia, the poor are net buyers of food and data indicates that, on
average, food constitutes more than 80 percent of total expenditure for this group, which would
even be higher in the absence of food assistance. The most vulnerable groups include
households that are headed by the elderly, those that host orphans, those with a disabled
member, and those that are either female-headed or child-headed. This is because they usually
have lower income per capita and are less involved in income generation activities, making
them more susceptible to high food price shocks that characterised part of the period under
review.

Low production and productivity in the agricultural sector has also contributed to food
insecurity during the review period. Although a larger percentage of the population resides in
rural areas and their major livelihood is said to be crop and livestock production, a larger
proportion of them still depend on marketed output for their food requirements. The identified
causes of this include low access to, and use of extension services; untimely access to the right
inputs, particularly fertiliser; inadequate mechanisation for drought power; poor access to good
quality seed; dependence on rain-fed agriculture; limited agricultural skills; and reluctance to
engage in crop diversification due, in part, to preference for maize that has been encouraged by
policy decisions. Drought has also negatively affected the conditions for grain production and
livestock development in some parts of Zambia (particularly the southern half of the country),
damaging soil fertility, water availability and biodiversity.

3.4 Assessment of Key Performance Indicators


Six Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were identified to measure annual progress in the
agricultural as listed in table 3.4. Generally, the table shows that most of the KPIs were not met
during the period under review. From these KPIs, values, it is clear that performance of the
agriculture sector has not been satisfactory, suggesting the unlikelihood of the sector meeting
the targets set in the FNDP.
Table 3.4: Assessment of key performance targets and national level
Key Performance Base Value 2006 2007 2008* 2010 Assessment for
Indicator 2005 Actual Actual Actual Target the 2010 target
Growth rate in the 2.8 2.2 0.4 (0.1) 49 Target not likely
agricultural sector % to be met
Contribution of agriculture 18-20 13.7 12.9 12.2 25 Target not likely
to GDP % to be met
Contribution of agriculture 8.9 20 9.8 - 20 Target not likely
to foreign exchange to be met
earnings %
Proportion of population 84 90 - Greater Likely to be met
assessed as food secure % than 95%
Reduction in the number of 45 40 14 39 Less than Target not likely
districts that are food 5 to be met
insecure districts
Source: FNDP progress report 2007 (*preliminary estimates)

3.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


The performance rate of the agricultural sector during the review period was mixed but,
generally, there has been little positive development during this period. A number of challenges

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remain unaddressed. The matrix below identified the main outstanding challenges and offers
recommended courses of action to address the problems.
Outstanding Challenge Recommendation
Improvement in Resource Allocation and disbursement Patterns
The annual budget allocations have not (a) Government’s annual budget should closely
matched the FNDP annual projections. The follow the prioritisation of the FNDP and
over-emphasis on some programmes ensure that allocations to the Plan’s core
(mainly FSP and FRA) to the exclusion of programmes are adhered to so as to reflect the
all other programmes has affected overall level of FNDP goals.
performance of the sector. There is also (b) The current situation where funding is skewed
significant resource wastage and towards FSP and FRA should be redressed so
misapplication on personnel-related that more funding is released for equally
expenditure such as allowances at the important programmes.
expense of real investments (c) The Budget line for FSP and FRA should be
separated and detached from the core MACO
budget to ensure better focus and targeting
(d) There is need for a deliberate policy on public
investments in agriculture infrastructure and to
separate the personnel emolument component
and allowances from capital expenditure
budgets
Efficiency of the Fertiliser Support Programme (FSP)
The FSP has performed badly with respect (a) Government should urgently examine the
to resource targeting and monitoring of its implications of continuing implementation of
impact the FSP in its present design. Specifically, the
programme should be revisited with a view to
making it more efficient and beneficial to both
government and the agricultural sector at large
and not just benefiting a few farmers.
(b) There is need to implement the
recommendations made by all previous audits
of the FSP to allow the Programme achieve
food security and contribute to economic
growth
Hastening of Legislative Reforms
Delayed implementation of policy and legal There is an urgent need to finalise all the enabling
framework such as the Cooperative pieces of legislation that are required to effectively
Development Policy (CDP), Agricultural implement the interventions that are needed
Marketing and Credit Act, Agricultural towards the realisation of the FNDP objectives
Credit act, Plant Breeder’s rights Bill and
Aquaculture Strategy has had a negative
effect on the performance of the sector.

Implementation of the Irrigation Development Programme (IDP)


The IDP has been neglected during the (a) The Irrigation Development programme
review period in spite of the recognition in should be revamped to align it to the
the FNDP that it is an important element in expectations of the FNDP. In this regard, the
the transformation of the agricultural sector decision to transfer the funds from MACO to
the CEEC should be reversed as a matter of
urgency so that their allocation and
application should be for the intended
purposes.
(b) There is need for synergies, linkages and
coordination at national, provincial and
district levels to be developed in the
construction of functionally-related dams and
canals, nationwide
(c) There is need to establish one-stop shops for
irrigation equipment
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(d) The development of irrigation infrastructure


especially dams should be undertaken where
there are existing or potential production
centres. This would secure the sustainability
of the investment.
Enhanced Livestock Development
There remains major challenges regarding (a) A more balanced approach to livestock
the management of the livestock development should be put in place in order to
development programme, particularly at the ensure that sufficient funds are equitably
level of resource targeting utilised on both cattle as well as small
livestock programmes.
(b) There is need for a pragmatic policy approach
to increase livestock production through
improved cattle restocking and expansion and
well capacitated extension services.
Apart from restocking cattle, there is need to step
up other livestock, which are less prone to disease
outbreaks. Animal restocking should be preceded
by measures against diseases.
(c) There is need for increased allocation of
resources for disease control, which should
include the construction of disease control
barriers and animal dip tanks/crush pens.
(d) More veterinary extension officers should be
recruited.
(e) There should be compulsory animal dipping
and vaccination through the enforcement of
legislation
(f) There is need for cordon barriers and
quarantine points at border posts such as
Kazungula to Zambezi District
(g) There is need to encourage collaboration with
neighbouring countries on general livestock
management.
Improved Fisheries Development
The aquaculture development strategy is (a) Modalities for operationalising the
weak and not equitable and, consequently, Aquaculture Development Strategy should be
the sub-sector hardly contributes to poverty developed. This should include:
reduction particularly in those provinces o Improvement in fish management
that has the highest incidences of poverty o Increasing and better targeting resources
(b) Funding the Fisheries Development Plan
should be increased for both improved
contribution of the sector to overall fish
production as well as enhanced benefits from
it by participating households.
Improved Agricultural Extension Services
Agricultural extension services have More resources should be allocated to agricultural
received insufficient resources and attention extension services to make them more responsive
as important inputs in agricultural to the demands of increased productivity and crop
productivity enhancement. diversification in line with the FNDP objectives.
Particular attention should focus on the following:
o Increase supervision and monitoring of
extension officers
o Improve working conditions for extension
officers,
o Rehabilitate and/or build additional
infrastructure
o Provide transport facilities at all levels
o There is need for intensified research and
development (R&D) on crops, farming

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methods and environmentally friendly seeds.


Promotion of Bio-fuels and other alternative sources of Energy
There is very little investment in the Government should promote, through the creation
opportunities that are being provided by of an enabling environment, the development
bio-fuels (mainly by the private sector) of bio-fuels and
other alternative sources of energy. This should
entail MACO and MEWD harmonising their
policies on food and bio-fuel production
Land Improvement and Management
Land administration and management has land administration should be streamlined,
lagged behind the ever-increasing demand focusing on the following:
for land for both agriculture and other o Faster processing of land allocation/titles
developments. Consequently, the sector’s o Decentralisation of land administration
expansion has tended to be compromised o Enhance capacity to open up land for
different uses through improvement of land
surveys
Revision of Key Performance Indicators
Presently, the M&E for the agriculture (a) The MACO, as the lead government
sector is generally unhelpful in institution in the sector, should initiate the
systematically tracking changes in process of revising the FNDP Key
conditions being monitored. A collection of Performance Indicators with a view to
indicators are often clustered together in a adopting more appropriate indicators for
way that is unhelpful in undertaking reporting on performance and impact.
meaningful tracking of operational (b) The means of verification of KPIs should be
effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, a clearly identified to ensure adequate reporting
good number of interventions do not have on KPIs and avoid conflicting data on
reliable or adequate Key Performance indicator values. In this regard, government
Indicators (KPIs). This is as a result of a should urgently set realistic targets for all
number of factors that include the KPIs as some indicators presently lack targets,
following: making it difficult to assess performance.
(a) Weak information management (c) Capacity in monitoring and evaluation should
systems at the national and lower be enhanced in both MFNP and line ministries
levels. This is due to, inter alia, to support more effective monitoring and
inadequate human resources, weak reporting on sector performance and impact.
capacity in data generation, analysis
and coordination, weak infrastructure
and lack of resources for data collection.
(b) There has been little effort on the part
of the Government to adequately equip
both the Central Statistics Office and
line ministries to timely generate and
process data that is crucial for effective
monitoring of national interventions.
This has resulted in outdated data and
data gaps.
(c) Participatory Monitoring remains
weak.
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4
Energy
4.1 Introduction and Overview
The goal of the energy sector in FNDP is to ensure reliable, affordable and environmentally
sound energy for sustained social and economic development.

The energy sector performance in the FNDP ENERGY - KEY POLICY OBJECTIVES
The objective of the energy sector is to meet the energy
review period was unsatisfactory with challenge by increasing options and exploitation of Zambia’s
growth registered at minus 1.2 percent indigenous energy and human resources for sustainable
development. The policy objectives include:
as at end 2008. This was due to, inter (a) Biomass: To ensure environmentally sustainable
alia, failure in meeting the targets for exploitation of the biomass resource by ensuring efficiency
new electricity generation capacity, through better management and introduction of new
technologies such as biomass gasification and use of bio
appropriate pricing for energy, oil fuels.
importation, processing and storage as (b) Electricity: To expand both generation and transmission
well as establishment of strategic fuel capacity and increase access to electricity by the majority of
the population.
reserves. Nonetheless, there were (c) Petroleum: To ensure adequate, reliable and affordable
several important positive supply of petroleum products for all sectors of the economy.
(d) Coal: To increase the contribution of coal as energy source
developments in the sector. They in the national energy mix.
included the rehabilitation and up- (e) Uranium: To promote the exploitation of uranium as an
rating of generation plants; the energy resource for social and economic development.
(f) Renewable Energy Sources (RES): To increase the
continuation of rural electrification utilisation of RES by addressing the barriers to their wider
with the aim of increasing the number access.
of rural households with access to (g) Rural Energy Provision: To increase access to affordable
energy in rural areas, to reduce poverty and promote
electricity; and the phasing out of economic growth.
leaded petrol. (h) Energy Efficiency and Management: To promote the
efficient use of energy resources and promote substitution
where it is more economically and environmentally
The major policy development in the beneficial.
energy sector was the review and (i) Household Energy: To reduce dependence on wood fuel
and ensure sustainable provision of affordable, reliable
approval of the National Energy modern energy services to rural and urban households as a
Policy (NEP). NEP was reviewed to means of raising productivity and standards of living.
take into account new developments (j) Energy Pricing: To ensure that energy prices reflect costs of
providing energy and also take into account principles of
and to sharpen the focus of the sector to fairness and equity.
make it more responsive to the
demands of both the social and productive sectors of the national economy. In addition, the
Rural Electrification Master Plan was adopted.
 
4.2 Budget Performance
A total of K 285.9 billion for the Energy sector was projected as FNDP budget for 2006-2008,
covering both GRZ and donor contributions. The GRZ contribution was put at 149.3 billion. Of
this projected GRZ contribution, K139.2 billion (or 93.2 percent) was actually budgeted for
during the three years under review. Total releases for the period, at K164.7 billion, was
actually above both the GRZ budget and the FNDP actual projection (see Table 4.1). This
demonstrates that, for the Energy sector, Government more than met its planned budget during
the period under review.

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Table 4.1: FNDP Budget, Budget and Releases for the Energy Sector (2006 – 2008)
(K billion)
Budget GRZ Releases
Programme FNDP Target allocation
GRZ Donors Total GRZ Amount Percentage
of release
Energy Sector Reform 1.3 4.5 5.8 1.1 0.7 63.63
Electricity Generation and 7.7 30.4 38.1 0.3 0.2 66.66
Core programmes

Transmission Line Development


Strategic Petroleum Reserves 11.6 12.5 24.1 0.2 0.3 150.00
Rural Electrification 40.0 52.0 92.0 56.9 35.4 62.21
Bio-Fuels Development 4.8 9.0 13.8 2.2 1.2 54.54
Manage Petroleum Sector / 50.8 4.1 54.9 59.5 111.4 187.22
Rehabilitation of Infrastructure
Petroleum Exploration 3.6 11.0 14.6 0.9 0.3 33.33
Sub-total 119.8 123.5 243.2 121.0 149.6 123.63
Energy Efficiency and 2.4 4.1 6.5 1.2 .8 66.66
Conservation
Non-core programmes

Renewable and Alternative 7.0 6.3 13.3 2.7 2.0 74.07


Energy Development and
Promotion
Establishment and Operation of 2.0 2.3 4.3 0.0 0.0 0
an Energy Development Fund
Improved Charcoal Production 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.1 100.00
Technology
General Administration and 4.3 0.0 4.3 7.9 7.3 92.40
Organisation
Personnel Emoluments 13.5 0.0 13.5 6.3 5.0 79.36
Sub-total 29.5 13.1 42.6 18.2 15.1 82.96
Grand Total 149.3 136.6 285.9 139.2 164.7 118.31
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

Notwithstanding the above budget performance, several issues have been noted. There have
been significant differences between the provisions of the FNDP and what was actually
included in the annual sector budget during the review period. In addition, although the sector
has a sizeable donor component of about K136.6 billion for the review period, capturing donor
releases and expenditure has been problematic, hence there is no analysis to compare what is
coming from cooperating partners and its impact on the programme implementation.

The MTR established that performance has generally been unsatisfactory. For example, while
the electricity generation and transmission line development is allocated K 7.7 billion in the
FNDP for the period under review, only K0.2 billion was released. Considering the currently
increasing demand for electricity that has already surpassed supply, the poor investment in new
generation capacity threatens one of the FNDP’s objectives, namely, “to expand both
generation and transmission capacity and increase access to electricity by the majority of the
population.” Similarly, the strategic petroleum reserves programme, although having been
ranked third priority in the Plan, has received much lower allocations and releases than the
Planned projection. In contrast, the management of the petroleum sub-sector and rehabilitation
of infrastructure programme received releases above 100 percent. If this trend continues, it is
unlikely that FNDP objectives in this area will be met by 2010 although the sector has thus far
received more than the planned allocations.

4.3 Programme Performance


The energy sector identified several programmes to aid meeting its set objectives. At mid point
of implementation of the FNDP, works are to start regarding the development of Kariba North
Bank extension. Moreover, works at Itezhi tezhi and Kafue Gorge Lower hydro power stations
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are on schedule. Furthermore, in a bid to ensure stable and reliable supply of petroleum
products, Government decided to cushion the fuel pump prices, reduced excise duty; and
rehabilitated strategic storage reserves throughout the country. Below is the review of the
performance at different levels in the Energy sector.

4.3.1 Energy Sector Reforms


The FNDP focus of this programme is to strengthen the institutional legal and policy
framework in order to ensure effective development, management and provision of quality
energy services. The major achievements under the programme during the review period
include the following:

(a) revision and adoption of the National Energy Policy (NEP);


(b) development and adoption of the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP);
(c) development of the bio-fuels incentive framework in line with the provision of
the Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) Act;
(d) development of electricity strategy to address challenges in the electricity sub-
sector;
(e) development of the model for uniform petroleum pricing; and
(f) development of the Electricity Grid Code to allow for independent system
operators. However, the electricity Grid Code has not yet been adopted.

4.3.2 Electricity Generation and Transmission Line Development


The electricity sub-sector has generally fallen short of the every increasing national demand
following the upsurge in economic activity particularly in the mining sector. Up-rating and
rehabilitation of generation plants has been undertaken at Kariba North Bank, Kafue Gorge
and Victoria Falls hydro power stations. It is expected that the rehabilitation and up-rating will
result into an additional 210Mw to the current available capacity of 1,200 Mw by 2010. This
expansion will assist in easing the demand pressure which surpasses supply. As regards to
development of new generation plants, Kafue Gorge lower (750Mw), Kariba North Bank
extension (350 Mw) and Itezhi tezhi (120Mw) hydro power stations are the major projects
identified in the review period and preparatory works on the commencement of developing
these plant has progressed. The development of Itezhi tezhi and Kariba North bank extension
includes transmission lines.

Other developments included the identification of a developer for Kalungwishi hydro power
station and the rehabilitation of some mini hydro power stations resulting in 45 percent increase
in generation from mini hydro power stations. In addition, a privately-owned Zengamina mini
hydro power station with a capacity of 0.75 Mw in North-Western Province was launched in
the review period. A 220kv transmission line interconnection between Livingstone in Zambia
and Katima Mulilo in Namibia was commissioned during the review period. Electricity supply
in Western Province was also reinforced via the upgrading of Sesheke sub-station.
Furthermore, 33kv transmission line interconnection between Zambia (Chama) and Malawi
(Mzuzu) was commissioned in 2008 . This resulted in cleaner energy from hydro power being
provided to rural areas, which is expected to reduce dependence on wood fuel for a large
segment of the Zambian population, particularly those in rural areas.

Notwithstanding these developments, the magnitude of what has to be done means that most of
these new generation plants may not be commissioned by the end of FNDP in 2010. The low
electricity pricing, at 3.6 US cents/kWh, was considered too unattractive for new investment in
electricity generation. This means that the problem of electricity deficit still remains a
challenge for the energy sector.

4.3.3 Strategic Petroleum Reserves


The sub-sector was faced by a number of challenges including challenges in the procurement of
feedstock due to financing difficulties and limitations in storage. The sub-sector was also faced

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with high international oil prices, which affected stability of pump prices. Government made an
effort to stabilize prices through provision of a subsidy and, subsequently, reduction of excise
duty on petroleum products. The rehabilitation of petroleum storage strategic reserves at
TAZAMA in Ndola was also undertaken during the review period.

4.3.4 Rural Electrification


A number of projects were undertaken in all provinces and some have since been completed.
This is in an effort to contribute to the improvement the socio-economic wellbeing of the rural
population. Major milestones under the Rural Electrification Programme during the review
period included the formation of Rural Electrification Authority; development of REMP; and
the identification of about 1,200 Rural Development Centres for rural electrification throughout
the country.

4.3.5 Bio-fuels development


In 2007, developments in the Bio-fuels sub-sector included the formulation of Incentive
Framework and standards for Bio-fuels. In addition, the development of Bio-fuels
Environmental Framework was also initiated.

4.3.6 Petroleum Exploration


Under petroleum exploration programme, there have been two main achievements, namely, the
facilitation of surveys and sample collection in Eastern Province for oil exploration. The
bidding and other documents for exploration tenders were also finalised during the review
period.
 
4.3.7 Renewable and Alternative Energy Development and Promotion
The focus of the programme was on the implementation of renewable energy based electricity
generation for isolated mini grids in the country. The key developments under the programme
included the completion of project preparation and feasibility studies for increased access to
electricity; initiation of discussions with INDENI regarding production of liquefied petroleum
gas; assessment of windmill installation for schools and health centres; feasibility studies for
installation of mini-grids; solar energy installation; and bio-mass gasification. Notwithstanding
these initiatives, several challenges arose regarding coordination of activities, which are spread
across various sectors.
 
4.4 Assessment of Key Performance Indicators
In spite of the progress made in some sector programmes, it has been very difficult to assess the
performance of the sector using KPIs due to lack of data in some cases. Below is a list of areas
that require assessment with well set targets:

(a) Alternative Energy Source consumption


(b) Proportion of Population (HH) with access to electricity
(c) Proportional increase in the number of households connected to the ZESCO
grid
(d) Consumption of Petroleum products
(e) Proportion of facilities rehabilitated
(f) Stock days of Strategic Petroleum Reserves
(g) New Generation requirements
(h) Proportion of bio fuels used
(i) Proportion of consumption of RETS in the energy mix
(j) Proportion of charcoal burners using new technology

Out of the above KPIs, only two were reported on in the 2007 FNDP APR while others had no
data due to inadequate and unreliable data sources in the sector. At the moment, the only
reliable source of data on some indicators depends on CSO Household Surveys such as the
LCMS which are not conducted regularly.
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4.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations
The performance rate of the energy sector during the review period was mixed but, generally,
there has been little positive development during this period. A number of challenges remain
unaddressed. The matrix below identified the main outstanding challenges and offers
recommended courses of action to address the problems.
Outstanding Challenge Recommendation
1. There is low investment in the (a) There is need to act decisively on the priority of power
Energy sector, particularly at the generation and transmission in view of the national (and
level of electric power generation regional) power deficit.
and transmission. (b) There is need to develop the Investment Plan for the
electricity sector, which should go hand-in-hand with the
implementation of the Electrification Master Plan.
(c) There is need to ensure that electricity tariffs are cost-
clearing taking into account, nevertheless, the need to
ensure that the management of the inevitable periodic
price adjustment is sensitive to the need to avoid undue
stifling of economic activities that could have far
reaching adverse effects to the larger economy.
(d) The current focus on the development of Mini-Hydro
Stations should be stepped up, focusing on:
o Identification of more potential areas that could be
developed
o Promotion and consolidation, through the extension
of special incentives, of private-sector participation
in the development of the mini-hydros.
2. There is a slow pace in the The political will and capacity to implement the Rural
implementation of the Rural Electrification Programme should be enhanced
Electrification Programme
There is clear indication of (a) There is need to carry out a detailed review of planning,
institutional and capacity resource application and management, and
limitations in the Energy sector implementation capacity in the sector, including the
that should be identified and Ministry in charge of Energy.
addressed. The weak resource (b) There is need to undertake a comprehensive Skills Audit
planning and application frailties of the energy sector with a view to identifying human
(including poor resource capacity needs.
reporting/tracking of donor (c) There is need for ZESCO to strive to meet the
money); inadequate linkages with performance targets set by the Energy Regulatory Board
other sectors/stakeholders (ERB) and where capacity constraints within the utility
collectively suggest serious parastatal are observable, these should be addressed as a
capacity challenges. matter of urgency.
3. There is a significant gulf (a) There is need to align the GRZ budget allocations with
between the planned the priorities and interventions provided for in the FNDP
interventions under the FNDP (b) There is need to avoid transferring resources away from
and the expenditure pattern in the planned capital investments/developments to
Energy sector. management and personnel-related expenditures as this
has the adverse effect of making the sector fail to meet
the FNDP targets despite the fact that it has been
receiving more than the resources envisaged under the
Plan.

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4. There is inadequate national (a) The country should create capacity to stock at least 3-
storage capacity of petroleum month national oil import cover through the rehabilitation
products. This has threatened the of existing storage facilities and the construction of new
capacity of the country to stock ones.
sufficient reserves that may be (b) Government should explore alternatives to the current
required during periods of energy setup of the petroleum sub-sector management and
crisis/scarcity. The current setup procurement with an eye on minimising the cost incurred
of procurement and management by the State.
of the petroleum sub-sector have
introduced an unjustified fiscal
on Government
5. There are weak linkages between There is need to develop good inter sectoral linkages to secure
the energy and other sectors. effective implementation of programmes in the Energy sector.
Consequently, the needed Synergies with sectors such as agriculture, tourism,
coordination and synergies environment, industry, science and technology and
required for enhanced manufacturing are particularly important in this regard.
performance by the sector are
absent.
6. There is weak engagement There is need to strength the Energy Sector Advisory Group
between Government and sector (SAG) to secure more inclusive and consultative platform for
stakeholders stakeholders engagement on decisions pertaining to the
energy sector
7. It is difficult to effectively assess (a) There is need to revisit the Energy sector’s M&E system
performance of the sector due to and develop comprehensive/appropriate KPIs that are
the absence of appropriate KPIs required for the measurement of the different dimensions
and inadequate/inappropriate data of the Energy sector performance under the FNDP.
sources (b) There is need to strengthen the Management Information
System in the Energy sector through the establishment of
the integrated management information system for the
Energy sector.
(c) The strengthening of the Energy SAG should be
undertaken to make it more inclusive of the other
stakeholders and allow it serve as an important M&E tool
for resource application resource and resource tracking.
8. The donor input into the Energy There is need for the Energy sector to fully integrate donor
sector is poorly reported and, inputs in their activities and develop mechanisms for better
consequently, it has been difficult reporting and tracking of the input of cooperating partners.
to quantify the extent of external
inputs in the sector beyond the
GRZ resources.
9. The cost of energy is threatening (a) Given the increasing cost of energy and the opportunities
to adversely affect the realization being offered by more environmentally-friendly options,
of the FNDP objectives in this there is need to look at alternative energy sources,
sector focusing on instituting well-funded research on
alternative energy sources such as bio-fuel, solar, wind,
etc
(b) As a rejoinder to (a) above, there is need to develop
environmentally sustainable investment framework in
renewable energy sources.
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5
Infrastructure and Transport
5.1 Introduction and Overview
In order to create an environment and investment climate consistent with the socio-economic
development objectives, Vision 2030 recognises the need for Zambia to develop and maintain
productive and social infrastructure and services such as roads; storage facilities, rail network,
energy, communication systems,
FNDP INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT KEY
education, training and health facilities, POLICY OBJECTIVES
public utilities and other services. Vision Throughout the FNDP, the following have been identified as
2030 further notes that the performance of the major challenges to overcome:
(a) Poor State of Infrastructure through development and
the agricultural sector in general has been rehabilitation;
hampered by the poor state of feeder roads (b) Poor Funding for Infrastructure including for
and other communication infrastructure, maintenance and rehabilitation and through Public
Private Partnerships
lack of rural electrification, inadequate (c) Accelerate Reforms in the sector, especially in civil
credit facilities, poor agricultural aviation and water transport
(d) Improve Private Sector Participation in the development
marketing systems and fluctuations in and operation of infrastructure.
rainfall patterns. (e) Improving Capacity to Undertake Works particularly
amongst local companies
(f) HIV and AIDS Mainstreaming.
The Infrastructure and Transport sector in (g) Gender Mainstreaming, particularly assisting Women in
the FNDP comprises nine programmes rural areas and lessening their burden in the collection
consisting of policy, infrastructure of firewood, water and taking produce to the market on
foot.
management and development in the areas (h) Reducing the incidence of Vandalism and bring
of road transport, air transport, rail awareness to local communities to address vandalism
transport, water transport, planning and (i) Development of a clear policy on Housing Construction
information management systems,
housing, and public buildings. Within the road transport sub-sector, specific programmes were
formulated for the development of roads and bridges. The public buildings programme, one of
the three sub-sectors of the Infrastructure and Transport Sector of the FNDP, includes housing
(for Government staff, other residential developments etc); and buildings (public office blocks,
sports infrastructure, health facilities, museums etc).

The government is currently undertaking the second phase of the 10-year ROADSIP II
programme (2004-2013), which represents spending totalling $1.6 billion.2 ROADSIP II has
four main objectives: to bring the core road network (40 113 km of which over half are
classified as trunk, main and district roads and the remainder as feeder, urban and parks roads)
into serviceable condition; to strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of the new road
authorities; to create employment opportunities in the road sector; to improve road safety and
environmental management in the road sector through the establishment of procedures and
guidelines. Under this National Public Private Partnership (PPP) policy the government of
Zambia has set out to facilitate for the provision of infrastructure and effective delivery of
social services through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in order to ensure that there is

2
The Infrastructure and Transport sector in the FNDP comprises nine programmes consisting of policy, infrastructure management
and development in the areas of road transport, air transport, rail transport, water transport, planning and information management
systems, housing, and public buildings. Within the road transport sub-sector, specific programmes were formulated for the
development of roads and bridges. The public buildings programme, one of the three sub-sectors of the Infrastructure and Transport
Sector of the FNDP, includes housing (for Government staff, other residential developments etc); and buildings (public office
blocks, sports infrastructure, health facilities, museums etc).

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economic growth through enhanced productivity, improved competitiveness and wealth


creation.

The main focus of the Infrastructure and Transport sector under the FNDP is to rehabilitate and
maintain roads, storage facilities, rail network, energy, communication systems, education,
training, health facilities and public utilities. Some of the specific policy objectives included the
following:
(a) to develop Public Private Partnership policy
(b) to facilitate housing infrastructure development
(c) to support infrastructure planning and monitoring
(d) To facilitate infrastructure management and development
(e) To construct national stadia
(f) To facilitate urban market development and information management systems.

During the review period, the general performance of the sector was satisfactory. The road
subsector’s performance was fair with all targets met except for the maintenance of the
unpaved roads. During this period, the road sub-sector continued implementing programmes
under ROADSIP II. The aim was to bring the core road network of 40,113 km into serviceable
condition; strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of the new road authorities; create
employment opportunities in the road sector; and improve road safety and environmental
management in the road sector through the establishment of procedures and guidelines. The key
milestone in the rail sub-sector was the commencement of construction of the Chipata-Mchinji
rail line and the commissioning of feasibility studies for five other railway routes. To improve
air transport infrastructure, rehabilitation of airports and aerodromes was undertaken
countrywide.

Water transport, despite its inherent advantage of being the cheapest mode, is not fully
developed to realize its potential due to lack of equipment to dredge canals and waterways;
inadequate handling equipment at harbours; and insufficient technical expertise to manage the
sector. The construction and rehabilitation of public buildings included mainly the construction
of one stop border facilities, office buildings, hospitals, sports infrastructure, markets, and
schools. The policy on Public Private Partnership (PPP) was approved to attract private sector
participation in public infrastructure construction. In addition, the National Council for
Construction has been undertaking certification for contractors and developed an action plan to
strengthen the local construction industry.

5.2 Budget Performance


5.2.1 Overall Performance
The Infrastructure and Transport sector has been characterized by major problems associated
with under-achieving targets of the FNDP, especially in 2006. Donor funding has been closer to
FNDP targets than GRZ funding. Yellow book estimates have consistently been below FNDP
annual targets due, in part, to MFNP annual financial ceilings that have been lower than the
projected FNDP expenditures. Regarding cooperating partner funding, some conditionalities set
by them often times delayed implementation progress while almost all public housing and
buildings have been funded 100 percent by government funds. The tendering/procurement
processes have also contributed significantly to the slow achievement of targets. The shortage
of cement on the market had a major negative effect on the infrastructure sector, slowing down
progress and raising construction costs. The blacklisting of some of the contractors during the
review period reduced the number of eligible contractors in the country, thus, causing the
tender prices for infrastructure works to go up.
5.2.2 Sub-sector Budget Performance
5.2.2.1 Roads and Bridges
During the period under review, the total FNDP financing projection for the Roads and Bridges
sub-sector programmes was K2,636.23 billion for both Government and donor funds. The
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actual budgetary allocation during the review period amounted to K3,433.28 billion, which was
30 percent more than what is provided for in the FNDP. The total budget releases amounted to
K2,130.5 billion, representing 81 per cent and 62 per cent of the FNDP projection and the
budget allocations, respectively. The local and foreign components released were 41 per cent
and 59 per cent respectively.(see table 5.1).

Table 5.1: Allocation of Road Sub-sector Resources


2006 2007 2008
Programme Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion
GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total
FNDP 361.54 538.9 900.44 488 410.7 898.698 454.41 328.68 837.09
Budget 436.7 465.6 902.3 287.6 1033.0 1320.6 694.88 515.50 1210.38
Releases 272.7 249.6 522.3 329.6 524.0 853.6 490.4 264.20 754.60
Release as % to FNDP 75 46 58 68 128 95 95 108 90
Release as % to Budget 62 54 58 115 51 65 65 71 62
Source: FNDP and Ministry of Finance and National Planning 2006, 2007 and 2008 Financial Report; National Road Fund Agency

5.2.2.2 Railways Development


During the review period, the FNDP had a projection of K15 billion for railway development.
The actual budgetary allocations amounted to K24.08 billion against which K22.52 was
released. (See table 5.2). Although this is a private-sector led sub-sector, the FNDP budget
targets were intended to undertake several feasibility studies and construct key railway
infrastructure and, therefore, create an attractive environment for private sector participation in
the sector and boost back-ward and forward linkages with mining and manufacturing activities.

Table 5.2: Allocation of Railways Sub-sector Resources


2006 2007 2008
Programme Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion
GRZ Private Total GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total
FNDP 5.0 261.0 266.0 5.0 261.0 266.0 5.0 261.0 266.0
Budget 4.56 0 4.56 9.42 0 9.42 10.10 0 10.10
Releases 3.60 0 3.60 8.86 0 8.86 10.06 0 10.06
Release as % to FNDP 72.00 0 1.35 177.2 0 177.2 201.2 0 3.78
Release as % to Budget 78.95 0 78.95 94.06 0 94.06 99.60 0 99.60
Source: MFNP Financial Report; National Road Fund Agency

5.2.2.3 Airports & Aerodromes


The Airports Development Programme was not allocated any money in the FNDP during 2006
although it was budgeted for in the Government Budget of that year. Further budgetary releases
were effected for the Programme during all the three years under review. It would appear that,
during the preparation of the FNDP, Government underestimated the growth potential of the air
transport industry in meeting the increased demand from tourism and international/regional
trade (see table 5.3).

