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Do You Know About Debate?

Tiara Suciani, 1206218524



Debate takes place every day in all kind of places. Debates can be heard in homes, offices,
schools, and the halls of goverment. You engage in debate when you disagree with one or more
people and try to persuade them to agree to your position. Debate is an important aspect of our
life and it is an essential tool for developing and maintaining democracy and open societies. It
gives you the opportunity to make the best decisions possible based on the information you have.
Debate is defines as oral confrontation between two individuals, teams, or groups to argue
reasons for and against a set position.
Debate can be divided into two categories: informal and formal debate. Informal debate is a
common occurrence with very little preparation or rules. It can take place anywhere. For
example, informal debate occur when group of friends deciding which movie to see or child
trying to persuade a parent to extend a curfew. In each case, there is an exchange of ideas for and
against an issue between two or more people. Whereas formal debate are quite different. They
usually are scheduled and take place in a specified setting. People taking part in formal debates
prepare extensively before the debates take place.
In formal debate, usually there are two teams. Each team uses two basic types of argument to
support its side of the motion. First, there are substantive arguments. These are prepared
arguments in favor of teams side of the motion. Second, there is rebuttal. Rebuttal is your attack
on your oppositions argument. The difference between substantive arguments and rebuttal is the
distinction between showing why your team is right (affirmative team) and your opposition is
wrong (negative team). there are three speakers on each team. Speakers are usually identified by
their speaking number and their team side. Every speaker except the first proposition is expected
to rebut his or her opposition. The first and second speakers on both teams are also expected to
present substantive arguments. The third speeches, therefore, are used for rebuttal and summary.

The debate is controlled by a chair, also referred to as a chairperson. Debaters should always
start their speeches by acknowledging both the chair and the audience. a male chair is usually
referred to as Mr. Chairman, and female chair as Madame Chair. the chairperson usually starting
a debating speech is therefore,Ladies and gentlemen, its now my pleasure to introduce the first
speaker of the proposition team, Julie (for example), to open her teams case.
In debate there are adjudicators. The adjudicators use three categories when evaluating
debates:
1. Style describe the way that a particular speech is presented: how you say it.
2. Content describes the arguments that you present, both in their general strength and in the
way that you support and explain them.
3. Strategy describe the structure of your speech.
To be a debater, you need some skills; reading skills, listening skills, critical thinking skills,
writing skills.
1. Reading skills
If you want to be a good debaters, you should read something; newspaper, professional
journals, websites, and law cases are a few examples of reference.
2. Listening skills. Listening is the key to winning a debate. Its not enough. These are the
steps to becoming an effective listener;
a. Recognize a situation that requires critical listening; you must focus on what is being
said in the round.
b. Tune in and pay attention; eliminate any distractions by focusing on the speaker.
c. Measure the value of what is being said. Not eveerything said in a debate is
important. You must pick out the key points of the speeches.
d. Defer judgment. One of the biggest mistakes debaters make is to start formulating
their argument while the opponent is still speaking. wait until the speaker is done,
because you can anticipate what might be said in a round, so your response is
presented with appropriately.
3. Critical thinking skills
Critical thinking is the ability to review information from many points of view. Critical
thinking means not taking information at face value, but analyzing and interpreting the
information that has been presented.
4. Writing skills
Writing skills is needed when you writing notes for rebuttal during the debate, it is
usually better to use a separate sheet of paper so you can take down the details of what
the other speakers have said and then transfer a rough outline onto the notes you will
actually be using.
Successful debating requires students to present themselves professionally. Here are some
important guidelines to follow:
1. Do not comment or distract your opponents while they are speaking.
2. Keep your voice low during preparation time.
3. Be polite to your judge and opponents before, during, and after the round.
4. Never make up evidence.
5. Be on time (or early) for your rounds.
6. Follow all posyed tournament rules.


Reference:
Fedrizzi, M & Randy Ellis. (2011). Debate. USA: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Quinn, S. (2009). Debating in the World Schools Style: a Guide. USA: International Debate
Education Association
Steinberg, D.L & Freeley, A.J. (2009). Argumentation and Debate: Critical Thinking for
Reasoned Decision Making. USA: Wadsworth