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 Single high-rate bit stream is converted to low-rate N parallel bit streams

 Each parallel bit stream is modulated on one of N sub-carriers

 To achieve high bandwidth efficiency, the spectrum of the sub-carriers are


closely spaced and overlapped

 Nulls in each sub-carrier's spectrum land at the center of all other sub-
carriers (orthogonal)

 OFDM symbols are generated using IFFT .

 To eliminate intersymbol interference(ISI), guard interval is inserted


between the OFDM symbols.

 Cyclic prefix is also used to eliminate Inter carrier interference(ICI).


NEED OF CHANNEL ESTIMATION:

 The time varying behavior of channel provides variable amount of


attenuation and time delay for different versions of same transmitted signal.

 The major problem with the reception of radio signals is fading caused by
multi-path propagation of radio signals.

 Channel transfer function can have deep fades or zeros at some of


frequencies and to recover the information located around these locations,
received signal form has to be equalized.

 For reliable detection of an OFDM symbol in time-varying multipath


propagation environment requires channel estimation & equalization

In this paper, various types of channel estimation techniques are defined, mainly
the focus of the paper is on pilot aided channel estimation.
CONCLUSION:
In general, 1D channel estimation schemes have a much lower computational
complexity than 2D schemes because they avoid computing 2D matrices. Also,
block-type pilot-channel estimation schemes are usually simpler than comb-type
pilot schemes because they calculate the estimators once per block. In the block-
type pilot schemes with decision feedback, the estimators are updated for each
symbol by simple vector division. Com-type pilot schemes calculate the estimators
for every OFDM symbol. Algorithm

Table 1.
Computational
complexity
Analysis:
Channel
Estimation
Schemes with
Block-Type Pilot
Arrangement

Estimation
scheme
Complexity
Comments

LS Estimator Low Simple vector division.


OLR-MMSE Moderate Avoid matrix inversion and also simplify the matrix
Estimator operations to the calculations between a low-rank
diagonal matrix and a unitary matrix.
MMSE Estimator High Matrix inversion and other operations with size N, where
N is the DFT size (typically 256, 512, 1024, or 2048).

Table 2. Complexity Comments


Computational
Complexity
Analysis: Channel
Estimation
Schemes with
Comb-Type Pilot
Arrangement
Estimation
Scheme

LS Estimator LI Lowest Simple estimation and interpolation methods.


with 1D SOI Low
interpolation
SCI Moderate Interpolation methods are relatively complex, with fitted polynomial
search, low-pass convolution, and DFT/IDFT calculation, respectively.

ML Estimator High Matrix inversion with size (L + 1), where L ranges from N/32 to N/4,
and other matrix operations with size N.

PCMB Estimator High Tracking the number of resolvable paths (M) and channel delays,
and matrix inversion with size M, and other matrix operations with
size N

ADVANTAGES OF OFDM:

 High spectral efficiency

 More tolerant to delay spread

 Due to the use of many sub-carriers, the symbol duration on the sub-carriers
is increased, relative to delay spread.

 Intersymbol interference(ISI) is avoided through the use of guard interval.

 Simplified or eliminate equalization needs, as compared to single carrier


modulation.

DISADVANTAGES :

 Sensitive to Doppler shift.

 Sensitive to frequency synchronization problems.

 Loss of efficiency caused by Cyclic prefix/Guard interval(SNR loss).