Pokok sena science secondary school 06400,pokok sena, Kedah darul aman

Chemistry folio Manufactured substances in industry & Chemicals for consumers

Prepared by: nor hatika binti abd halim


1 The manufacture of sulphuric acid is one of the most important chemical industries at the present time. 2 Sulphuric acid, H SO is a non-volatile diprotic acid. 3 Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.


1 Sulphuric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals. About 140 million tones are manufactured in the world every year. 2 The uses of sulphuric acid are; a) To manufacture fertilizers b) To manufacture detergents c) To manufacture pesticides d) To manufacture synthetic fibres e) To manufacture paint pigments f) As an electrolytein lead-acid accumulators g) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating


1 Sulphuric acid is manufacture by the Contact process in industry. 2 The raw material used in the Contact process are sulphur,air and water. 3

9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALTS 1 Ammonia,NH is a very important compound in industry. 2 The main uses of ammonia: a) To manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, ammonium sulphate,ammonium nitrate and urea. b) The liquid form is used as cooling agent(refrigerant)in refrigerators. c) As an raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the Ostwald process d) To be converted into nitric acid used for making explosives. e) As an alkali to prevent coagulation of latex so that latex can remain in the liquid form f) As a cleaning agent to remove grease. g) Used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres such as nylon.


Properties of ammonia 1 colourless gas 2 very soluble in water 3 less dense than air 4 pungent smell 5 has characteristics of weak alkali when dissolved in water,h 20 6 produces thick white fumes with hydrogen chloride,hci,gas MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA
1 Ammonia,NH ,is manufactured on a large scale in factories through Haber process 2 In the Haber process,nitrogen,N ,and hydrogen ,gases are mixed in the ratio of 1:3 volumes(or moles)

3 The hydrogen, H ,gas is obtained from methane CH ,a type of natural gas,while nitrogen,N ,gas is obtained from air by fractional distillation of liquefied air 4 The gas mixed is passed over iron(catalyst) at a temperature of 450-550 C and compressed under a pressure of 200-500 atmosphere 5 The ammonia,NH ,gas obtained is cooled(temperature of -50 C) to become liquid ammonia,NH

Synthesis of ammonia in industry.

1 Ammonium fertilizers are nitrogenous fertilizers that can provide nitrogen elements to plants 2 Examples of ammonium salts usedas fertilizers are ammonium nitrate,NH NO , ammonium sulphate,and aluminium phosphate. 3 Ammonia dissolves in water to form ammonia solution 4 Neutralisation reaction between ammonia solution and acid solution produces ammonium salt which is used as fertilizer Neutralisation reaction Ammonia solution+phosphoric acid Ammonia solution+nitric acid Ammonium salt(fertiliser) Ammonium phosphate Ammonium nitrate

Ammonia solution+sulphuric acid

Ammonium sulphate

Arrangement of atoms in pure metal

1 Pure metal is soft and not very strong 2 Atoms of pure metals have similar size and shape and are arranged closely but there still space between the atoms 3 When force is applied to pure metal,the atoms slide along one another easily 4 This property causes pure metal to be ductile, that is, it can be stretched into a wire

5 When knocked or hammered,metal atoms slide along one another to fill spaces between the metal atoms 6 This property causes pure metal to be malleable,that is , it can be knocked or pressed into various desired shapes

ALLOY 1 An alloy is a compound formed from a mixture of metal and other elements. 2 An impurity atom may be atoms of other metals of non-metals such as carbon 3 The process of mixing atoms of impurities with atoms of pure metal by melting is called alloying 4 The aims of alloying are to : a)increase the strength and hardness of the metal b)prevent corrosion of the metal c)improve the appearance of the metal so that it is more attractive


1 Impurity atoms which are mixed may be larger or smaller than atoms of pure metal 2 Impurity atom fill the empty spaces between the atoms in pure metal 3 Impurity atoms can prevent the layers of metal atoms from sliding along one another easily 4 Due to this, an alloy is harder nad stronger than pure metal

5 For examples, steel is harder than iron


1 STEEL -To make bridges,vehicles,building skeleton and train tracks -Properties:strong,hard,withstands corrosion

2 BRONZE -To make medals,statue and bells -Properties:same as steel

3 BRASS -To make keys, musical instruments and ornaments -Properties:strong and shiny

4 PEWTER -To make ornamental items such as picture frames and trophies -Properties:withstands corrosion,smooth and shiny surface

5 STAINLESS STEEL -To make kitchen utensils such as spoons,forks,pots,pans and knives -Properties:strong,withstands corrosion,shiny

6 DURALUMIN -To make the body of aeroplanes and racing bicycles -Properties:strong,light ang withstands corrosion

7 COPPER NICKEL -To make coins -Properties:strong,shinysilver colour

The meaning of Polymers 1 The word polymer originated from the Greek polumeros which means ‘having many parts’ 2 Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. 3 These small molecules that are joined together into chains are called monomers