Table 5.3: Allocation of Air and Aerodrome Sub-sector Resources


2006 2007 2008
Programme Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion
GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total
FNDP 0 0 0 11.9 0 11.9 5.7 0 5.7
Budget 6.2 0 6.2 12.38 0 12.38 42.77 0 42.77
Releases 4.2 0 4.2 11.94 0 11.94 7.23 7.23
Release as % to FNDP 0 0 0 100.34 0 100.34 126.842 126.842
Release as % to Budget 67.74 0 37.8 96.45 0 96.45 16.90 16.90
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, and 2008 Financial Report

5.2.2.4 Inland Waterways


During the period under review, there was no FNDP provision for the Inland Waterways sub-
sector. However, some budgetary allocations were provided for in the sub-sector in the period
under review.(see table 5.4).

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Table 5.4: Allocation of Inland Waterways Subsector Resources


2006 2007 2008
Programme Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion Cost in K’ billion
GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total GRZ Donor Total
FNDP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Budget 1.6 0 1.6 1.4 0 1.4 1.2 0 1.2
Releases 1.1 0 1.1 1.1 0 1.1 0.1 0 0.1
Release as % to FNDP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Release as % to Budget 68.8 68.8 78.6 78.6 8.3 8.3
Source: FNDP and Ministry of Finance and National Planning 2006, 2007 and 2008 Financial Report

Public buildings programmes under the Ministry of Works and Supply include health
infrastructure (e.g. hospitals), sports infrastructure, museums and many other facilities. The
budget allocations for public buildings were generally lower than the FNDP projections during
the review period. This part of the report will not give a complete assessment of the
performance of the public buildings programme because there is considerable infrastructural
works being budgeted for and carried out directly under different sectors/ministries of the
FNDP. Due various constraints and for ease of presentation, this report has not combined all the
infrastructure/buildings assessment in this one section. Figure 5.1 shows the allocation of
resources to the public buildings sub-sector.

Figure 5.1: Summary of Budget Performance, Public Buildings

200.00
180.00
160.00
140.00 FNDP Tar get
120.00
Budget ed
100.00
Releases
80.00
60.00 Act ual Expendit ur e
40.00
20.00
-
2006 2007 2008

Source: FNDP and Ministry of Finance and National Planning 2006, 2007 and 2008 Financial Report

Figure 5.1 shows clearly that the FNDP targets for public buildings during the review period
were almost twice the levels of funds budgeted (in yellow book) during each of the years 2006,
2007 and 2008.

5.3 Programme Performance


It was expected that, during the FNDP, development of the railways would take over most of
the excess cargo load from the paved road network. The railway network has however, not
developed as expected and most of the cargo to and from the mines has been transported on
roads. Consequently, the road network has been exposed to quicker wear and tear. With regards
to the Roads and Bridges sub-sector, the performance was satisfactory for paved and unpaved
roads. Table 5.6 highlights the sub-sector performance.

An important Government initiative in the Roads sub-sector related to the acquisition of road
maintenance equipment from China for use country-wide targeting specifically the rural areas.
In the light of some positive developments in the roads sub-sector, there has been reduced
travel time for the transportation of goods and passengers on rehabilitated trunk, main and
district roads. However, the rural feeder roads remain poorly funded, a state of affairs that has
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negatively affected the FNDP target of reducing rural poverty as this type of infrastructure is
key to the realisation of this goal.

Table 5.6: Progress achieved on T, M and D Roads from 2006 to 2008


Description Unit3 Target Actual % Achieved
Rehabilitation of Paved Roads Km 888.8 806.8 91
Maintenance of Paved Roads Km 18,127.5 20,460.5 113
Rehabilitation of Unpaved Roads Km 4,557.5 6,197.6 136
Maintenance of Unpaved Roads Km 40,916.4 28,341.0 69
Source: Roads Development Agency

During the period under review, Government continued the construction, rehabilitation and
maintenance of buildings. Under Public Buildings, designing and preparation of tender
documents and supervision of the construction and rehabilitation of public major works were
undertaken. These were carried out for Defence, Health, Education, Public Order and Security
and Science and Technology sectors. The construction of various hospitals and health centres in
Lumwana, Chongwe, Samfya, Chiengi, Sitoti, Kapiri-Mposhi and Kaputa commenced. With
regard to provision of office accommodation, the completion of the Freight Terminal and
Passenger Control buildings at Chirundu Border Post and Government Complex office block in
Lusaka eased the pressure on Government office space.

Under the provision of VIP residential accommodation, a comprehensive maintenance


programme for this category of houses was developed. However, this could not be fully
implemented due to budgetary constraints and only few houses were rehabilitated. The public
workers’ housing programmes were constructed for the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-
operatives in various districts in Eastern Province. Under Public Order and Safety, the
construction of 500 houses for Ministry of Home Affairs in various districts such as Ndola,
Kasama, Chipata and Livingstone was on course.

The major activities undertaken using donor resources were the American-funded health care
projects namely, Paediatric Ward and TB Ward in Dambwa; Mukuni Police post and Maramba
VCT Centres in Livingstone, and State Lodge VCT Centre in Lusaka. The other job that was
completed is the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ) project. Some
projects under the Auditor General’s Office for constructing office blocks were undertaken
under PEMFA.

The major achievements in the public buildings sub-sector have been Chirundu border and
Katima Mulilo border infrastructure. These one-stop border facilities are expected to enhance
smooth movements of passengers and cargo across national boundaries. The completion of the
New Government Complex also helped to increase office space for most government
institutions who were renting from the private market. Similarly, the construction of the
Auditor General’s Office blocks is expected to increase the operations of the institution while
the newly constructed health facilities are expected to improve the provision of health services
to the local communities

In the rail sub-sector, a number of feasibility studies have been commissioned for five rail
routes. The rail concession of the Zambia Railways considered and feasibility studies for the
Chipata-Petauke Serenje,Nseluka-Mpulungu, Kafue-lion’s den, Solwezi-Lumwana-Benguela,
Mulobezi-Namibia border and Chipata-Petauke-Serenje railway routes were undertaken. The
construction of Chipata-Muchingi Railway line commenced and was nearing completion by the
end of the review period. It is envisaged that the routes identified during the period under

3
Routine Maintenance works are of a repetitive nature, therefore, only the highest record of kilometres covered within the quarter
are recorded as the cumulative total whereas Periodic Maintenance is treated on a cumulative basis per quarter.

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review through PPP will be developed to increase the efficiency of transporting cargo currently
being handled through the road system. Table 5.7 highlights the output performance of the
Airports Development programme.

5.4 Assessment of KPIs


Table 5.8 summarises the KPIs that were identified in the FNDP and provides details of data
illustrating targets and annual achievements. The buildings sub-sector had no indicators against
which to measure performance. While the FNDP KPI targets for 2010 are not indicated for
most programmes, there are more indicators that were either surpassed or achieved entirely. In
2006, unpaved roads achieved the target while in 2007 they achieved almost 200 percent of the
annual target.

Table 5.7: Rehabilitation in air and water ways transport


2006 2007 2008
Rehabilitation o Rehabilitation of Southdown’s o Mfuwe airport: Rehabilitation of
of airports/ airport runway pavement Kasama Airport
aerodromes o Rehabilitation of Solwezi airport rehabilitation
o Rehabilitation of Mongu airport o Livingstone airport:
o Rehabilitation of Kasama airport extension/rehabilitati
o Rehabilitation of Mansa airport on of runway
o Rehabilitation of Kasaba Bay completed
airport o Chipata airport
o Rehabilitation of Livingstone rehabilitation
International airport o Siavonga airport
rehabilitation
Inland o Rehabilitation of canals and o Rehabilitation of o Rehabilitation of
Waterways waterways canals and canals and
o Rehabilitation of harbours waterways waterways,
o Rehabilitation of dredging o Rehabilitation of o Rehabilitation of
equipment harbours harbours
o Procurement of vessel o Review of Inland o Rehabilitation of
Waters shipping act dredging
equipment
o Review of Inland
Waters shipping act
o Establishment of
the Zambia
Shippers Council
Source: Ministry of Works & supply

Table 5.8: Progress against Key Performance Indicators


2005
Baseline 2006 2007 2008 2010
Key Performance Value Target
Indicator Target Achievement Target Achievement Target Achie Achievement
veme
nt
(a) Paved roads 464 316 305.4 247.7 119.4 13.7
(b) Unpaved roads 2,695 2,693 1,712.0 2939.9 761.11 105.5
(c) Number of km of 6,298 8,238 6,731.7 5844.7 6,967.8 3,016.72
Roads Maintained
(d) Paved roads 3,398 14,748 8,239 175,91.2 10934.7 20,058.35 5,431.51
(e) People using pontoons 61,165 569,087
(f) Vehicles crossing 75,733
pontoons
(g) Volume of cargo 1,173,399 1,410,099 1504039 1,363,840 2,000
transported on rail
(h) Number of passengers 1,755,899 1,702,871 1,401,507 2,000
moved on flights
(i) Domestic 124,684 1,053,307 15,000,000
(j) International & 550,241
Regional
(k) Volume of Cargo 14,301 35,070 28580 49,028 15,000
transported on flights
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(l) Volume of Cargo 9,631 4,630 11779 28,636 15,000


transported on inland
waterways
(m) Number of passengers 57,225 68,849 74353 338,384 100,000
cargo on inland
waterways
Source: ministry of works and supply

5.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


The performance rate of the Transport and Infrastructure sub-sector has generally been good as
several major targets were achieved during the review period. The slow implementation of
structural reforms, however, inhibited timely implementation of many programmes in the road
subsector. A number of challenges remain unaddressed. The matrix below identified the main
outstanding challenges and offers recommended courses of action to address the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


Road Infrastructure
1. There has been significant (a) There is need to strengthen the Local Road Authorities &
under-performance in rural Rural Road Unit (RRU) to put it in good stead to respond to
roads rehabilitation the emerging challenges of rural road rehabilitation and
programme. This has construction in order to supplement the contracted projects
resulted into high under the Road Development Agency
depreciation of main roads (b) Develop a mechanism to allocate resources according to road
classification.
(c) Promote, where possible, labour-based methods for
community roads
(d) Strengthen capacity of local contractor
(e) Develop an effective road quality monitoring and a
sustainable preventive maintenance programme
2. Budgets and the required (a) Increase the budget allocations to infrastructure development
human resources for and maintenance
infrastructure development (b) Treasury Authority should be granted to employ the required
are generally inadequate to professionals at Headquarters and Provinces in order to
meaningfully respond to the empower the Ministry of Works and Supply to better
challenges in the sector supervise works and produce quality building plans timely.
3. There is lack of enforcement Government should create an effective framework for supervising
of standards in infrastructure all public and private infrastructure works
development
4. The country continues to (a) Reform and reorganise the Public Passenger Service,
suffer from poor public including promotion of the use of rail and water transport.
passenger service (b) Review and enforce road use standards and regulations
through increased coordination between RTSA, RDA and
other institutions, including law enforcement agencies.
5. Traffic congestion in cities is There is need to development, implementation and monitor the
worsening with little tangible city/town transport Master Plan to reduce congestion on roads
effort to address the situation
6. There is absence of an A study should be commissioned to review and recommend how
effective alignment between best to align Roadsip II to the FNDP.
the Roadsip II and the FNDP
Roads sub-sector
Civil Aviation
1. Civil aviation Infrastructure Rehabilitate or construct aerodromes in each of the nine
remained dilapidated provincial centres
2. The performance of the civil (a) There is need to identify the reasons for the poor
aviation sub-sector has performance of the civil aviation sub-sector.
remained unsatisfactory (b) Review the Transport Policy on having a national airline.
Railways
1. The Zambian Railway (a) There is need to urgently re-negotiate the Cargo and
System is under-performing Passenger Agreement with Railway Systems of Zambia to

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and the level of private make it responsive to the national demands.


sector participation in the (b) There is need to establish, through a feasibility study, the
sub-sector is marginal required level of railway system rehabilitation/restoration
with an eye on improving both passenger and cargo
transportation. Focus should be on investment in the
rehabilitation of already existing rail-lines such as Mulobezi,
Njanji Commuters and former Zambia Railways.
(c) There is need to design smart partnerships between the
Government and the private sector through PPP.
(d) Enforce legislation that will encourage movement of bulk
cargo from road to rail.
Maritime and Inland Waterways
1. There is insufficient resource There is need to increase the allocation of resources to the
allocation to the Maritime Maritime and Inland Waterways in order to improve accessibility
and Inland Waterways sub- and mobility of people whose livelihoods depend on water
sector transport (e.g. in Luapula, Western and Northern Provinces.
Mining
1. There is inadequate wide- Government should attend to the following:
scale exploration of the (a) Facilitate private sector-led extensive exploration activities.
country’s mineral resources (b) Put in place appropriate enabling legislation for large-scale
mines
(c) Improve regulations that make it attractive for more
investment in the sector, specifically, small-scale mines

2. Some mining houses have All mining companies, without exception, must be compelled to
failed/refused to honour pay taxes and royalties as required by law.
royalty payment obligations.
This has negatively affected
Government revenue base.
3. Government lacks an Government should put in place effective mechanisms for
appropriate strategy to capturing the GDP contribution of small-scale mining ventures.
capture the contributions of
small-scale mining to GDP
4. There is no gemstone There is need to establish gemstone processing, exchange and
processing, exchange and auction centres as planned to allow the country benefit from
auction centres gemstone proceeds.
5. There is lack of value Government should develop an incentives regime that aims to
addition to minerals and encourage value addition in the minerals and chemicals produced
chemicals produced in the in the country.
country.
6. There is absence of effective Government should work out mechanism for promoting the
mechanisms to promote establishment of industries using industrial minerals such as
industrial minerals limestone, manganese, phosphates, silica, etc. that are mined in
some parts of the country.
7. There are inadequate Government should enhance and enforce mining regulations by
capacity for enforcing providing sufficient human and financial resources to the Mine
mining safety regulations Safety Department.
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Part 3

Social Sectors Performance

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6
Education and Skills Development
6.1 Introduction and Overview
Education and training do not only provide skills that drive the economic and social
development of the country but also grant equal opportunity to individuals. The policy
environment for education in Zambia is developed within the framework of existing
international and regional education
FNDP EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT -
policies such as Educating Our Future, KEY POLICY OBJECTIVES
the Millennium Development Goals The following are the key policy objectives of the sector:
(MDGs) and Education For All (EFA). (a) To improve access, gender equity and quality in basic
education (Grades 1-9);
(b) To improve quality and efficiency in high school and
The formulation and implementation of tertiary education;
education and training policy involves (c) To develop relevant skills and enhanced learning
achievement by all learners;
four Ministries, namely, the Ministry of (d) To effectively decentralise decision-making,
Education (MOE); Ministry of Youth, procurement and financial management to districts and
schools;
Sports and Child Development (e) To manage / mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS.
(MYSCD); Ministry of Community (f) To provide appropriate infrastructure and facilities to
Development and Social Services enhance increased enrolment that is inclusive of
vulnerable and disadvantaged learners in the basic skills
(MCDSS); and Ministry of Science, and TEVET institutions;
Technology and Vocational Training (g) To develop diversified curricula that will mainstream
(MSTVT). Ministry of Local entrepreneurship, career guidance and development
from early childhood to TEVET in order to provide skilled
Government and Housing plays a role in human resources for increased productivity and income
the policy on pre-primary education. generation in the formal and informal sectors;
(h) To develop appropriate training, assessment and
qualifications systems to meet the current and future
The Government, through the Ministry demands of the labour market;
of Education, is the main provider of (i) To mainstream cross-cutting issues (e.g. HIV and AIDS,
gender, disability and environment) in the basic skills
basic, high school and tertiary education. and TEVET systems; and
Other providers are the private sector, (j) To develop revise and improve the overall framework for
churches and the community. Some of quality educational planning, human resources, financial
management and administration of technical and
the church and community run schools vocational educational delivery.
receive some grants from Government.
Another feature of the education system is that of community schools. These are founded by
the community to meet basic needs of children who are not in the formal schools. In 2006, the
first year of implementing the FNDP, the education sector did not align its programmes
according to the FNDP programmes areas. This was due to the fact that the sector was in the
final year of implementing the Education Sector Strategic Plan. By 2007, the education sector
aligned its programmes to the FNDP. This is noteworthy as it poses some challenges in
analysing 2006 information in the context of the FNDP.

During the FNDP period, emphasis has been placed on improving the quality of education
while increasing access through reforms in curriculum development; syllabus design;
professional teacher enhancement; making the learner environment more productive; and
creating a conducive environment for learners. In terms of access to education, the major
reforms are through provision of education through low cost/high impact interventions such as
use of open and distance learning and provision of literacy and basic skills education. FNDP
focus is also on ensuring that pro-poor policies are instituted to offer equitable education to
vulnerable groups. For these policy reforms and priorities to materialize, partnerships are to be
forged and strengthened between Government, donors, NGOs, FBOs and private education
providers.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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The vision of the Education sector as articulated in the FNDP is that innovative and productive
life-long education and training is accessible to all by 2030. The FNDP places emphasis on
improvement of quality of education in addition to increasing access, focusing on early
childhood care, development and education, upper basic, high school, vocational training and
tertiary education. The following six FNDP goals have been developed for the attainment of
this vision:

(a) To ensure universal basic education provision to children;


(b) To ensure that opportunities exist for all citizens to have equitable access to
ECCDE, basic and high school, tertiary education and/or technical and
vocational training;
(c) To improve quality and relevance of education and skills training;
(d) To promote efficiency and cost- effectiveness;
(e) To enhance institutional coordination in both public and private education and
training institutions; and
(f) To ensure that library services are improved to contribute to high standards
and quality of education in Zambia.

The FNDP implementation plan identified four strategic priorities as follows:

(a) Access considerations: This is to be done through investment in infrastructure


development, construction of new facilities, rehabilitation of existing ones and
maintenance of these structures;
(b) Quality considerations: To be implemented through curriculum development,
educational materials and increased teacher training and deployment;
(c) Improving efficiency and effectiveness of the educational service delivery:
This is to be through school management, teacher management and standards
and assessment;
(d) Equity considerations: This entails paying special attention to gender
especially girl child issues, orphans and vulnerable children as well as
Children with Special Educational Needs (CSEN).

6.2 Budget Performance


6.2.1 Overall Budget Performance
The total budget (domestic and external resources combined) for the sector in 2006 was
K2,043.4 billion. The total Government allocation for the Ministry in that year was K1,273.2
billion while Government releases to the sector in 2006 amounted to K1,269.6 billion. This
represented 96.5 percent of the domestic budget allocation to the sector and a 19 percent rise in
total releases to the sector against the 2005 figure. 71 percent of these releases went to
personnel emoluments of teachers and teacher recruitment. Pooled donor funding disbursement
for 2006 exceeded the budget due to favourable exchange rates amounting to K205.5 billion,
against a budget of K195.3 billion. 62 percent of these funds went to education boards while
the rest went to infrastructure development, education materials and activities at Headquarters.
Analysis of the distribution of budgeted resources in 2006 by sub-sector showed that ECCDE
was allocated 0.46 percent; Basic education 18.43 percent; High School 6.5 percent; Tertiary
10.63 percent; and Management and Administration 64.23 percent.

In 2007, the FNDP budget for the education sector amounted to K2,023 trillion. Resources
available from both external and domestic sources were only K1,916 trillion (K1,616 billion
from GRZ and K300.5 billion form external sources). This created a funding gap of K106
billion. Personnel emoluments accounted for K1.010 Trillion, and non- personnel emoluments
amounted to K911 billion. The 2007 budget had two priorities, infrastructure development and
provision of education materials.

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Allocations by programme of the 2007 budget shows that the highest allocation went to
management and administration (58.73 percent), which includes personnel emoluments that
account for over 50 percent of this amount; infrastructure development (17.54 percent);
research and university education (12.8 percent); Curriculum Development and Education
Materials (5.25 percent); Equity (3.97 percent); Standards and Assessment (1.2 percent);
Teacher education (1.01 percent); and Distance and Open Learning (0.22 percent).

The budget requirement for 2008 amounted to K2.147 trillion of which K1.878 Trillion was
from domestic resources while K268 billion was from external sources. However, the actual
commitment from external sources was only K223 billion. This caused a funding gap of K58
billion. In terms of allocation to the programmes in 2008, this followed the same pattern as for
the previous year with management and administration taking the highest allocation while
Distance and Open learning receiving the lowest. Table 6.1 shows FNDP projection, budgets
allocations and releases to the education sector’s core programmes over the 2006-2008 period.

6.2.2 Curriculum Development and Educational Materials Programme


Curriculum Development Programme is the fourth in funding priority of the sector in terms of
releases. Like most other programmes in the sector, there was a major funding gap of 91.1
percent between what was planned under the FNDP and what was budgeted under the actual
programme according to the annual yellow books. However, the funding gap between the
annual budget and annual releases, at 12.4 percent, during the review period, was relatively
manageable, Interviews in the Districts and Provinces revealed that there had been an
improvement in the funding and procurement of education materials especially for the basic
schools though a lot more still needs to be done in order for the FNDP interventions to impact
strongly on the quality of education. The challenge for procurement of education materials still
remains high at high school level. Table 6.1 shows the budget performance of the sub-sector.

Table 6.1: Budget Performance Curriculum Development, 2006-08


Programme: Curriculum Development & Education materials
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget                77.00           98.00       108.00     283.00
Budgeted               14.64             4.59           5.91        25.14
Released               13.95             4.02           3.98        21.96
Expenditure               13.92               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP and MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

6.2.3 Standards and Assessment Programme


The Standards and Assessment Programme comes out as the sixth in funding priority of the
education sector during the review period. The funding levels in terms of FNDP planned
resources, annual budget and actual annual releases are quite low as compared to the other sub-
sectors. The funding gap between the planned resources under the FNDP and the annual
budgets is as high as 75.6 percent. From 2006, there was a marked decrease in annual budgets
and releases to this Programme. Table 6.2 shows the budget performance for the sub-sector
during the review period.

Table 6.2: Budget Performance for Standards and Assessment, 2006-08


Programme: Standards & Assessment
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget                13.00           17.00         18.00        48.00
Budgeted                  5.68             3.88           2.17        11.72
Released                  4.93             3.76           1.44        10.13
Expenditure                  7.13               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MoNFP 2006-2008 Budget Releases & 2006 Expenditure Report
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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6.2.4 Teacher Education Programme


The Teacher Education Programme is another programme that contributes to achieving
improved quality of education. The funding gap for the Programme during the review period
(i.e. between FNDP budget and annual budget) was very high, at 74 percent. However, again
like in other programmes, the funding gap is marginal between the annual budget and actual
releases, at 14.2%. Table 6.3 shows the budget performance of the Teacher Education sub-
sector.
Table 6.3: Budget Performance for Teacher Education, 2006-08
Programme: Teacher Education
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget                33.00           41.00         45.00     119.00
Budgeted               10.76           13.66           6.58        31.00
Released                  9.32           12.72           4.51        26.55
Expenditure                  9.75               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

6.2.5 Infrastructure Development for the Sector


Infrastructure Development Programme was the second after Management and Administration
in funding priority of the Education sector. According to the 2007 Annual Work Plan, the high
school sector had received the least funding in the past 30 years for either rehabilitation or
construction. Consequently, 80 percent of the school infrastructure needed major rehabilitation
during the review period while about 70 percent of classrooms had inadequate or no furniture
and water and sanitation systems had collapsed in at least 70 percent of the country’s
Government-run high schools. Although the FNDP allocated more money to this Programme,
the funding gap between the FNDP allocation and annual budgets is still high. Table 6.4
presents the Infrastructure Development sub-sector’s budget performance during the review
period.
Table 6.4: Budget Performance Infrastructure Development, 2006-08
Programme: Infrustructure
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget              239.00        292.00       326.00     857.00
Budgeted               27.92           15.36         48.22        91.50
Released               25.70           13.12         32.29        71.11
Expenditure               27.70               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

6.2.6 Distant and Open Learning


The FNDP budgets for the Distant and Open Learning Programme over the three years
increased only marginally. The annual budgets and releases have tended to have a fluctuating
trend with the best funded year being 2007 (Table 6.5).

Table 6.5 Budget Performance Distant


Learning and Open Learning, 2006-08
Programme: Distance Learning & Open Learning
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget                   8.00             9.00         10.00        27.00
Budgeted                  0.81             1.53           0.74          3.07
Released                  1.33             1.48           0.49          3.30
Expenditure                    ‐               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

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6.2.7 Equity
Like in the case of several other education sector programmes, the equity area received
significantly low releases even in years (like 2008) when the budgeted amount was even higher
than the planned allocation under the FNDP (table 6.6).

Table 6.6: Budget Performance Equity, 2006-08


Programme: Equity
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget                18.00           22.00         25.00        65.00
Budgeted                  5.22           12.06         35.12        52.40
Released                  4.79           11.72           4.51        21.02
Expenditure                  2.16               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

6.2.8 Management and Administration


Management and Administration Programme come out as number one in funding priority of the
education sector when personnel emoluments are included. When these are not included, it still
ranks very well in terms of sector funding priority. Table 6.7 shows the budget performance for
Management and Administration.

Table 6.7: Budget Performance Management


and Administration, 2006-08
Programme: Management & Admin
2006 2007 2008 Totals
FNDP Budget              110.00        139.00       153.00     402.00
Budgeted               10.11           25.15         14.04        49.30
Released                  8.69           24.43           8.44        41.56
Expenditure               27.78               ‐             ‐
Source: FNDP, MOFNP 2006-2008 releases and 2006 Expenditure Report

6.3 Programme Performance


6.3.1 Overall performance
During the 2006-2008 period, the nine programmes of the sector were implemented at different
levels. This was partly influenced by the level of funding for the particular programme and/or
by the staff levels of the programme. Although the sector is organized into the nine
programmes, there are a lot of inter-linkages in the various programme. The overall
performance of the sector during the review period has been positive. Most programmes
recorded definite improvements.

6.3.2 Enrolment and Completion


In upper basic education (grades 8-9), the GER increased from 34.7 percent in 2000 to 55
percent in 2007 and from 11 percent to 27 percent at the high school level. University
enrolment grew at 12 percent a year. Compared with the average for Sub-Sahara Africa,
repetition and dropout rates are lower at all levels and completion rates are higher.

6.3.3 Equity
The sector has continued to make major strides in increasing the enrolment of girls, orphans
and vulnerable children and those with special education needs. Due to a mix of interventions
such as the policy of free basic education; the expansion of coverage combined with bursaries;
and the Pregnancy Re-admission Policy, girls enter primary school at about the same rate as
boys. The number of orphans enrolled in basic education stood at 21.4 percent in 2006 but
went down marginally to 20.7 percent in 2007.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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It is worth noting that Girls are still dropping out of the school system in greater numbers than
boys.4 While there is gender parity in lower basic education, the retention of girls in school is a
challenge due to the many factors that work against girls’ continued stay in school. For
example, girls’ role in household chores; early marriage; and the upward trend in cases of
violence against girls in school are among the factors that explain this state of affairs.
Geographical disparities are also evident. Performance indicators are showing that Eastern
Province lags behind on gender indicators related to girls. Examination results also show large
geographical disparities. In fostering gender parity, it is noted that all tertiary level educational
institutions observe the 30 percent quota for women in their annual student intake.

6.3.4 Quality
Enhanced quality in education is mainly measured in terms of improved teacher training,
improved availability of teachers, improved relevancy of the curriculum and adequate supply of
learning and teaching materials. The most important measure of quality in education provision
is pupil-teacher ratio (PTR)/pupil class ratio. In 2007, the PTR for grades 1 to 4 stood at 75, a
reduction from 76.6 in 2006 while that of grades 5 to 7 stood at 35.8, a decline from 36.4 in
2006. The PTR for grades 8-9 stood at 32.6, rising from 32.3 in 2006 while the PTR for grades
10-12 reduced to 19.3 from 20.3 in 2006. The drop in the pupil-teacher ratios was as a result of
the teacher recruitment and deployment exercise that were done during the review period. The
targets for 2007 were to have 98 percent of qualified teachers for both grades 1-9 and 10-12.
However, these targets were not met as only 84 percent and 96 percent of the teachers had the
appropriate qualifications to teach grades 1-9 and 10-12, respectively. This was attributed to the
proliferation of community schools at grades 1-9, most of which had insufficient qualified
teachers. It is worth noting that although completion rates are high in Zambia compared with
other SSA countries, learning outcomes are not. According to the National Learning
Assessments, only around one third of grade 5 students meet the minimum requirements for
maths and English language. The shortage of mathematics and science teachers and materials
is still a major challenge. The high school exam pass rate has stalled at 70 percent in recent
past. Furthermore, the tertiary system remained fragmented during the review period and
poorly responsive to the labour market. Although new strategy for TEVET was developed,
implementation has been difficult and slow.

6.3.5 Expanding Post Primary Opportunities


It is a truism that post primary education provides a pathway out of poverty. A number of
studies attest to the fact that post-primary education positively impact on household income.
During the BESSIP era, post-primary levels received meagre investment. To this effect, upper
basic during the review period enrolled less than half the primary school graduates and 55
percent of 14-15 year olds. This situation was similar at high school level where only half of
upper basic graduates were accommodated in the limited space available that enrolled only 26
percent of 16-18 year olds while tertiary education enrolled only 2 percent of 20-23 year olds.

6.3.6 Decentralization
The MoE has taken several positive steps to de-concentrate greater decision-making and
financial management authority to local administrative levels. The introduction of Education
Boards at the District, High School and Teacher Training College level broadened governance
oversight to include teachers, parents and the wider community in decision making within the
education sector. Measures have been introduced during the review period to decentralize
some textbook procurement through a joint management arrangement between schools, District
Education Boards and booksellers. The FNDP emphasizes the need to improve quality service
delivery through strengthening of local decision-making. However, the adoption by Cabinet of
the Decentralisation Implementation Plan (DIP) has been pending since 2006.

4
FTI Catalytic Fund. Zambia Summary Documentation. Oslo, Norway. December 22nd, 2008.

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6.3.7 Sector Pool Performance.


The recent education PETS and an earlier tracking exercise from 2007 documented major
inefficiencies with the current sector pool by having a dual planning, accounting and reporting
system for domestic and donor funding from Ministry of Education headquarters down to the
school level5. Based on the findings of the PETS, the local donor group undertook a Fiduciary
Risk Assessment (FRA) in August 2008 to explore ways to improve the sector pool and
propose a more efficient channel for donor funding, including those from the FTI. The main
recommendation of the FRA is to move the sector pool to targeted sector budget support. In
essence, this modality entails that donors would continue to provide an earmarked financial
contribution in support of MoE instead of full-fledged general budget support. However, rather
than disbursing to an MoE managed account with specific accounting and reporting
requirements, as in the current sector pool, donor funds would be mingled with GRZ funding to
finance any activity in the mutually agreed MoE’s annual work plan and budget. This funding
modality attempts to address both the identified weaknesses in the current pool and to reap the
efficiency gains from closer alignment of donor support to national systems, as outlined in
Zambia’s Aid Policy and Strategy and in line with the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.

6.3.8 Infrastructure Development


In February 2008, MoE produced the Infrastructure Operational Plan, a comprehensive
document outlining infrastructure needs for the sector for 2008. The plan also included a built-
in user friendly monitoring system, which allows the districts, provinces and HQ to monitor the
level of progress and take remedial action. This plan enabled the initiation of the construction
of 1,527 classrooms at basic school level. By 31st December 2008, as much as 98 percent of
the construction works of the 1,527 classrooms was complete. Similarly, all the last 18 zonal
centres were completed. To improve the access in the high school sector, the Ministry of
Education in 2008 completed tendering processes and signed contracts with various contractors
for the construction of 43 high schools. Signs are that the construction of these high schools
which begun in 2008 will be completed in 2010.

6.3.9 Increase in Tertiary Education


Government made a decision to transform the former National College for Management and
Development Studies (NCMDS) in Kabwe into a Public University. The University was
established and opened its doors as Mulungushi University from January, 2008. Other colleges
are being earmarked for transformation into university colleges.
6.4 Assessment of KPI
The education sector performance indicators measure the progress made in Net Enrolment
Ratios (Access and Participation), the Completion Rates (Efficiency), Teacher/Pupil Ratio
(Quality), Teacher Qualification (Quality) and the Gender Parity Index (Equity). All the KPIs
suggest that Zambia has registered significant progress towards achieving the targets.
6.4.1 Net Enrolment Ratio (NER)
The Education sector exceeded the NER targets for Grades 1-7 in 2006 and 2007 by 1.99 and
5.2 percentage points, respectively. The NER for grades 1 – 9 recorded an improvement during
the period under review, which can be attributed to the infrastructure development programme
that has aimed at constructing of new schools and expanding classroom space in existing
schools. For the high school sub-sector (grades 10 – 12), progressive increase in the NER has
been recorded although slightly lower than the targets due to slow infrastructure expansion at
this level (see table 6.8).

In terms of absolute figures, the total pupil school enrolment for Grades 1 to 9 stood at 3.1
million in 2007 compared to the 2005 and 2006 figures of 2.8 million and 2.9 million,
respectively. This represented an 8 percent increase. Between 2003 and 2007, enrolment at
Basic School level increased by as much as 39.4 percent. However, enrolments for Grades 8 to

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9 rose only marginally by 8.65 percent from 285,017 in 2005 to 312,021 in 2007 (figure 6.1).
The figure 2 indicates enrolment distribution by running agency.

Table 6.8: Net Enrolment against set Targets (%)


2005 2006 2007
Net Enrolment
Baseline Target Actual Target Actual
Grade 1-7 94.7 95.3 97.29 95.8 101.4
Grades 1-9 93.5 93.40 95.8 99.5 99.5
Grade 10-12 21.32 23.20 22.21 25.3 24.3
Source: ministry of Education

Figure 6.1: Enrolment in Grades 1-9 between 2003 and 2007

Source: 2008, JAR Report.

Figure 6.2: Enrolment Distribution by Running Agent (1997)

Enrolment Distribution by Running Agent


Grant Aided
Community 8% Church/Private
15% 3%

GRZ
74%
Source: Ministry of Education

6.4.2 Completion Rate


Completion rates for Grades 1-7 were achieved against the set target. This can be attributed to
the continued implementation of the free education policy, which abolished user fees for grades
1-7 as well as the abolishing of mandatory wearing of uniforms. The targets for grades 8-9
were, however, not met due, in part, to the low transition rates from grades 7 to grade 8. High
dropout rates and repetition rates which averaged 3.8 percent and 9 percent, respectively, also
contributed to the low completion rates at this level. The dropout rate for girls averaged 5
percent with a number of them leaving school as a result of pregnancy or marriage. The other
reasons for dropping out of school in grades 8-9 included economic reasons and children being
orphaned. For grades 10-12, a similar pattern was observed (Table 6.9)

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Table 6.9: Completion Rates against set Targets


2005 2006 2007
Completion Rate
Baseline Target Actual Target Actual
Grade 7 80.93 82.7 85.2 84.4 89.8
Grade 9 42.73 46.5 43.1 50.7 46.6
Grade 12 17.55 17.5 17.5 25.3 19.5
Source: Ministry of Education

6.4.3 Pupil/Teacher Ratios (PTR)


In 2007, the PTR for Grades 1 to 4 stood at 75, dropping from 80.3 in the 2005, while that of
Grades 5 to 7 was 35.8, dropping from 37.5 in 2005 ( table 6.10). The PTR for Grades 8-9 was
32.6 rising, from 32.5 in 2005 while the PTR for Grades 10-12 reduced to 19.3 from 21.7 in
2005. The drop in the pupil-teacher ratios resulted from the recruitment of 4,578 teachers in
2006. In addition, 6,000 teachers were recruited in 2007. At this level, there was double shifting
of teachers and classrooms, which significantly reduced the pupil/teacher contact time, with
possible adverse implications for the quality of education.

Table 6.10: Teacher Pupil Ratios against set Targets


2005 2006 2007
Teacher Pupil Ratio
Baseline Target Actual Target Actual
Grade 1-4 80.3 75.8 76.6 71.5 75
Grade 5-7 37.5 38.2 36.4 38.9 35.8
Grade 8-9 32.5 33.2 32.3 33.9 32.6
Grade 10-12 21.7 22.8 20.3 23.9 19.3
Source: Ministry of Education

6.4.4 Teacher Qualifications


The teacher qualifications indicator is a proxy to measure the quality of education provision.
Table 6.11 indicates the teacher qualifications from grades 1-12. Generally, FNDP targets were
not achieved for the review period principally because of the proliferation of community
schools, which mostly did not have qualified teachers.

Table 6.11: Teacher Qualifications against set Targets


2005 2006 2007
Baseline Target Actual Target Actual
Grade 1-9 84.0 98 81.0 98 84
Grade 10-12 95.0 98 96.0 98 96.0
Source: Ministry of Education

6.4.5 Gender Parity Index (GPI)


This indicator measures the level of access to education of females’ compared to that of males.
The sector managed to achieve most of the set targets (table 6.12) with the exception of 2007.

Table 6.12: Gender Parity Index against set Targets


2005 2006 2007
Gender Parity Index
Baseline Target Actual Target Actual
Grade 1-7 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96
Grade 1-9 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96
Grade 1-12 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.81 0.83
Source: Ministry of Education

6.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In spite of the significant successes in the education sector that suggest the likelihood of the
country attaining a good number of MDGs in this area, the MTR identified several outstanding
challenges that require attention. The matrix below identified the main ones and offers
recommended courses of action to address the problems.
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Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


Resource Allocation Pattern within the Sector
The budget performance for the (a) The Ministry of Education should reorient its budget
sector revealed major disparities in structure in a manner that reflects resource
the allocation of funding between allocation priority to the core programmes in the
core programmes in the education sector. Presently, management and administration
sector. Management and takes up a disproportionate share of the total sector
Administration took up a significantly budget, leaving little resources to the actual
large share of the education sector, a programmes.
state of affairs that has serious (b) The allocation to university education is woefully
implications for service delivery at insufficient to meet qualitative and quantitative
the level of the core business of the improvements especially in the light of the
Ministry. Without expenditure reluctance on the part of Government to transfer a
reorientation, the sector is unlikely to significant amount of the cost of delivery to the
meet its major objectives. users of university services (students). In this
regard, it is recommended that more resources are
allocated to tertiary-level education while at the
same time gradually increase the tuition and related
fees.
Teacher Recruitment, Deployment, Retention & Training
Despite the efforts in teacher (a) Need to revert to the old system of recruiting
recruitment, there is still shortage of teachers from their teacher training colleges.
teachers in the sector. The high (b) Teachers should be bonded for two years to serve in
Teacher Attrition Rate outstrips the the rural areas at point of recruitment
effort of recruitment as more teachers
are still required. And yet clearance
of backlog of graduates waiting to be
absorbed in the system has been slow.
Moreover, the mode used to advertise
teacher recruitment is not conducive
for rural areas as most areas are not
informed in time.

Difficulties in retaining teachers in (a) Need for MOE to build more houses for teachers,
rural areas as most demand for particularly in rural areas.
transfers within 2 months of (b) There is need for a comprehensive retention
deployment. Allowances have been strategy which brings together various efforts. In
unattractive and insufficient to meet this light, sponsorship for further training should
demand. give priority to teachers in rural areas as a measure
to encourage more teachers to work there. Similarly,
there is a need to improve incentives to keep
qualified teachers in the worst off areas, and keep
degree holders there.
(c) The situation of female teachers in rural areas
requires special attention. A study to evaluation the
challenges and possible improvements at this level
should be commissioned.
There is no CPD for teacher Sponsorship for advanced training should be tied to
educators who need frequent updating teachers’ areas of specialisation.
on their respective pedagogy. Quite
often, teachers who pursue higher
qualifications do not take courses
related to their teaching subjects.
Textbooks
There is insufficient allocation of (a) More resources should be earmarked for textbooks
resources for textbooks procurement. acquisition in order to meet demand.
Textbook procurement manual is not (b) There is need to streamline the current textbook
readily available. In addition, procurement and distribution procedures.
textbook procurement is not always Decentralized procurement of education materials to
based on actual need in terms of school level has proven to be more effective in

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subjects, titles and quantities delivery and cost and is hereby recommended. A
decentralised procurement study should, therefore,
be commissioned to recommend the best way
forward.
(c) A more sophisticated system that tracks books per
grade and per subject should be developed
Classrooms Infrastructure
Demand for additional infrastructure A more comprehensive approach to infrastructure
is still high as schools are far apart, development is required and should include toilets,
especially those for upper basic and water, desks and staff houses.
high school
Quantitative improvement at High School Level
The quality of education at the upper In the context of growing enrolments in basic education,
basic and high school levels has there will be need to focus on the expansion of other
suffered from under-funding due to levels of education, particularly upper basic and high
the long period of bias in favour of school education and consider developing
basic education complementary strategies for tertiary-level education
Equity concerns: Community schools and HIV & AIDS
There has been the proliferation of MOE should put in place clear and comprehensive
community schools with modest Guidelines on community school.
means and lack of basic inputs. This
has compromised the quality of
education. Consequently, one of the
main challenges is the improvement
of the quality of education in
community schools, particularly at
the primary level. Presently, there is
insufficient guidance from HQs on
the implementation of Guidelines on
Community schools. As a result,
DEBS have been providing guidance
to community schools with
insufficient guidance
Mainstreaming HIV and AIDS has MOE should pay greater attention to mainstreaming HIV
remained a major challenge. and AIDS in the education system
The education
Early Childhood Care and Education Development (ECCED)
ECCED is underfunded and the (a) ECCED sub-sector is still relatively new in the MoE
modalities of engagement between and as such the government needs to play a more
the state and the private sector is yet critical role in advocacy, developing standards,
to be fully explored and/or exploited curriculum, and quality assurance and monitoring,
for the maximisation of both and evaluation. Public sector financial support also
qualitative and quantitative requires to be targeted at the neediest children, with
improvements of the sub-sector emphasis on fostering partnerships with other
stakeholders, including the served communities.
(b) Modalities for effective partnerships and alliances
with the private sector in the delivery of ECCED
services should be developed and operationalised.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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7
Health
7.1 Introduction and Overview
The Zambian health care system had deteriorated due to a number of factors that include an
increase in demand due to increasing disease burden and the weak economic performance that
characterised the country during the 1980s FNDP HEALTH - KEY POLICY OBJECTIVES
and 1990s. The FNDP has identified 19 The Key objectives of the FNDP for the Health Sector mirror
core programmes, and 8 non-core the MDGs and include the following:
(a) To ensure the availability of well trained, motivated and
programmes which are envisaged to drive appropriate staff at all levels of the health care system.;
the attainment of the health sector goal and (b) To strengthen the provision of efficient and cost-effective
quality basic health care services (both preventive and
vision. The Zambia Health care services curative) at all levels of the health care delivery system as
delivery is mainly done by public health defined in the Basic Health Care Package;
facilities under the Ministry of Health (c) To Provide adequate infrastructure and appropriate
equipment conducive for the delivery of quality and
(MoH) There are also health facilities accessible health services at all levels of the health care
under the Ministries of Defence, Local system;
(d) To provide equity of access for all Zambians to good
Government and Housing, and Home quality, efficacious and safe essential drugs and medical
Affairs. Mining companies also provide supplies; and
health facilities. Others are mission (e) To strengthen and streamline health care management
hospitals; clinics coordinated under the systems to enhance management decision making and
accountability at all levels of the Health Sector
Churches Health Association of Zambia
(CHAZ); private hospitals and clinics; NGOs and traditional healers.6

The Zambian Government has been implementing significant health sector reforms since 1992.
The reforms, whose vision is to “provide the people of Zambia with equity of access to cost
effective, quality health care as close to the family as possible,” were articulated in the National
health policies and strategies of 1992. The Ministry of Health embarked upon the policy of
decentralization that witnessed the transfer of direct service delivery to lower organs. Most
recently, Government repealed the National Health Services Act of 1995, which lead to
dissolution of the Central Board of Health (CBOH). The implementation of the reforms has
been through a series of national health strategic plans of which the fourth and current one
covering the period 2006-2010 has been aligned to the FNDP.

7.2 Budget Performance


During the period under review, and as one of the priority areas in the FNDP, the health sector
received an average of 10 percent of the national resource allocation. The FNDP allocation to
the sector was K4,034.4 billion, consisting of K2,350.90 Government and K1,683.5 billion
donor components. The annual approved budget for the three-year period was K2,714.96
billion. Annual budget allocation during the 2006-2008 review period was adhered to, with
total GRZ budget releases of almost 100 percent. Table 7.1 shows budget performance of the
sector highlighting various sub-sector allocations and releases during the period under review.
Figure 7.1 summarised the GRZ budget performance during the review period.

6
According to the 2007 Health Facilities census, there were 1,419 health facilities of which 84.3 percent belonged to
Ministry of Health, 8.0 percent ( CHAZ) and 5.6 percent (private).

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Table 7.1: Annually planned programmes and budgets for 2006-2008 (K’billions)
Annual 2006 2007 2008
GRZ GRZ GRZ
Programmes
Donors GRZ Releases Donors GRZ Releases Donors GRZ Releases
Capacity Building 4.6 1.96 1.91 0.7 2.3 1.8 1 1.5 1
District Health
Systems Management 38.1 5.5 5.8 35 21.1 21.1 3.5 3.7 3.7
General
Administration 1.2 20.7 29.6 - 47.6 38.7 0 4.3 2.1
Health Service
Delivery 380.6 71.8 76.2 245.3 342.1 95.1 0 421.0 164.0
Health Systems
Management 69.1 30.9 82.4 38.9 43.7 35.7 6.2 96.1 97
Infrastructure
Development 17.2 89 51.3 - 96 72.2 12.6 6.3 6.3
Personal Emoluments 0 294 340.9 - 392.3 388.9 108.8 71.8 92.3
Support to
Institutions 0 37.6 37.6 2.8 41.9 41 108.7 71.4 93.6
Training of Health
Workers 13.1 5.5 5.7 7.6 6.2 6.3 31.6 25.2 25.2
Total 523.9 556.96 631.41 330.3 747.9 700.8 272.4 283.5 323.3
Source: MoFNP, Budget Status, 2006, 2007, 2008 and the FNDP 2006-2010

7.3 Programme Performance


7.3.1 Health Service Delivery
7.3.1.1 Integrated Reproductive Health
The integrated reproductive health programme largely addresses issues of maternal health and
safe motherhood. During the period under review, the sector registered remarkable progress in
achieving maternal health and safe motherhood as demonstrated by the drop in the MMR to
499 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2007 from 729 per 100,000 in 2002. This makes it likely
for the country to achieve the MDG 5 of reducing MMR to 162 per 100,000 live births by
2015. Although this is a positive development, the decline in MMR is well below the 2010
FNDP target. Institutional deliveries registered a marginal improvement, increasing from 43
percent in 2006 to 46.5 percent in 2007. It is worth observing that some indicators that track
improvements in maternal health and process indicators for emergency obstetric care recorded
negative performance. For instance, first antenatal coverage dropped from 93 percent in 2005 to
92 percent in 2006 and remained constant at this level in 2007. The proportion of pregnancies
protected against tetanus was static at 85 percent in 2005 and 2006 and reduced to 72 percent in
2007 while family planning acceptors rate increased from 138.3 per 1,000 in 2005 to 140.9 in
2006, it again went down to 140 in 2007.

There have been increasing investments in safe motherhood, including facilities for Emergency
of Obstetrics Neonatal Care (EmONC). The period under review recorded 44 districts out the
72 that are being strengthened in EmONC. This has also been complimented by a positive
policy environment for Reproductive Health.

7.3.1.2 Child Health and Immunization


During the period under review, one of the health sector’s main expected outcomes was to see a
reduction in the Child Mortality Rate. The Under-Five Mortality rate reduced from 168 per
1,000 live births in 2002 to 119per 1,000 live births in 2007, exceeding the 2010 target of 134
per 1000 live births. The reduction could be attributed to a number of factors such as the good
national immunization coverage which reached 96 percent during the review period; exclusive
breastfeeding which also increased to 60.9 percent; and case fatality rate for measles that
remained zero during the review period. Infant mortality rate also dropped from 95 per 1000
live births to 70 per 1000 live births in the same period. Child health is affected by incidences
of malaria, diarrhoea and malnutrition. Levels of performance in the malaria prevention, water
and sanitation and food and nutrition programmes were significant in influencing child
mortality levels.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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7.3.1.3 HIV & AIDS and STIs


The FNDP objective for the HIV and AIDS programme is to halt new infections and begin to
reverse the spread of HIV and STIs through effective interventions. To do this, a number of
interventions were put in place during the review period, including scaling up prevention
interventions through support to ABC programmes and culturally sensitive IEC; increasing
access to HIV and AIDS counselling and testing in health facilities and communities;
strengthen PMTC activities through integration with reproductive and child health and routine
HIV testing in antenatal clinics; developing and implementing workplace policies; expanding
access to ART for eligible children and adults; and expanding access to STD and interventions.

The 2007 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS) preliminary findings showed an HIV
prevalence rate of 14 percent for adults aged between 15-49 years, from 16 percent observed in
2001/2002. The Health Sector Mid-Term Review preliminary report indicates that HIV
infection rate was higher among women, at 18 percent, than men at 13 percent. The place of
residence is also closely associated with HIV levels and the rate was twice as high in urban
areas as in rural areas (23 percent and 11 percent, respectively). Provinces with levels above the
national average include Lusaka (22percent), Copperbelt (20 percent), and Southern (18
percent). Approximately 39.5 percent of babies born to HIV positive mothers are infected with
the virus.

7.3.1.4 Malaria Control and Prevention


Malaria continues to be a major public health concern and is the leading cause of morbidity in
Zambia. Malaria prevalence levels slightly reduced from 373 per 1,000 population in 2002 to
358 per 1000 population in 2007. Case fatality rates for malaria however remained static at 40
per 1000 admissions in 2006 and 2007(See Table 7.2).

Table 7.2: Malaria case Fatality Rates disaggregated by province and age group, 2006-2007
2006 2007
Province
Under 5 Over 5 Total Under 5 Over 5 Total
Central 39 41 39 38 39 38
Copperbelt 26 35 31 61 22 40
Eastern 53 85 66 42 53 47
Luapula 38 60 44 38 41 39
Lusaka 29 34 31 36 31 34
Northern 29 28 29 28 27 28
North-Western 28 34 30 26 25 26
Southern 41 59 50 39 59 49
Western 18 51 30 34 64 50
Zambia 35 47 40 41 38 40
Source: Ministry of Health

A number of programmes were implemented during the review period, which yielded some
positive results towards combating malaria in the country. They included the following:

(a) Malaria hospital fatality rate has reduced from 32.1 deaths to 30.2 deaths per
1,000 admissions.
(b) Mass Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) distribution has taken place in 6 of the 9
provinces. Distribution of over 3 million insecticide treated nets was recorded
in 2007. This went up to 5 million ITNs distributed by 2008.
(c) The introduction of coaterm as first line drug in case management of malaria
had positive impact on the reduction of malaria cases during the period under
review.
(d) Of eligible structures in 15 Districts, 87 percent were included in the indoor
residual spraying (IRS) in 2007. A needs assessment was conducted to
facilitate for the IRS scale up from 15 districts to 36 districts in 2008. Some

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Provinces such as Copperbelt reported having covered all the Districts with
under IRS.

7.3.2 Environmental Health


The FNDP objective for environmental health programme is to reduce the incidence of water
and vector-borne diseases. Notable achievements from interventions made during the period
under review include the following:

(a) Establishment of WASHE committees in 5 cholera prone Provinces.


(b) 60 percent of communities had access to improved water sources by 2006.
(c) 64 percent of communities had access to adequate and safe sanitation by 2006.
(d) percent.
(e) Percentage of population without sustainable access to improved water sources
reduced from 43 percent in 2005 (baseline) to 40 percent in 2006 against the
target of 24.5 percent.
(f) Percentage of population without access to improved sanitation increased from
30 percent in the 2005 (baseline) to 36 percent in 2006 against the MDG target
of 13 percent.

7.3.3 Nutrition
The FNDP objective for the Nutrition Programme is to contribute to the reduction in morbidity
and mortality among the general population through improved provision of nutrition services.
The following was the performance under the nutrition programme during the review period:

(a) Percentage of children aged 0-6 months exclusively breastfed increased from
the 40 percent baseline of 2006 to 50 percent in 2008, against the 2010 target
of 60 percent.
(b) Coverage of Vitamin A supplementation for lactating women went up from 39
percent in 2006 to 80 percent in 2008, against the 90 percent target of 2010.
(c) Coverage of Vitamin A supplementation for children increased from 68
percent in 2006 to 95 percent in 2008 against the 90 percent target of 2010.
(d) Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency for children increased during the period
under review from the 2005 baseline of 54 percent to the 65.7 percent recorded
in 2008 (compared with the FNDP target of 44 percent for 2010).
(e) Stunting reduced from 47 percent reported during the baseline in 2005 to 45.2
percent reported in 2008. It is likely that the target for 2010 will be met.
(f) Prevalence of Iron Deficiency recorded an increase from the 50 percent in
2005 to 52 percent in 2008.

7.3.4 Tuberculosis Control and Prevention.


Tuberculosis (TB) represents one of the major respiratory infections in Zambia. The prevalence
of TB is made more complex by HIV and AIDS. The FNDP objective for the TB control and
Prevention programme is to halt new infections and begin to reverse the spread of TB through
effective interventions. Some achievements recorded during the review period include the
following:

(a) Increased TB awareness campaigns led to the number of people suspected to


have TB being diagnosed increasing from 121,353 in 2006 to 226,753 in 2007.
(b) Implementation of TB and HIV collaborative activities resulted in 11,545
people tested for HIV in 2006, which increased in 2007 to 23,356 of people
tested for HIV, and of these, 11,623 tested HIV positive.
(c) Strengthening of the Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR)- TB Control programme
and development of new TB treatment guidelines.
(d) Increased staff at central TB unit from the baseline of 2 in 2006 to 5 in 2008.
The target of having 5 TB staff at central level was met.
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(e) Equipping of all districts with diagnostic facilities brought the total to 156
facilities in the country.
(f) DOTs activities covered remained at 100 percent of the population during the
review period.
(g) Percentage of TB patients tested for HIV increased from 22 percent in 2006 to
47 percent in 2007.
(h) TB Incidence Rate per 100,000 reduced from 3.2 percent in 2005 to 1.8
percent in 2007.
(i) Percentage of TB Cure Rate increased from 74 percent in 2005 to 77 percent in
2007 against the 2010 target of 85 percent.
(j) Percentage of SM+ TB Case Detection Rate /DOTS increased from 50 percent
in 2006 to 52 percent in 2007 against the 2010 target of 70 percent.

7.3.5 Human Resource Management


Health service delivery is faced with multiple challenges. One of the major problems is a
critical human resource constraint. Overall, the health sector is operating at less than 50 percent
of the current recommended establishment. Addressing this is therefore an issue of high
priority. The FNDP target for human resources development and management is to train and
retain adequate and appropriate staff at all levels. Table 7.3 shows the human resource gap for
selected frontline positions in the health sector. The capacity building and training programme
of health workers recorded several positive achievements. Ministry of Health personnel
increased from 23,176 in 2006 to 24,051 in 2007 against the approved establishment of 51,404.
The sector continued to face the challenge of high staff attrition during the review period,
which contributed to the Ministry’s inability to maintain the desired staffing levels. To partially
address this, the Ministry introduced incentives to retain certain categories of health workers
especially in rural areas. Consequently, doctors per population ratios improved from 1:18,100
in 2005 to 1:14,423 in 2008, while nurses per population ratios marginally reduced from
1:1,918 in 2005 to 1:1,957 in 2008. Midwives per population ratios reduced from 1: 5,144 in
2005 to 1:5,189 in the same period.

Table 7.3: Staffing levels – Ministry of Health


Approved Staff
Staff category Existing Number of establishment Variance Recruited
staff 2006 staff 2008 2007 (2005)
Doctors 646 853 2,380 1,527 207
Nurses 6,096 6,490 16,732 10,242 394
Mid Wives 2,273 2,389 5,600 3,211 116
Clinical Officers 1,161 1,228 3,470 2,242 67
Nutritionist 65 69 200 131 4
Radiologists 3 3 33 30 0
Pharmacist 24 104 110 6 80
Laboratory Technologists 100 223 1,148 925 123
Other paramedics and staff 12,808 12,692 21,731 8,732
Total 23,176 24,051 51,404 27,353 875
Source: Ministry of Health MoH HRIS database
The numbers for pre-service and in-service training for health workers was scaled-up during the
review period. Intakes in all health training schools that produce health workers were also
increased by about 50 percent across the board. For pre-service training, intakes into the
various institutions increased during the period under review by 12.7 percent for medical
students. Registered and Enrolled nurses cumulative figures for 7 registered nursing schools
showed an increase of 29.2 percent.

In addition, a number of new areas of specialisation were introduced during the review period.
They included internship for newly qualified pharmacists; training of doctors in HIV and
AIDS, and training of doctors and nurses in the new management skills for malaria. Specialized
services were increasingly made available at the 2nd level (general) hospitals. Specialists were
posted to the different 2nd level hospitals and more specialized clinics and services were made

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available. For example, during the period under review, there were in 7 out of the 9 provinces
specialist in ophthalmologists, up from only 2 provinces before. Laboratory services were also
strengthened in all these hospitals.

7.3.6 Infrastructure
During the period under review, infrastructure was one of the best funded programmes. The
challenges that this programme to address included dilapidated infrastructure; non functioning
equipment; need for new infrastructure; etc. The FNDP objective for the infrastructure
programme is to provide sustainable infrastructure that is conducive for the delivery of quality
health services at all levels of the health care system. The main activities implemented under
this programme included construction, refurbishing and restoration of facilities. During the
period under review, 13 new Hospitals were under construction and planned for completion
within the FNDP programme.7 In addition, four hospitals whose construction had commenced
prior to 2006 through different types of funding are under construction.8

Some of the other achievements during the first half of FNDP implementation include the
following:
(a) Commissioning of the Cancer Diseases Hospital in July 2007. By 2008,
treatment had been provided to 1,800 patients.
(b) Completion of the construction of the radiotherapy centre at UTH.
(c) Construction of Mongu Provincial Health Office.
(d) Completion of renovations and installations of equipment in 33 hospitals.
(e) Completion of 33 out of the targeted 58 health posts.
(f) Rehabilitation of nursing training schools.
(g) Initiating the construction of a pharmacy at Lewanika General Hospital.
(h) Rehabilitation of the UTH x-ray department.
(i) Construction of staff houses in 16 Districts.
(j) Construction of 24 health posts completed with staff houses, boreholes and
incinerators.
(k) Procurement of 164 vehicles for districts, second level hospitals, statutory
boards, provincial health offices and training institutions.
(l) Population living within 5 km of health facility increased from 50 percent in
2006 to 69 percent in 2007.
(m) All first level hospitals have now been equipped with ultrasound, and x-ray
equipment.

Of the 4,466 required health facilities, only 1,563 were in place during the period under review
Table 7.4). The pace of building new facilities was hampered by the suspension of construction
of health posts in 2007 in preference for construction of level 1 hospitals. The country has 5
central hospitals three of which are on the Copperbelt whereas the other two are in Lusaka. 5
districts do not have level 1 hospitals. This raises the issue of equity in the distribution of health
facilities across the country.

7.4 Health Systems Management


The objective for support systems has been to further strengthen Health Management
Information System (HMIS), Financial and Administration Management System (FAMS),
quality control systems, Internal Audit and M&E system so as to take into account the on-going
restructuring of the health sector with a view to de-concentrate most of the functions of service
delivery to lower organs. During the period under review, implementation of health systems

7
These include, Chadiza, Samfya, Mumbwa, Kapiri Mposhi, Chama, Chongwe, Shangombo, Mpulungu,
Lufwanyama, Lumwana, Chiengi & Nakonde Hospitals.
8
These include; Mufumbwe, Kaoma, Kaputa and Isoka. There are two hospitals that are to be rebuilt and also
expected to be completed within the FNDP programme and these are Choma and Serenje Hospitals. Further, sites for
construction of hospitals have been identified in Chiliabombwe, Milenge, Lundazi, Masaiti, Mambwe & Mwense.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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management has led to clearly established structures and processes that are generally consistent
with the International Health Practices and agenda.

Table 7.4: Existing health facilities


Number of Health
Facilities by Ownership Total no. of Facilities

Facility Type GRZ Private Mission Required


No. Total
Level 3 Hospitals 5 0 0 5
Level 2 Hospitals 13 5 3 21 9
Level 1 Hospitals 41 4 29 74 72
Health Centres 1136 75 83 1,294 1,385
Heath Posts 161 8 2 171 3000
Total (All) 1,354 92 117 1,563 4,466
Source: MoH, Annual Health Statistical Bulletin-2007

Some of the achievements during the review period include the following:
(a) Compilation of the Health Sector Performance Monitoring Framework and the
development of the Performance Assessment tools, which will allow the MOH
to closely monitor the implementation of the various interventions.
(b) “Roll-out” of the new Health Management Information System to capture
health indicators as measured by standards of various stakeholders.
(c) Formulation of the 2008-2010 Health Facility Infrastructure Development Plan
to ease allocation of resources and prioritization of capital projects in under-
served areas.
(d) Establishment of Health facilities (infrastructure) data bank to serve as a
source of information for the formulation of development and procurement
plans for capital/infrastructure programmes.
(e) Formulation of infrastructure standards and guidelines as a basis for
implementation of programmes.
(f) Approval of Infrastructure Maintenance Policy;
(g) Increased allocations to capital investment programmes;
(h) Increased percentage of districts providing complete HMIS quarterly reports
from 90 percent in 2005 to 91 percent in 2007 against the 2010 target of 100
percent.
7.5 Assessment of KPIs
7.5.1 Overview
Five Key Performance Indicators were identified to measure sector performance. During the
period under review, performance of selected FNDP health indicators was generally positive.
However, varied trends have been recorded for the different programmes. Table 7.5 shows key
achievements for various KPIs in the health sector:
Table 7.5 KPIs Health Sector
Baseline Target
Key Performance Indicators value Target Actual Target Actual Value
2005 2006 2006 2007 2007 2010
Percentage of deliveries assisted by 43 45 43 43.4 47 60
midwives, nurse, doctors or clinical officers
Percentage of fully immunised children 50 65 82 70 85 70
under one year of age in 20 worst
performing districts
Malaria case fatality rate among children 24/1000 - 35/1000 22/1000 41/1000 15/1,000
below 5 years (Fatality Rate per 1,000
admissions)
Utilisation rate of PHC facilities 0.48 0.5 1.2 1.3 1.3 0.8
Percentage of MOH releases to District 55 57 62 13 14 13
level
Source: FNDP, 2006, Page 375 and MOH Annual Reports 2006, 2007. *Malaria Case Fatality Rate per 1,000 admissions

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7.5.2 Indicator 1: Deliveries assisted by trained personnel


This indicator recorded marginal improvement, increasing from 43 percent in 2006 to the 47
percent recorded in the 2007 ZDHS. The improvement in this indicator, though marginal, may
have had positive influence on MMR, which dropped from 729 per 100,000 to 499 per 100,000,
implying a situation of improved or safer motherhood.

7.5.3 Indicator 2: Child Immunisation


Immunisation coverage increased from a baseline of 50 percent in 2005 to 85 percent in 2007
against the 2010 FNDP target of 70 percent. The indicator has therefore, surpassed the 2010
FNDP Target. The under-five mortality rate reduced from 168 per 1,000 live births in 2002 to
119 per 1,000 live births in 2007, exceeding the 2010 target of 134 per 1000 live births. The
reduction in child mortality could be attributed to a number of factors that include the good
national immunization coverage; exclusive breastfeeding which has equally performed well
reaching 60.9 percent in 2007. Case fatality rate for measles remained zero during the review
period.

7.5.4 Indicator 3: Malaria Fatality among Under 5


This indicator showed an increase from 35 per 1000 population in 2006 to 41 per 1000 in 2007.
The worsening performance of this indicator has been attributed to mis-diagnosis of malaria
cases as only 26 percent of the facilities had a microscope while 17 percent of the health
facilities had a functional laboratory. In 2007, the use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for confirming
malaria was rolled out to all health facilities, an important initiative towards the attainment of
the FNDP target.

7.5.5 Indicator 4: Utilisation Rate of PHC facilities


This target recorded an improvement from the 0.48 recorded for the 2005 baseline to 1.3
recorded in 2007. The 2010 target of 0.8 has already been reached. The improving health
facility utilisation has been attributed to the removal of user fees in primary health facilities in
all rural based districts.

7.5.6 Indicator 5: MOH Financial Releases to Districts


The indicator showed that there was a decline from the 55 percent recorded in 2005 baseline to
14 percent recorded in 2007. This was attributed to MOH’s revision of the formula for
calculating the share of the budget for the districts. The formula currently excludes funds for
centrally purchased medical supplies such as drugs, syringes and gloves that are now sent to the
districts.

