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APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of
Science in Electronics Engineering, this research study entitled Real Time
Object Detection for Video Surveillance, submitted by Anna Rose A. Orense,
Dianne May D. Sarmiento, Margareth Ann A. Tolentino, is hereby accepted.

__________________________________
RALPH GERARD B. SANGALANG, ECE
Adviser


PANEL OF EXAMINERS

Approved by the panel on oral examination with a grade of _______.

_____________________________________________ __
DIVINA GRACIA D. RONQUILLO, PECE, Mengg - ECE
Chairman


___________________ ______________________
DR. GIL B. BARTE, PECE ALBERTSON D. AMANTE, ECE
Member Member


Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering.


___________________________
DR. JESSIE A. MONTALBO
Dean, CEAFA




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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

A major research project like this is never the work of anyone alone. The
contributions of many different people, in different ways, have made this
possible. The researchers would like to extend their appreciation especially to the
following:
First and foremost to Almighty God, for the wisdom and perseverance
that He has been bestowed upon the researchers during this research project
and indeed, throughout the researchers life. I can do all things through Christ
whose strengthens me (Philippians 4:13)
To Engr. Ralph Gerard B. Sanggalang, for making this research
possible. His supports, guidance, advice throughout this research as well as his
pain-staking effort in proof reading the drafts are greatly appreciated. Indeed,
without his guidance, the researchers would not be able to put the topic together.
To the instructors, the proponents wish to express gratitude for their
guidance and encouragement during the process of the study;
To their classmates and friends, who helped and contribute great ideas
and advices for the improvement of the study.
Last but not least, to their loving families for their unconditional support,
both financially and emotionally throughout their degree. In particular, the
patience and understanding shown by their parents is greatly appreciated.

Anna Rose
Dianne May
Margareth Ann

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ABSTRACT
Object detection in images and videos is vital in an extensive array of
applications that traverse with many aspects of our lives: surveillance systems
and airport security, automatic driving and driver assistance systems in high-end
cars, human-robot interaction and immersive, interactive entertainments, smart
homes and assistance for senior citizens that live alone, and people-finding for
military applications. The wide range of applications and underlying intellectual
challenges of object detection have attracted many researchers and developers
attention from the very early age of computer vision and images processing; and
they continue to act as hot research topics in these fields. The development of
technologies with rapid and sensitive detection capabilities and increased
throughput have become crucial for responding to greater number of threats
posed by evolving crimes, accidents, and unfortunate events. The conventional
identification methods require time-consuming recognition, and or detection of
image features, which are not very sensitive and specific. The recent
developments in object detection/recognition techniques in the field of image
processing greatly facilitate the rapid identification with more accuracy.
A Real-time Object Detection is proposed in this paper that achieves
state-of-the-art detection accuracy, and made possible by two contributions.
First, we assume (with supporting experiments) that contour is what we should
capture and signs of comparisons among pixels are the key information to
capture form cues. Second, we show that some visual descriptor is suitable for
object detection, because it encodes the sign information. It also includes a
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computational method that does not need to explicitly generate feature vectors. It
involves no image pre-processing or feature vector normalization, and only
requires steps to test an image area. It has been applied to detect objects such
as ball, human, and fire on benchmark datasets. It has comparable detection and
has a clear advantage in detection speed.
After series of researchers, the proponents found out that visual learning
for object detection is a thought-provoking task. Recently, various methods
mainly rooted in statistical pattern recognition have been proposed. Visual
information is in most cases, treated in a direct manner; therefore these methods
are not limited by object geometric complexity, texture, or surface markings. This
direct representation and the link to statistical pattern recognition make these
methods very suitable for learning. Object detection is often formulated as a
binary classification task with supervised learning that involves training datasets.
Noisy samples, including mislabeled samples and ``hard-to-learn" samples, are
usually found in training datasets. Such samples have a detrimental effect on the
generalization performance of trained classifiers and are required to be pruned.
Extensive experiments on real datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm in identifying and pruning noisy samples from training datasets and
concurrently improving the performance of classification and object detection.
The proponents presented steps for object detection according to their
description and schematic design. Block diagrams are used by the researchers
as guides in modeling each stage. These diagrams were verified to be correct in
function. The researchers then synthesized each steps to conclude and
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associated their data with regards to their features, time delay and other
functions.
With the availability of this study, the proponents recommend other
researchers to continue this study by considering other algorithms that are not
included in the analysis. Also, other researchers may use other software like
OpenCV for the analysis and implementation.


