4 Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined tog

USES OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS Uses of Polymers Polymer neoprene Properties very chemical resistant, rubbery Applications shoe soles, hoses, radiator hoses, wetsuits

polyamide (nylon)

fibrous, strong, parachutes, carpet, durable, ropes, form-fitting

moisture resistant polyacrylon resinous, itrile fibrous, or rubbery, combines with butadiene and styrene to form hard, tough ABS copolymer

skiwear, hosiery, swimware, boat sails ABS plumbing pipe, structural panels, kettle handles, housewares; Orlon® fabric

polychloro- can be molded gaskets, linings for trifluoroeth by extrusion, containers, parts for ylene chemically valves and pumps resistant polyester fibers recover quickly after extension and absorb very little moisture. filters, conveyor belts, sleeping bag insulation, coat insulation, tire cords. Brand name polymers include: Dacron® , Fortrel® , Terylene® ; Mylar® & Lexan® . milk, water, and juice containers; toys, liquid detergent bottles

polyethylen e (highdensity ) HDPE

can be easily formed into lightweight containers

polyethylen can be e stretched into (lowfine, tough,

bread bags, frozen food bags, grocery

density) LDPE polyethylen e terephthala te (PET, PETE) polyolefin



strong, easily moldable, chemically resistant, lightweight fiber composed of at least 85% polyethylene or polypropylene

soft drink bottles, peanut butter jars, salad dressing bottles, nonbreakable bottles

hosiery, sportswear, undergarments, pile fabrics, upholstery, outdoor furniture, indoor carpeting, indoor-outdoor rugs and carpets, filters, marine cordage, automobile seat covers, electrical insulation, carpet backing Styrofoam® cups, grocery store meat trays, fast-food sandwich containers, video cassette cases, compact disk jackets, cafeteria trays, refrigerator insulation

polystyrene thermoplastic; resists attack by acids, alkalis, and many solvents, does not absorb water; excellent electrical insulator. polysulfone tough, strong,

household and

stiff, plumbing items, chemically and various automotive thermally parts, wire coatings resistant polytetraflu oroethylene (PTFE) strong, tough, waxy, nonflammable, chemically resistant, slippery surface, thermally stable flexible foams, highly elastic quick drying fibers, or harddrying films · Viton® : gaskets, bearings, linings for containers and pipes. · Teflon® : non-stick cookware, cooking utensils, pump valves, plumbing tape.

polyuretha ne

· flexible foams: upholstery material, mattresses · rigid foams: cores for airplane wings · fibers: spandex clothing fiber, support hosiery; Lycra® , Numa® , Spandelle® , and Vyrene®. · hard films: polyurethane varnishes component in: adhesives, emulsifiers, lacquers, coatings, and films · unplasticized form:

polyvinyl alcohol

colorless, water-soluble, flammable resin rigid when



unplasticized; flexible when plasticized

water pipe, plumbing fittings, phonograph records, synthetic floor tiles, credit cards · plasticized form: raincoats, shower curtains, and packaging films.

polyvinyl fluoride

resistant to attack by chemicals or by weathering

protective films for: building sidings, pipes, corrosive chemical containers

polyvinylac water-insoluble carpet backings; filmetate resin forming ingredient of water-based (latex) paints, adhesives, lacquers, and cements

1 In this modern world,the demand for items with specific properties is high. 2 Compounds with specific properties are combined to produce a composite material that meets the requirements of industry, construction and transportation 3 Several uses of composite material are (a)Reinforced concrete *Made from a mixture of cement,gravel,sand,water,iron or steel to produce nets,rods or bars *Strong,high tensile strength and cheap *Construction material for buildings,bridges,highways and dams

(b)Superconductor *Made from various components such as the mixture of niobium and germanium *Compound that has no electrical resistans (zero resistance) *Can function only under extremely low temperatures *Used in the transportation ,telecommunications and astronomy industries and in the medical field (c)Fibres glass *Made from silica,SiO ,sodium carbonate,Na CO ,and calium carbonate *Good insulator of heat and electricity (d) Fibre optic *Made from glass,copper and aluminium *Enables information to be transmitted in light form at high speeds *Used in the field of communications to make electrical cables and in the field of medicine to observe internal organs without performing surgery (e) Photochromic glass *Produced from molten silica that is mixed with a little silver chloride,AgCl *Dark in colour when exposed to bright light and bright when in the dark


5.1 SOAPS AND DETERGENTS SOAPS 1 Soap is a salt that is formed the reaction between an alkali and a fatty acid, RCOOH. 2 Soap is a) sodium salt fatty acid if the alkali used is sodium hydroxide. b) potassium salt fatty acid if the alkali used is potassium hydroxide.
Alkali + fatty acid sodium/potassium salt fatty acid + water (salt)

3) The general formula of soap is RCOONa or RCOOK. long-chained alkyl group. 4) Examples of soap include a) sodium palmitate,CH (CH ) COO Na b) sodium stearate,CH (CH ) COO Na c) sodium laurate, CH (CH ) COO Na d) sodium oleate, CH (CH ) CH(CH ) COO K

R is a

5) For examples, sodium palmitate soap, CH (CH ) Na ,is a sodium salt of palmitic acid, CH COOH,that is derived from palm oil. CH (CH ) COO Na

Source found in

Source found in an alkali,

palmitic acid,a type acid that is sodium hydroxide that comes from palm oil

the types of soap that is produced depends on the type of fatty acid and alkali that is used
Types of soap Num.of carbon atom Type of fatty acid Stearic acid Type of alkali Sodium hydroxide

Sodium stearate Sodium palmitate Potassium oleate Sodium laurate Sodium linoleate

18 16 18 12 17

Palmitic acid

Sodium hydroxide

Oleic acid

Potassium hydroxide

Lauric acid

Sodium hydroxide

Linoleic acid

Sodium hydroxide

There are 2 types of soap: a) Solid soap b) Liquid soap SOLID SOAP(HARD SOAP) LIQUID SOAP

*Made from sodium hydroxide and

*Made from potassium hydroxide and

saturated carboxylic acid that is found in animal fat. *Used for bathing and washing clothes.

unsaturated carboxylic acid that is found in plant oil such as cotton seed oil *Used as liquid soap and shaving cream

1 Various food additives are added into food,in the food industry,for the purpose of; (a) preserving food (b) improving the taste of food (c) making food look more attractive (d) enriching food with certain nutrients 2 Table 14.6 displays several types of food additives in food,their functions, and examples of chemicals as well as the food that they are added to. Food additives Preservatives Functions Examples of chemicals Examples of food Sausage Canned food

Prevents or *Benzoic acid slows down the *Sodium growth of

bacteria or fungi,so that food can be kept longer

benzoate *Tartrazine *Sulphur dioxide *Sodium nitrate


*Slows down the oxidation of fat in food *Prevents ouly or fatty food from becoming rancid

*Ascorbic acid *Citric acid

Margarine Cooking oil

Flavouring agents

Adds taste or *MSG fragrant smells *Aspartame to make food (sweetener) more edible *Mixes two *Lecithin liquids that *Gelatin usually do not mixed together *Acacia gum *Provides a smooth and uniform texture

Ice cream Soft drinks


Chili sauce Ice cream

Thickening agents

*Tickens liquid such as soup and sauce

*Gelatin(agar) Starch

Thick ketchup sauce Oyster sauce

Colouring agents

*Colours food to make it look more attractive

*Metanil yellow Ice cream *Caramel *Azo compounds *Triphenyl compounds Soft drink

The Food Act only allows certain quantity of chemicals to be added to food. Food additives Benzoic acid (preservative) Ascorbic acid (antioxidant) Sulphur dioxide (preservative) Maximum quantity that is allowed per kilogram of food 350 mg 2000 mg 20 mg


#Chemical have improved the quality of life. #Many chemical products improve the lives of consumers. #Chemicals also created side effects in humans and environments.

#Scientists usuallt have common traits such as curious, patient, meticulous and are able to preservere in the face of failures. #Life without chemicals make life difficult.

1 Chemicals by themselves are neither good nor bad. 2 Improper use or storage of chemicals can be a danger to life and the environment. 3 Proper management of chemicals used includes proper handling and control of their use.



"Tumbuhan Ubatan" are plants of medicinal value.

The malay word "Ubat" simply means medicine. Many of these plants include a large number of Local Malaysian Spices.

White Costus (Setawar Putih) There are various species and varieties of White Costus. However for traditional Malay medicine the wild variety Costus speciosus Smith is used. The picture on the left shows the wild variety of white costus flower. Traditionally it has many medicinal uses, for example the rhizomes is used for making a form of health tonic and the stem is use for skin problems. It is also a source of st

The picture (leftt) shows a young White Costus plant in the wild.

Lemon Grass (Serai)

The Lemon Grass or Cymbopogon citratus is a very popular plant and is frequently

grown at home. It main use is as a spice in curries as well as an ingredient for enhencing taste and fragrance. The leaves are used for making Lemon Grass Tea. It various medicinal uses are for curing head ache, stomach ache, and as a mosquitoe repelent. The picture shows clump of lemon grass.

Mint (Pudina)

Mint or Mentha arvensis Linn. is a creeping herb that can be used for food flavouring, food dressing and also has medicinal value. Mint is used to treat sore throat. It is used in the production of peppermint oil which contains a high percentage of mentol. This oil is used in medicine mixtures, as flavouring for sweets, mentol cigrettes and various other types of flavouring.

Red Basil (Selasih Merah) Basils of various types are common all over the world. In Malaysia, three species are commonly found in home gardens and the local markets. One of the three common basils is the Red or Holy Basil commonly called "Selasih Merah" or Ocimum sanctum Linn. (pictured left). Medically red basils are used for curing coughs, breathing difficulties due to blocked nose, malaria, and back ache.

Sweet Basil (Selasih Hijau) Sweet Basils or Ocinum basilicum Linn. is also very common in Malaysia. Medically sweet basils are used for curing coughs, irrigular menstral, tooth ache, iching throat, insect bites and skin disease.

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