7.6 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the health sector during the review period, the
matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to address the
problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


Health Care Personnel
The health sector in Zambia is (a) There is urgent need to train, recruit, and retain
experiencing a human resource adequate and appropriate staff at all levels, focusing on
crisis, which is undermining the the following:
capacity to provide basic health care o Improving the availability of an appropriate
services to the people. Human mix of human resources for health
resource deficits in the sector have o Strengthening systems for human resource
adversely affected service management, planning, and development
particularly in the more specialised o Strengthening the regulatory role of
fields. Remuneration and retention certification and registration of health
of health care workers and staffing professionals
levels in general are a particular (b) There is need for Government to put in place an
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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concern as only about 50 percent of attractive incentive structure for the recruitment and
staff positions are filled. This retention of health personnel especially in rural areas.
problem is even bigger in rural areas (c) There is need to ensure that expenditures on the health
budget are pro-poor.
The quality of health care is below (a) There is need to improve the ability of Health System
national expectation and those that to deliver a free package of basic health interventions,
are poor have remained vulnerable such as assisted deliveries, emergency obstetric care
due to inability to meet the cost of and integrated management of child illnesses
medical services (b) Need to come up with smart Public-Private-
Partnerships (PPP) modalities in health services
delivery focusing on all providers who exist outside
the public sector whether their aim is philanthropic or
commercial, and whose aim is to treat illness or
prevent disease
Health Infrastructure
For the health system to function Focus on health infrastructure improvement should target
effectively, urgent repairs and the following:
replacements are required. (a) Allocation of more resources towards health
infrastructure development.
(b) Emphasis should be placed on the rehabilitation of
the existing facilities rather than on the expansion
of the network.
(c) Upscale preventive maintenance supported by an
enabling policy; clear Maintenance Guidelines;
and a supportive cadre of skilled staff for
preventive and corrective maintenance
(d) Address cross sectoral difficulties in health
service delivery that include poor roads, bridges,
transport, protected water sources, etc.
HIV & AIDS and TB
The HIV prevalence in the general More concerted effort is required to consolidate the gains
population is high but regressing. achieved during the first half of FNDP implementation in
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the fight against HIV and AIDS, focusing on halting and
one of the major non-pneumonia subsequently reducing the spread of HIV and STIs through
respiratory infections in the country,
effective interventions by:
itself being worsened by the high (a) Strengthening the multi-sectoral response to
HIV and AIDS prevalence levels. HIV/AIDS.
(b) Scaling-up prevention activities through enhanced
ABC programmes.
(c) Increasing nation-wide access to HIV counselling
and testing.
(d) Strengthening PMTCT activities through routine
HIV testing in antenatal clinics.
(e) Expanding access to ART for those that need it.
(f) Strengthen the TB/HIV collaborative initiatives.
(g) Address more forcefully the issues of HIV and
AIDS stigma, focusing on finding best strategies
to address it.
Gender Mainstreaming in Health Service Delivery
Zambia still shows major gender (a) Gender mainstreaming in the health sector should be
disparities in some health outcomes scaled up, focusing on conceptual understanding of
such as HIV and AIDS prevalence. gender and the linkages between gender and health.
Overall, the issue of gender (b) Work towards significant reduction of Maternal
differences in access to health care Mortality Ratio (MMR).
and the impact on health outcomes (c) Strengthen the quality and expand the coverage of
does not seem to have received the essential obstetrics, including ante-natal clinics, family
attention it deserves. Currently, the planning, delivery, and post-natal services.
participation of men in reproductive (d) Promote the continuum of care from traditional birth
and family health is still relatively attendants to referral centres through improved
low; gender policies are not provision of appropriate training, tools, logistical

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transformed into concrete action support and incentives.


plans; there is no collection of (e) Strengthening programmes for health education,
gender-disaggregated data within the screening, treatment; and care of cervical, breast, and
Health Management Information prostate cancers.
System (HMIS); and there are fewer
women in management positions at
all levels of the public health system.
Child Health
Although the period under review More effort is required in the following areas:
registered significant inroads in (a) Scaling-up and strengthening community and
posting positive trends in child facility-based Integrated Management of Child
welfare indicators, child health Illnesses (IMCI) nation-wide.
continues to pose major challenges a) Strengthening national coverage in Expanded
due, in part, to weak capacity to Programme for Immunisation.
manage child illnesses; incomplete b) Expanding and improving upon school health
immunisation coverage; weak school programme.
health programmes; limited antenatal c) Up-scaling the involvement of the private sector in
care; and limited involvement of the child survival programmes, focusing on lowering the
private sector in affordable child cost of service delivery at this level.
survival programme.
Health Management Information System (HMIS)
There are still serious management (a) There is need to strengthen the HMIS capacity to
information system challenges in the monitor health sector performance in Zambia. To do
health sector that have continued to this, there is need for concerted effort to secure the
check effective monitoring of sector availability of relevant, accurate, timely, and
activities. accessible health care data that effectively supports the
planning, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of
health care services
(b) There s need to strengthen ICT through making the
health system database more flexible and as well as
decentralise information centres that are linked by
internet to a central data warehouse.
(a) There is need to strengthen the health sector’s
Financial and Administration Management System
(FAMS) by scaling-up implementation of FAMS to all
levels of the health delivery system.
a) There is need to integrate HMIS, FAMS and other
information systems into a single reporting system at
all levels of the health system.
b) There is need to design a system that will work
towards the full integration of health sector indicators
in performance audits, supportive supervision, and
accreditation activities at provincial, hospital, and
district levels.
Procurement Management System
The health sector continues to suffer (a) There is an urgent need to develop and maintain a well
from the absence of an efficient, coordinated, reliable, and transparent procurement and
cost-effective, transparent, and supply system that is acceptable to all stakeholders,
accountable procurement services to including Cooperating Partners.
all service delivery levels. (b) There is need to develop and enforce
Consequently, many anomalies procurement management Regulations and
associated with procurement frailties Guidelines at all levels, based on the national
have surfaced annually and the tender procedures as guided by FAMS
parliament Public Accounts regulations and the newly established Zambia
Committee has routinely raised these Public Procurement Authority (ZPPA), guided by
problems in the Ministry. the Public Procurement Act of 2008.
(c) There is need to develop and implement a long-term
strategy for Medical Stores Limited, with performance
indicators and clear targets.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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8
Water and Sanitation
8.1 Introduction and Overview
Zambia aims to improve access to water supply from 37 to 80 percent and sanitation from 13 to
68 percent of the population by 2015. Emphasis has been placed on rural water supply and
sanitation where accessibility is lower than in the urban areas. Prior to the launch of the FNDP,
the sector recorded some improvement in FNDP WATER AND SANITATION OBJECTIVES
the percentage of the population that had The following are the main objectives of the Water and
access to safe water from 37 percent Sanitation sector during the FNDP:
(a) To assess, develop, and allocate water resources in the
reported in 2005 to 58 percent in 2006. A priority pillars of economic development of agriculture,
total of 13 percent had access to adequate tourism, environment, mining, manufacturing and energy;
(b) To promote legal and institutional framework capacity
sanitation in 2005, which improved to 43 enhancement;
percent in 2006. Due to delays in carrying (c) To develop management information systems for
out the LCMS in 2008, the picture of the planning, development, allocation and management of
water resources at catchment, national and regional level
performance of the sector in the later and to provide safe water and improve coverage in
years of FNDP implementation remains Zambia;
(d) To assess surface and groundwater resources country-
unclear. Despite the achievements made Wide in order to determine the quantity and quality of
towards ensuring that the percentage of available water;
the population accessing safe water and (e) To carry out research and development in selected areas
in the country for improved planning, regulation and
adequate sanitation increases, the country allocation of Zambia’s water resources.
still faces challenges of water borne (f) To provide adequate, safe, and cost-effective water
diseases and pollution of some major supply and sanitation services development with due
regard to the environment and provision of sustainable
sources of water. water and sanitation service to more people in rural,
urban and peri-urban areas.
During the period under review, the sector aimed “to promote sustainable water resources
development and sanitation with a view to facilitating an equitable provision of adequate
quantity and quality for all users at acceptable costs and ensuring security of supply under
varying conditions.” The four core programmes of the FNDP under Water Supply and
Sanitation Sector focused on (a) rural (b) urban (c) peri-urban water supply and sanitation and
(d) national solid waste management.

During the review period, the main policy developments that aimed at enhancing the efforts in
the Water and Sanitation sector included the following:

(a) The review of the National Water Policy, which provides the overall policy
framework for the water and sanitation sector.
(b) The launch in 2006 of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
Programme.
(c) The piloting of the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance Programme in
Southern and Central Provinces.
(d) The launch of the Integrated Water Resources Management/Water Efficiency
Implementation Plan in 2008.

In spite of these policy reforms and strategic initiatives, the country still witnesses continued
outbreaks of water-borne diseases such as cholera.

8.2 Budget Performance


Funding towards FNDP activities during the period under review were received from both GRZ
and donors. Activities included support to Commercial Utilities through National Urban Water

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Supply and Sanitation Programme under the Ministry of Local Government; the Housing and
the Devolution Trust Fund; and the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme.
Donors were expected to finance 80 percent of the total budget during the Plan period. The total
budget over 2006-2008 period was K940.66 billion, which was above the FNDP target of
K869.85 billion. The Rural Water Supply and Sanitation got the largest share. This review has
established that the budget performance against the FNDP provisions and actual releases
against the approved budget have been unsatisfactory, resulting in significant failure to meet
the planned programmes. Overall, donors have been consistent in disbursing committed funds
while Government funding has been inconsistent and inadequate. Budget Ceilings given for
urban water has generally been low during the review period, a state of affairs that has resulted
into under-funding of the urban sector.

As can be seen from the Tables 8.1 – 8.4, the budget performance during the review period
against FNDP estimates has not been satisfactory. The average percentage releases has been
around 9 percent. This meant that programmes could not be implemented as planned. While
the budget was higher than the FNDP targets during the period under review, the variance
between budget and release was exceptionally unsatisfactory. This wide gap led to low
achievement of outputs.

Table 8.1: Budget Performance for Water Supply and Sanitation


(K billion)
FNDP Budgeted Released
2006 256.5 167.32 7.51
2007 268.0 317.92 24.96
2008 232.5 370.01 23.89
TOTAL 757 855.25 56.32

Table 8.2: Budget Performance Rural Water Supply and Sanitation


(K billion)
FNDP Budgeted Released
2006 48.9 70.45 2.98
2007 64.1 86.92 13.14
2008 55.9 92.96 7.63
TOTAL 168.9 250.33 23.74

Table 8.3: Budget Performance for Urban Water


Supply and Sanitation
(K billion)
FNDP Budgeted Released
2006 207.6 96.87 4.53
2007 203.9 231.00 11.78
2008 176.6 277.05 16.26
TOTAL 588.1 604.92 32.57

Table 8.4: Budget Performance for National Solid Waste Management


(K billion)
FNDP Budgeted Released
2006 .3 .2 0
2007 9.8 10.05 4.56
2008 5.6 8.23 1.036
TOTAL 10.1 18.30 5.60

8.3 Programme Performance


8.3.1 Overview
There is dearth of data on Water and Sanitation sector performance over the 2006-2008 period.
The 2006 preliminary LCMS indicates that the national access to safe water increased from 37
percent in 2004 to 58 percent in 2006 while access to sanitation declined from 70.1 percent in
2004 to 63.9 percent in 2006. In terms of regional access, Copperbelt and Lusaka had the
highest percent of population accessing safe water and Western Province had the least.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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Compared between rural and urban, 43 percent in the rural areas had access to safe water as
compared to 88 percent in urban areas. In an effort to increase the number of people accessing
safe water and adequate sanitation, a number of largely donor-supported programmes were
undertaken during the review period. They are presented below.

8.3.2 Water Resources Development


Major achievements in the Water Resources Development sub-programme are highlighted in
the Table 8.5 below.

Table 8.5: Performance of Annual Water Programmes, 2006 – 2008 in the Department of
Water Affairs
Programme Year Input (K) Output
Budget Released Planned Done Remarks
1. Dam Construction
Water Resources 2006 3,193,985,109 3,193,985,100 5 5 (a) Nyimba Dam completed
for Productive (b) Mupofye Dam in Mansa
Use and (c) Fibale Dam in Masaiti
Infrastructure (d) Nasanga Dam in Serenje
Development (a) Bimbe in Chongwe and
Siakasasa in Kalomo
completed.
(b) Kasiya in Livingstone and
2007 4,800,000,000 4,800,000,000 4 2
Lunyati at Kalumwange
Resettlement in Kaoma
carried over due to
inadequate funds.
(a) Bimbe in Chongwe and
Siakasasa in Kalomo
completed.
(b) Kasiya in Livingstone and
2008 4,700,000,000 3,700,000,000 4 2
Lunyati at Kalumwange
Resettlement in Kaoma
carried over due to
inadequate funds.
2. Spring Developments
Water Resources 2006 100,000,000.00 100,000,000.00 2 1 Luwingu was completed in
for Productive Northern Province and the lining
Use and Mbereshi furrow in Kawambwa
Infrastructure ongoing.
Development (a) Kamphemba in Katete
works in progress.
(b) Lining of Mbereshi furrow
stretch of 5km completed
remaining with less than
8km to finish the whole
2007 800,000,000.00 800,000,000.00 4 2 length of 16km.
(c) Luwingu spring box and
tank installation completed.
(d) Extension of reticulation of
Mulanga spring water
system in Chinsali
completed.
Completed the following:
(a) Laying spring pipeline at
Mkushi,
(b) Construction of spring box
2008 484,660,000.00 244,00,000.00 3 3
and other works at Lumbo
in Gwembe
(c) Lining of furrow at
Mbereshi in Kawambwa.
3. Construction of Rain Water Harvesters
Water Resources These were done at:
for Productive 2006 112,500,000.00 112,500,000.00 3 3 (a) Lusitu in Siavonga
Use and (b) Rufunsa in Chongwe

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Infrastructure (c) Chipembi in Chibombo


Development (a) 5 constructions in Kolomo
and 1 at Kipushi completed.
(b) Choma mobilization and
community sensitization for
2007 600,000,000.00 500,000,000.00 6 6
rain harvesters completed.
(c) Kondwelani Basic School
in Katete as a site for a new
rain harvester identified.
Construction of harvesters
Complete at
2008 600,000,000.00 410,000,000.00 5 5 Shantuba School in Chibombo,
Kato in Kapiri Mposhi, Kipushi
in Solwezi and Monze.
4. Construction of Boreholes
Water Resources (a) Central – 9 boreholes
for Productive 2006 605,735,557.00 605,735,557.00 18 17 (b) Copperbelt - 4 boreholes
Use and (c) Northern – 4 borehole
Infrastructure 2007
Development Construction materials for 30
boreholes were bought and 24
boreholes were constructed in
2008 1,400,000,000.00 900,000,000.00 40 24
needy areas of Central (3),
Copperbelt (16), Lusaka (3),
Southern (2).
5. Construction and Rehabilitation of Boreholes
Water Resources 162 boreholes were drilled and
2006 192,800,000.00 192,800,000.00 300 301
for Productive 139 were rehabilitated
Use and 2007
Infrastructure (a) Conclusion of design of
Development Eastern Rural Water
Development Phase III
Project Report and
tendering of borehole
drilling in Chipata,
2008 600,000,000.00 150,000,000.00 1 1
Mambwe, Katete, Petauke
Nyimba Lundazi and
Chadiza Districts.
(b) Field investigations in
readiness of Phase II work
plans.
6. Construction of Boreholes for Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment
Water Resources (a) Exploration for UTH: 6
for Productive were turned into productive
Use and and 3 were declared dry
Infrastructure (b) Monitoring: Lusaka – 2
2006 86,470,000.00 47,560,000.00 10 17
Development boreholes; Southern – 3
boreholes; Northwestern – 2
borehole; Eastern – 4
boreholes and 2 wells
Exploratory boreholes yet to be
2007 279,770,000.00 279,770,000.00 12 done, 6 in Kalulushi and 6 in
Chingola.
Constructed 2 monitoring
boreholes in Lusaka and 5
2008 500,000,000.00 175,000,000.00 10 7
exploratory ones in Lusaka (2)
and Mumbwa (3).
7. Rehabilitation and maintenance of hydrometric stations
Water Resources The following was the
Information distribution of hydro stations
Management rehabilitated/maintained:
Systems Central 11
2006 481,080,000.00 481,080,000.00 112 126
Copperbelt 13
Eastern 3
Luapula 14
Lusaka 14
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Northern 28
N/Western 19
Southern 14
Western 10
Rehabilitated and maintained
hydro stations as follows:
2007 338,925,000.00 338,925,000.00 35 68 Copperbelt (12), Luapula (14),
Western (11), Eastern (4) and
Northern (27).
(a) 26 gauging stations
rehabilitated and 86
maintained.
2008 800,037,110.00 442,550,641.00 112 112
(b) 2 HF radios installed for
data transmission;
(c) 4 HF radios repaired.
8. Water Resources Quality Monitoring and Assessment
Capacity Water samples were collected
Building and and analysed from 7 and 20
Enhancement sampling stations for surface and
2006 116,956,150.00 83,931,550.00 27 27
and groundwater, respectively. The
Enhancement water in both cases was found
not very much contaminated.
Funds being sent to Provinces
2007 510,000,000.00 510,000,000.00 30
for execution of works.
2008 - - - - -
9. Studies, Surveys and Designs of Water Infrastructure
Water Resources 2006 - - - - -
for Productive Surveys and designs done for the
Use and following dams:
Infrastructure (a) Kalumwange in Kaoma,
Development (b) Mporokoso in Mporokoso,
2007 200,000,000.00 200,000,000.00 6 6 (c) Kato in Kapiri Mposhi,
(d) Kasamba in Katete,
(e) Kankunko in Lufwanyama
and Kasiya Resettlement in
Livingstone.
2008 - - - - -
10. Dam Maintenance
Water Resources 2005 701600000 - - - -
for Productive 2006 - - - - -
Use and 2007
Infrastructure (a) Procured new pump testing
Development equipment for deep and
high yielding borehole
2008 60,500,000.00 70,016,132.00 2 2
(b) Conducted on-the-job
training for drillers to
manage the equipment.
11. Institutional Capacity Building
Capacity 2005 - - - - -
Building and 2006 - - - - -
Enhancement 2007
and (a) Procured new pump testing
Enhancement equipment for deep and
high yielding borehole
2008 60,500,000.00 70,016,132.00 2 2
(b) Conducted on job training
for drillers to manage the
equipment.

8.3.3 Rural Water & Sanitation


From 2006 to 2008, approximately 5,000 boreholes were drilled and equipped and 1,000
rehabilitated, thereby increasing access to safe clean water supply. Approximately 1,800 VIP
latrines were constructed in 145 schools and 16,614 san plants were constructed at household
level thereby increasing access to adequate sanitation. Efforts to link the sectors such as health,
education and water were demonstrated under a rural water project in Central Province. This

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integrated approach involved drilling boreholes in schools and health centres as well as sanitary
facilities. Other materials such as mosquito nets, gloves, basins and measuring jugs were
distributed to communities.

Sustainable Operations Maintenance Programme (SOMAP) is another programme that is meant


to improve the sustainability of water supply facilities in schools, health centres and
communities in order to improve the health and economic well-being of the most vulnerable
groups of rural populations, including persons affected by HIV and AIDS. SOMAP, from its
inception, was aligned to NRWSSP to accelerate the above mentioned activities by working as
pilot project to provide principles, guidelines and practical examples in a form of operations
and maintenance models in Monze and Mumbwa Districts.

8.3.4 Urban Water Supply & Sanitation


Under the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation programme, the focus during the review period
continued to be on support to commercial utilities; operations and maintenance of urban and
peri-urban water supply and sanitation schemes in local authorities; and solid waste
management. The following milestones were recorded in the sector during the 2006-2008
period:

(a) Improvement of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Central Province,


which will benefit a population of 268,500.
(b) Improvement of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Southern Province in
Monze and Mazabuka. The MLGH also provided K85million to Chambeshi
Water and Sewerage Company which was used to rehabilitate the sewerage
system in Isoka and Chinsali thereby increasing sanitation coverage.
(c) Projects by DTF implemented up to December 2008: 130 kiosks were built in
peri urban areas for 210,136 beneficiaries. Major infrastructure rehabilitation
works were carried out to improve the Water Supply Services in Matero
Compound of Lusaka, Itawa and Ndeke Compounds of Ndola, and
Chimwemwe and Luangwa Compounds of Kitwe by Commercial Water
Utility Companies.

Notably, the Mid-term Review Report of the Zambia National Health Strategic Plan IV, 2006 –
2010 established that there was an improvement in the cholera attack rates per 100,000
population from 27 in 2006 to 1 in 2007.

8.4 Assessment of KPIs


LCMS (2006) preliminary data showed that, there has been an improvement in the access to
water supply and sanitation in both rural and urban areas. This can be attributed largely to the
good support from the cooperating partners. The sector has been unable to provide data for any
of the KPIs due to the absence of a fully functional Management Information System.
However, this is despite the fact the sector has managed to report on these indicators in
previous years. Progress is, however, being made in the MLGH on the development of an MIS
that will allow for annual reporting on access to water. Table 8.6 gives a general opinion on the
prospects for achieving some of the FNDP targets. It is noteworthy that the Water Supply and
Sanitation Sector Advisory Group (SAG) has proven to be a very effective channel of sector
monitoring and management. The major challenge in implementing the FNDP programmes is
that the sector is donor dependant and that has raised concerns regarding the sustainability of
the programmes.

8.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Water and Sanitation sector during the review
period, the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to
address the problems.
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Table 8.6: Performance against KPIs


Indicator Assessment
1. Number of Monitoring Boreholes constructed and rehabilitated in a Improving
year
2. Number of Dams constructed and rehabilitated in a year Improving
3. Number of Monitoring Hydrometric Stations constructed and Improving
rehabilitated in a year
4. Population with access to safe water in Urban and Rural areas Improving
5. Population with access to adequate sanitary facilities in Urban and Improving
Rural areas
6. Number of additional Latrines Constructed Improving

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


The weak performance of the sector (a) There is need to increase government allocation to
during the review period is partially the sector in order to achieve planned activities more
on account of the reduced annual effectively.
budget ceilings that continued to (b) In order to increase access to water and sanitation
present major constraint on facilities, there is need for Government to target the
expenditure pattern. Due to the large NRWSSP and NUWSSP subsectors.
GRZ financial shortfall, the sector (c) To put the sector on a more sustainable mode, a
has continued to depend, in an conscious effort should be initiated to progressively
unsustainable way, on donor support. reduce the current high dependence on donor funds.
(d) Government should begin a sustained initiative to
clear its arrears with utility companied in the water
and sanitation sector.
There is still limited avenues for (a) There is need to invest efforts on designing
effective multi-sector alliances and modalities of enhancing community participation in
community participation in service the sector. This should include stakeholder
delivery in the water and sanitation sensitisation on water and sanitation issues.
sector. Consequently, a sense of (b) There is need to enhance sector
ownership by the community of the coordination/linkages between and among the
existing programme is low. various sectors in order to improve service delivery.
The Water and Sanitation sector (a) There is need to strengthen MIS and M &E systems
suffers from inadequate Management in the Ministry of Local Government and Housing
M & E systems. This has made it for effective planning and management, including
difficult to monitor/track progress in the tracking of sector activities.
the sector quite difficult. Often, (b) There is need to redefine the coverage of sanitation
different wings of Government give in order to have standard definition that will take into
conflicting statistics on access to account all facilities.
water and sanitation facilities, thus,
underscoring the urgency of putting
in place an effective MIS in the
responsible Ministry.
The sector continues to suffers from Institutional capacity building is urgently required at all
inadequate implementation capacities levels, focusing on:
at various levels, a state of affairs (a) Staff levels in the mandated ministry (MLGH)
that has seriously impeded should be up-scaled
implementation (b) Implement capacity building at all levels in the
sector should be reviewed, focusing on the
professional mix that is needed to meet the
FNDP deliverables.
(c) There is need for an integrated approach in the
water sector that covers other sectors as well,
such as health (cholera and water borne
diseases), education (sanitation in school), and
agriculture (irrigation).

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Part 4

Cross-Cutting Issues
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9
Gender and Development
9.1 Introduction and Overview
Government recognizes the importance of equal participation of both men and women in the
development process and that this can only be achieved if gender issues are mainstreamed in
the design, resource planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes in order to
ensure that development equally benefits both FNDP OBJECTIVES: GENDER IN
sexes. The framework for achieving gender DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
equality in Zambia is the National Gender (a) To mainstream gender in the National
Development Process
Policy adopted in 2000, which highlights a (b) To contribute to providing enabling conditions
number of policy areas that deal with issues for reproductive health of men and women;
relating to education, health, governance, (c) To ensure safe motherhood
(d) To build capacity in institutions to deal with
decision making, labour and employment. To gender issues effectively
operationalise the Gender Policy, a Strategic (e) To provide information on gender to all
stakeholders
Plan of Action for the period 2004-2008 was (f) To put in place gender responsive legal
launched in 2004. The Gender sector has also framework
drawn on a number of international and (g) To economically empower women
(h) To monitor and evaluate the implementation
regional conventions and declarations to of gender and development programmes in
enforce its efforts toward achieving its vision all sectors
of “gender equity and equality in the
development process.” In line with the sector goal and objectives, the core programme for the
sector is to mainstream gender in the National Development process.

During the period under review, the sector focused its efforts on promoting the mainstreaming
of gender in the sectors of Education and Training, Agriculture, Governance and Social
Protections. To this effect, the sector formulated a Joint Gender Sector Programme. Other
programmes such as capacity building and the review of legislation to make it more responsive
to gender were also undertaken. The empowerment of women for participation in economic
programmes remained a challenge and the issue of obtaining gender disaggregated data
continued to be a problem.

9.2 Budget Performance


Gender mainstreaming was the only core FNDP programme that was identified during the
period under review (see Table 9.1). In terms of budget support, K4.5 billion was projected for
expenditure under FNDP financial plan. Of this amount, 98.8 percent (K4, 447,935,520) was
budgeted for while 57.2 percent was the actual release for the period under review.

Table 9.1: Gender Mainstreaming Programmes in FNDP (K million)


2006 2007 2008 Total
Approved FNDP Budget Allocation 0 2,000 2,500 4,500
Approved Budget Allocation 1,380 1,187 1,879 4,447
GRZ Actual Release 658 1,034 880 2,573
Expenditure 658 1,034 880 2,573

9.3 Programme Performance


A number of sectors have attempted to include gender in their development programmes and
budgets. The Government and Cooperating Partners signed the Joint Gender Support
Programme whose aim was to strengthen the national capacity to mainstream gender in legal,
political, economic and, social and, cultural spheres so that women and men can benefit and

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participate equally in the development process. During the review period, Government and
stakeholders intensified awareness campaigns and advocacy activities on gender issues
particularly during the commemoration of the International Women’s Day whose theme was,
“Financing for Gender Equality.” GIDD, with support from UNDP, UNFPA and UNICEF,
facilitated the finalisation of the Gender-based Violence and the Women, Girls and HIV/AIDS
National Action Plans. Furthermore, the Division coordinated the development of guidelines
for management of victims and survivors of gender based violence. In order to facilitate
systematic mainstreaming of gender in the public service, Government commissioned a
consultancy to develop a strategy for engendering the Public Service.

Several interventions are also noteworthy towards gender mainstreaming. They include the
following:

Capacity Building for Gender Mainstreaming: GIDD organized the training of


planners in gender budgeting for 14 line Ministries and all provincial offices.
The aim was to build capacities in gender budgeting. Government has also
formulated the Strategy to Engender the Public Service.

Review of Legal Framework: Zambia’s legal system continued to be guided by


both statutory and customary laws, which have often resulted in discriminatory
practices biased against women. In 2008, Zambia endorsed the SADC Protocol
on Gender and Development and will seek to adopt it 2009. It also passed a
bill on Human Trafficking. Government has also passed a piece of legislation
on gender-based violence.

Women Economic Empowerment: Government continued to implement the


Citizen’s Economic Empowerment Act (No. 9 of 2006) which, among other
issues, prohibits discrimination on grounds of gender in accessing and
controlling economic resources and in employment. In this regard, a number of
campaigns to sensitise women were conducted during the review period at
provincial and district levels. Moreover, Government continued to undertake
measures to increase access to land for both women and men by strengthening
the process of decentralising and streamlining land allocation.

Monitoring and Evaluation: GIDD undertook four monitoring and evaluation


missions to Central, Luapula and Western Provinces. The missions revealed
inadequacies in the operations of the committees such as failure to meet and
discuss gender issues adequately.

The education sector has taken several important steps towards gender mainstreaming. A
Policy was put in place for the re-entry of pregnant girls into school and a gender Policy is in
place in Science and Technology. At the University of Zambia, 25 percent of admission places
are reserved for females while both males and females compete for the remaining 75 percent. In
2007, the general enrolment rate reached 130 percent and the completion rate rose to 91
percent. These are good indications of progress toward achieving gender equality in education
and much of this was largely attributed to affirmative action and a supportive environment by
all stakeholders.

During the period under review, a number of declarations and conventions were implemented.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 2008 issued a Protocol on Gender
and Development focusing on the elimination of all forms of Gender Based Violence (GBV)
and protecting and promoting human rights of women especially their reproductive and sexual
rights. Zambia ratified the GBV Protocol which is considered to be more legally binding than
the 1997 declaration. The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights adopted in 2006
affords women broader protection against gender-based violence. It also provides for a wide
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range of economic, social and cultural rights of women. This protocol was ratified by Zambia
in November 2006. Most of the provisions are not yet translated into national laws. The fact
that some of the provisions of the declarations and conventions that Zambia has signed have not
been fully domesticated means that the gender imbalances continue and affect the equality of
women.

Lastly, analysis of Poverty Indicators shows that there are still huge disparities between males
and females with regard to socio-economic wellbeing, equality of opportunities in education,
employment, governance, and access to productive assets. This situation has aggravated
inequalities between males and females.

9.4 Assessment of KPIs


The old Indicator One covered the Percentage of declarations and Conventions domesticated.
This is to be replaced with the Number of Gender- related Bills passed. Zambia has had no law
to deal with human trafficking. In 2008 therefore, a bill on human trafficking was passed.

The second Indicator deals with the Ratio of Boys to Girls at Basic School, High School and
Tertiary levels of education. Government continued to promote girls’ and boys’ education by
ensuring that there is equity in the enrolment at grade one; there is free basic education; and the
return to school of girls that get pregnant. Furthermore, Government continued to provide
special bursaries to girls and women. It also constructed technical high schools for girls only.
As a result, gender parity has almost been achieved at the basic and high school levels of
education and progress has been achieved at tertiary level. However, the dropout rate still
remains higher among girls than boys. To address this problem, Government has reviewed the
progression minimum standards for both girls and boys by allowing all those with full
certificates to proceed to the next grade.

There are positive indications that equality target at this level will be met given the rate of
progress registered during the review period. A number of measures such as the introduction of
free education and the positive gender sensitivity in the sector would contribute to this. Table
9.2 shows the promising performance.

Table 9.2: Ratio of Girls to boys at Various Levels of Education


2005
Baseline 2006 Target 2006 Actual 2007 Target 2007 Actual
Primary 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96
Secondary 0.85 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.96
Tertiary 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.81 0.83
Source: Ministry of education

The third indicator covers the Percent of Women with Titled Land. No disaggregated date exists
to give this information and the land Policy was still in draft form. There is policy that ensures
that, for all land allocated, 30 percent should be reserved for women. However, women can also
compete for the remaining 70 percent. In the area of economic empowerment, Government has
established the Citizens Empowerment Commission. Under the Commission, special
consideration is given to women and youths. Notwithstanding these efforts, the Ministry of
Land reported that of the titles issues in 2008, women received only 18.8 percent of these.

Under the fifth indicator, the Percentage of Women in Decision-Making positions in the Civil
Service, Government continued to implement policies that promote the participation of women
in decision making. In order to empower women to take up positions of decision making,
government continued to support women and girls in education and training. In the public
service, the proportion of women in decision making positions has been increasing and was at
16.6 percent in 2009, from about 12 percent in 2005.

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The final indicator deals with the reduction in cases of Gender Violence. This KPI proved
difficult to measure in a meaningful manner and was replaced with (a) percent convictions of
reported cases of GBV; and percent withdrawn cases of reported cases (police and court). Due
to the high GBV prevalence in Zambia, Government, in collaboration with other stakeholders,
initiated the process of preparing standard guidelines on handling cases of GBV. In addition,
Action Plans on GBV was finalised during the review period. The number of convictions
compared to cases reported has remained low at 10 percent between 2007 and 2008, while
withdrawn cases before going to court rose from 23 percent to 40 percent between 2007 and
2008. During the review period, there were only two sectors that were providing gender-
disaggregated data, namely, the Ministries of Education and Health. Table 9.2 presents the
KPIs performance for the Gender sector during 2008.