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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL SHEET ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii
ABSTRACT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Objectives of the Study 3
1.3 Significance of the Study 4
1.4 Conceptual Framework 5
1.5 Scope and Delimitations 6
1.6 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Literature 11
2.1.1 Object Recognition and Detection 11
2.1.2 Different Approaches to Object Detection 13
2.1.2.1 Fixed Template Matching 13
2.1.2.2 Deformable Template Matching 15
2.1.2.3 Edge Detection 15
2.1.2.4 Divide-and-Conquer Method 16
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2.1.2.5 Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) 17
2.1.2.6 Hypothesize and Test 18
2.1.2.7 Geometric Hashing 19
2.1.2.8 Scale-Invariant Feature Transform 19
2.1.2.9 Haar Classifiers 20
2.1.2.10 AdaBoost/Viola-Jones Algorithm 21
2.1.3 Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) 23
2.1.3.1 Hessian Matrix 24
2.1.3.2 SURF Descriptor 27
2.1.4 Color Space 28
2.1.4.1 The Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) 28
2.1.4.2 The RGB Color Space 30
2.1.5 ITU-T Recommendation H.264 31
2.1.6 OpenCV 32
2.1.7 Visual Studio 2010 33
2.1.8 MATLAB 35
2.1.8.1 Programming and Algorithm Development 35
2.1.6.2 Image Processing Toolbox 37
2.1.9 Comparison of MATLAB vs OpenCV 38
2.1.9 Unmanned Air Vehicles 41
2.1.10 BeeCam Light Meter 42
2.2 Related Studies 43
Robust Real Time Object Detection 44
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Multi-view Face Detection and Recognition using Haar-Like
Features 45
Histograms of Oriented Gradients for Human Detection 45
Pedestrian Detection using Infrared images and
Histograms of Oriented Gradients 47
A Performance Evaluation of Gradient Field HOG
Descriptor for Sketch Based Image Retrieval 46
Implementation of HOG Algorithm for Real Time Object
Recognition Applications on FPGA Based Embedded
System 48
Human Detection Using Oriented Histograms of Flow and
Appearance 48
Implementation of Speed up Robust Feature for
Detection of Inanimate Objects 49
Object Detection Using Surf and Superpixels 50
Efficient Face Detection Using AdaBoost 50
Using AdaBoost for Real-Time Object Detection on
Programmable Graphics Hardware 51
A SURF-based Natural Feature Tracking System for
Origami Recognition 52
2.3 Synthesis 52
CHAPTER III - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Requirements and Specifications 58
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3.2 System Development 60
3.3 Implementation 64
3.4 Testing 64
3.5 Operation and Maintenance 64
CHAPTER IV - DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, TESTING AND ANALYSIS AND
COMPARISON OF RESULTS
4.1 Preliminary Requirements 66
4.1.1 Image File Format and Camera Quality 67
4.1.1.1 AR.FreeFlight 2.0 69
4.1.2 Algorithm 70
4.1.2.1 HSV and Histogram of Oriented Gradients 70
4.2 Software Development 78
4.2.1 Acquisition of Input Images 79
4.2.2 Training of Acquired Images 83
4.2.3 Color Space Conversion 87
4.2.4 Feature Detection, Extraction and Matching 90
4.2.5 SURF 92
4.3 Implementation 100
4.3.1 Graphical User Interface Implementation 101
4.4 Testing and Evaluation 103
4.4.1 Functionality Test 104
4.4.1.1 Testing Using IP Camera 104
4.4.1.2 Testing Using Acer HD Webcam:
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Manual browsing 147
4.4.2 Time Delay 151
4.4.3 Accuracy 152
4.4.4 Connection Errors 155
4.5 Operation and Maintenance 156
4.5.1 Step-by-Step Process 156
4.5.2 Minimum Requirements 157
4.5.2.1 Hardware 157
4.5.2.2 Image Files 158
4.5.2.3 Trained Images 158

CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings 159
5.2 Conclusions 160
5.3 Recommendations 162
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDICES