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LearningObjective1
Whatisthepsychologicaldefinitionof
learning?
RelatedConcepts:Learning,Stimulus,Reflex
(Response)
WhatisLearning?
BehavioristPerspective
Arelativelypermanentchangeinbehaviorthat
arisesfrompracticeorexperience
StimulusReflex(Response)
LearningObjective2
Whataretheprinciplesandmethodsof
ClassicalConditioning?
RelatedConcepts:UnconditionedStimulus(UCS),
UnconditionedResponse(UCR),Conditioned
Stimulus(CS),ConditionedResponse(CR),Extinction,
SpontaneousRecovery,Generalization,
Discrimination,ConditionedEmotionalResponse
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ClassicalConditioning
Simpleformofassociativelearningthat
enablesorganismstoanticipateevents
Reflexes(unlearned)areevokedbycertainstimuli
Reflexescanalsobelearnedbyassociation
ContributionofIvanPavlov
Whilestudyingsalivationindogs,Pavlov
happened upontheprinciplesof
conditioning
Reflexes(unlearned)canbelearned(or
conditioned)throughassociation
Behavioristperspective
Doglearnedtosalivateinresponsetothetone
becausethetonehadbeenpairedwiththemeat
powder
StimulusandResponseinClassical
Conditioning
Unconditionedstimulus(UCS)
Unconditionedresponse(UCR)
Conditionedstimulus(CS)
Conditionedresponse(CR)
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ExtinctionandSpontaneousRecovery
Extinction
CSnolongerfollowedbyanUCS nolongerelicits
CR
SpontaneousRecovery
CSonceagainelicitsCR
Afunctionoftimethathaselapsedsince
extinctionoccurred
GeneralizationandDiscrimination
Generalization
TendencyforCRtobeevokedbystimulisimilarto
thestimulustowhichtheresponsewas
conditioned
Discrimination
CRevokedbylimitedrangeofstimulidueto
pairingonlythelimitedstimuluswiththeUS
ClassicalConditioningofEmotional
Responses
LittleAlbert conditioning
forfear
Conditionedtofeararatwhichgeneralized
Biologicalpreparedness inthiscasefearofan
animal
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LearningObjective3
Whataretheprinciplesandmethodsof
OperantConditioning?
RelatedConcepts:Reinforcement,Positive/Negative,
Primary/Secondary,SchedulesofPartial
Reinforcement,Punishment,Shaping,Behavior
Modification
B.F.SkinnerandReinforcement
Operantbehavior
Focusedonmeasurablebehaviors
Skinnerbox
Experimentalconditionscanbemaintained
Reinforcer
Organismslearntoengageinbehaviorthatis
reinforced
TypesofReinforcements
Positivereinforcer
Increaseprobabilitybehaviorwilloccurwhenitis
added
Negativereinforcer
Increaseprobabilitybehaviorwilloccurwhenitis
removed
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PrimaryandSecondaryReinforcers
Primaryreinforcereffectivebecauseof
biologicalmakeupoforganism
Food,water,warmth,pain(negativereinforcer)
Secondaryreinforceracquirevaluethrough
associationwithestablishedreinforcers
Conditionedreinforcers
Money learnitmaybeexchangedforprimary
reinforcer
ReinforcersversusRewardsand
Punishment
Reinforcersareknownbytheireffect(increase
response)
Rewardsarepleasanteventsthataffect
behavior
Punishmentareaversiveeventsthatdecrease
thefrequencyofthebehaviortheyfollow
Positivepunishment applyaversivestimulus
Negativepunishment removepleasantstimulus
SchedulesofReinforcement
Continuousreinforcement
Mostrapidacquisition
Mosteasilyextinguished
Partialreinforcement
Moreresistanttoextinction
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IntervalSchedulesofReinforcement
Fixedintervalschedule
Fixedamountoftime
Responseratefallsoffaftereachreinforcement
andthenpicksupasreinforcerapproaches
Variableintervalschedule
Unpredictabletimeelapses
Steadierbutlowerresponserate(thanfixed
interval)
RatioSchedulesofReinforcement
Fixedratioschedule
Fixednumberofcorrectresponses
Highresponserate;higherimmediatelyafter
reinforcement
Variableratioschedule
Unpredictablenumberofcorrectresponses
Highresponserate
Shaping
Reinforceprogressivestepstowardthe
behavioralgoal
Astrainingproceeds,reinforcesuccessive
approximationsofthegoal
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LearningObjective4
Whataresomeimportantcognitivefactors
associatedwithlearning?
RelatedConcepts:LatentLearning,Observational
Learning,ViolenceinMediaandAggression
LatentLearningandCognitiveMaps
E.C.Tolman
Cognitivemaps
Learningwashidden,orlatent,untilfood
motivatedthem
ObservationalLearning
Acquireskillsbyobservingothers(Bandura)
Canoccurwithoutovertresponses
Payingattentiontothebehaviorissufficient
Learningmaybelatent
Model personwhoengagesinresponsethat
isimitated
Vicariousreinforcement
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ViolenceintheMediaandAggression
Banduraandcolleaguesclassicstudyofmedia
violence Boboandpreschoolchildren
Childrenwhosawaggressivemodelshowed
significantlymoreaggressivebehaviortowardthe
dollthemselves
ConsensusontheEffects
ofViolenceintheMedia
Depictionsofviolencecontributeto
aggression
Observationallearning
Disinhibition
Increasedemotionalarousal
Primingofaggressivethoughtsandmemories
Habituation
Circularrelationshipbetweenexposureto
mediaviolenceandaggressivebehavior
ConsensusontheEffects
ofViolenceintheMedia
Familyinfluencesonimitationofmedia
violence
Parentalsubstanceabuse,paternalphysical
punishments,singleparenting
Childrenwhobelieveviolenceisinappropriate
willbelessaggressive
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TeachingChildrenNottoImitate
MediaViolence
Informchildrenthat
Mediaviolenceisnottypicalofmostpeople
Mediaaggressivebehaviorsarenotreal
Mostconflictsareresolvednonviolently
Inreallifeviolencehasconsequences
LearningObjective5
Howdointrinsicandextrinsicrewards
influenceachievementmotivationand
enjoymentofatask?
RelatedConcepts:IntrinsicMotivation,Extrinsic
Motivation
AchievementMotivation
Performancegoals
Extrinsicrewards behaviormotivatedbypraise,
income
Learninggoals
Intrinsicrewards behaviormotivatedbyself
satisfaction
Shouldyourewardkidswithmoneyfor
makinggoodgrades?