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Pokok sena science secondary school

06400,pokok sena,

Kedah darul aman

Chemistry folio

Manufactured substances in
industry &
Chemicals for consumers

Prepared by: nor hatika binti abd halim

9.1 SULPHURIC ACID


1 The manufacture of sulphuric acid is one of the most
important chemical industries at the present time.
2 Sulphuric acid, H SO is a non-volatile diprotic acid.
3 Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless
liquid.

THE USES OF SULPHURIC ACID

1 Sulphuric acid is one of the most important industrial


chemicals. About 140 million tones are manufactured in
the world every year.
2 The uses of sulphuric acid are;
a) To manufacture fertilizers
b) To manufacture detergents
c) To manufacture pesticides
d) To manufacture synthetic fibres
e) To manufacture paint pigments
f) As an electrolytein lead-acid accumulators
g) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces
before electroplating
THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS IN THE MANUFACTURE
OF SULPHURIC ACID

1 Sulphuric acid is manufacture by the Contact process in


industry.
2 The raw material used in the Contact process are
sulphur,air and water.
3
9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALTS

1 Ammonia,NH is a very important compound in industry.


2 The main uses of ammonia:
a) To manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers such as
ammonium sulphate,
ammonium sulphate,ammonium nitrate and urea.
b) The liquid form is used as cooling
agent(refrigerant)in refrigerators.
c) As an raw material for the manufacture of nitric
acid in the Ostwald
process
d) To be converted into nitric acid used for making
explosives.
e) As an alkali to prevent coagulation of latex so that
latex can remain in
the liquid form
f) As a cleaning agent to remove grease.
g) Used in the manufacture of synthetic fibres such
as nylon.
.

Properties of ammonia

1 colourless gas
2 very soluble in water
3 less dense than air
4 pungent smell
5 has characteristics of weak alkali when dissolved in
water,h 20
6 produces thick white fumes with hydrogen
chloride,hci,gas

MANUFACTURE OF AMMONIA
1 Ammonia,NH ,is manufactured on a large scale in factories
through Haber process
2 In the Haber process,nitrogen,N ,and hydrogen ,gases are
mixed in the ratio of 1:3 volumes(or moles)
3 The hydrogen, H ,gas is obtained from methane CH ,a type of
natural gas,while nitrogen,N ,gas is obtained from air by
fractional distillation of liquefied air
4 The gas mixed is passed over iron(catalyst) at a temperature of
450-550 C and compressed under a pressure of 200-500
atmosphere
5 The ammonia,NH ,gas obtained is cooled(temperature of -50 C)
to become liquid ammonia,NH

Synthesis of ammonia in industry.


PREPARATION OF AMMONIUM FERTILISERS IN THE
LABORATORY

1 Ammonium fertilizers are nitrogenous fertilizers that can


provide nitrogen elements to plants
2 Examples of ammonium salts usedas fertilizers are ammonium
nitrate,NH NO , ammonium sulphate,and aluminium phosphate.
3 Ammonia dissolves in water to form ammonia solution
4 Neutralisation reaction between ammonia solution and acid
solution produces ammonium salt which is used as fertilizer
Neutralisation reaction Ammonium salt(fertiliser)
Ammonia solution+phosphoric Ammonium phosphate
acid
Ammonia solution+nitric acid Ammonium nitrate
Ammonia solution+sulphuric Ammonium sulphate
acid

ALLOYS
Arrangement of atoms in pure metal

1 Pure metal is soft and not very strong


2 Atoms of pure metals have similar size and shape and are
arranged closely but there still space between the atoms
3 When force is applied to pure metal,the atoms slide along one
another easily
4 This property causes pure metal to be ductile, that is, it can be
stretched into a wire
5 When knocked or hammered,metal atoms slide along one
another to fill spaces between the metal atoms
6 This property causes pure metal to be malleable,that is , it can
be knocked or pressed into various desired shapes

ALLOY
1 An alloy is a compound formed from a mixture of metal and
other elements.
2 An impurity atom may be atoms of other metals of non-metals
such as carbon
3 The process of mixing atoms of impurities with atoms of pure
metal by melting is called alloying
4 The aims of alloying are to :
a)increase the strength and hardness of the metal
b)prevent corrosion of the metal
c)improve the appearance of the metal so that it is more
attractive

ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS IN ALLOYS

1 Impurity atoms which are mixed may be larger or smaller than


atoms of pure metal
2 Impurity atom fill the empty spaces between the atoms in pure
metal
3 Impurity atoms can prevent the layers of metal atoms from
sliding along one another easily
4 Due to this, an alloy is harder nad stronger than pure metal
5 For examples, steel is harder than iron

USES OF ALLOY

1 STEEL
-To make bridges,vehicles,building skeleton and train tracks
-Properties:strong,hard,withstands corrosion

2 BRONZE
-To make medals,statue and bells
-Properties:same as steel

3 BRASS
-To make keys, musical instruments and ornaments
-Properties:strong and shiny

4 PEWTER
-To make ornamental items such as picture frames and trophies
-Properties:withstands corrosion,smooth and shiny surface

5 STAINLESS STEEL
-To make kitchen utensils such as spoons,forks,pots,pans and
knives
-Properties:strong,withstands corrosion,shiny
6 DURALUMIN
-To make the body of aeroplanes and racing bicycles
-Properties:strong,light ang withstands corrosion

7 COPPER NICKEL
-To make coins
-Properties:strong,shinysilver colour

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

The meaning of Polymers


1 The word polymer originated from the Greek polumeros which
means ‘having many parts’
2 Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and
identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds.
3 These small molecules that are joined together into chains are
called monomers
4 Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers
are joined tog

USES OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS

Uses of Polymers

Polymer Properties Applications

neoprene very chemical shoe soles, hoses,


resistant, radiator hoses,
rubbery wetsuits

polyamide fibrous, strong, parachutes, carpet,


(nylon) durable, ropes, form-fitting
moisture skiwear, hosiery,
resistant swimware, boat sails

polyacrylon resinous, ABS plumbing pipe,


itrile fibrous, or structural panels,
rubbery, kettle handles,
combines with housewares; Orlon®
butadiene and fabric
styrene to form
hard, tough
ABS copolymer

polychloro- can be molded gaskets, linings for


trifluoroeth by extrusion, containers, parts for
ylene chemically valves and pumps
resistant

polyester fibers recover filters, conveyor belts,


quickly after sleeping bag
extension and insulation, coat
absorb very insulation, tire cords.
little moisture. Brand name polymers
include: Dacron® ,
Fortrel® , Terylene® ;
Mylar® & Lexan® .

polyethylen can be easily milk, water, and juice


e formed into containers; toys,
(high- lightweight liquid detergent
density ) containers bottles
HDPE

polyethylen can be bread bags, frozen


e stretched into food bags, grocery
(low- fine, tough,
density) films. bags
LDPE

polyethylen strong, easily soft drink bottles,


e moldable, peanut butter jars,
terephthala chemically salad dressing bottles,
te resistant, light- nonbreakable bottles
(PET, PETE) weight

polyolefin fiber composed hosiery, sportswear,


of at least 85% undergarments, pile
polyethylene or fabrics, upholstery,
polypropylene outdoor furniture,
indoor carpeting,
indoor-outdoor rugs
and carpets, filters,
marine cordage,
automobile seat
covers, electrical
insulation, carpet
backing

polystyrene thermoplastic; Styrofoam® cups,


resists attack grocery store meat
by acids, trays, fast-food
alkalis, and sandwich containers,
many solvents, video cassette cases,
does not compact disk jackets,
absorb water; cafeteria trays,
excellent refrigerator insulation
electrical
insulator.

polysulfone tough, strong, household and


stiff, plumbing items,
chemically and various automotive
thermally parts, wire coatings
resistant

polytetraflu strong, tough, · Viton® : gaskets,


oro- waxy, bearings, linings for
ethylene nonflammable, containers and pipes.
(PTFE) chemically
· Teflon® : non-stick
resistant,
cookware, cooking
slippery utensils, pump valves,
surface, plumbing tape.
thermally
stable

polyuretha flexible foams, · flexible foams:


ne highly elastic upholstery material,
quick drying mattresses
fibers, or hard-
· rigid foams: cores
drying films
for airplane wings
· fibers: spandex
clothing fiber, support
hosiery; Lycra® ,
Numa® ,
Spandelle® , and
Vyrene®.
· hard films:
polyurethane
varnishes
polyvinyl colorless, component in:
alcohol water-soluble, adhesives,
flammable emulsifiers, lacquers,
resin coatings, and films

polyvinyl rigid when · unplasticized form:


chloride unplasticized; water pipe, plumbing
flexible when fittings, phonograph
plasticized records, synthetic
floor tiles, credit cards

