You are on page 1of 13

MIT OpenCourseWare

http://ocw.mit.edu

Spring 2007

Chapter 3

Distortion

Two functions X and Y are orthogonal over [a, b] if:

Z b
X(t)Y (t)dt = 0 (3.1)
a

Now:

R 2π
• 0 sin(mωt) sin(nωt + φ)dωt = 0, if n =
6 m ⇒ sinusoids of diﬀerent frequencies

are orthogonal.

16

17

R 2π
• 0 sin(ωt) cos(ωt)dωt = 0 ⇒ sine and cosine are orthogonal.

In general:

1 Z 2π 1
sin(ωt) sin(ωt + φ) = cos φ (3.2)
2π 0 2

Rwire Fuse i

VsSin(ωt) V RL

Figure 3.1: Resistor

P = <Vi>

= VRM S iRM S

= i2RM S R (3.3)

The fuse is rated for a speciﬁc RMS current. Above that, it will blow so that

dissipation in Rwire does not start a ﬁre. Neglecting Rwire , for 115VAC,RM S , 15ARM S

Suppose instead we plug an inductor into the wall.

Neglecting Rwire :
18 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

Rwire Fuse i

VsSin(ωt) V L

Figure 3.2: Inductor

Vs
i=− cos(ωt) (3.4)
ωL

1 Z
<P > = V (t)i(t)d(ωt)

Vs2 Z
= − sin(ωt) cos(ωt)d(ωt)
2πωL
= 0 (of course) (3.5)

power, we still draw current.

s
1 Z 2π 2
iRM S = i (ωt)d(ωt)
2π 0
Vs
= √ (3.6)
2ωL

@115V, 60Hz, L ≤ 20mH → iRM S ≥ 15A (3.7)

So we still will blow the fuse (to protect the wall wiring), even though we do not
19

draw any real power at the output! (some power dissipated in Rwire ). In this case we

Power Factor

. <P > Real Power

P.F. = = (3.8)
VRM S iRM S Apparent Power

For a resistor < P >= VRM S iRM S → P.F. = 1 best utilization. For a inductor

i(t)

Rectifier
+

VsSin(ωt) V(t)

Express i(t) as a Fourier series:

X
i(t) = in sin(nωt + φn ) Sum of weighted shifted sinusoids (3.9)
n=0
s
1 2 1 2 1
Note: iRM S = i1 + i2 + · · · + i2n + · · ·
2 2 2
1 Z
<P > = V (t)i(t)d(ωt)
2π 2π
20 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

1 Z X
= Vs sin(ωt) in sin(nωt + φn )
2π 2π n

1
X Z
= Vs in sin(ωt) sin(nωt + φn ) (3.10)
n=0 2 2π

By orthogonality all terms except fundamental drop out.

1Z
<P > = Vs i1 sin(ωt) sin(ωt + φ1 )
2 2π
Vs i1
= cos φ1
2
= Vs,RM S i1,RM S cos φ1 (3.11)

So the only current that contributes to real power is the fundamental component

VRM S i1,RM S
P.F. = cos φ1
VRM S iRM S
i1,RM S
= cos φ1 (3.12)
iRM S

We can break down into two factors:

i1,RM S
P.F. = ( ) ·
cos φ1

iRM S
= kd (distortion factor) · kθ (displacement factor)

(3.13)

21

Consider another measure of distortion: Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

v
i2n
uP
. u 6
T HD = t n=12
(3.14)
i1

This measure the RMS of the harmonics normalized to the RMS of the funda­

mental (square root of the power ratio). Distortion factor and THD are related:

v
i2n
uP
6
u n=1
T HD = t
2
i1
v
u i2RM S − i21,RM S
u
= t 2
i1,RM S
i2RM S
T HD2 = −1
i21,RM S
i2RM S
= 1 + T HD2
i21,RM S
iRM S √
= 1 + T HD2
i1,RM S
s
1
kd = (3.15)
1 + T HD2

Example:

V = Vs sin(ωt)
22 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

 ³ ´
ipk
 in = 4

πn 2
i(t) = square wave 
 i =i 1
ave = 2 ipk

0

T HD = 121%
ipk 4
· · √1
2 π 2
kd = ipk

2
2
=
π
P.F. = 0.63 (3.16)

i(t)

Ipk

ωt
π 2π

(Passive) Power Factor Compensation (KSV: Section 3.4.1)

Lets focus on the displacement factor component of power factor. For simplicity,

lets assume a linear load (e.g. R-L) so that voltages and currents are sinusoidal.

For sinusoidal V and i:

<P >
P.F. = = cos φ (3.17)
VRM S iRM S

23

Real power:

Deﬁne reactive power as:

.
Q = VRM S IRM S sin φ (3.19)

~ = P + jQ. In phaser form V~ ,~i → S

In vector form S ~ =< V I ∗ >

units

S =k S VA

Reactive Power Im{S} = Q = VRM S IRM S sin φ V AR

We can use these results to help adjust the displacement factor of a system. (make

Qnet → 0).
24 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

2 2
R +(ω L)
ωL
L θ
VsCos(ω t) R
Im S

R i*
v Re

Suppose we have an R-L load (e.g. an induction machine):

Vs ωL
i(t) = √ cos(ωt − arctan( ))
ω 2 L2 + R2 R
.
since S = V I ∗
ωL
voltage-current phase φ = arctan( )
R
ωL
P.F. = cos(arctan( ))
R
R
= √ 2 <1 (3.20)
R + ω 2 L2

We can add some additional reactive load to balance out and give net unity power

factor.

S = VRM S IRM S
Vs2
= √ (3.21)
2 ω 2 L2 + R 2
P = S cos φ

25

Vs2 R
= (3.22)
2(ω 2 L2 + R2 )
jQ = jS sin φ

ωLVs2
= j (3.23)
2(ω 2 L2 + R2 )

i’

VsSin(ωt) C

Figure 3.7: Capacitor

1
Zc =
jωC
1 −j π
= e 2
ωC
1 π
= ωCej 2 (3.24)
Zc

Vphase − iphase
= −90◦
π
i′
= Vs ωC sin(ωt + ) (3.25)
2
S ′
= VRM S IRM S
1 2
= V ωC (3.26)
2 s
P′ = 0 (3.27)
26 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

1
Q′ = −j Vs2 ωC (3.28)
2

P, Q L Q’
VsCos(ω t)
C

S = P + jQ + jQ′

make jQ and jQ′ cancel: Q + Q′ = 0

ωLVs2 1

j 2 2 2
− j Vs2 ωC = 0
2(ω L + R ) 2
L
C = (3.29)
ω 2 L2 + R2

Example:

ω = 377RAD/sec (ωHZ)

R = 1Ω

L = 2.7mH

⇒ C = 1.32mF
27

If we know our load, we can add reactive elements to compensate so that no dis­

placement factor reduction of line utilization occurs. Real, reactive power deﬁnitions

are useful to help us do this. This does not help with distortion factor.