Table 9.2: KPIs Performance: Gender


2005 2006 2007 2008
Indicator Baseline Actual Actual Target Actual Assessment
1. Number of Gender related Bills
0 0 0 1 1 Met
passed
2. % of titles to land issues in year
5.0% 21.7 19.9 20.0 18.8 Not Met
that are to women
3. % of women in decision making
19.0 18.0 18.0 25.0 16.6 Not Met
positions
4. The ratio of girls to boys at
(a) 0.95 (a) 0.97 (a) 0.97 (a) 0.98 (a) 0.95
(a) primary
(b) 0.83 (b) 0.73 (b) 0.73 (b) 0.85 (b) 0.86 Part Met
(b) secondary and
(c) 0.74 (c) 0.90 (c) 0.90 (c) 0.66 (c) -
(c) tertiary levels
5. Number of sectors collecting
gender disaggregated data (and 1 3 3 4 2 Not Met
included in a data base)
6. Proportion of reported cases of
gender violence resulting in a - - 60.0 10.0% Not Met
convictions (%)
7. Percent convictions of reported
10.0% New Indicator
cases of GBV
8. Percent of reported cases of GBV
23.0% 40.0% New Indicator
withdrawn (police and court)

10.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Gender and Development sector during the
review period, the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of
action to address the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. The implementation of gender (a) GIDD should strive to mainstream gender into macro
mainstreaming in the national and sectoral policies and programmes, focusing more on
development process has facilitating compliance by sector ministries and offering
remained a major challenge for better reasoned solutions to addressing the many
Zambia. Consequently, the remaining stumbling blocks.
attainment of a gender-responsive (b) Extend concerted effort to implement Zambia’s
development has remained National Gender Policy, taking care of capacity,
illusive. This is in spite of the fact institutional, regulatory and legislative constraints to the
that several policies are Policy’s operationalisation.
supportive of this ideal and (c) Identify and lobby for the implementation of special
institutions have been established measures to correct gender imbalances, taking
to champion the cause. This advantage, through mart partnership, of what Civil
includes GIDD at Cabinet Office. Society Organisations working in this field can offer.
(d) Address the High Gender Inequality: Employing the
Human Rights Approach to addressing gender
inequities is recommended, focusing on, inter alia, the
minimisation of the gender gap in the labour market,
particularly for positions of influence and authority; and
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addressing women’s discrimination in property


ownership, particularly land through both regulatory
and legislative reforms. As is provided for in the FNDP,
Government should ensure that at least 30 percent of
land allocated is reserved for women and women should
have preferential access to agricultural extension and
credit
(e) Reduce Women’s Disproportionate Exposure to HIV
and AIDS: Government should make concerted efforts
to reduce the disproportionate exposure to the HIV and
AIDS pandemic by women through civic education and
support towards the strengthening of law enforcement.
(f) Culture-sensitive and Human Rights Approaches: There
is need to go beyond polemics and begin to design
culturally-sensitive responses that will tackle the deep-
rooted socio-cultural belief and attitudes that perpetuate
gender inequality. The strategies should include
systematic gender socialization for both boys and girls
through the educational system. Education on human
rights targeting the women, men, traditional authorities,
the Legislature and the Judiciary is recommended.
(g) Reduce gender-based violence against women and
girls: Support is needed at three fronts:
(h) Improved service delivery for victims and perpetrators
(i) Improve monitoring and reporting on GBV
(j) Community mobilization to ensure communities take
charge in prevention of GBV
2. Although Zambia has ratified There is an urgent need to domesticate international human
various instruments aimed at rights instruments, particularly those that have important
improving the status of women gender dimensions. This should entail a complete review of
and children, it has been slow in existing legislation to ensure that it is gender-responsive.
domesticating these instruments.
Consequently, the country has
lagged behind in addressing
discrimination and violence
against women.
3. The country is yet to design (a) There is need to adhere to the FNDP expressed
effective safe motherhood that is commitment to increased accessibility and quality of
well synchronised with maternal health services to women in both rural and
reproductive health. urban areas
Consequently, most mothers are (b) There is need to promote increased awareness on the
unable to access quality maternal involvement of men in reproductive health programmes
health care.
4. The country still lacks a (a) GIDD should positively respond to the FNDP provision
comprehensive capacity building and immediately develop and implement a
programme for gender comprehensive gender training programmes in all
mainstreaming. This is in spite of government ministries and institutions. This should
the FNDP provisions in this field. include capacity enhancement for all Gender Focal
Points (GFP), focusing on the imparting of gender
mainstreaming skills.
(b) Facilitate integration of gender into the existing
curricula in training institutions.
5. The country still suffers from the a) Establish, as a matter of urgency, a Gender Database
absence of a well designed and and identify gender information gaps and fill them
periodically updated Gender through well-targeted research and data generation.
Management Information System. b) GIDD should establish and maintain links with strategic
Consequently, strategic institutions dealing with research and information on
information on gender profiling is gender. MoUs between GIDD and these institutions
scanty, a state of affairs that should be crafted, focusing on defining modalities of
compromises efforts to both collaboration, including gender-related data generation,

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appreciate the magnitude of the exchange and dissemination.


gender challenge and how best to
address the problems
6. The gender monitoring and a) There is need to establish an effective M&E mechanism
evaluation (M&E) function is within GIDD, which is well coordinated with, and
extremely weak within the aligned to, the different sectoral/national M&E systems.
Government/GIDD system. This Improved collection and analysis of gender
has minimised Government’s disaggregated data is essential at this level.
ability to monitor changes in the b) There is need to strengthen the operations of the Gender
field of gender. Consultative Forum.
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10
Food and Nutrition
10.1 Introduction and Overview
The National Food and Nutrition Commission (NFNC), funded under the Ministry of Health,
oversees the food security and nutrition responsibility in the country. Nutritional status is
determined by a number of factors which among others include access to adequate food; good
health and sanitation; affordable food prices; steady food availability; stability of sources of
income; and the general education for male and female parents and guardians. Poverty is the
major underlying factor for poor nutrition. Other principal causes of malnutrition relate to the
high prevalence of diseases, insufficient care
of the vulnerable, and deteriorating FNDP OBJECTIVES: FOOD AND NUTRITION
economic situations. SECTOR
1. To develop and/or advocate for policy formulation
and programmes that will ensure food and nutrition
Nutrition programmes and activities include security, food quality, and safety at individual
household, community, and national level
micronutrient supplementation, growth 2. To effectively formulate, coordinate, and monitor
monitoring and promotion, infant and young food and nutrition programmes in order to improve
child feeding promotion, provision of delivery and access to nutrition services
3. To conduct comprehensive surveys and research
nutritional support to in- and outpatients at on food and nutrition in order to provide appropriate
HFs and treatment of severe acute interventions
malnutrition. 4. To develop human resources in the food and
nutrition sector in order to improve the delivery of
nutrition services
During the period under review, the sector 5. To reduce all forms of malnutrition, including
micronutrient deficiencies and establish safe levels
performance was satisfactory. The low of nutrient intake for Zambia
performance in 2006 was compensated by a 6. To provide food and nutrition awareness for
more than satisfactory performance in 2007 positive nutrition behaviour change
when some of the targets for the KPIs were reached. This performance is supported by
reductions in percentage of underweight, stunted and iron deficient children.

The National Food and Nutrition Policy and the Nutrition Act were reviewed to reflect
emerging challenges within the framework of a new vision in the food and nutrition sector.
Although the policy was in place in place, it could not be operationalised due to non availability
of the implementation plan.

10.2 Budget Performance


During the review period, a total of 16.2 billion was allocated for the sector in the FNDP during
the 2006-2008 period. Table 10.1 summarised the budget performance.

Table 10.1: Budget Performance-Food and Nutrition


(K 'billion)
Year FNDP Budget Releases
2006 2.40 1.59 2.44
2007 7.10 4.19 5.53
2008 6.70 4.41 6.60
Total 16.20 10.19 14.57
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

In addition to the Ministry of Health budget, two other ministries allocated funds to nutrition
activities. In the Ministry of Education (MoE), funds were allocated under the school health
activities under the equity programme. The Ministry of Agriculture also allocated funds to

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several nutrition activities. From 2008, the nutrition budget under public health was
decentralised to the districts.

10.3 Programme Performance


Data on the performance of the Food and Nutrition sector covering the 2006-2008 period was
unavailable. According to the preliminary results of the LCMS for 2006, the stunting rate
amongst the under fives stood at 54.2 percent, a worsening of the situation from the 2005
baseline of 49 percent, while the proportion of children underweight stood at 19.1 percent, an
improvement from the 2005 baseline. Levels of wasting have shown some slight deterioration
from 2005 baseline of 5 percent to 5.9 recorded in 2006 of 23 percent. In spite of the budgetary
constraints, a lot of other achievements have been done in food and nutrition. Vitamin A and
de-worming related interventions have been provided through the on-going Child Health
Weeks in collaboration with CPs which has increased coverage for both to over 90 percent.

In the year 2008, NFNC embarked on a number of advocacy programmes at various levels.
This led to increased funding to the sector from both the government and its partners.
Specifically, The National Food and Nutrition Policy document, together with its
accompanying Implementation Plan, was launched. Several policy supporting documents were
also finalized; these included the Growth Monitoring and Promotion operational Strategy and
the Infant and Young Child Feeding Operational Strategy.

Furthermore, the National Nutrition Surveillance System pioneered by the NFNC was scaled up
to include Eastern and Southern provinces following recommendations to do so in the 2007
report. In addition, the NFNC continued monitoring the implementation of the food
fortification and the micronutrient supplementation programmes mainly through the bi-annual
child health week activities carried out all the provinces of Zambia. These programmes were
aimed at reducing the prevalence of micro-nutrient deficiencies, which include vitamin A and
iron deficiencies.

Effective strategies have been put in place through, inter alia, growth monitoring and iron
supplementation to mitigate the nutritional problems. During the period under review, facility-
based therapeutic feeding for severely undernourished children was started in all Provinces and
training rolled-out nationally. Community Therapeutic Care (CTC) was piloted in Lusaka and
the Eastern Province. The rates of recovery at CTC were good using a home based treatment of
Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods. Several manuals and IEC materials were produced with the
support of NFNC during the period under review. These were used in the promotion of breast-
feeding along with training in IYCF, in nutrition and HIV and AIDS. In general, NFNC
capacity to coordinate nutrition in the health sector improved.

The main performance highlights include the following achievements:

(a) Under the advocacy and sensitization programme, NFNC undertook advocacy
campaigns on growth monitoring and promotion.
(b) Under the Nutrition Information Management programme two pilot nutrition
surveillance system surveys were conducted in four districts of Lusaka
province namely: Chongwe, Luangwa, Kafue and Lusaka.
(c) Under the Nutrition Education and Promotion programme a number of outputs
were achieved. These included the construction of the audio production studio
at National Food and Nutrition Commission, production and dissemination of
3,000 Information Education Communication (IEC) materials and conducting
formative research in four districts to collect data to use in developing the food
and nutrition communication strategy.
(d) Training of 100 health service delivery providers on nutrition and HIV
counselling from various health institutions was carried out.
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(e) Training of trainers on HIV and nutrition counselling of 49 frontline health


workers, community-based coordinators and other focal persons was carried
out.

10.4 Key Performance Indicators


The Food and Nutrition subsector has five key performance indicators under the FNDP. Of
these, four have been reported on under this MTR.

There are five indicators selected to track progress on the implementation of the FNDP in the
food and nutrition sector. In 2008, data was provided for only two of these – one of which met
the target and the other was not met. The sector has not been able to provide information on the
prevalence of Vitamin A and Iron deficiencies, as well as the number of women attending ante-
natal classes who are malnourished.

The proportion of children under-five who were stunted in 2008 stood at 45 percent against the
target of 41 percent. This prevalence remains very high by WHO threshold standards, as it is
above 20 percent. The high stunting rate is mainly attributed to sub-optimal infant and young
child feeding practices as well as chronic food insecurity among the population. Government
has intensified efforts to address this problem by putting in place the infant and young child
feeding strategy and promoting of diet diversification.

There was an improvement in the proportion of under-five children who were underweight,
falling from 19.7 percent in 2007 to 14.6 in 2008, below the target of 17 percent. This was
attributed to intensified nutrition interventions such as vitamin A supplementation, promotion
of exclusive breast-feeding, growth monitoring and promotion, immunizations and other child
health nutrition interventions. It was, however, still above the acceptable WHO threshold of 10
percent. Table 10.2 presents the situation during the 2006-2008 period.

Table 10.2: KPI Performance, 2008 – Food and Nutrition


2005 2006 2007 2008
Indicator Baseline Actual Actual Target Actual Assessment
% children under five stunted 47.0 54.2 ---- 41.0 45.4 Not Met
% children under five underweight 23.0 19.7 12.6 17.0 14.6 Met
Prevalence Vitamin A Deficiency 54.0 54.0 65.7 48.0 -- No data
(children under 5)
Prevalence Iron Deficiency 52.0 50 50 46.0 -- No data
Proportion of women attending ante- -- ---- --- -- No data
natal classes who are malnourished,

Targets for Vitamin A deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anaemia for 2008 were 48 percent and
46 percent, respectively. However, these indicators could not be assessed in 2008 as the data
has not been updated since 2003.

To manage the FNDP programmes, the NFNC, as the lead institution in the sector, incorporated
the food and nutrition chapter programmes into its 2008 work plan and MTEF 2009-2011. The
Monitoring and Evaluation System was also introduced in 2006, this has aided the capturing of
progress on program implementation and tracking expenditures. In 2008, data was collected for
2007 Annual Food and Nutrition Situation Report. However, collaboration between nutrition
inter-sectoral committee has been weak with only one meeting held in 2008. In addition, the
NFNC belongs to the Health SAG but most of the issues under the food and nutrition chapter
were not included on the agenda due to perceptions that the programmes fall outside the Health
sector’s mandate. The NFNC is also supposed to be a member of the agriculture and education
SAGs but did not receive any invitation for meetings in 2008.

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10.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Food and Nutrition sector during the review
period, the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to
address the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


One of the main challenges in the (a) Need to adequately finance the sector to meet its targets.
food and nutrition sector relates to (b) Implementation the National Food and Nutrition
how best to develop and advocate Strategic Plan, focusing on the stated priority areas.
policies and programmes that will (c) Establish a functional multi-sectoral coordinating
ensure food and nutrition security, mechanism for food and nutrition covering all the main
food quality, and safety at sectors and actors. This should include coordination
individual household, community, among nutritionist and other interveners at various
and national level. Currently, levels (national, provincial and district) in ways that
malnutrition is still high among encourage cross learning and sharing of ideas and
poor people and access to food experiences.
continues to be compromised by a (d) The relationship between NFNC and the Nutrition Unit
host of factors, including low in the Ministry of Health should be reviewed with an
investment in agriculture and eye on avoidance of overlap of mandates. The review of
inadequate incomes to access food the Food and Nutrition Act of 1967 is, accordingly,
that is available on the market. recommended.
(e) Government should implement the institutional and
legal frameworks of the National Food and Nutrition
Policy of 2005.
(a) There is need to address the cases of severe acute
malnutrition backed up by strong national institutional
commitment to tackle its many dimensions from
prevention to treatment. Complementary to this,
emerging illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, obesity and
hypertension require serious attention from a nutrition
dimension.
(f) There is need to resolve the issues surrounding the
maize meal fortification project as resources aimed at
accelerating Vitamin A and Iron programmes have been
held up since 2007.
NFNC suffers from inadequate (b) There is need to adequately finance NFNC to enable it
funding and insufficient qualified address the various challenges in this sector.
personnel to champion its (c) The structural relationship between the Ministry of
mandate. The Commission’s Health and NFNC should be re-examined as a matter of
enabling legislation and the urgency, focusing on the level of autonomy the latter
operational relationship with the should enjoy and the form of its relationship with other
Ministry of Health are not sector ministries beyond the parent one.
supportive of the institutional (d) There is need to recruit adequate human resource with
readiness to tackle the challenges the right skills mix and experience. This may entail a
of food and nutrition in the complete review of the organisational structure of the
country. Commission and the repositioning of its complement of
staff.
a) Government should facilitate the establishment of
degree programmes in human nutrition and dietetics as
disciplines of study in relevant academic institutions.
(e) Develop and implement a food and nutrition training
policy
The food and nutrition sector (a) In conjunction with the Health Management
lacks an effective M&E system Information System, there is need to set up practical and
that tracks changes in nutrition adequately funded Integrated Nutrition Monitoring and
status among the population Evaluation system using data from the community,
groups. There is also inadequate district and provincial levels and establish links with
prominence of nutrition indicators nutrition surveillance.
in key national surveys e.g. (b) There is need to update micronutrient malnutrition
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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LCMS, ZDHS ZVAC and in prevalence surveys to assist in controlling major


NDPs Consequently, there is diseases such as anaemia and diarrhoea.
limited capacity nationally to (c) The HMIS data for monitoring nutrition programmes
effectively formulate, coordinate, needs to be continuously updated.
and monitor food and nutrition (d) There is need to include key process indicator in the 6th
programmes National Development Plan. Nutrition data should also
be made a priority in the national survey
(e) Government should establish the Zambia Nutrition
Information System (ZAMNIS).
(f) There is need to develop a nutrition research agenda
There is limited knowledge about (a) There is need to effectively disseminate the National
important aspects of food and Food and Nutrition Policy to all relevant stakeholders
nutrition. Information on National and partners at all levels. This will enhance the
Food and Nutrition Policy is also articulation of food and nutrition programmes in the
poorly disseminated nationally. respective stakeholder and partner plans of actions.
Similarly, Government has not (b) The Food and Nutrition SAG should to be formalized by
formalised the Sector Advisory the Ministry of Finance and National Planning. This will
Group (SAG) for the food and improve coordination amongst key stakeholders in the
nutrition sector. sector while elevating the profile of nutrition by
delinking it from the health SAG.
There is inadequate PPP in the MoH and NFNC should facilitate the enhancement of PPP in
nutrition sector. This has resulted addressing food and nutrition interventions
in weak collaboration between
state institutions and other
important interveners in the food
and nutrition sector.
Zambia lacks a Nutrition (a) NFNC should embark on a nation-wide campaign on
Education and Promotion promoting healthy diets and lifestyles
programme aimed at reducing all (b) Government should provide support to ongoing
forms of malnutrition, including nutrition programmes under different line ministries
micronutrient deficiencies and
establish safe levels of nutrient
intake for Zambia

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11
Environment
11.1 Introduction and Overview
During the period under review, the sector continued to make strides in fulfilling its goal of
“reversing environmental damage, maintain essential environmental and biological processes
and ensure sustainable use of natural resources
for the benefit of the people. Some of the FNDP ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL
RESOURCES OBJECTIVES
notable sector achievements included the The key policy objectives are to
establishment of the Forest Development (a) Reverse environmental damage, maintain
Credit Facility (FDCF); reclassification and essential environmental and biological processes
and ensure sustainable use of natural resources
management of Zambia’s protected areas, for the benefit of the people.
(Chiawa and Bangweulu); reaching agreement (b) Promote sustainable forest resource management
to cooperate on bilateral and multi-lateral levels through, encouraging private sector participation
in forestry development and promotion of
with Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and community participation in forest resource
Angola on the management of the Okavango- management
Zambezi Conservation Trans-frontier; establishment of 500 hectares of national local supply
plantation establishment of over 100 hectares of rubber plantation in Nchelenge and
Kawambwa districts (Luapula Province); and the commencement of the Environment and
Natural Resources Mainstreaming Programme (ENRMP) and formulation of the National
Adaptation Programme of Action in 2007. In the context of these programmes and sub
programmes, the performance of the sector during the period under review was satisfactory.

11.2 Budget Performance


Most of the financing for the Environment Sector was provided for under the Ministry of
Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources9 (MTENR). In the period under review, the total
allocation under the FNDP for both core and non-core programmes amounted to K171.93
billion. Against this budget, Government released a total of K18.79 billion (Figure 11.1). These
budget releases for the period represent only 10.92 percent of the FNDP budget.

Figure 11.1: Allocations to FNDP Core Programmes

K billion

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Projection Budget Releases

FNDP GRZ

2006 ‐ 2008

Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning

9
This analysis is based on the allocations to the MTENR and does include budget and expenditure under other Government
Departments and Ministries. Neither do they incorporate funding from Cooperating Partners.
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There is a significant gap between the FNDP financing projection and the actual budget and
actual releases. This outturn is, in part, due to the large donor component in the projection of
the financing in the FNDP. Some of the programmes were intended to be funded in full by
Cooperating Partners. The difference between the projections and the actual funding meant that
the sector was only able to partially meet its targets.

On the other hand, the gap between the funds released against the approved GRZ budget for the
period is considerably better at 50.88 percent. However, inadequate financing to core
programmes resulted in uneven allocation of funds. For instance, of the K7.39 billion released
in 2007, K3 billion was allocated to one activity –FDCF. The remaining K4.39 was thinly
distributed among eleven other sector programmes. Some of the underfunded programmes are
listed in Table 11.1.

Table 11.1: Budget and Releases to Key Programmes


Releases as a %
Programme/Activity Budget Releases of budget
Beekeeping 47,869,240 6,600,000 13.79
Forestry Protection and Management 366,051,908 123,007,908 33.60
Research and Agro-forestry 58,125,473 20,948,942 36.04
Environment Policy and Legislation 622,168,805 347,083,703 55.79
Source: Ministry of Finance and National Planning 2007 Budget Execution.

It is worth noting that there was little distinction between programmes and activities in the
reporting that has informed this review of the environmental sector. Overall, the sector did not
receive adequate funding for planned programmes However, despite the limitations of funding,
the environment sector scored a number of achievements as indicated in output performance.
Since the environmental sector cuts across many sectors, the uneven financing pattern has
implications for the other sectors. Underfunding of beekeeping as an activity most certainly
deprived low income households of opportunities to achieve income security. Similarly,
underfunding of elements of research in Agro-forestry and Forestry Protection and
Management will most likely have adverse consequences for the diversification of agricultural
(food) production. Reduced funding for Environmental Policy and Legislation will most likely
reduce the ability by government and relevant agencies (e.g. The Environmental Council of
Zambia and the Zambia Wildlife Authority) to monitor, regulate, promote and enforce good
environmental practice and natural resources conservation across the economic and social
sectors. Inadequate regulation has clear implications for environmental health and public
health.

11.3 Programme Performance


In the period under review, the key outputs of the environmental sector included the following:
(a) The completion of the National Policy on Environment. This complemented
existing legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of
natural resources and good environmental practice.
(b) The completion and launch of the National Adaptation Programme of Action
on climate change. The aim was to fill a much needed framework for a
coherent and coordinated response to the threat that Climate Change represents
whose adverse effects are already being felt.
(c) The establishment of FDCF. The facility provided access to loans for
successful applicants for financing various forestry enterprises.
(d) Establishment of 500 hectares of national local supply plantation. This was
part of the sector’s on-going efforts to mitigate the deforestation that remained
as one of the highest in the region as well as provide members of the
community with income generation opportunities.
(e) Establishment of information Kiosks in Mazabuka and Chibombo in Southern
and Central Province, respectively. As part to the strategy towards
achievement of the MDGs (Goal 6), this activity was aimed at empowering

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members of the community with environmental information management and


dissemination skills.
(f) The classification and management of Zambia’s protected areas in Chiawa and
Bangweulu Conservancies. This activity was part of a broader strategy aimed
at promoting sustainable management of the environment and natural
resources by communities themselves.
The mainstreaming of HIV and AIDS in environmental activities did not feature in the
reporting on progress and achievements. Similarly, development, management and
dissemination thematic areas were themselves not mainstreamed in the KPIs.

11.4 Assessment of KPIs


During the period under review, collection of data continued to present a challenge in reporting
on the sector’s performance against the KPIs targets. The sector’s lack of capacity to collect
data was related to limited human and financial resources coupled with inadequate, or in some
instance a complete lack of, management information systems and specialised equipment.
Table 11.2 shows the performance record.

Table 11.2: KPI performance 2008 – Environment and Natural Resources Sector
2005 2006 2007 2008
Indicator Baseline Actual Actual Target Actual Assessment
Total annual greenhouse 107,737 107,737 --- 105,593 -- No data
emissions in CO2 equivalent
Rate of domestic waste 0.2 0.25 0.25 0.35 -- No data
generation per capita (Mts)
Total amount of domestic 15 18 20 60 -- No data
waste ending up in dumps
(%)
% reduction in the rate of 30 --- 3 15% -- No data
infestation of invasive alien
species (Mimosa Pigra)
Rate of deforestation 850,000 --- --- 795,000 284,000 Met
Extent of protected forest area 44,600,000 7,335 7,217 -- No data
(‘000 HA)
Encroachment in wildlife 7 21 --- 5 -- No data
protection area
Total elephant population 24,000 --- --- 27,000 -- No data
(Number)

11.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Environment sector during the review period,
the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to address
the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. Environmental issues have not (a) The Ministry in charge of environment should ensure that
been fully mainstreamed into there is a coordinated effort to mainstream environmental
developmental interventions. issues in development interventions. This should be aimed
Consequently, many at building the capacity to ensure that environment
developmental programmes sustainability is taken into account in drawing up and
are environmentally- implementing national policies, strategies and programmes.
insensitive Consideration of the inclusion of multilateral environmental
agreements is considered important.
(b) There is need to strengthen cross-sectoral linkages and
collaboration in the protection, management of the
environment and sustainable utilisation of natural resources.
2. The country still lacks the (a) There is need to enhance national and regional-level
requisite capacity for coordination of environmental policies and interventions.
environmental management, (b) There is need to domesticate international environmental
which includes the needed conventions in national laws and local programmes.
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coordination among the


various actors in the sector
3. Zambia lacks a There is need to develop a framework that promotes the
comprehensive Environmental adoption of key policies and legal commitments on enacting of
Framework that charts a effective mitigation strategies to reduce, for example, carbon
pathway consistent with the emissions and adopt a shift in energy policy, and provide an
international instruments. enabling environment for adaptation mechanisms. This would
ensure effective resource management and ecosystem services
for development, for household, community and national needs
4. The country still lacks a All sectors, in particular those in charge of energy, agriculture,
coordinated and environment, health, and water need to develop capacity to:
institutionalised response to (a) Manage and coordinate undertaking of environment and
environment and climate climate change interventions, which involves collecting
change issues. And yet evidence to inform policy and interventions formulation,
climate change has an effect at vulnerability and adaptation assessments, and mitigation
all levels of socio-economic analysis.
development in the country. (b) Translate adaptation and mitigation targets into policies.
(c) Incorporation of provisions for environmental assessment,
biological diversity impact assessment and management in
all economic and development activities
(d) Pollution control
(e) Enhance the process to derive benefits from provisions of
the Conventions and Kyoto Protocol on carbon markets.
This will result in embracing cleaner energy supply and
energy efficiency, thus, reducing costs, making production
more competitive, as well as tapping on the clean
development mechanism.
5. There is still limited (a) There is need to conduct more coordinated studies on the
information on the full extent effects of environmental degradation and climate change.
of environmental degradation This will support the country’s capacity for environmental
and climate change. This is impact assessment (EIA) and the enforcement of regulations
affecting the form and extent that prevent human activities that degrade the environment
of response to environmental in an unsustainable manner.
challenges in the country (b) There is need to establish and support an effective
institutional framework that is able to effectively manage
environmental information.
6. Zambia still lacks an effective There is need to strengthen the national disaster response system
disaster response system. and risk management through, inter alia, integrating climate risk
Consequently, the country’s management into the implementation of national policies and
resilience in the light of programmes. This should be aimed at developing the resilience
natural disasters has remained capacity for the structures, in particular the community, and
frail. putting in place the appropriate infrastructure for an integrated,
coordinated and comprehensive response to cyclical disaster
such as drought, floods and disease outbreaks.
7. There is limited public There is need to develop a comprehensive Public Participation
awareness regarding global and Awareness Programme that aims to promote public
and national environmental participation and a sense of responsibility for the environment.
concerns. Consequently, there This should include the use of environmental education
is limited public participation methodology to publicize the vulnerability of the environment to
in, and public responsibility human actions
for, the environment.

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12
Governance
12.1 Introduction and Overview
The Governance Programme is premised on the vision, “total adherence to principles of good
governance by 2030.” The developmental objective of the sector is to have “A Zambia where
the citizens and the communities they live in have an opportunity to earn a dignified living,
raise healthy and educated families,
participate in economic, political, cultural and FNDP OBJECTIVES: GOVERNANCE
social decision making in a safe and secure The objectives of the Governance sector in the FNDP
are as follows:
environment with respect for the Constitution (a) To improve access to justice;
and fundamental rights and where the rule of (b) To effectively and efficiently manage free and
fair elections;
law prevails.” (c) To promote and protect human rights equally
The main programmes implemented by the for women, men, youths and children;
Governance Sector were during the review (d) To strengthen cooperation and collaboration
among governance institutions;
period included: (e) To improve effectiveness and efficiency of the
(a) Administration of Justice (Access to National Assembly to enhance its oversight of
Justice), Government affairs;
(f) To enhance constitutionalism and the rule of
(b) Constitutionalism, Democratisation law;
and Human Rights, (g) To achieve a significant reduction in
corruption in Zambia; and
(c) Accountability and Transparency,
(h) To embed good corporate governance
(d) Management, Reporting and practices in the public and private institutions
Facilitation of Governance Initiatives
(Governance Secretariat).

The major activities undertaken during the period under review included the State of
Governance National Survey; initiation of the National Corruption Diagnostic Survey; National
Constitutional Conference sittings; and conducting bye-elections on Presidential, Parliamentary
and Local Government.

12.2 Budget Performance


Due to the multitude of institutions involved in the Governance Sector,10 it has not been
possible to isolate individual programmes and determine how they have been funded.
Notwithstanding this constraint, it is noteworthy that, during the period under review (2006-
2008), Government allocated K598,837,359 to the Governance sector against the target of K1,
129, 207, 579, 621, representing 53 percent. Out of this amount, 89 percent was reported to
have been spent. Table 12.1 shows the resource allocation and expenditure pattern.

12.3 Programme Performance


In its initial strategy to coordinate the governance initiatives, the sector conducted training of its
staff in governance monitoring and statistics; change management; effective communication;
and programme management. Furthermore, the sector carried out studies on governance data
mapping and assessment; mapping of international treaties and birth registration and its effects
on the enjoyment of human rights.

10
These included the Human Rights Commission; Police Public Complaints Authority; National Assembly of
Zambia; Anti-Corruption Commission; Commission for Investigations; Judicial Complaints Authority; Office of
the Auditor-General; Judiciary; Ministry of Justice; Electoral Commission of Zambia; and Office of the Vice
President (Parliamentary Business Division)
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Figure 12.1: Sector Budgets against Releases

3,000,000,000,000.00
2,500,000,000,000.00
2,000,000,000,000.00
1,500,000,000,000.00
1,000,000,000,000.00
Amount
500,000,000,000.00
0.00
FNDP Budget Mid Term Sector Budget Released Expenditure
(2006-10) Budget Est. (2006-08) (2006-08) (2006-08)
(2006-08)
Budget, Releases and Expenditure

The sector undertook a survey on the state of Governance in Zambia as one of the key outputs
required by the FNDP. The sector was also responsible for coordination of the development of
a new national constitution through the agreed National Constitutional Conference process. The
sector also completed the national report for the Universal Periodic Review and submitted to
the United Nations Human Rights Council in March 2008. Through decentralisation of some of
the sector’s institutions and awareness raising, people in the rural provinces started accessing
the services of such institutions. The notable institutions were Human Rights Commission,
Legal Aid Board (LAB) and Anti Corruption Commission. LAB completed its decentralisation
process in 2008 and included Chipata, Mansa, Mongu, Kasama and Solwezi. During the period
under review, the sector recorded a remarkable reduction in the reports on corruptions cases. It
fell from 685 recorded in 2006 to 450 recorded in 2008.

The Governance sector also undertook the following major programmes:


(a) Coordination of different initiatives through Governance Sector Advisory Group
(GSAG). This enabled the sector to start organising governance data that was
fragmented before.
(b) Formation of National Governing Council for the African Peer Review Mechanism
(APRM) and conducting sensitisation for MPs, Judiciary and Senior Government
Officers on the APRM
(c) Formation of Integrity Committees under Anti Corruption Commission
(d) The National Constitution Conference (NCC) committees completed their deliberations
and moved to the report writing stage.

12.4 Assessment of KPIs


The Governance sector had seven KPIs for tracking progress and reporting to MFNP on annual
and bi-annual basis. The performance of these KPIs during the period under review is
highlighted in Table 12.1.

Table 12.1: Governance Key Performance Indicator


(Percentage)
Baseline 2006 2007 2008
KPI (2005) Target Achiev Target Achiev Target Achiev
1. Average Civil Cases
time taken to Local Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 115 days
dispose of Subordinate Ct 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 146 days
cases (criminal High Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 360 days
and civil) at Supreme Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 820 days
each stage of Industrial Rel. Ct 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 1439 days
the
Criminal cases
administration
of justice Local Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 102 days
process Subordinate Ct 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 138 days
High Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 30 days

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Supreme Court 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 640 days


Industrial Rel. Ct 100 95 No data 85 No data 75 No data
2. Backlog of Local Court 100 90 No data 70 No data 50 9
cases Subordinate Ct 100 90 69 70 83 50 39
High Court 100 90 67 70 57 50 66
Supreme Court 100 90 79 70 46 50 55
Industrial Rel. Ct 100 90 78 70 64 50 75
Human Rights TBD 100 16 100 60 100 28
Com
Anti Corruption TBD 100 35 100 21 100 58
Com
Com for TBD 100 82 100 65 100 19
Investigations
Police Public TBD 100 26 100 16 100 9
Comp Auth
Judicial Comp. TBD 100 34 100 80 100 85
Authority
4. Remand/convict ratio. - 25 39 25 32 25 36
5. Number of verifiable interactions 100 125 No data 125 No data 125 No data
between MP’s and their
constituencies/citizens or Civil
Society Organisations.
6. Proportion of recommendations TBD 100 100 100 Report 100 Report not
from the Public Accounts not read read for
Committee based on Office of the for 2006 2007
Auditor General (OAG) reports that
have timely and adequate action
taken by responsible government
institution
7. Proportion of Registered Voters TBD 80 71 80 2007: 80 2008: No
compared to eligible No Registratio
Registra n
tion
Source: Ministry of Justice

In order to achieve its sector goals, the Governance Secretariat prepared a Governance
Programme Document that outlined and simplified the details of implementation of the FNDP
as well as the responsible structures. The four committees established under GSAG in order to
ensure effectively management of the FNDP were:
• Access to Justice;
• Human Rights, Democratisation and Constitutionalism;
• Accountability and Transparency; and
• Governance Monitoring and Evaluation.
The committees meet monthly to discuss progress on their planned activities in the FNDP.

12.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Governance sector during the review period,
the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to address
the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. There still remain major (a) There is need to strengthen the linkages and
challenges regarding access to collaboration between institutions and various
justice for all. stakeholders that dispense or are instrumental in the
dispensing of justice to the people. The aim should be to
strengthen their capacity to administer or contribute to
the administration of justice for all.
(b) There is need to develop sufficient courts and recruit
adequate personnel to enhance the administration of
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justice.
(c) There is need to secure and consolidate the autonomy of
the Director of Public Prosecutions.
(d) There is need to strengthen the capacity of the State to
extend Legal Aid to those that cannot afford to pay
legal costs.
(e) There is need to decentralise the Judicial Complaints
Committee as well as civil litigation.
(f) There is need to modernise the administration of justice
through the introduction of electronic systems in case
flow management, databases, etc.
2. Several important aspects of (a) There is need for enhanced political will to effect
human right are yet to be legislative change in furtherance of human rights
addressed. (b) The Ministry of Justice should strive to domesticate all
international conventions and covenants on human
rights to which Zambia has acceded.
(c) There is need to establish rehabilitation centres for
human rights victims
(d) There is need to produce and disseminate information
that support awareness on electoral processes, the
administration of justice, and the respect of human
rights.
3. Accountability and transparency There is need to establish an effective mechanisms for
in national systems is yet to be prevention of corruption in public bodies, focusing on the
improved. Cases of corruption in following:
high offices still provide major (d) Creation of efficient and effective procedures for
systemic challenges in the investigations and prosecutions by oversight bodies
management of national affairs such as the Anti Corruption Commission (ACC), OAG
and Drug Enforcement Commission (DEC)
(e) Cultivate collaborative and consultative mechanisms
with stakeholders towards curbing corrupt practices.
(f) Put in place mechanisms that would expedite the
processing and disposal of complaints against state
institutions.
(g) Consolidate the autonomy of the Office of the Auditor
General and Director of Public Prosecutions.
(h) Give Parliament and its Committees more legislative
and budgetary roles in ways that would enhance its
oversight functions over the Executive.
4. Constitutionalism is an important Government should support capacity improvements in the
component of good governance. implementation of the Constitution and related legal provisions,
A number of aspects at this level focusing on the following::
require improvement (d) Exploration of factors that impede the smooth implementation
of the provisions of the Constitutions, particularly those that
relate to human rights.
(e) Support of initiatives that target the protection of social,
cultural and economic rights of Zambian citizens.
(f) Addressing Gender and Human rights by supporting
government and Civil Society initiatives to ensure gender
equality through advocacy and support to legislative changes
in line with the Constitution and CEDAW.
5. There exists serious capacity There is need for capacity enhancement for securing
weaknesses in bodies that are transparency and accountability in public sector
mandated to provide management: This should include the following:
accountability and transparency in (d) Support the strengthening of public finance
public sector management. management as an essential element in strengthening
good governance. Support should target carefully-
selected institutions that possess the capacity to generate
and disseminate timely information on the public
budgeting and expenditure processes.
(e) Build capacity of oversight bodies to reduce corruption

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in public offices.
(f) Foster inclusive participation that provides effective,
practical support to addressing inequalities and promote
inclusion of vulnerable people, including women.
(g) Strengthen national partnerships between Government,
Civil Society and the private sector to identify
‘together’ solutions to development challenges in
accordance with national policies and priorities.
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13  

HIV and AIDS


13.1 Introduction and Overview
HIV and AIDS not only slows down productivity but AIDS patients require a higher service
level, a higher quality of water and sanitation, health facilities, nutrition and many other
requirements. Caregivers tend to allocate most of their time to attending to the needs of AIDS
patients thus reducing their productivity and
incomes. FNDP OBJECTIVES – HIV/AIDS SECTOR
(a) To strengthen communication and promotion
activities in order to prevent and control HIV
The effect that HIV and AIDS has on all and STIs.
sectors of the FNDP is widespread and (b) To expand access to appropriate care, support
performance of this sector, therefore, has and treatment for people living with HIV and
Aids and their caregivers and families, including
backward and forward linkages with the rest of services for TB, STIs and other opportunistic
the economic sectors. infections.
(c) To provide improved social support services for
those made vulnerable from the socio-
The most recent HIV prevalence among the economic affects of the HIV and Aids crisis,
adult population (15-49 years) has reduced such as orphans and vulnerable children, PLHA
and their caregivers / families
from 15.6 percent in 2002 to 14.3 percent in (d) To build capacity at all levels (national,
2007 of which 16.1 percent are females provincial and district) to manage and sustain a
compared to 12.3 percent for men (ZDHS, comprehensive response to the epidemic
through efforts that create a more enabling
2007). The downward trend of HIV prevalence environment for community- based initiatives.
in the age group 15-24, especially among (e) To improve the capacity of all partners to use
females, from 11.1 percent in 2002 to 8.8 monitoring and evaluation information for
decision making and strengthening
percent in 2007 is significant. However, there effectiveness and efficiency of services
was an increase in HIV prevalence from 3 delivery, including operational research and
performance management mechanisms
percent in 2002 to 4.45 percent in 2007 among (f) To strengthen capacity for advocacy and co-
young men. While prevalence is no longer ordination by lead partners and build and
considered a good measure of success, in the strengthen an enabling policy and regulatory
framework for improved service delivery.
long term, it provides useful information about
the evolution of the epidemic in Zambia. Zambia still faces a hyper-endemic that warrants
sustained efforts in the medium and long term especially to address the hotspots in the national
HIV epidemic.

The estimated number of annual new infections in the adult population aged 15 and above were
75,075 in 2006; 79,755 in 2007; and 80,442 in 2008 (Males 33,087 and females 47,335).The
estimated new infections in children 0-14 years for 2006 were 13,733, 11,028 in 2007 and
10,306 in 2008. The estimated total deaths due to HIV and AIDS were 55,347 in 2006, 38,105
in 2007 and 47,429 in 2008 for adults above 15 years. For children aged 0-14 years, the
estimated deaths were 11,404 in 2006, 8,346 in 2007 and 8,144 in 2008. The estimated number
of orphans in Zambia is 1,222,507. Out of this number, 605,149 were orphaned due to the death
of parents from AIDS.

13.2 Budget Performance


The resources for all HIV and AIDS programmes countrywide have steadily increased from
approximately US$198 million in 2006 to US$232 million in 2007 and to US$358 million in
2008. The HIV funds released for workplace programmes in each ministry are not always fully
reflected. The budget performance for coordination efforts under the National AIDS Council
are as shown in table 13.1.

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Figure 13.1: Summary budget performance: HIV and AIDS

40
35
30
FNDP Target
25
Budget
20
Releases
15
10
5
0
2006 2007 2008

Source: National AIDS Council

13.3 Programme Performance


13.3.1 Overview
HIV and AIDS knowledge has consistently remained high at 97 percent in 2005 and 99 percent
in 2007. Among young people (15-24 years), knowledge about how to prevent HIV increased
from 40.5 percent to 65 percent for females and from 46.1 percent to 67 percent for males over
the 2007 to 2008 period. The percentage of 15-24 year olds who both correctly identified ways
of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV and who reject major misconception about HIV
transmission decreased from 48 percent in 2005 to 35 percent in 2007.The median age at first
sexual encounter increased from 16.5 years to 18.5 years.

The achievements of this sector during the 2006-2009 period included the following:

(a) Coordinating mainstreaming and decentralised multi-sectoral response to


gender sensitive HIV and AIDS in all developmental activities.
(b) Support to prevention activities and reduction of stigma and discrimination.
(c) Coordinating of partner and community mobilization during key national
events.
(d) Establishment of an AIDS Law Clinic to support People Living with HIV and
AIDS (PLHA)

Overall, 500 local lead sectors or organisations in the public, private and civil society sector
were provided with technical assistance for HIV related institutional capacity building in terms
of mainstreaming, advocacy, management, coordination and monitoring of multi-sectoral
response to HIV and AIDS in all the 72 districts. Coordination of the implementation of the
decentralization response has continued through close collaboration with local authorities, an
effort that has led to increased awareness on HIV and AIDS. During the period under review,
access to and use of HIV and AIDS prevention, care and impact mitigation programmes by
vulnerable populations increased significantly. The fact that HIV and AIDS projects focusing
on OVCs were coupled with income-generating activities ensured sustainability. The scaling up
of treatment services has resulted in nearly 55 percent of women and men who need to be on
treatment accessing ART services, including associated care. Of these, 8 percent are children.
Government also developed mechanisms to protect and provide support to Orphans and
Vulnerable Children (OVCs) through free primary education, life-skills training and
psychosocial support. During the period under review, Zambia qualified for the Time Bound
programme on the Elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour whose mitigation process
includes OVCs. This benefitted HIV and AIDS-related OVCs.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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13.3.2 Coordinating provision of Information


During the period under review, the sector commenced the implementation of the third of the
‘Three one’ principles of One Country level Monitoring and Evaluation System. As part of this
principle, a well constructed, harmonized and costed M&E Plan was used to support promotion
of harmonized systems. Particularly, NAC intensified its efforts in collaboration with
cooperating partners to generate the needed evidence to scale-up the national response. This
involved convening and facilitating different groups of stakeholders at both national and
decentralised levels to contribute to the generation of strategic information, analysis and
dissemination. Thus, the sector has been able to monitor its performance against universal
access to prevention, treatment and mitigation services as shown in Figure 13.2. A National
AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) was eloped to track actual HIV and AIDS expenditures of
all partners towards the national response.

Figure 13.2: Progress towards universal access by 2010, (2005 and 2007)
Zambia

ART

PMTCT

HCT

KNOWLEDGE

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

2005 achievement 2007 achievement 2010 targets

13.4 Performance against KPI


The KPIs for which comprehensive data was available to measure performance on an annual
basis are shown in table 14.1.

Table 13.1: Performance against KPIs - HIV and AIDS


Baseline 2006 2007 2008 2010
Indicator (2005) Target Assessm
Target Actual Target Actual Target Actual ent
Number of clients 150,000 200,000 234,430 500,000 843,722 1,050,000 1,050,000 Met
tested for HIV at
VCT and receiving
the test results
Number of HIV+ 25,578 35,000 35,314 50,741 45,000 Not Met
pregnant women
receiving a complete
course of ARV
prophylaxis
Number of persons 30,112 81,030 140,000 149,199 197,129 206,000 Met
with advanced HIV
infection on ART
Number of 68 39 39 39 109 49,94311 Met
workplaces,
including line
ministries, with
developed
workplace policies
and programmes for
HIV and AIDS

11
Public sector workers

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Amount of funds -- -- -- 231.9 358 362.4 Met


spent on HIV and
Aids in the past 12
months (US$
million))

The assessment of KIPs brought out the following noteworthy developments during the review
period:

(a) The number of HIV infected pregnant women who received antiretroviral
drugs to reduce mother to child transmission increased from 25,578 in 2006 to
35,314 in 2007 and 45,000 in 2008.
(b) The number of adults and children with advanced HIV infection receiving
antiretroviral therapy increased from 81,030 in 2006 to 206,000 by September
2008, representing an increase of 60.6 percent.
(c) Paediatric ART uptake increased significantly. Of the 29,100 and 40,000
estimated infants and children under 15 years in need of ART, 13.7 percent
and 33 percent were on ART at the end of 2006 and the end of 2008,
respectively.
(d) VCT sites increased from 500 in 2005 to over 1,102 in 2008. PMTCT sites
increased from 251 sites in 2005 to 936 in 2008. The number of ART service
centres for both private and public sectors increased from 107 in 2005 to 355
in 2008. All the 72 districts continue to provide ART services.
(e) Support groups for PLWHA as well as treatment support groups for both TB
patients and PLWHA programmes were scaled up in order to improve the
quality of life of PLWHA through the encouragement of positive living, good
nutrition, and prevention of opportunistic infections and avoiding high-risk
behaviour.
(f) Within the public sector, 40 line ministries and public work places finalized
their HIV and AIDS policies of which 17 disseminated their policies.
(g) The number of OVCs that benefited from mitigating services increased to
43,287. In terms of participation by gender, about fifty percent that benefited
from the educational support were girls.

According to anecdotal evidence from interviews, the achievements catalogued above


translated into decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality among the population. In addition,
the quality of life of people living with HIV has improved and subsequently led to reduced
absenteeism as evidenced in a number of lime ministries. There is also a noticeable reduction in
stigma and discrimination in the workplace as evidenced by the willingness of people to access
food supplements at workplaces. Similarly, data obtained from the company directories by
NAC in 2008 indicate that the number of companies with written HIV and AIDS workplace
policies increased to 101 in 2008 from 56 in 2007. HIV and AIDS work place programme
activities have also been scaled up (Figure 14.3).

Key efforts on Civil Society Organisations (CSO) coordination was focused primarily on
identification and capacity support to key self-co-ordinating structures such as the National
Youth Development Council and the Zambia Agency for People with Disabilities. Others were
the Network of Zambian People Living with HIV and AIDS. In addition, the National AIDS
Council (NAC) consolidated its efforts to ensure that emphasis was put on CSO’s institutional
capacity building through direct technical and mentorship, especially in relation to strategic and
operational planning and monitoring and evaluation; others include skills on facilitation,
secretariat support, resource mobilization, review and documentation and mobilization of
specialized technical assistance. NAC also supported the development of a directory of CSOs
involved in HIV and AIDS interventions and greater involvement of CSOs at the decentralized
level within the framework of a capacity development approach in 2008.
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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Figure 13.3: Private sector or Company HIV and AIDS Policies and programmes

Company has Corporate 75


Social Investment (CSI)
programme 45

Company has Conducted 50


Anonymous HIV/AIDS
Prevalence Survey 28

Workplace Programme 114


Activities Implemented 67

Company has a Written 101


HIV/AIDS Policy 56

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Number

2007 2008

Source: Compiled from NAC Company Directories for 2007 & 2008

Lastly, there were no targets set for the indicator pertaining to the amount of funds spent on
HIV and AIDS. Consequently, tracking of resources was challenging. However, a functional
FAMS has been developed and was used during the review period to track financial
expenditure of Provincial and District AIDS Task Forces. This complemented NASA that
tracks the national response. Although resource tracking has been a challenge, the resource
envelope for all HIV and AIDS programmes countrywide has been on an increase with
approximately US$198 million recorded for 2006, US $232 million for 2007 and US$358
million for 2008.

13.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the HIV and AIDS sector during the review
period, the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of action to
address the problems.
Outstanding Challenge Recommendation
1. There is limited partnership and (a) The fight against HIV and AIDS required strong
alliances between Government collaboration, coordination, partnerships and
and other interveners in the fight networking with different levels of all stakeholders. In
against HIV and AIDS. Presently, this regard, there is need to strengthen NAC’s
NAC’s coordination function does coordination function by ensuring that interventions
not incorporate interventions by from different partners, donors, etc are included in the
all stakeholders in its annual Annual Multi-sectoral Work plan
multi-sectoral work plans.
2. Although substantial funding is There is need to institutionalize resource tracking which is
provided by cooperating partners linked to national resource management and tracking
for HIV and AIDS programmes, systems at MOH and MoFNP.
tracking of the funds has been a
challenge. Within the government
budget, the absence of an HIV
and AIDS budget code makes it
difficult to track HIV and AIDS
resources used in other ministries
other than ministry of Health.
Related to this, Government
financial commitment to the
AIDS response is poorly captured
as it is disbursed to all line
ministries without proper
recording.

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3. There are structural drivers of the There is need to prioritize the provision of life-protecting
epidemic such as the common services to women and girls, the socially marginalized, the
practice of concurrent sexual very poor and most vulnerable.
partners; transactional and cross-
generational sex; gender
inequality; poverty; stigma and
discrimination around sexuality.
4. There is little mainstreaming of (a) Introduce a budget allocation for HIV and AIDS
HIV and AIDS into programmes activities at the district level.
at lower level (b) Strengthen institutional arrangements at the district and
provincial levels and provide them with adequate
resources to implement effective HIV and AIDS
interventions.
(c) Develop capacity in advocacy, management,
coordination, and monitoring of multi-sectoral response
at district level;
(d) Develop district-level multi-sectoral HIV and AIDS
programmes and annual implementation plans.
(e) Improve coordination of multi-sectoral response at
district level.
(f) Capacity improvement of district, provincial, and
national planning mechanisms in multi-sectoral HIV
and AIDS planning and mainstreaming.
5. Voluntary Counselling and There is need to provide appropriate care, support and
Testing is considered important in treatment to HIV infected persons and those affected by HIV
the fight against HIV and AIDS. and AIDS. This should entail the following:
However, coverage is still quite (a) Integrating Voluntary Counselling and Testing with
low. treatment
(b) Providing universal access to ART
(c) Strengthening home/community-based care and support
(d) Utilisation of alternative and/or traditional medicines
(e) Promotion of appropriate nutrition
(f) Support to the infected and affected
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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14
Public Safety, Law and Order
14.1 Introduction and Overview
The continuity of social, cultural, political and economic stability depends, to a large extent,
on the effectiveness and efficiency of the internal security institutions that exist in the country.
During the FNDP period, the overall goal for the public safety and order sector is “to preserve
and maintain internal peace and security for national development.”

During the year under review, favourable FNDP OBJECTIVES: PUBLIC SAFETY AND
progress was registered in two FNDP ORDER SECTOR
programmes, namely, infrastructure The sector aims to achieve the following objectives:
(a) To develop effective mechanisms for prevention
development and crime prevention. of crime, in order to significantly reduce criminal
Attention under infrastructure development activities in the country;
was on the construction of 500 housing (b) To increase efficiency and effectiveness in
investigation and prosecution in order to
units for the police, an office block and expedite the clearance of cases;
prison cells at Mwembeshi Prison and (c) To acquire and maintain buildings, plant and
equipment in order to improve the work
various rehabilitation works throughout the environment;
country. Crime prevention strategies (d) To effectively develop human resources for the
involved securing trust and confidence of efficient performance of the sector.
the community by putting much emphasis
on community-based policing through such programmes as the Neighbourhood Watch, the
Victim Support Unit, Offender Management, and the introduction of the Parole System and
Extension Services for prisoners. The sector also enacted the Anti-human Trafficking Act,
2008, which will help law enforcement agencies to effectively prevent, stop and prosecute
perpetrators of human trafficking. At the same time, strides were made by the sector in
improving its management information system through computerization of the printed
publications into digital version. The converted monographs included; district notebooks,
photographs, maps, British South African company collection and some colonial newspapers.
The digitalized version has improved access to information and the retrieval system.
The principal actors in the sector are Zambia Police Service, Zambia Prisons Service, the Drug
Enforcement Commission (DEC), Department of Immigration, National Registration, Passport
and Citizenship, National Archives of Zambia, Commission for Refugees, and the Office of the
Registrar of Societies. These institutions fall under the superintendence of the Ministry of
Home Affairs (MoHA).

Over the years, the working environment and functionality of these law enforcement agencies
have continued to deteriorate. The agencies lack basic operational requisites while the housing
situation for officers has persistently been a worsening scenario. Consequently, this has
compromised the credibility and integrity of the law enforcement officers and has resulted in
low morale of officers, rendering them less effective and efficient in the execution of their
mandates. During the FNDP period, Government plans to lay emphasis on crime prevention,
capacity building, and infrastructure development and rehabilitation.

14.2 Budget Performance


The total amount allocated to the sector was K576 billion for the core programmes, namely,
crime prevention, capacity building, infrastructure development and rehabilitation. The
implementation of these programmes is being done under two established institutions which are
MoHA and ZP. The FNDP financing plan for programmes under the Ministry of Home Affairs
were projected at K206 billion over the review period. However, government only approved a

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total budget of K81 billion of which K42 billion was released, representing 20.4 percent of the
FNDP budget for the Ministry during the review period The actual sectoral expenditure was
K27.7 billion, representing 13.5 percent of the FNDP financial projection. There has been, by
far, a big gap between what was planned during the review period for the MoHA and actual
expenditure. Under such conditions, there has been very little relationship between what has
been planned and budgeted for in the FNDP for the sector and what has actually been made
available.

The programmes under the Zambia Police Service were allocated K155.37 billion in the budget
during the review period against a FNDP projection of K371.16 billion. The releases amounted
to K124.53, or 33.7percent of the FNDP planned allocation. Much of the money was directed
towards infrastructure development (K85.2 billion) and crime prevention (K21.94 billion). Of
the total amount expended by the sector, the programme of Crime Prevention accounted for 59
percent while infrastructure development took up 28 percent. Infrastructure rehabilitation and
capacity building accounted for 9 percent and 4 percent of the total expenditure, respectively.
Crime prevention was the only core programme on which there was above 50 percent
adherence to the FNDP allocation in terms of both releases and expenditure.

Capacity building was the least funded core programme in terms of the approved allocation. Of
the K24.4 billion allocated under the FNDP for the period under review, K2.8 billion,
representing only 11 percent, was approved under the budget. The actual release was 6 percent
while 5 percent was the sectoral expenditure against the total FNDP allocation. The highest
amount of money was planned for Infrastructure Development programme during the FNDP
period under review. However, what was approved was only 32 percent of the K149.7 billion
under the FNDP. The releases accounted for 12 percent though only 5 percent was expended.
On infrastructure rehabilitation, a total of K6.8 billion was projected to be spent during the
period under review of which 63.5 percent was approved in the budget and only 35.8 percent
was released. The sectoral expenditure accounted for 35.4 percent of the total FNDP budget.
Table 14.1 gives the details for FNDP allocations and actual expenditures.

Table 14.1: FNDP Budget Releases Public Safety, Total (2008)


FNDP
(K billions) Budget Releases Expenditure
Public Safety, Total
1) Crime Prevention 67.20 12,570,275,816 10,197,776,424 7,974,508,729
2) Capacity building 29.97 2,919,404,772 1,088,615,728 1,088,615,728
3) Infrastructure development 113.68 98,160,568,839 46,997,282,909 38,000,000,000
4) Infrastructure rehabilitation 30.25 7,393,201,364 3,814,955,795 3,814,955,795
Total Public Safety and Order 241.10 121,043,450,791 62,098,630,856 50,878,080,252
Public Safety, Zambia Police
1) Crime Prevention 59.16 2,997,883,658 6,354,910,585 6,354,910,585
2) Capacity building 22.26 923,260,301 515,700,000 515,700,000
3) Infrastructure development 72.40 60,000,000,000 38,000,000,000 38,000,000,000
4) Infrastructure rehabilitation 27.94 4,503,582,286 2,762,312,593 2,762,312,593
Total Zambia Police 181.76 68,424,726,245 47,632,923,178 47,632,923,178
Public Safety, Total, MoHA
1) Crime Prevention 8.04 9,572,392,158 3,842,865,839 1,619,598,144
2) Capacity building 7.71 1,996,144,471 572,915,728 572,915,728
3) Infrastructure development 41.28 38,160,568,839 8,997,282,909 0
4) Infrastructure rehabilitation 2.31 2,889,619,078 1,052,643,202 1,052,643,202
Total Home Affairs 59.34 52,618,724,546 14,465,707,678 3,245,157,074

14.3 Programme Performance


9.3.1 Crime Prevention Programme
The objective during the period under review was to develop effective mechanisms for
prevention of crime in order to significantly reduce criminal activities in the country. The
government therefore, identified Crime Prevention as a top priority programme. Crime
prevention activities implemented by the Zambia police included computerization of records
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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and finger prints; establishment of more police posts; offering evidence of forensic nature;
laboratory consumables as well as the provision and preservation of evidence of chemical and
pathological nature. The Zambia Police Service was further strengthened through the
acquisition of communication equipment and motor vehicles for operational efficiency and
effectiveness.

As a consequence of the initiatives above, albeit under-funded, there has been a noticeable
decline in criminal activities in the country. This decline is attributed to various crime
prevention programmes undertaken that included the establishment of an investigation and
prosecution unit under the National Registration; human and child trafficking control under
DEC; issuance of machine-readable passports under National Registration; digitalization of
national travel documents under the Passport Office; and the introduction of the Parole System
and Extension Services for prisoners under the Zambia Prisons Service. Other programmes
included public awareness campaigns to prevent various crimes; establishment of the Child
Protection Unit; monitoring of migrants and visitors; and border controls under the Immigration
department.

14.3.2 Capacity Building


Despite having set a sector objective of effectively developing human resources for the efficient
performance of the departments under the sector, funding to this programme was not
satisfactory during the period under review as the sector spent a total of only K1.2 billion,
which was 4 percent of the total expenditure on core FNDP programmes. These funds enabled
the sector to retrain some of the staff in different specialised fields and recruit additional
officers especially in the Zambia Police Service, Zambia Prisons Service, DEC and National
Registration.

Due to inadequate funding, the sector has not benefited from the structural reforms that have
taken place in other sectors of the country. The sector has continued to operate on a skeleton
staff with most of its staff possessing low education attainments. The government has further
not provided competitive working condition in the sector as is the case in other security sectors
such as defence. Inadequate human resource in institutions that collect revenue such as
Immigration, Zambia Police, National Registration, Citizens and Passports as well as Registrar
of societies affected their capacity to perform this function. The officer-client ratio during the
period under review remained high for all the departments under the sector with DEC having a
rapidly worsening condition as can be deduced from Table 14.2.

Table 14.2: Officer Client ratio in Key Institutions, 2007–8


2007 2008
Zambia Police 1:792 '1:653
Immigration 1:20 1:8
DEC 1:24,886 1:23,305
Prisons Service 1:8 1:6
Registrar of Societies 1:3,286 1:3,286
National Registration 1:41,044 1:41,044
Commission for Refugees 1:2265 1:2,036
Source: Ministry of Home Affairs Research and Information Department (HARID)

14.3.3 Infrastructure Development


Some major infrastructure projects were initiated during the review period. These included the
construction of 500 police staff housing units in five districts, namely, Kasama, Chipata,
Mongu, Ndola and Livingstone. In addition, 307 houses were purchased for Zambia Police
officers while the Zambia Prisons Service had 20 housing units under construction in Kabwe
district at the end of 2008. Due to delays in approving construction plans and granting of tender
authority, only Phase One of the Mwembeshi maximum prison was completed. Consequently
there has not been real extra prison space created during the period under review. Other
infrastructure projects under the sector included the completion of the construction of the

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National Registration Office in Lusaka, and completion of the extension of the National
Archives Office building in Lusaka.

14.3.4 Infrastructure Rehabilitation


During the review period, Government undertook rehabilitation works of old infrastructure in
the sector. Projects supported under this programme included the rehabilitation of police
stations at Kapiri Mposhi, Sibutu in Mongu, Sikanze, Chelstone and Chilenje in Lusaka,
Kamfinsa Mobile Unit in Kitwe. The Sikanze Senior Police Mess in Lusaka was also
rehabilitated and has since been converted to a hospital. Rehabilitation works were also
extended to immigration offices at Headquarters old Kent building and five immigration border
posts namely, Lusuntha, Sinamisale, Katimamulilo, Kazungula and Mpulungu. Two Regional
and one District National Registration offices were also rehabilitated during the period under
review. In order to improve living conditions for inmates, Kamfinsa State prison and Kabwe
female prison were also rehabilitated.

14.4 Assessment of KPIs


As agreed with the Sector during the Mid-Term Review Report, the structuring of the KPIs has
been re-adjusted to report on the number of cases rather than the percentage increase, as this
will provide more insight in the performance of the sector in relation to the KPIs. Table 14.3
shows the KPIs during the review period.

Table 14.3: KPI Performance 2008 – Public Safety, Law and Order
2006 2007 2008
Indicator Actual Actual Target Actual Assessment
Percentage increase in number of 151,320
155,840 2.0% Not Met
offences reported at key offices - 2.9%
Percentage increase in number of
100,358
arrests made, as a result of reported 95,974 2.0% Met
4.7%
offences
Percentage increase in number of 47,825
50,125 2.0% Not Met
arrests that result in prosecutions - 4.7%
Percentage increase in the number of
41,716
prosecuted cases resulting in a 36,330 2.0% Met
14.8%
successful verdict
Staff Ratio to appropriate population
(a) 1 : 792 (a) 1 : 653 (a) 1 : 580 (a) 1 : 843
(a) Zambia Police
(b) ---- (b) 1 : 8 (b) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 8
(b) Immigration
(c) ---- (c) 1 : 23,305 (c) 1 : 23,305 (c) 1: 35,502
(c) DEC officers
(d) ---- (d) 1 : 3,286 (d) --- (d) ---
(d) Registrar of societies Not Met
(e) ---- (e) 1 : 41,044 (e) 1 : 18,800 (e) 1 : 41,044
(e) National Registration
(f) --- (f) 1 : 200 (f) --- (f) ---
(f) Civil Servants
(g) 1 : 8 (g) 1 : 6 (g) 1 : 6 (g) 1 : 7
(g) Prison Staff
(h) --- (h) --- (h) --- (h) ---
(h) Commission for Refugees
Proportion of prison population who
3% No Target
are HIV positive
Proportion (%) of staff in key
institutions who are female (a) 12.5 (a) 12.5 (a) --- (a) 11.0
(a) Zambia Police (b) 20.0 (b) 20.0 (b) --- (b) 12.0
Part Met
(b) Immigration (c) 71.0 (c) 66.0 (c) 28.0 (c) 28.0
(c) DEC officers (d) 23.0 (d) 23.0 (d) 26.5 (d) 23.0
(d) Prison Staff
 
Under Indicator 1, Annual Percentage Increase in Reported Offence, the number of cases or
alleged offences reported to the Zambia Police declined by 0.6 percent from 149,489 in the year
2007 to 148,589 in the year 2008. This decline was lower compared to the decline of 2.8
percent recorded between 2006 and 2007 (Table 14.4)
©2009, FNDP Mid-term Review
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Table 14.4: Number of Offences reported at Key Offices


Department 2007 2008 % change
Zambia Police 149,489 148,589 -0.6
Immigration 2,843 588 -79.3
DEC 2,914 1,650 -43.4
Registrar of Societies 552 468 -15.2
National Registration 42 25 -40.5
Total 155,840 151,320 -2.9

There was also a reduction of 43 percent, from 2,914 in 2007 to 1,650 in 2008, for the total
number of drugs and money laundering-related cases reported to the Drug Enforcement
Commission. Again, this is a slower rate of decline than the one recorded between 2006 and
2007. The Immigration Department also had a decline in the number of reported cases by 79
percent from 2,843 to 588 in 2008, following an increase of 11 percent between 2006 and 2007.
The Registrar of Societies and National Registration Department also registered decreases in
the number of reported cases from 42 in 2007 to 25 in 2008 for National Registration while for
Registrar of societies cases reduced from 552 to 468, representing declines of 15 percent and 40
percent , respectively.

Indicator 2, Annual Percentage Increase in the Number of Arrests made on the Reported
Offences, is a follow on to that. During the period under review, the Zambia Police Service
reported an increase of 5.7 percent in the number of arrests made, from 93,281 in 2007 to
98,670 in 2008. Over the same period, the Drug Enforcement Commission registered a decline
in the number of arrests reducing from 2,693 to 1,688, continuing the trend, which was a 58
percent drop in the number of arrests made in the previous year.

Indicator 3 deals with the Annual Percentage Increase in the number of Arrests that Resulted in
Prosecution. This showed a decrease of 5.9 percent in the number of arrests that resulted in
prosecution (from 45,776 in the year 2007 to 43,228 in the year 2008, as recorded by the
Zambia Police). The Drug Enforcement Commission and the Immigration Department recorded
41 percent and 87 percent decreases in the number of arrests that resulted in prosecution,
respectively (Table 14.5).
Table 14.5: Number of Prosecutions
2007 2008 % Change
Zambia Police 45,776 43,228 - 5.9
Drug Enforcement Commission 2,594 2,009 - 23.6
Immigration Department 1,755 2,588 - 47.5
Total 50,125 47,825 -4.5
Source: Ministry of Home Affairs Research and Information Department (HARID)

Indicator 4 deals with Annual Percentage Increase in the number of Prosecuted Cases
Resulting in Successful Verdict. Zambia Police showed an improvement in the number of
convictions, up from 34,881 in the year 2007 to 40,907 in the year 2008, an increase of 15
percent. The Drug Enforcement Commission reported a decline of 40 percent of the numbers
required (Table 14.6).

Table 14.6: Number of Prosecution Resulting in a Successful Verdict


Department 2007 2008 % Change
Zambia Police 34,881 40,907 + 15.0
Drug Enforcement Commission 1,449 809 - 40.0
Total 36,330 41,716 14.8
Source: Ministry of Home Affairs Research and Information Department (HARID)

Indicator 5 covers the Staff Ratio to Appropriate Population. For the year 2008, the staff ratio
to the appropriate population in the Zambia Police Service was reported at 1:843, as opposed to
the target of 1:580. The ratio increased from 1:653 in the year 2007 due to the non-recruitment
of new officers to replace and increase the staff strength. Similarly, for the Zambia Prisons

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Service, at 1: 7, failed to meet the annual target of 1:6, suggesting a worsening situation since
2007. Again, this was largely because of the non recruitment of additional staff and a lower
number of inmates released under the Presidential pardon/amnesty during the year.

The Drug Enforcement Commission recorded 1: 35,502 against a target of 1: 23,305, while the
ratio of immigration officers to the number of migrants was recorded at 1:8 against a set target
of 1:4, similarly, the ratio of National Registration officers to the appropriate population was
reported to be at 1: 41,044 against a target of 1: 18,800 (Table 14.7)

Table 14.7: Officer Client ratio in Key Institutions, 2007–8


Department 2006 2007 2008 Target 2008 Actual
Zambia Police 1:792 1:653 1 : 580 1 : 843
Immigration 1:20 1:8 1:4 1:8
DEC 1:24,886 1:23,305 1: 23,305 1: 35,502
Prisons Service 1:8 1:6 1:6 1:7
Registrar of Societies 1:3,286 1:3,286
National Registration 1:41,044 1:41,044 1:18,800 1:41,044
Commission for Refugees 1:2265 1:2,036
Source: Ministry of Home Affairs Research and Information Department (HARID)
 
Indicator 6 deals with the Prevalence of HIV and AIDS among prison inmates. During the year
under review, a total of 500 inmates who went for Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT)
were reported to be HIV positive. This translates into three percent of the total inmates’
population of 14,267.
 
Indicator 7, Proportion of Key staff who were women, had performance that was also below the
FNDP target of 30 percent to be achieved by 2010. In terms of annual targets, the Zambia
Prisons Service was below the set target of 26.5 percent for the year 2008 while DEC was
above the set target even though this was a decrease on the previous year (Table 14.8).

Table 14.8: Proportion of Key Staff in Key Institutions who are Female (%)
2008
Department 2006 2007 Target Actual
Zambia Police 12.5 12.5 11.0
Immigration 20.0 20.0 12.0
DEC 71.0 66.0 28.0 28.0
Prisons Service 23.0 23.0 26.5 23.0
Source: Ministry of Home Affairs Research and Information Department (HARID)

14.5 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced by the Public Safety, Law and Order sector during the
review period, the matrix below identified the main ones and offers recommended courses of
action to address the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. The performance of the Public (a) Restructuring of the Ministry of Home Affairs should be
Safety, Law and Order sector has given utmost priority, focusing on identifying gaps in
been compromised by weak the organisational system and staffing structures.
institutional and human resource (b) Law and Order sector should be well funded through
capacity challenges. Presently, adequate budgetary provisions to enable it recruit and
there is inadequate human retain the required skilled human resources.
resources in the sector, resulting (a) There is need to strengthening the capacity of those
in weak implementation of training institutions that provide the human resource for
planned programmes. The the sector
working environment of law (b) There is need to undertake a comprehensive training
enforcement agencies has needs assessment with a view to determining the extent
continued to decline, leading to of human resource needs for the sector
poor morale and inefficient (c) Review the curriculum for the different levels of
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service delivery. Similarly the training for the sector with an eye on the changing
operational environment has been strategies for law enforcement and order maintenance in
compromised by weak the light if major advancements in ICT.
procurement systems that have (d) Review the conditions of service in the sector with a
delayed the implementation of view to improve the morale of personnel.
urgent activities. (e) The tender procedures should be streamlined to make
them more efficient and allow for speedy execution of
projects.
2. Crime prevention still poses (a) There is need to review the existing crime prevention
major challenges within the sector mechanisms with a view to improving them.
as existing mechanisms for (b) Urgently design and implement effective systems for
effective crime prevention have monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of crime
failed to contain the vice. prevention mechanisms.
(c) The database on crime on crime should be
modernised/computerised and periodically updated for
easier recording and tracking of criminal occurrences
and their association to criminal groups and/or
individuals.
(d) Improve mechanisms for reporting/disseminating
information on crime.
3. The sector has continued to suffer a) There is need to review and improve upon the
from weaknesses in investigation investigations and prosecution management system.
and prosecution mechanisms, b) There is need to improve the mechanisms for
which has delayed the clearance monitoring the implementation of investigation and
of cases. prosecution measures, taking advantage of advances in
ICT.
c) Review the existing legislation with a view to
strengthening the legal framework for public safety,
law and order
4. The sector suffers from poor The sector should be adequately funded to enable it acquire
and/or inadequate infrastructure, and maintain buildings, plant and equipment in order to
which has threatened the improve the work environment. These should include:
effectiveness of service delivery o offices and houses
at this level. o training facilities
o prisons and cells

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15
Summary of Sector Performance against KPIs
15.1 Introduction and Overview
This chapter provides a snapshot of performance during the third year (2008) of
implementation of the FNDP. It is based on whether sectors were able to achieve the targets
they set themselves at the start of the FNDP process for various Key KPIs. This assessment has
been hampered by a lack of data in some essential sectors, which makes it difficult to obtain
more accurate results from sectors. Furthermore, because the assessment is made against the
targets set for the KPIs, it does not represent an assessment of how well the individual
programmes in a sector are being implemented or bring in aspects of how well budgets are
being executed at that level. It is, nevertheless, recommended that these issues are discussed in
the SAGs. Each sector, through its sector information systems, is expected to have a holistic
overview of indicators that link programmes through the inputs, outputs, outcomes and impacts
chain, and with an understanding of how these contribute to the poverty indicators (this is
represented graphically in figure 15.1). This chain is essential if assessments are to be made as
to why targets were missed or exceeded. It is important to bear in mind that the KPIs were
selected by the sectors themselves and are generally at the level of output or outcome.

Figure 15.1: The Indicator Chain for FNDP Monitoring


Inputs for Outputs after
Outcome 1

Programme (1)
Programme activities

Inputs for Outputs after


Programme (2)
Programme activities
Inputs for Outputs after
Outcome 2

(Change in

Programme (3)
Welfare)

Programme activities
Impact

Inputs for Outputs after


Indicator
Activities

Programme (4)
Poverty

Programme activities
Outcome 3

(Change in

Inputs for Outputs after


Welfare)

Programme (5)
Impact

Programme activities

Inputs for Outputs after


Programme (6)
Programme activities
Outcome 4

Inputs for Outputs after


Programme (7)
Programme activities

Inputs for Outputs after


Programme (8)
Programme activities
 

15.2 Methodology
The assessment on performance against the KPIs was calculated as follows: if the target for the
year as presented during the formulation phase of the FNDP has been met, then the indicator is
assessed as Fully Met. If the target is not achieved but there has been an improvement on the
previous year’s performance, or if the indicator is disaggregated and one or more parts of the
disaggregation were met, then it is assessed as Partly Met. If the target was not achieved, and
there has been no progress against the previous year, then the target is assessed as Not Met.
Where no data is available for the year in question, or if there is no baseline data (from 2005 or
2006) or target (for 2007), then it is not possible to make an assessment, and a classification of
No Target is entered. This will help to distinguish between sectors that have no functioning
information system and sectors that did not set targets.
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The scores of ‘met,’ ‘partly met’ and ‘not met’ are then combined into a percentage score,
where 100 percent is the highest a sector can achieve and zero is the lowest. Indicators that
have no data are excluded from this calculation. Table 15.1 shows sector level performance as
of the last year of this MTR (i.e. 2008).

Table 15.1: Sector Level Performance, 2008


Assessment Not
Target Possible due to Total No
No No of Performance
Met Part Met Not Met data targets Indicator 2008
Environment and Natural
Resources 1 0 0 7 0 8 100.0
HIV/Aids 3 0 1 0 1 5 75.0
Foreign Relations 1 1 0 0 3 5 75.0
Education 2 3 0 0 0 5 70.0
Health 3 1 1 0 0 5 70.0
Communication and
Meteorology 1 2 0 4 0 7 66.7
Tourism 1 2 0 0 0 3 66.7
Manufacturing and Industry 2 0 1 1 0 4 66.7
Macroeconomic 4 1 4 1 0 10 50.0
Land 1 0 1 4 0 6 50.0
Central Administration 1 2 1 1 0 5 50.0
Food and Nutrition 1 0 1 3 0 5 50.0
Infrastructure and Transport 2 1 3 3 4 13 41.7
Youth and Child
Development 2 1 3 2 0 8 41.7
Public Safety, Law and
Order 2 1 3 0 1 7 41.7
Information Services 1 2 2 0 0 5 40.0
Energy 2 0 4 0 0 6 33.3
Governance 1 1 4 0 1 7 25.0
Employment and Labour 0 1 1 3 1 6 25.0
Gender 1 1 4 0 0 6 25.0
Arts and Culture 0 1 1 3 0 5 25.0
Defence 0 1 2 2 0 5 16.7
Agriculture 0 0 4 3 0 7 0.0
Mining 0 0 6 0 0 6 0.0
Science and Technology 0 0 5 0 0 5 0.0
Social Protection 0 0 3 1 2 6 0.0
Local Government and
Decentralisation 0 0 2 2 0 4 0.0
Water 0 0 1 5 0 6 0.0
Housing 0 0 0 0 4 4
Disability and Development 0 0 0 0 5 5
Total 32 22 58 45 22 179 38.4

15.3 Assessment
For 2008 and using the methodology described above, this MTR takes ‘good performing
sectors’ as being those that have a score of 66.7 percent or greater. Roughly translated, this
would mean that at least two thirds of the set targets have been achieved. Based on this
criterion, the best performers are education, health, communication and meteorology, tourism,
manufacturing and industry and HIV and AIDS. The Environment and Natural Resources
sector received a score of 100 percent, but has not been included in this list because of the large
number of indicators it was unable to report on.

Reasonably well performing sectors would score between 50 and 66.7 percent. In 2008, this
includes the Macroeconomic sector, Land, Central Administration, Foreign Relations, Food and
Nutrition, Infrastructure and Transport, Youth and Child Development, and Public Safety, Law
and Order.

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A third category represents a sector that may be showing an improvement in some areas of its
performance but still has a number of problem areas that need to be addressed Two sectors
were not able to report at all in the year, namely, Housing and Disability and Development.

In terms of total numbers, 2008 recorded an improvement over previous years. However, there
were still some sectors that were unable to report on their own performance with regard to their
KPIs. Furthermore, there was no major change in the number of indicators not reported on
between 2007 and 2008 even though the quality of data provided in some sectors, such as Land,
Governance and Public Safety, Law and Order has improved considerably. Table 15.2 shows
sector performance over the 2006-2008 period based on the achieved targets for KPIs.

Table 15.2: Sector Performance 2006 – 2008 based on Targets met for KPIs
Performance Performance Performance
2008 2007 2006
Environment and Natural Resources 100.0 37.5 25.0
HIV/Aids 75.0 100.0 66.7
Foreign Relations 75.0 33.3 --
Education 70.0 40.0 40.0
Health 70.0 60.0 80.0
Communication and Meteorology 66.7 66.7 50.0
Tourism 66.7 66.7 100.0
Manufacturing and Industry 66.7 50.0 75.0
Macroeconomic 50.0 61.1 75.0
Land 50.0 -- --
Central Administration 50.0 66.7 40.0
Food and Nutrition 50.0 -- 33.3
Infrastructure and Transport 41.7 50.0 66.7
Youth and Child Development 41.7 78.6 42.9
Public Safety, Law and Order 41.7 50.0 50.0
Information Services 40.0 20.0 50.0
Energy 33.3 -- 50.0
Governance 25.0 58.3 25.0
Employment and Labour 25.0 62.5 40.0
Gender 25.0 37.5 37.5
Arts and Culture 25.0 30.0 40.0
Defence 16.7 0.0 --
Agriculture 0.0 50.0 50.0
Mining 0.0 30.0 70.0
Science and Technology 0.0 0.0 20.0
Social Protection 0.0 50.0 62.5
Local Government and Decentralisation 0.0 33.3 50.0
Water 0.0 25.0 62.5
Housing -- 0.0 --
Disability and Development -- -- --
Trade and Commerce -- -- 100.0
Total 38.4 47.9 53.7

The overall level of performance fell to a point where 38.4 percent of the targets can be
assessed as met. However, the fact that this is against considerably higher targets than in the
first year of FNDP implementation must also be considered. In this regard, it should be stressed
that it does not mean that performance is worsening, rather that the individual year targets are
not being met. A similar trend can be observed in the Poverty Reduction Budget Support
(PRBS) Performance Assessment Framework (PAF), though this decline between years is less
dramatic. The reasons for this are twofold (a) the sector that the PAF are drawn from are
generally the better performers and (b) the targets in the outer years are under constant revision
in the formulation of the PAF. This is something that needs to be considered in terms of the
development of the Sixth National Development Plan. The fact that so many targets are being
missed is a cause for concern and needs to be considered in each and every sector to see what
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can be done to improve on performance and agree with stakeholders on targets that are
meaningful and achievable.

Performance in the social and government administration sectors were above average while the
Public Safety, Law and Order, and Economic sectors registered poor performance. The good
performance in the social sectors was driven principally by the improved performance in health
and education over previous years.

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16
Regional Development
16.1 Introduction and Overview
The performance reported in this chapter is based on programmes and projects that were funded
under provincial administration. The activities undertaken by the deconcentrated service
delivery ministries of Agriculture, Health and Education are reported on in their specific
chapter of this MTR. The assessment focused on capital programmes implemented under the
provinces. Overall, performance was below expectations due to a number of reasons, including
inadequate to non-release of funds for core FNDP programmes.

16.2 Budget Performance


During the first three years of implementation of the FNDP, there has been a large increase in
the budgets to provincial administration from a total of K189.0 billion in 2006 to K216.3 billion
in 2007 and K239.1 billion in 2008. In 2008, this represented 1.7 percent of the total
Government budget for the year, with four provinces being allocated above K25 billion.
In 2008, K224 billion was released to the provincial administration, equivalent to 93.7 percent
of the budget. There was a consistent release of funds throughout the year (see Table 16.1).
However, most of this was released to non-core FNDP programmes.

Table 16.1: FNDP Budget Execution, to Provincial Administration, 2008 (K Billion)


Releases Releases Releases Releases
as % of as % of as % of as % of
Budget Budget Budget Budget Budget
end Q1 end Q2 end Q3 end Q4
Lusaka 23,247,578,589 22.9 50.5 81.0 98.0
Copperbelt 30,939,825,707 23.3 51.5 72.1 90.7
Central 21,672,442,535 27.3 56.8 74.4 91.3
Northern 29,906,787,845 27.0 52.9 76.1 100.9
Western 24,984,868,094 18.5 46.9 70.0 87.2
Eastern 28,715,929,741 27.2 49.1 71.0 91.7
Luapula 23,618,447,062 22.5 48.5 83.8 105.4
North Western 25,110,322,696 23.0 46.4 75.5 93.7
Southern 30,902,564,973 19.4 42.5 66.9 86.4
Total 239,098,767,242 23.5 49.5 74.5 93.9

16.3 Programme Performance


16.3.1 Health Programme
Under Health Programmes, the focus at regional levels during the review period was on the
improvement of health facilities through infrastructure development and rehabilitation. To this
effect a total budget amount of K 5.9 billion was provided out of which, K 3.86 billion was
released, representing 64.7 percent. The highest release was for Lusaka Province, which
received 100 percent of the budgeted amount and the least was Western Province with 12.7
percent. In North-Western Province, no budget allocation was made for the improvement of
health facilities.

Major outputs from the programme included the continuation of the construction of Chongwe
District Hospital, which was 90 percent complete at the end of MTR; Bunda-bunda Health
Centre in Chongwe district; the surgical wing at Kafue District Hospital (at window level); and
the completion of the mortuary at Luangwa Boma in Lusaka Province. In other provinces, no
major milestones were achieved as funds released were not adequate to complete the projects.
These included. The worst affected was Western Province where only 12 percent of the budget
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allocation was released towards the completion of a surgical ward at Lewanika General
Hospital. Table 16.2 shows resource allocations and actual releases.

Table 16.2: Health Improvement Project, 2008 (K million)


Province Budget Releases % of budget
Lusaka 2,007.6 2,007.6 100.0
Copperbelt 600.0 550.0 91.7
Central 1,000.0 376.6 37.7
Eastern 747.0 267.5 35.8
Luapula 300.0 300.0 100.0
Southern 570.0 230.0 40.4
Northern 100.0 50.0 50.0
Western 645.0 82.0 12.7
Total 5,969.6 3,863.7 64.7
 
16.3.2 Agriculture
Under Agriculture, a number of improvement programmes were undertaken across the
provinces except for Western and North-Western provinces. These programmes included
Livestock Multiplication for Farmers, Cattle Restocking, Animal Diseases Control, Irrigation
Development, Enhancement of Agricultural Production, Copperbelt Support Programme and
Outgrower Schemes. The total budget for these programmes was K 5,695.3 million, out of
which 39.6 percent was released for the year (Table 16.3)

Table 16.3: Budget and Releases for Agricultural programmes (Except fisheries)

% of budget
Programme
Copperbelt

Southern
Northern

Luapula
Eastern
Lusaka

Central

Total
Programme

Livestock
Multiplication for Budget 50.5 500.0 900.0 1,450.5
Farmers / Cattle
Restocking Releases 43.1 - 450.1 493.2 34.0
Animal Diseases Budget 100.0 300.0 - 400.0
Control
Releases - 55.0 - 55.0 13.8
Irrigation Budget 20.0 900.0 920.0
Development Releases - 280.0 280.0 30.4
Enhancement of
Agricultural Budget 323.2 1,100.5 1,423.7
Production /
Copperbelt Support
Programme Releases 285.0 380.0 665.0 46.7

Out grower Schemes Budget 1,100.5 400.6 1,501.1


Releases 380.0 381.2 761.2 50.7
Provincial Total Budget 50.5 323.2 620.0 2,201.0 300.0 400.6 1,800.0 5,695.3
Releases 43.1 285.0 - 760.0 55.0 381.2 730.1 2,254.4 39.6
% 85.4 88.2 - 34.5 18.3 95.2 40.6 39.6
Note: No allocations for Western and North-western Provinces

In terms of provincial releases, the Copperbelt Province, particularly the Copperbelt Support
Programme, had 88 percent of the allocation released. These resources went towards the
construction of pig panes, animal husbandry, irrigation and poultry development, promotion of
Outgrower schemes of which 118 farmers, mostly women, benefited. However, in North-
Western and Western provinces, no budget allocation was made for agriculture programmes, a
noteworthy aspect considering that these are provinces with some of the highest poverty levels
in the country and where a large majority depend on this sector for their livelihood.

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16.3.3 Fisheries
Under Fisheries programmes, the provinces also undertook a number of programmes dealing
with Fish Outgrower Schemes, with a total budget of K 954 million (Table 16.4)

Table 16.4: Budget and Releases for Agricultural


programmes – Fisheries (2008)
Province Budget Releases %
Lusaka 73,076,000 69,576,000 95.2
Eastern 50,000,000 50,000,000 100.0
North Western 97,900,000 94,300,000 96.3
Copperbelt 83,200,000 45,000,000 54.1
Central 65,000,000 0 0
Luapula 41,840,000 0 0
Southern 543,000,000 150,000,000 27.6
Western 0 0 0
Total 954,016,000 408,876,000 42.9

Under fisheries, highest proportional release was in Eastern Province, which received 100
percent, whereas in Central and Luapula nothing was released. In Eastern Province, fish
restocking was planned for in Kaulu, Mmembe and Kasambandola Dams. In North- western
Province, an activity of establishing fish farming centres was earmarked and received K 94.3
million out of a budget of K97.9 million. Training programmes were conducted for fish farmers
in integrated aquaculture/fish farming techniques with 29 farmers being trained. A total of
45,000 fingerlings were procured and distributed to farmers. In Southern Province, the
integrated small-scale fish farming programme received K150 million against a total budget of
K363 million and was used to restock 73 dams. In Copperbelt Province, resources were
allocated to fish farming development in which 73 ponds were rehabilitated and restocked in
Masaiti.

16.3.4 Buildings
Under Buildings, a total amount of K 9.2 billion was budgeted for the rehabilitation and
construction of government buildings. Of this amount, K7.7 billion was released, representing a
total of 83 percent. The largest releases went to Northern Province where the construction of
the Provincial Minister’s House, construction of District Commissioners’ offices in Mungwi,
Nakonde and Mpulungu were started and works were ongoing. The construction of DCs offices
in Mungwi and Nakonde were at roof level while in Mpulungu the structure was at window
level (Table 16.5).
Table 2: Budget and Releases to Provincial Buildings
% of budget
Copperbelt

N-Western

release as
Southern
Northern

Western

Luapula
Eastern
Lusaka

Central

Total

Programme

Budget 981 1,898 796 515 2,130 6,320


Infrastructure
Development
Release 981 1,143 746 506 2,109 5,486 86.80
Buildings Budget 56 56
Infrastructure
Support - All
Release 29 29 51.39
Districts
Construction Budget 220 900 158 290 53 1,621
and
Rehabilitation of
Government Release 220 900 158 290 49 1,617 99.78
Buildings
Maintenance Budget 31 400 431
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and
Rehabilitation of Release 31 0 31 7.16
Public Buildings
Budget 150 441 591
Maintenance of
VIP houses
Release 150 230 380 64.41
Construction of Budget 212 212
Low and
Medium Cost
Release 157 157 74.02
Houses
Total Budget 1,037 1,898 220 931 400 954 955 2,183 652 9,230
Release 1,010 1,143 220 931 0 904 946 2,159 387 7,699 83.42

16.3.5 Forestry
The following table gives a number of forestry programmes undertaken in various provinces.
The programmes include Forestry Inspection and Management, Mushroom growing,
Beekeeping, Timber Industry Development / Forestation & Reforestation, Forestry, Bio
Diversity Conservation and Sustainable Indigenous Forest programme.

Table 16.6: Budget and Releases to Forestry Programmes.

release as %
Copperbelt

N-Western

of budget
Southern
Northern

Western

Luapula
Eastern
Lusaka

Central

Province

Total
Forestry Budget 61.6 317.9 0 413.9 22.6 105.5 144.9 0 0 1066.4
Inspection /
Protection & Release 44.5 184.8 0 147.2 5.0 61.7 133.3 0 0 576.5 54.0
Management
Mushroom & Budget 67.0 43.5 70.0 119.4 0 42.2 57.2 451.0 14.7 865.0
Beekeeping
Development Release 33.3 31.1 0.0 17.9 0 20.8 53.5 384.0 10.3 550.9 64.0
Timber Budget 12.5 0 0 0 0 105.7 101.4 213.5 433.1
Industry
Development
/ Release 5.5 0 0 0 0 53.8 95.8 0 87.7 242.8 56.0
Aforrestation
& Refortn
Forestry / Budget 105.9 78.0 64.0 53.1 0 132.6 433.6 0
Bio Diversity
Conservation
/ Sustainable Release 0 35.8 0 0 25.9 24.7 40.5 36.1 163.0 38.0
Indigenous
Forest
Budget 141.1 467.3 70.0 533.3 100.6 317.4 356.6 451.0 360.8 2798.1 0
Total
Release 83.3 215.9 0.0 165.1 5.0 136.3 282.6 384.0 98.0 1370.2 49.0

16.3.6 Forestry/Bio Diversity Conservation


Under the Forestry/Bio Diversity Conservation, outputs included the establishment and
management of seedlings, with Northern Province raising 200,000 seedlings while Western
Province raised 28,528 seedlings. With regard to Beekeeping, 780 beekeepers were trained in
Lusaka, Northern, Western and Southern provinces. In addition, 1,600 hives were occupied by
bees in Southern Province. Further, a honey factory and storage facility was rehabilitated in
Northern Province (see Table 16.7).

16.3.7 Education
For education projects, K2,421.4 million was released against a total budget of K 4,817 million,
representing 50.3 percent of the budget. The main programmes undertaken included the

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construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure as well as the provision of school requisites.


However, Central Province did not undertake any works despite receiving K50 million due to
late disbursement, while Western Province did not receive any funding under the education
improvement programme.

Table 16.7: Outputs under the forestry programmes (2008)


Province/Indicator Bee Beehives Factory Forrestry Seedlings Forrest Revenue
Keepers established Rehabilitation patrols raised Planted (K'million)
trained(No.) 9No.) (No.) (No.) (No.) (Ha)
Lusaka 20 8 0 0 0 0 0
Copperbelt 0 0 0 0 0 0 357.9
Northern 24 1 200,000 0 0
Luapula 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Western 0 0 0 56 28,528 29.6 1,895.1
North-Western 400 0 0 720 0 0 235.7
Central 0 0 0 0 0 0 444.4
Southern 336 1,600 0 0 0 31.0 604.1
Eastern 0 0 0 238 0 27.5 315.9
Total 780 1,608 1 1,014 228,528 88.1 3,853.1

There were notable outputs under education. In Lusaka Province, the programmes focused on
construction of laboratories and rehabilitation of high schools and providing lighting and
borehole infrastructure to schools. The projects undertaken included the construction of a
laboratory at Olympia Basic School and the construction of classroom blocks, a girls dormitory
and a dining hall at Mukamambo II High School in Chongwe.

In Eastern Province, the activities included the construction of a dormitory at Sonja Girls High
School, which was completed; and the construction of classrooms at Hope campus community
school in Chipata; Chimtengo basic school in Katete; Champhoyo Basic School in Lundazi;
and a dormitory and laboratory at Kaulu High School in Petauke. The construction of all
classroom blocks was ongoing by the end of this MTR.

In North-Western Province, activities covered school supplies, specifically the procurement of


basic and high school desks and requisites –966 desks were procured and delivered to 21
schools in Chavuma, Kabompo, Mufumbwe, Mwinilunga, Solwezi and Zambezi. Table 16.8
shows the budgets and actual releases.

Table 16.8: Education Programmes (in K’million)


% of budget
Province Budget Releases released
Lusaka 864,083,000 864,083,000 100
Copperbelt 0 0 0
Central 1,100,000,000 50,000,000 4.5
Eastern 774,000,000 245,000,000 31.7
Luapula 300,000,000 300,000,000 100
North Western 446,000,000 419,333,333 94
Southern 543,000,000 543,000,000 100
Northern 0 0 0
Western 790,000,000 0 0
Totals 4,817,083,000 2,421,416,333 50.3

16.3.8 Water and Sanitation


The total budget for Water and Sanitation was K7.3 billion for all the nine provinces, covering
rural water supply and earth dams, out of which K4.7 billion was released, representing 66
percent of the budget (Table 16.9).

Major outputs for the groundwater resource management included the construction of six earth
dams and four small dams. In addition, nine dams were rehabilitated, including four in
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Southern and one in Copperbelt Province (St Mary’s dam). Other dams rehabilitated included
Kaulu and Membe Dams in Eastern Province. In addition, data was collected at three Ground
Monitoring Points in Choma, Gwembe and Mazabuka. A spring was developed at Lumbo in
Gwembe and a water reticulation system was installed. A 40m3 rainwater harvester was
installed at Nandongo Basic School in Monze District. Under earth dam construction, four were
constructed, two in Northern and one each in Lusaka and Copperbelt Provinces.

Table 16.9: Water Programmes


Boreholes / Rural
Earth Dams Water Supply / Other Total
Groundwater
Development
Province Budget Release Budget Release Budget Release Budget Release
Lusaka 204.1 200.2 41.7 25.0 48.4 28.8 294.2 254.0
Copperbelt 160.0 130.0 870.0 480.1 0 0 1,030.0 610.1
Central 0 0 350.0 350.0 0 0 350.0 350.0
Northern 584.4 147.5 482.1 195.8 125.2 42.1 1,191.7 385.4
Western 0 0 615.0 150.0 0 0 615.0 150.0
Eastern 740.5 740.5 0 0 0 0 740.5 740.5
Luapula 0 0 940.8 846.0 436.4 407.0 1,377.2 1253.0
N Western 0 0 649.4 634.5 137.1 77.8 786.5 712.3
Southern 70.8 49.9 425.0 108.5 142.1 44.8 637.9 203.2
Total 1,759.8 1,268.1 3,734.0 2,197.9 889.2 600.5 7,023.0 4658.5
% Release 72.1 58.9 67.5 66.3

16.3.9 Resettlement
The budget for Resettlement Department amounted to K5.6 billion in 2008 out of which K2.9
billion (51.2 percent ) was released. There was a generally poor release of budgeted amounts
across the board with the exception of Luapula that received 98 percent of the budgeted
amount. Although Western Province had the largest allocation, it received only 61 percent of
the allocated amount (Table 16.10).

Table 16.10: Budgets and Releases, Resettlement Schemes (K’ Million)


release as %
Copperbelt

N-Western

of budget
Southern
Northern

Western

Luapula
Eastern
Lusaka

Central

Total

Programme

Schemes Budget 164 0 0 0 1,190 0 515 354 592 2,815


Infrastructure
Released 118 0 0 0 730 0 506 0 276 1,630
Development
Scheme establishment Budget 168 0 0 221 0 70 106 221 0 786
and Resettlement Released 94 0 0 135 0 0 106 135 0 470
Resettlement Budget 0 0 0 0 0 95 0 0 0 95
Schemes Released 0 0 0 0 0 60 0 0 0 60
Land Resettlement Budget 0 606 400 234 0 0 0 0 0 1,241
Scheme Released 0 354 90 124 0 0 0 0 0 568
Plot Allocation in Budget 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 17
Resettlement
Released 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7
Schemes
Budget 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 609 609
Land Alienation
Released 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 112 112
Land Acquisition for Budget 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5
Resettlement Released 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
Budget 332 606 400 456 1,190 165 622 575 1,222 5,568
Provincial Total
Released 211 354 90 259 730 60 612 135 398 2,850
% of budget released 63.7 58.4 22.5 56.8 61.3 36.1 98.5 23.5 32.6 51.2

In actualising the FNDP objective of an enabling environment for rural and agricultural

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development, the focus of the work was on the establishment of resettlement schemes,
including land acquisition, land resource surveys and development control monitoring, and
scheme infrastructure development, which included access road and water supply development.
Notable outputs included the demarcation of 1,554 plots, with Copperbelt Province
demarcating 837 plots in Luano and Maposa resettlement schemes. In addition, 321 plots were
demarcated in North-Western Province with 175 household resettled.
With regard to access roads development, a total of 123.4 kilometres were opened up in all the
resettlement schemes with 60 and 47.5 kilometres cleared in Western and Southern Provinces,
respectively. In Southern Province, 47.5 kilometres of access roads were cleared in Masasabi
and Chikankanta resettlement schemes.
16.3.10 Social Welfare
A total of K 8.8 billion was budgeted for the Social Welfare programme out of which K5.5
billion (79.2 percent) was released in 2008. However, the non-core social protection
programmes had the highest allocations and releases. To this effect, non-core programmes
consumed 93 percent of the social protection budget in the provinces during the review period.
Under the core social protection programmes, the activities included support to institutions,
resettlement of disadvantaged persons, juvenile justice and child welfare, public welfare
assistance scheme, street children empowerment, and social cash transfer schemes. However,
these activities could not achieve the desired level of protection due to insufficient funds
allocated to core activities. Under PWAS, 142,460 persons were assisted, with Copperbelt
Province recording the highest (see Table . No outputs were recorded from Central, Northern
and Luapula Provinces, which, according to the Central Statistics Office Living Conditions
Monitoring Survey 2006, are among the provinces with the highest poverty levels.

Table 16.11: Budgets and Releases for Provincial Social Welfare Programmes (K’ Million)
Non-core programmes
Province Personnel General Core
Emoluments Administration programmes Total
% of % of
Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget
Lusaka 698.31 523.46 78.24 51.51 83.00 159.09 118.51 935.64 693.48 74.12
Copperbelt 1,445.39 1,199.94 76.56 50.34 97.73 35.35 16.51 1,557.30 1,266.79 81.35
Central 360.70 371.65 140.49 117.86 100.00 0 0 501.19 489.51 97.67
Northern 358.09 369.46 389.74 211.12 100.00 0 0 747.83 580.58 77.63
Western 381.55 322.92 200.15 127.11 100.00 0 0 581.70 450.03 77.37
Eastern 297.13 228.52 552.80 364.91 100.00 0 0 849.93 593.43 69.82
Luapula 176.38 185.62 136.44 98.20 73.78 111.18 109.98 424.00 393.80 92.88
N Western 397.90 410.06 125.61 78.79 90.19 56.94 8.70 580.45 497.55 85.72
Southern 479.97 381.82 227.15 137.68 89.76 80.64 31.30 787.77 550.80 69.92
Total 4,595.4 3,993.4 1,927.1 1,237.5 93.64 443.2 285.00 6,965.8 5,515.9 79.19

Other notable outputs included the pilot programme of cash transfer, in which 4,563 people in
Katete District and 1,170 in Chipata were among the beneficiaries.

16.3.11 Economic Empowerment Programme


The budget allocation for economic empowerment programme was K12.6 billion out of which
K10.3 billion was released. About 90 percent of the budget was for non-core Personnel related
and General Administration expenditures, while only 9.9 percent was for the core programme
(Table 16.12).

Under the Economic Empowerment Programmes, the main activities during the review period
included non-formal education and skills training and women development, food security pack
distribution and infrastructure rehabilitation. To this effect, major outputs include the training
of a total of 5,852 people in functional literacy, with Western Province recording the highest of
2,118 while Copperbelt, Northern and Luapula Provinces recorded no outputs (Table 16.13).
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Table 16.12: Budgets and Releases to Provincial Community Development Department,


2008
Community
General Development /
PEs Administration Economic Total
Province Empowerment /
Self Help
Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget Releases
Lusaka 1,102.0 887.5 102.9 75.3 71.5 0 1,276.4 962.7
Copperbelt 1,665.0 1,382.3 97.9 63.7 198.7 109.5 1,961.6 1,555.4
Central 460.7 482.5 182.9 143.1 204.2 19.2 847.8 644.7
Northern 1,413.0 1,207.5 350.8 350.7 176.9 63.3 1,940.7 1,621.5
Western 799.3 731.3 205.0 145.5 10.0 0 1,014.3 876.9
Eastern 1,643.2 1,498.7 315.4 207.6 185.3 109.6 2,143.9 1,815.9
Luapula 826.5 695.7 189.8 97.2 53.7 52.1 1,070.0 845.0
N Western 558.2 592.2 186.0 106.2 162.0 95.7 906.2 794.1
Southern 1,016.9 999.1 265.0 149.9 183.3 87.1 1,465.2 1,236.0
Total 9,484.8 8,476.7 1,895.7 1,339.2 1,245.7 536.4 12,626.1 10,352.2

Table 16.13: Outputs under Economic empowerment programme, 2008


Province Number of Number of Number of Number of people
Women’s Recipient of Literacy trained by Literacy
groups trained FSP in 2008 Instructors Instructors in 2008
in 2008 Trained in 2008
Lusaka 2 328 13 231
Copperbelt 0 200 0- 0
Central 18 380 - 222
Northern 0 0 0 0
Western 150 2,754 0 2,118
Eastern 1,393 862 44 1,695
Luapula 0 0 0 0
North Western 60 560 25 500
Southern 20 1,188 25 1,086
Total 1,643 6,272 107 5,852

16.3.12 Youth and Child Development


The budget for Youth and Child Development was K3.7 billion out of which K2.7 billion was
released, with 80.4 percent released to non-core programmes.
Table 3: Budgets and Releases
General Youth
PEs Administration Focussed Total
Programmes
Province Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget Releases Budget Releases
Lusaka 161.2 136.2 90.1 60.9 34.0 24.1 285.3 221.3
Copperbelt 213.2 177.0 104.8 69.2 650.0 325.0 968.0 571.2
Central 173.0 173.0 90.9 74.9 6.5 1.7 270.5 249.6
Northern 176.5 181.5 139.0 84.0 - - 315.5 265.5
Western 183.5 176.0 100.0 62.7 - - 283.6 238.7
Eastern 217.4 158.6 162.0 114.6 47.2 42.9 426.7 316.0
Luapula 176.6 80.7 136.2 125.7 66.7 56.2 379.5 262.5
N Western 140.4 148.9 176.7 105.3 - - 317.1 254.2
Southern 206.3 161.0 80.1 47.0 160.9 69.8 447.3 277.8
Total 1,648.2 1,392.9 1,079.9 744.3 965.3 519.6 3,693.4 2,656.8
% core programmes to 26.14 19.56
budget
% Non-core 73.86 80.44
programmes to budget
% Releases to budget 71.9

Among the notable achievements under the programme were the construction of Youth Skills
Training Centre; construction of 25 core houses at Lukanga North Settlement; Youth Training

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and Empowerment on the Copperbelt; and the acquisition of land resettlement schemes for
youths in Eastern Province. In addition, 432 youths out of the targeted 177 in Southern
Province were equipped with entrepreneurship skills.
Under the main programmes, K1.9 billion was allocated, of which K1.3 was released towards
child affairs activities. Similarly, K2.9 billion was allocated of which K1.9 billion was released
for sports activities. However, no significant outputs were reported by the end of the year in
relation to the targets.
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Part 5

FNDP Management, Implementation and


Way Forward

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17
Management and Monitoring of FNDP
17.1 Introduction and Overview
This chapter deals with a variety of issues that broadly fall under the heading of management of
the FNDP. Many of the issues were raised in a number of sectors during the independent
review process. They include structural reforms; financing and the release of resources; human
capacities; the M&E system for the FNDP; and coordination at all levels of FNDP
implementation. The chapter also deals with fundamental changes that Government need to
make in order to ensure effective and successful implementation of the FNDP and the
formulation of successor plans.

17.2 Structural Reforms


17.2.1 Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability
PEMFA is addressing the area of public expenditure management and improvements in
financial accountability. The first Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Report was
published in December 2005, and an updated assessment of Zambia’s Public Financial
Management system was carried out during mid-2008. This MTR found that, overall, the
system was operating fairly well and in some areas at an above average level. There were
improvements in a number of areas during the period under review, which served to increase
the transparency, comprehensiveness and accountability of fiscal management. This
improvement can be seen in the performance that is reported on an annual basis for the Poverty
Reduction Budget Support (PRBS) programme, as identified in the Performance Assessment
Framework (PAF). For the five PFM indicators, there were improvements in each year since
the FNDP started even though this was at times below target. (See table 17.1).

Table 17.1 Overview of performance on Public Financial Management indicators for


PRBS 2005 – 2007
PFM Indicator 2005 2006 2007
Percent of MPSAs whose budget releases are between 95% and 105% 25.0 28.6 47.9
of the budget allocation identified in the Annual Budget
Percent of heads whose calculated expenditure is between 95% and 55.1 69.4 91.8
105% of the total funding
Domestic Arrears at end Period (K’billion) 532.8 491.8 248.1
Proportion of Recommendations in the Auditor General’s Report acted 75.4 83.2
on -
% Expenditure Variance between original budget and total expenditure 19.9 15.6 14.4
Source: Ministry of Finance and National planning, 2008.

17.2.2 Integrated Financial Management Information System


One of the major components of the PEMFA programme is the Implementation of an
automated Integrated Financial Management Information System (IFMIS). This is intended to
lead to improved reliability and timeliness of financial information. However, progress against
this has been unsatisfactory. Although a contract with the IFMIS solution supplier was signed
in November 2006, there were no MPSAs where the system was being implemented due, in
part, to administrative problems. However, preparatory works were undertaken during the
review period covering, inter alia, procurement of equipment; training of systems
administrators and users; and identification and preparation of pilot sites.
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17.3 Budget Structure and Execution


17.3.1 Overview
Despite the improvements recorded in variance and deviation on budget, thanks to the PEMFA
programme and Government’s commitment to fiscal discipline, there was a major impediment
to efficient budget performance in the form of the Constitutional provision. This resulted in
appropriations continuing being approved in March or April of the same year as the proposed
budget, effectively starting the budget year three or more months into the fiscal year, thus,
distorting the quarterly expenditure profiles and making budget planning difficult. At the same
time, the late approval of the budget affects the timely implementation of budgets through the
rest of the year, leading to the requirement for supplementary budget allocations, significant
carry-overs and mopped-up (or more specifically lost) allocations.

Government shifted from an old incremental line budgeting system, which did not take account
of performance, to an Activity Based Budget (ABB) system. This was aimed at tallying funds
to actual activities to be performed in a particular sector. However, misplacement of activities
and resources within and between sectors as well as multiplicity of similar activities within and
between sectors were identified during the course of the review as being among the persisting
challenges. This state of affairs led to difficulties in progress reporting and verification of
outputs of such activities. Moreover, there remained during the review period issues of
accessibility of budgetary information to the wider public, both in terms of digesting or
understanding the details in the Yellow Book and Financial Report.

17.3.2 Tender Process


There exist difficulties associated with the tender process that have served as major
impediments to the implementation of programmes. There are acknowledged weak capacities
in the processing of tenders at central levels, leading to calls at provincial level to strike a
balance between financial prudence and timely processing. For instance, in the roads sector, the
procurement and implementation of road works were slow during the first and second quarters,
meaning that most procurements were effected during the second half of the year with actual
work by contractors being deferred to the end of the fourth quarter or the beginning of first
quarter of the following year. This state of affairs delayed the completion of infrastructure
projects. Furthermore, in situations where the funds are not committed, there is a real danger of
them being “mopped up” resulting in projects not being implemented as planned.

17.3.3 Public Service Management


The third component of the Public Sector Reform Programme (alongside PEMFA and
Decentralisation) is Public Service Management (PSM). During the review period, the focus
was on meeting targets related to rightsizing pay reform, service improvement, and payroll and
establishment control. In this regard, government began a process of developing a performance-
based and sustainable pay policy framework. A number of sector-based training programmes
for government staff have been mounted. With respect to the improvement in effectiveness, the
Government focused on the following areas:
(a) Implementation of the decentralisation policy
(b) Public Service Reform
(c) Continuous improvement of public finance management systems through, for example,
PEMFA.
(d) Fiscal decentralisation, which included the intergovernmental fiscal architecture that
has been designed and which has focused on different transfer modalities of grant funds
to the local level, for restructuring expenses, as well as the covering of recurrent and
capital expenditure.

With respect to the rightsizing of the public service at more competitive and performance
related salary scales, the focus during the review period included striving to attain a more
manageable total wage bill. An important role in this respect was the rolling out of an

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Integrated Payroll Management Establishment Control (PMEC) System across all Ministries,
institutions, and Provinces, including integrating PMEC with IFMIS over the FNDP planning
period. Government’s commitment to the implementation of these reform processes was
reflected by the adoption of concrete indicators with targets under the Performance Assessment
Framework (PAF) of the Poverty Reduction Budget Support programme.

17.4 Difficulty in Getting Donor Aid


One of the difficulties in reporting on FNDP performance was accessing information on donor
funds. Budget Support as well as SWAps, other types of pool funding and projects funded
through GRZ systems are fully captured in the Government system. It is expenditures on
projects that are managed outside the GRZ system that are hardly captured. Apart from PRBS,
aid estimates are poorly captured in the Budget Documents. According to an IMF report,
project aid (including sector budget support, excluding SWAps) represented 55 percent of aid
disbursements in 2007 and was projected at 66 percent in 2008. This suggests that Zambia is
short of the Paris Declaration target of at least 85 percent of aid expenditure being reported on
budget. Analysis of expenditure data shows that, accounting for aid is considerably worse.

17.5 Human Resource Capacities


There are problems across the board with staffing levels in frontline service delivery
institutions. This is even more pronounced in the disparities between urban and rural areas. The
most striking illustration of this point relates to the Pupil Teacher Ratio in the Education sector.
For example, in 2007, there were seven districts where the Pupil to Teacher ratio was over 100
to 1 for grades 1 to 4, when the national average was 75 to 1. The situation is similar in health
where the sector is operating at 50 percent of the recommended establishment. The problem of
insufficient human resource is compounded by high staff turnover of staff from the public
service due to resignations or natural attrition caused by death. The HIV and AIDS pandemic
has worsened the situation in the public service.

17.6 FNDP Monitoring System


Effective M&E at the national level as well as in all programming remain critical in managing
for results. There is a growing drive globally to move decisively towards results-based
monitoring that focuses on agreed targets and results. This MTR established that a number of
systems exist for monitoring and evaluation purposes in Zambia. Two Ministries (Health and
Education) have management information systems in place for the collection of routine data
such as the Health Management Information System (HMIS) and the Education Management
Information System (EMIS). The Central Statistics Office, under the Ministry of Finance and
National Planning is strategic in data collection and dissemination. In addition to this routine
data, a variety of surveys are undertaken on a periodic basis to capture additional critical
information such as the HIV Sentinel Surveillance; the Demographic Health Survey; and the
National Population and Housing Census. A range of bodies including civil society, the private
sector and other development partners also contribute significantly to the generation of data to
inform programming and policy and the first half of FNDP implementation did benefit from
these data sources.

One of the major challenges in the country that affected the monitoring function during the
review period relates to the existence of fairly dated statistical databases both within the
Government system and outside. The status of data collection, processing, management and
dissemination capacities of most data-generating bodies is varied although, generally, almost all
of them require capacity enhancement through, inter alia, training to ensure that data sets are
up-to-date. There is a major problem of weak information management systems at the national
level in Zambia that should be addressed if the assessment of KPIs is to be meaningful. Where
M&E systems are in place in line ministries, there is lack of coordination and harmonization of
these systems. Some of the causes of these hurdles relate to inadequate human resources; weak
capacity in data generation, analysis and coordination; weak infrastructure and lack of resources
for data collection. In some sectors, the system is well developed while in others more work
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needs to be done. For the health sector, the HMIS has generally worked well and collects
health-related information, including information on HIV and AIDS. Many institutions,
including research establishments in Zambia collect data that could be useful in tracking
changes from FNDP interventions. There are signs that capacity limitations exist across a
number of national management information systems regarding data processing into more user-
friendly and intervention-relevant formats. Staff exodus from many Government institutions
has further exacerbated the problem of managing the information. This has the overall adverse
effect on accessibility and reliability of data that is needed to monitor FNDP performance.

There has been little effort on the part of the Government to adequately equip both the Central
Statistics Office; line ministries; and the Monitoring and Evaluation Department under MFNP
to timely generate and process data that is crucial for effective monitoring of national
interventions under FNDP. This has resulted in outdated data and data gaps.

At another level, there is weak data dissemination system. Weak dissemination of information
is an urgent challenge, both of routine statistics and survey data and the period under review
suffered from this. For example, Demographic and Health Survey results are rarely
disseminated widely and one of the challenges is to work out the best mechanism to
disseminate the large amount of new national data in a way that would help improve
programme implementation and monitoring by, say, SAGs. The reliability of the National
Census data is said to be good although its cleaning and actual application during the review
period was often compromised by insufficient human, financial and technical resources. It is
expected that, when well utilised, such data sets could improve upon the country’s databases on
poverty and social welfare indicators, which should result in enhanced evidence-based
planning.

Participatory Monitoring promises the involvement of different actors at various levels in


Zambia and when well managed, could be an important tool for monitoring FNDP
interventions. There existed during the review period limited collaboration between
Government and non-state actors in the field of data generation and reporting. Appropriate
alliances or partnership with civil society stakeholders should provide for the pooling of
resources, experience, creativity and energies of the diversity of partners in poverty reduction
and the monitoring of poverty interventions. The dearth of M&E skills within Government and
in the community contribute these challenges.

By way of facilitating an effective strategy towards the monitoring of performance, attention is


evidently required that seeks to cater for a wide range of data and core indicators that are
required by sector ministries and municipalities/councils for planning at national and sub-
national levels. Such data would also assist in monitoring progress towards achieving MDGs,
thus, providing a key information resource for monitoring the achievement of the set FNDP
targets.

How has the situation on the ground been? This MTR established that most of the SAGs that
are expected to play a strategic role in M&E rarely met. When these met, it was established
that the quality and content of meetings were not satisfactory as issues relating to the budget,
including performance against the KPIs were not adequately dealt with. The National SAG
Conference was also rarely held during the review period. Furthermore, PDCCs and DDCC
continued to serve as forums for discussions of development programmes at provincial and
district levels. However, it was established that these development committees have unclear
reporting channels, which tended to reduce their worthy in programme monitoring. Perhaps
more importantly, there is no national level body that oversees the implementation of the
FNDP. The National Development Coordination Committee exists only in name and never
meets. Consequently, there exists no overall oversight body that could provide guidance to
Ministries during the implementation of the Plan. While MFNP provides overall technical
direction of the Plan’s implementation, this cannot double for the needed authoritative

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body/forum that oversees both policy and operational direction of the entire government system
vis-à-vis the implementation of the Plan, including its monitoring. For example, there is no
opportunity at the Executive level to address the serious mismatch in a number of Ministries
between FNDP planned resources, annual budgets, and actual releases.

The two Annual Progress Reports on the FNDP revealed one major problem related to the
inability of sectors to report against the KPIs identified at the sector level. Six sectors in total
could not report against any of the indicators (Natural Resources, Land, Housing, Energy,
Disability and Development, Foreign Relations and Defence), while other priority sectors,
notably Agriculture and Water and Sanitation consistently appear to have difficulties in
reporting against some of their major KPIs. During the review, two of the most common
sentiments expressed regarding the KPIs were the need to have clear and specific targets for
each of the indicators, and the need to review the KPIs with a view to establishing more
appropriate indicators for reporting performance and impact.

17.7 Outstanding Challenges and Recommendations


In the light of the several problems faced in the monitoring of interventions and the overall
implementation of the FNDP during the review period, the matrix below identified the main
ones and offers recommended courses of action to address the problems.

Outstanding Challenge Recommendation


1. There is a vacuum in the (a) The National Development Coordination Committee
institutional set up because there (NDCC), complimented by PDCC and DDCC, should
is no planning authority to ensure be reconstituted and be mandated to provide oversight
that sector planners followed the over the FNDP implementation.
FNDP. (b) There is need to develop stronger linkages between the
FNDP, MTEF, annual budgets and ministerial strategic
plans. As opposed to what has thus far taken place, the
changes in the chart of accounts between the budget and
FNDP should always be discussed in detail. For instance
ministerial budgets do not necessarily represent sector
budgets.
(c) The Planning Directorate at MFNC should have
administrative authority to direct planners to plan
according to the national development plans.
(d) There is need to ensure that there is full ownership of
the National Development Plans and the terms of
reference of ministers and permanent secretaries should
adequately encompass the requirements of the Plan
(e) The legal framework needs to be reviewed to harmonize
accountability for resource use/application. This would
minimize the current confusion whereby, for example,
at district level, the responsibility for procurement lies
with Council Secretaries but when it comes to
accounting for district resources, the responsibility lies
with the District Commissioners.
2. Despite the passing by Cabinet of Government should move swiftly and decisively towards
the Decentralisation Policy and decentralisation, in general, and fiscal decentralisation, in
the development of the particular. This should focus on the following:
Decentralisation Implementation (a) There is need for political will to decentralise. The challenge
Plan (DIP), very little effort has of implementing the Decentralisation Policy requires
been made to decentralize political will and well equipped and dedicated professionals
services delivery. This has whose level of commitment to the ideals that are enshrined
contributed to the weak in the policy of decentralisation is unwavering.
implementation capacity of (b) Councils require adequate financial resources of their
Government at levels lower than own, in addition to those from other levels of
the centre. government and from donors. They must be allowed to
dispose freely of such revenue within the framework of
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their delegated powers as guided by the Decentralisation


Policy. In particular, what Councils should receive from
Government should be in reasonable proportion to the
tasks transferred to them. In the light of this, the
development of a realistic fiscal framework that aims to
remove impediments to local government finance
would, ultimately, determine the viability of the
declared decentralisation objective of transferring fiscal
authority to Councils to effectively deliver the delegated
mandates. The urgency of applying Intergovernmental
Fiscal Architecture is, thus, highly recommended. The
establishment of a formula of revenue sharing and
collection and the determination of minimum
performance standards should also be determined.
(c) Participation of other actors in decentralised services
delivery is cardinal. This is backed by a host of
considerations, including the principle of subsidiarity,
which means that services should be provided at the
lowest capable level of government and as close to the
citizens as possible. Fuller exploitation of PPP in
services delivery is particularly strategic in this respect.
(d) Government funding of Councils should be significantly up-
scaled to ensure that DIP is implemented effectively and that
its success is not overly dependent on external assistance. To
address this issue, the Ministry of Finance and National
Planning, in liaison with MLGH, should earmark for
Councils a minimum percentage of the total government
expenditure (say, 10 percent).
(e) A clear effort on the part of MFNP should be made to ensure
that Central Government transfers to Councils are
predictable and timely. It is further recommended that fiscal
transfers to Councils are made directly rather than through
MLGH.
(a) Government should ensure that the legislation and practice
provide Councils with a considerable level of autonomy that
allows them to prioritise their expenditures and to develop
own revenue sources and strategies to strengthen financial
management at the local level, including the capacity to
budget, elaborate development plans, prepare proper
accounts, deliver audit statements, provide user friendly
information, etc.
3. The Monitoring and Evaluation (a) There is need to pay attention to questions of monitoring
function has tended to take a back in the formulation stage, and avoid the mistakes of the
stage during the formulation of FNDP where the detailed Framework for indicators and
FNDP and yet this is an important targets were added towards the end of the development
component of the planning and process. The M&E function also needs to be adequately
implementation processes. financed.
(b) To effectively assess performance at the sector level,
there is a need to improve on data collection. This
should be addressed through the development of sector
information systems. The importance of ensuring gender
disaggregated data in these systems is cardinal, as is
ensuring that the MISs provide in-depth information that
allows for geographical and intra sectoral comparisons.
(c) There is an urgent need to strengthen the National
Information Management Systems. This should entail
the following:
(d) Build capacity of both CSO and the line ministries to
generate and process timely data that is crucial for
effective monitoring of national interventions. This calls

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for improvements of routine information systems of line


ministries that generate data.
(e) There is an urgent need to strengthen the M&E
Framework to make it better able to track changes in
conditions being implemented. This should take into
account the importance of improved definition of results and
better refinement of KPIs. This should entail the need to be
overhauled completely the KPIs of the FNDP.
(f) Considering the capacity limitations that characterise
Zambia, the number of KPIs should be aligned to the ability
of the national monitoring systems to meaningfully apply
them with reasonable level of dependability. In this regard,
only a handful of indicators for FNDP outcomes should be
selected. For a core indicator to be included, it should be
assumed that there exists readily available quality data on
that indicator. It should also be assumed that data collection
processes are affordable and cost-effective.
(g) The FNDP monitoring system should possess an effective
feedback system that allows information to be fed back into
the national system’s decision-making processes, thus,
making M&E a vital management tool.
(h) MFNP needs to undertake a skills audit that will
establish the extent to which the existing
institutions/structures, both within and outside the
Government System, are in good stead to provide the
required information for FNDP monitoring and,
subsequently, design and support a well-targeted
capacity building programme to build and/or enhance
the required competencies.
(i) Develop appropriate institutional and legislative
framework that supports effective coordination of data
management.
(j) Enhance participatory monitoring mechanisms that
capture different actors at various levels in service
delivery. A more coordinated and harmonised approach
to the utilisation of existing national management
information systems is desirable.
(k) Stress Human Rights Based Approach to monitoring.
This approach calls for the identification of indicators
that are responsive to the human rights core values. The
approach further call for strong political leadership,
commitment and engagement so as to promote good
governance with respect to all aspects human rights.
4. Donor flows, significant though The Ministry of Finance and National Planning needs to
they are in the FNDP develop, as a matter of urgency, an efficient system for
implementation, have been poorly tracking donor flows into the country especially towards
captured. FNDP Programmes. In this regard, Government should state
clearly what sort of information ought to be captured on
donor inflows and devise a strategy with donors on how to
proceed in order to reflect the real impact of donor support.
Ultimately, the effect of direct budget support should be
mainstreamed into the M&E framework.
5. Sector Advisory Groups (SAGs) (a) The functioning of the SAGs needs to be addressed,
are important in both the paying particular attention to the management of
operationalisation of FNDP meetings and the quality and content of their
interventions and the monitoring deliberations. In addition, SAGs should be allowed to
of progress. However, most of discuss proposed sector budgets to ensure that they are
these bodies are not functioning in line with the priorities of the FNDP. Further, Sector
as expected and rarely engage, in performance against the KPIs should form key part of
a meaningful manner, in the SAG discussions.
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issues at hand. (b) The national SAG Conference needs to be held timely,
according to the National Economic Management
Cycle.
6. There is little dissemination of There is need to improve systems that facilitate the sharing
developmental information, of information so as to enhance opportunities for more
generally, and the performance of coordinated national response to the country’s
FNDP, in particular. As a result, developmental challenges. This calls for the facilitation of
important information that should support towards the strengthening of data dissemination to
inform policy and interventions at the different levels of end-users, including policy makers,
several levels is rarely shared and Parliamentarians, technocrats, researchers, civil society, and
utilised during the planning and donors.
implementation of development
programmes.
7. The reliability and integrity of In order to improve data integrity, there is need to
data is often questionable due, in adequately synchronise existing documentation/tools on KPI
part, to difficulties within the monitoring. This calls for the rationalisation and
system of data generation and harmonisation of performance indicators within the national
processing. M&E systems at both the Ministry of Finance and National
Planning and line Ministries.
8. Presently, there exists limited There is an urgent need to develop and/or improve upon
collaboration between partnerships and alliances in M&E, data collection and
Government and non-state actors reporting: This should consider the following:
in the field of data generation and (a) There is need to build the requisite capacity of the
reporting. The absence of such research and data generation institutions such as the
alliances/partnership with civil CSO, MFNP and the planning wings of line Ministries
society stakeholders has denied as well as research establishments within and outside
Government the opportunity to the Government system.
take advantage of the pooling of (b) There is need to develop suitable alliances or
resources, experience, creativity partnership with civil society stakeholders. Short and
and energies of the diversity of cost-effective training programmes targeted at national
partners during the and sub-national actors and aimed at strengthening skills
implementation of FNDP. in community participation would be one example of
Participatory monitoring and institutional capacity strengthening at this level.
evaluation mechanisms are also (c) There is need to enhance the capacity of partner systems
underdeveloped and M&E skills to generate baseline data against which achievement of
in the community are generally KPIs can be measured.
low.

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18
Overall Conclusions and Way Forward
18.1 Introduction
A number of detailed recommendations have been made under each core, non core and cross
cutting issues. There are, however, certain recommendations (emanating from the detailed
sector-specific recommendations) that run through all the sectors and have a cross-cutting
impact on the FNDP implementation for the remaining period up to 2010. It is these overall
recommendations which are now presented in this closing Chapter.

18.2 Addressing the M&E Challenges


1. Many sectors have been unable to report against the very indicators they themselves
selected. And yet effective monitoring and evaluation remains a critical function of
delivery. One of the major challenges in the country that has come out very vividly in this
MTR as it relates to the systems ability to monitor its activities relates to the existence of a
weak statistical database. Institutions in Swaziland that oversee management information
systems (MIS) have remained generally weak and, consequently, the dependability of their
data has been reduced. The data collection, processing, management and dissemination
capacities of most data-generating bodies both inside and outside the government system
are varied although almost all of them require capacity enhancement through, inter alia,
training. On the data demand side, there are evident frailties associated with the absence of
a national Research Agenda that could tilt national research work around the FNDP
towards more sophisticated and policy-relevant data requirements. The current challenges
associated with inadequate human resources in all sectors; and the weak capacity in data
generation and coordination mechanisms at all levels in the national system will continue to
impede the national monitoring and evaluation processes. Poor quality of available data, weak
infrastructure and resources for collecting additional data, and low analytical capacity remain as
some of the major challenges facing the country. The capacity of the Zambian Government in
economic forecasting, programming and strategic planning that are quite important for
poverty reduction also depend on the availability of timely and reliable data.
2. Although the UNDP has committed itself to systemically addressing some of the pitfalls
above, very little positive progress has been registered. There has been little effort on the
part of the Government to adequately equip both the Central Statistics Office and line
ministries, particularly the M&E Unit at MFNP, to timely generate and process data that is
crucial for effective monitoring of national interventions. This has resulted in outdated data
and data gaps. Given the priorities of the Government, data for HIV and AIDS and poverty
monitoring is particularly important towards the attainment of the MDGs.
3. Although the National Census is a major source of baseline information, the fact that it is
conducted once every ten years continues to provide a challenge for indicators related to
many developmental parameters. The Census could assist in providing trend analyses
which may be useful for long term planning at national level.
4. Equally important, one lesson learnt from this MTR is that the adoption of a Human Rights
Approach has lagged behind during the development of databases that support the M&E
function. This approach requires that the rights of the people of Zambia should be equal
before the law and that freedom from discrimination is respected, protected and fulfilled.
5. Participatory Monitoring has not been fully exploited in Zambia, generally, and during the
period covered by this MTR, in particular. Although various organisations that are involved
in addressing, say, poverty issues and HIV and AIDS are collecting and utilising qualitative
data and using participatory approaches to monitor trends, this work has tended to be
haphazard and uncoordinated. The collection of this data is usually conducted within the
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confines of specific programmes and, in most cases, is handled outside the national M&E
framework. Data that is collected by NGOs, the academic and the private sector is not
easily accessible by government policy makers, private sector, academic researchers and
health service providers in the public domain. Consequently, there exists limited
collaboration between Government and non-state actors in the field of data generation.
Appropriate alliances or partnership with civil society stakeholders should provide for the
pooling of resources, experience, creativity and energies of the diversity of partners in
poverty reduction and the monitoring of poverty interventions.
6. With respect to data integrity, the existing documentation/tools on monitoring indicators in
Zambia are not adequately synchronised in a way that would secure desirable consistency
within the same government system.
7. In the light of the lessons learnt above, it is important to address the following M&E-
related capacity enhancement effort:
(a) Adequately equip MFNP (and CSO therein) and the line ministries to timely
generate and process data that is crucial for effective monitoring of national
interventions.
(b) Human Rights Approach to monitoring should be stressed. This approach calls for
the identification of indicators that are responsive to the human rights core values.
This also calls for strong political leadership, commitment and engagement so as to
promote good governance with respect to all aspects human rights.
(c) Strengthen Government and development partner institutions that oversee
management information systems (MIS) so as to enhance data dependability. This
calls for improvements, through technical support and training, of routine
information systems of line ministries that generate data.
(d) Put in place an incentive regime that improves the retention capacity of M&E
personnel that handle the more strategic databases required for effective
monitoring.
(e) Develop appropriate institutional and legislative framework that supports effective
coordination of data management. The creation of a multi-sectoral M&E
coordinating mechanism should be part of this effort.
(f) Enhance participatory monitoring mechanisms that capture different actors at
various levels in service delivery.
(g) Improve systems that facilitate the sharing of information so as to enhance
opportunities for more coordinated national response to national developmental
challenges.
(h) Build the requisite capacity of the research and data generation institutions outside
Government so as to complement State effort in M&E. Short and cost-effective
training programmes targeted at national and sub-national actors and aimed at
strengthening skills in community participation would be one example of
institutional capacity strengthening at this level.
(i) Strengthen data dissemination to the different levels of end-users, including policy
makers, Parliamentarians, technocrats, researchers, civil society, and donors. This
may entail the development of on-line platform and the supportive Wide Area
Network (WAN) infrastructure.

8. Lastly, SAGs should play a strategic role in both the identification of KPIs and in
monitoring the FNDP. Considering the identified weaknesses that have been revealed in
this MTR at this level, the following yardsticks are recommended during the selection of
the indicators across all the sectors of the FNDP:
(a) Considering the revealed monitoring capacity limitations that characterise the
average line ministry in Government, the number of core indicators for each
programme ought to be aligned to the ability of the existing systems to
meaningfully apply them with reasonable level of dependability. In this respect,
only a handful of core indicators for each category (process, input, output,
outcome/impact) should be selected. This in no way minimises the significance of

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other indicators that, where capacity allows, could be added for the purpose of
getting a more comprehensive picture.
(b) For a core indicator to be included, there should exist readily available quality data
on that indicator and that the data source for the indicator can be clearly identified.
(c) The required data for the selected core indicators should be collected regularly. In
addition, the indicators selected should meet the following criteria:
o The data is relevant to users in terms of its timeliness,
adequacy, relevance, and accessibility;
o Data collection processes are affordable and cost-
effective;
o It must be possible to disaggregate data on the indicator in
desirable classifications; and
o The indicator should be able to help in predicting
outcomes and impact with reasonable degree of reliability.
(d) Where sector information systems are weak, sectors should budget for establishing
Management Information and efficient M&E systems. This should be done with
backstopping services from the M&E Department and Central Statistical Office at
MFNP.

18.3 Other Considerations


1. There is need to align the annual Government Budget to the provisions of the FNDP so that the
Plan becomes an important – and respected – developmental programming tool. Having almost
all sectors under-funded both in the yellow book provisions and releases is the single most
important indicator of the unlikelihood of the FNDP targets being achieved. The huge
variances witnessed during this MTR between FNDP financial projections, annual budgets and
actual releases give little comfort that Government is ready to use national planning as an
important resource programming and application tool. The absence of an oversight body, in the
form of the currently non-functional National Development Coordination Committee (NDCC)
partially explains this state of affairs. In the light of this state of affairs, increasing annual
allocation to core sectors for the remainder of the FNDP so as to reduce funding gaps is
strongly recommended.

2. There has been concern expressed that the FNDP is not aligned to other key working
instruments such as MTEF, Annual Budget, Ministerial Work Plans and Strategic Plans.
This perception need to be corrected as the country implements the remaining part of the
Plan. It is not the FNDP that should be aligned to the Annual Plans or Ministerial Work
Plan. Rather, it is the other way round: It is these instruments that should be aligned to the
FNDP. When an MTEF or the Annual Budget is developed, the primary frame of reference
should be the existing five-year Plan as it is meant to provide overall policy and strategic
guidance to all the other instruments, itself being subordinate only to Vision 2030. In this
regard, it is important that Government Ministries tailor their Annual Work Plans and
Budgets in a manner that respect the provisions of the FNDP. Similarly, the National
Budget prepared by the MFNP should as much as possible ensure that it does not deviate
unjustifiably from the priorities of the FNDP both in terms of identified programmes and,
perhaps most importantly, with respect to the allocation and actual releases of resources.
The MTR revealed that the ratio of the budgeted non-core to core programmes is higher
with non-core programmes often allocated more than 70 percent of the total budgets and, in
the process, leave the core programmes under-funded.. This has had very serious adverse
implications for the realisation of the set targets of FNDP in a good number of sectors. If
this state of affairs is allowed to continue, then the heavy investment that was incurred
during the preparation of the FNDP would be reduced to a mere academic exercise and a
repeat of the same process would not be justified during the preparation of the Sixth
National Development Plan.
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3. Government should keep debt to manageable and sustainable levels. In this respect, any new
borrowing to finance FNDP and subsequent development plans should be aligned to the country’s
capacity to repay and on terms that would not unduly expose the country to preventable risk of
defaulting. The Government should, therefore, target concessional finance and ought to negotiate
only those loans with a 35 percent minimum grant element. In the acquisition of external loans,
the priorities of the National Development Plan and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
targets should guide Government actions.

4. Government should ensure that arrears accumulation due to bad loan and/or investment
decisions is eliminated. This should entail the provision of more debt oversight authority to
Parliament through legislative review. It should also entail closer monitoring of how loans
are being applied, based on the country’s debt management strategy.

5. There is need to diversify the economy by increasing non-traditional exports and broaden
the types of economic activities in a way that would enhance the national revenue base.
Focus should be on industrial processing that add value to economic activities.

6. There is need to secure prudent management of limited resources to bring about tangible
socio-economic benefits to the country. This could be achieved by ensuring that all huddles
to the implementation of the PEMFA and all its components, including the IFMIS, are
eliminated.

7. Tender procedures should be streamlined to make them more efficient to allow for speedy
execution of projects under the FNDP. The decentralisation of the tender system is
recommended.

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References

1. FNDP 2006-2010 (2007)


2. Vision 2030 (2007)
3. MDG Report (2008)
4. Estimates of Expenditure/Yellow Book (2007)
5. Estimates of Expenditure/Yellow Book (2008)
6. Estimates of Expenditure/Yellow Book (2009)
7. Financial Report – MOFNP (2006)
8. Financial Report – MOFNP (2007)
9. Public Expenditure Tracking Survey Reports- Education (2007)
10. Mid-Term Review Report for the Health Sector – MoH (2007)
11. Mid-Term Review Report for Education – MoE (2007)
12. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Report (MLGH) (2006)
13. PRBS-Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) Report (2006)
14. PRBS-Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) Report (2007)
15. Economic Reports (2006)
16. Economic Reports (2007)
17. Economic Reports (2008)
18. Demographic Health Survey Report for CSO (2007)
19. Living Conditions Monitoring Survey Report for CSO (2006)
20. FNDP progress Report (2006)
21. FNDP progress Report (2007)
22. FNDP progress Report (2008)
23. National Irrigation Policy and Strategy (MACO) (2004)
24. National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme Document-MLGH 2006-2015
(2006)
25. ROADSIP – Document MWS (2004)
26. Infrastructure Development Annual Report – MWS (2006)
27. Infrastructure Development Annual Report – MWS (2007)
28. Mid Term Review Report for HIV/AIDS – NAC (2008)
29. Public Accounts Report (2007)
30. Public Accounts Report (2008)
31. Legal Aid Board Annual Report (2005)
32. Legal Aid Board Annual Report (2006)
33. Legal Aid Board Annual Report (2007)
34. Legal Aid Board Annual Report (2008)
35. Aid Policy and Strategy for Zambia (MOFNP) (2007)
36. Joint Assistance Strategy for Zambia (JASZ) 2007-2010 (2007)