· plasticized form:
raincoats, shower
curtains, and
packaging films.
polyvinyl resistant to protective films for:
fluoride attack by building sidings,
chemicals or pipes, corrosive
by weathering chemical containers

polyvinylac water-insoluble carpet backings; film-


etate resin forming ingredient of
water-based (latex)
paints, adhesives,
lacquers, and
cements
THE USES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1 In this modern world,the demand for items with specific


properties is high.
2 Compounds with specific properties are combined to produce a
composite material that meets the requirements of industry,
construction and transportation
3 Several uses of composite material are
(a)Reinforced concrete
*Made from a mixture of cement,gravel,sand,water,iron or steel to
produce nets,rods or bars
*Strong,high tensile strength and cheap
*Construction material for buildings,bridges,highways and dams
(b)Superconductor
*Made from various components such as the mixture of
niobium and germanium
*Compound that has no electrical resistans (zero
resistance)
*Can function only under extremely low temperatures
*Used in the transportation ,telecommunications and
astronomy industries and in the medical field
(c)Fibres glass
*Made from silica,SiO ,sodium carbonate,Na CO ,and
calium carbonate
*Good insulator of heat and electricity
(d) Fibre optic
*Made from glass,copper and aluminium
*Enables information to be transmitted in light form at
high speeds
*Used in the field of communications to make electrical
cables and in the field of medicine to observe internal
organs without performing surgery
(e) Photochromic glass
*Produced from molten silica that is mixed with a little
silver chloride,AgCl
*Dark in colour when exposed to bright light and bright
when in the dark
FORM 5

CHEMICALS FOR CONSUMERS


5.1 SOAPS AND DETERGENTS
SOAPS
1 Soap is a salt that is formed the reaction between an alkali and
a fatty acid, RCOOH.
2 Soap is
a) sodium salt fatty acid if the alkali used is sodium hydroxide.
b) potassium salt fatty acid if the alkali used is potassium
hydroxide.

Alkali + fatty acid sodium/potassium salt fatty acid + water

(salt)

3) The general formula of soap is RCOONa or RCOOK. R is a


long-chained alkyl group.

4) Examples of soap include

a) sodium palmitate,CH (CH ) COO Na

b) sodium stearate,CH (CH ) COO Na

c) sodium laurate, CH (CH ) COO Na

d) sodium oleate, CH (CH ) CH(CH ) COO K

5) For examples, sodium palmitate soap, CH (CH ) Na ,is a


sodium salt of palmitic acid, CH

COOH,that is derived from palm oil.

CH (CH ) COO Na
Source found in Source found in an alkali,
palmitic acid,a type acid that is sodium hydroxide
that comes from palm oil

the types of soap that is produced depends on the type of


fatty acid and alkali that is used
Types of soap Num.of carbon Type of fatty acid Type of alkali
atom

Sodium 18 Stearic acid Sodium hydroxide


stearate
Sodium 16 Palmitic acid Sodium hydroxide
palmitate
Potassium 18 Oleic acid Potassium
oleate hydroxide

Sodium 12 Lauric acid Sodium hydroxide


laurate
Sodium 17 Linoleic acid Sodium hydroxide
linoleate

There are 2 types of soap:

a) Solid soap

b) Liquid soap

SOLID SOAP(HARD SOAP) LIQUID SOAP

*Made from sodium hydroxide and *Made from potassium hydroxide and
saturated carboxylic acid that is unsaturated carboxylic acid that is
found in animal fat. found in plant oil such as cotton seed
oil
*Used for bathing and washing
clothes. *Used as liquid soap and shaving
cream

USAGE OF FOOD ADDITIVES


Food Additives
1 Various food additives are added into food,in the food
industry,for the purpose of;

(a) preserving food

(b) improving the taste of food

(c) making food look more attractive

(d) enriching food with certain nutrients

2 Table 14.6 displays several types of food additives in food,their


functions, and examples of chemicals as well as the food that
they are added to.

