power electronics notes

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power electronics notes

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Spring 2007

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Chapter 3

Distortion

Z b

X(t)Y (t)dt = 0 (3.1)

a

Now:

R 2π

• 0 sin(mωt) sin(nωt + φ)dωt = 0, if n =

6 m ⇒ sinusoids of diﬀerent frequencies

are orthogonal.

16

17

R 2π

• 0 sin(ωt) cos(ωt)dωt = 0 ⇒ sine and cosine are orthogonal.

In general:

1 Z 2π 1

sin(ωt) sin(ωt + φ) = cos φ (3.2)

2π 0 2

Rwire Fuse i

VsSin(ωt) V RL

P = <Vi>

= VRM S iRM S

= i2RM S R (3.3)

The fuse is rated for a speciﬁc RMS current. Above that, it will blow so that

dissipation in Rwire does not start a ﬁre. Neglecting Rwire , for 115VAC,RM S , 15ARM S

Neglecting Rwire :

18 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

Rwire Fuse i

VsSin(ωt) V L

Vs

i=− cos(ωt) (3.4)

ωL

1 Z

<P > = V (t)i(t)d(ωt)

2π

Vs2 Z

= − sin(ωt) cos(ωt)d(ωt)

2πωL

= 0 (of course) (3.5)

s

1 Z 2π 2

iRM S = i (ωt)d(ωt)

2π 0

Vs

= √ (3.6)

2ωL

So we still will blow the fuse (to protect the wall wiring), even though we do not

19

draw any real power at the output! (some power dissipated in Rwire ). In this case we

Power Factor

P.F. = = (3.8)

VRM S iRM S Apparent Power

For a resistor < P >= VRM S iRM S → P.F. = 1 best utilization. For a inductor

i(t)

Rectifier

+

VsSin(ωt) V(t)

∞

X

i(t) = in sin(nωt + φn ) Sum of weighted shifted sinusoids (3.9)

n=0

s

1 2 1 2 1

Note: iRM S = i1 + i2 + · · · + i2n + · · ·

2 2 2

1 Z

<P > = V (t)i(t)d(ωt)

2π 2π

20 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

1 Z X

= Vs sin(ωt) in sin(nωt + φn )

2π 2π n

∞

1

X Z

= Vs in sin(ωt) sin(nωt + φn ) (3.10)

n=0 2 2π

1Z

<P > = Vs i1 sin(ωt) sin(ωt + φ1 )

2 2π

Vs i1

= cos φ1

2

= Vs,RM S i1,RM S cos φ1 (3.11)

So the only current that contributes to real power is the fundamental component

VRM S i1,RM S

P.F. = cos φ1

VRM S iRM S

i1,RM S

= cos φ1 (3.12)

iRM S

i1,RM S

P.F. = ( ) ·

cos φ1

iRM S

= kd (distortion factor) · kθ (displacement factor)

(3.13)

21

v

i2n

uP

. u 6

T HD = t n=12

(3.14)

i1

This measure the RMS of the harmonics normalized to the RMS of the funda

mental (square root of the power ratio). Distortion factor and THD are related:

v

i2n

uP

6

u n=1

T HD = t

2

i1

v

u i2RM S − i21,RM S

u

= t 2

i1,RM S

i2RM S

T HD2 = −1

i21,RM S

i2RM S

= 1 + T HD2

i21,RM S

iRM S √

= 1 + T HD2

i1,RM S

s

1

kd = (3.15)

1 + T HD2

Example:

V = Vs sin(ωt)

22 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

³ ´

ipk

in = 4

πn 2

i(t) = square wave

i =i 1

ave = 2 ipk

0

T HD = 121%

ipk 4

· · √1

2 π 2

kd = ipk

√

2

2

=

π

P.F. = 0.63 (3.16)

i(t)

Ipk

ωt

π 2π

Lets focus on the displacement factor component of power factor. For simplicity,

lets assume a linear load (e.g. R-L) so that voltages and currents are sinusoidal.

<P >

P.F. = = cos φ (3.17)

VRM S iRM S

23

Real power:

.

Q = VRM S IRM S sin φ (3.19)

In vector form S ~ =< V I ∗ >

units

S =k S VA

We can use these results to help adjust the displacement factor of a system. (make

Qnet → 0).

24 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

2 2

R +(ω L)

ωL

L θ

VsCos(ω t) R

Im S

R i*

v Re

Vs ωL

i(t) = √ cos(ωt − arctan( ))

ω 2 L2 + R2 R

.

since S = V I ∗

ωL

voltage-current phase φ = arctan( )

R

ωL

P.F. = cos(arctan( ))

R

R

= √ 2 <1 (3.20)

R + ω 2 L2

We can add some additional reactive load to balance out and give net unity power

factor.

S = VRM S IRM S

Vs2

= √ (3.21)

2 ω 2 L2 + R 2

P = S cos φ

25

Vs2 R

= (3.22)

2(ω 2 L2 + R2 )

jQ = jS sin φ

ωLVs2

= j (3.23)

2(ω 2 L2 + R2 )

i’

VsSin(ωt) C

1

Zc =

jωC

1 −j π

= e 2

ωC

1 π

= ωCej 2 (3.24)

Zc

Vphase − iphase

= −90◦

π

i′

= Vs ωC sin(ωt + ) (3.25)

2

S ′

= VRM S IRM S

1 2

= V ωC (3.26)

2 s

P′ = 0 (3.27)

26 CHAPTER 3. POWER FACTOR AND MEASURES OF DISTORTION

1

Q′ = −j Vs2 ωC (3.28)

2

P, Q L Q’

VsCos(ω t)

C

S = P + jQ + jQ′

ωLVs2 1

j 2 2 2

− j Vs2 ωC = 0

2(ω L + R ) 2

L

C = (3.29)

ω 2 L2 + R2

Example:

ω = 377RAD/sec (ωHZ)

R = 1Ω

L = 2.7mH

⇒ C = 1.32mF

27

If we know our load, we can add reactive elements to compensate so that no dis

placement factor reduction of line utilization occurs. Real, reactive power deﬁnitions

are useful to help us do this. This does not help with distortion factor.

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