Food additives Functions Examples of Examples of


chemicals food
Preservatives Prevents or *Benzoic acid Sausage
slows down the
*Sodium Canned food
growth of
bacteria or benzoate
fungi,so that
*Tartrazine
food can be
kept longer *Sulphur
dioxide

*Sodium
nitrate
Antioxidants *Slows down *Ascorbic acid Margarine
the oxidation
*Citric acid Cooking oil
of fat in food

*Prevents ouly
or fatty food
from
becoming
rancid
Flavouring Adds taste or *MSG Ice cream
agents fragrant smells
*Aspartame Soft drinks
to make food
(sweetener)
more edible
Stabilisers *Mixes two *Lecithin Chili sauce
liquids that
*Gelatin Ice cream
usually do not
mixed together *Acacia gum

*Provides a
smooth and
uniform
texture
Thickening *Tickens liquid *Gelatin(agar) Thick ketchup
agents such as soup sauce
Starch
and sauce
Oyster sauce
Colouring *Colours food *Metanil yellow Ice cream
agents to make it look
*Caramel Soft drink
more
attractive *Azo
compounds

*Triphenyl
compounds

The Food Act only allows certain quantity of chemicals to be


added to food.

Food additives Maximum quantity that is


allowed per kilogram of food
Benzoic acid (preservative) 350 mg
Ascorbic acid (antioxidant) 2000 mg
Sulphur dioxide (preservative) 20 mg

THE EFFECTS ON HEALTH DUE TO ADDITIVES IN FOOD

THE EXISTENCE OF CHEMICALS


#Chemical have improved the quality of life.

#Many chemical products improve the lives of consumers.

#Chemicals also created side effects in humans and


environments.
#Scientists usuallt have common traits such as curious, patient,
meticulous and are able to preservere in the face of failures.

#Life without chemicals make life difficult.

PROPER MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS


1 Chemicals by themselves are neither good nor bad.

2 Improper use or storage of chemicals can be a danger to life


and the environment.

3 Proper management of chemicals used includes proper handling


and control of their use.

MEDICINE USED IN MALAYSIA

Introduction
"Tumbuhan Ubatan" are plants of medicinal value.

The malay word "Ubat" simply means medicine. Many of


these plants include a large number of Local Malaysian
Spices.

White Costus (Setawar Putih)

There are various species and varieties


of White Costus. However for traditional
Malay medicine the wild variety Costus
speciosus Smith is used. The picture on
the left shows the wild variety of white
costus flower. Traditionally it has many
medicinal uses, for example the
rhizomes is used for making a form of
health tonic and the stem is use for skin
problems. It is also a source of st

The picture (leftt) shows a young White Costus plant in the wild.

Lemon Grass (Serai)

The Lemon Grass or Cymbopogon citratus


is a very popular plant and is frequently
grown at home. It main use is as a spice in curries as well
as an ingredient for enhencing taste and fragrance. The
leaves are used for making Lemon Grass Tea. It various
medicinal uses are for curing head ache, stomach ache,
and as a mosquitoe repelent.
The picture shows clump of lemon grass.

Mint (Pudina)

Mint or
Mentha
arvensis
Linn. is
a
creeping
herb that can be used for food flavouring, food dressing
and also has medicinal value. Mint is used to treat sore
throat. It is used in the production of peppermint oil which
contains a high percentage of mentol. This oil is used in
medicine mixtures, as flavouring for sweets, mentol
cigrettes and various other types of flavouring.
Red Basil (Selasih Merah)

Basils of various types are common all over the world. In


Malaysia, three species are commonly found in home
gardens and the local markets. One of the three common
basils is the Red or Holy Basil commonly called "Selasih
Merah" or Ocimum sanctum Linn. (pictured left). Medically
red basils are used for curing coughs, breathing
difficulties due to blocked nose, malaria, and back ache.

Sweet Basil (Selasih Hijau)

Sweet Basils or Ocinum basilicum Linn. is also very


common in Malaysia. Medically sweet basils are
used for curing coughs, irrigular menstral, tooth
ache, iching throat, insect bites and skin disease.