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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery provides an effective means of observing and quantifying the
complexities of the surface of the earth. It allows you to see the world in a different way
and is a huge information source at your fingertips as you look to increase your
knowledge about our environment.

The technologies behind the application of this imagery are mature, yet evolving
rapidly. They demonstrate excellent value for money as scientific tools in support of
policy development and monitoring.

Satellite imagery will give the information on land cover, land use, habitats,
landscape and infrastructure, a time series by acquiring images on multiple dates and its
have capability to map and monitor change.

The use of satellite imagery is gives the quantifiable information that is transparent
and auditable. Its also provides a good value for money method of mapping a wide range
of our built and natural environment. Besides that, its will underpins the development of
baselines and monitoring in support of policy and fits well into existing GIS-based
processing chain for the use of satellite imagery. The others use of satellite imagery is
the preparation and analysis of satellite imagery is based on mature well defined
processes and the future opportunities with the development of new sensors and
research techniques will ensure the growth of satellite-based applications.

1.2 INTRODUCTION OF CBERS-2

The satellite sensors can bring out information about objects without touching the
remote sensing satellite. Remote sensing is a way of collecting and analyzing data to get
information about an object without an instrument used to collect data that are in direct
contact with the object.That is a lot of available satellite or radar worldwide as IKONOS,
GeoEye, Pleiades, QuickSCAT, CBERS and others.



The CBERS program was born from a partnership between Brazil and China in the
space technical scientific sector, thus the acronym for China-Brazil Earth Resources
Satellite-; in Portuguese, Sino-Brazilian Earth Resources. The CBERS program
consisted at first only of two remote sensing satellites, CBERS-1 and 2. The perfect
functioning of these took the decision of both governments to expand the agreement to
include three other satellites in the same category, satellites CBERS- 2B and CBERS-3
and 4, a second stage of the Sino-Brazilian partnership. These satellites are part of
INPE, Institute National Space Research under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
The INPE is responsible for the program in Brazil in partnership with China, in force
since 1988, introducing the group of holders Brazil in the countries of remote sensing
technology, with its own satellites.

Since 2001 a policy of free distribution of CBERS images to all Brazilian users was
established. This significance is attested by over 35,000 users in over 2,000 institutions
registered as active users of CBERS, and also in more than 500,000 images from
CBERS distributed the approximate ratio of 250 per day from government agencies,
universities, institutions, research centers and NGOs. Its also known as Ziyuan I-02 or
Ziyuan 1B.














Figure1.0:Image of CBERS- 2 Satellite




2.0 HISTORY OF CYBERS SATELLITES

In an attempt to reverse the dependence of developed nations of other equipments
countries, the governments of Brazil and China signed on July 6, 1988 a partnership
agreement involving the INPE (National Institute for Space Research) and CAST (Academy
Chinese Space Technology) to develop two advanced remote sensing satellites, called
CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite), Sino-Brazilian Earth Resources.

With the merger of financial and technological resources between Brazil and China,
an investment exceeding $ 300 million, a system of divided responsibilities (30% Australian
and 70% Chinese) was created. The Chinese experience in building satellites and rocket
launchers became the major strategic ally to the Brazilian government. Brazil, in turn,
brought in his luggage familiarity with high technology and most modern industrial park in the
existing partner.

The CBERS program contemplated the development and construction of two remote
sensing satellites that also took on board, besides imaging cameras, repeater for the
Brazilian System of Environmental Data Collection. CBERS-1 and 2 are identical in their
technical constitution, space mission and its payload (equipment ranging onboard such as
cameras, sensors, computers and other equipment designed for scientific experiments).

An agreement for the continuation of the CBERS program was signed in 2002 with the
construction of two new satellites - CBERS-3 and 4, with new payloads and a new
investment division of resources between Brazil and China - 50% for each country. However,
due to the launch of CBERS-3 is feasible only for a horizon where the CBERS-2 were
already crashed, with great loss to both countries and to the many users of CBERS, Brazil
and China, in 2004, decided to build the CBERS-2B and throw it in 2007. CBERS-2B
operated until early 2010. CBERS-3 is schedule to launch is set for late 2011, while the
CBERS-4 follows the rhythm normal construction.

3.0 SPECIFICATION OF SENSOR

3.1 General Specification

CBERS-satellites 1 and 2 are composed of two modules. The "payload" module
houses the optical system (CCD - High Resolution Camera Imager, IRMSS Scanning
Imager for Medium Resolution and WFI - Wide Field Imager camera from Target) used
for Earth observation and Repeater for the Brazilian System Collection of Environmental
Data, and the "service" module that contains the equipment that ensures the power
supply, controls, telecommunications, and other functions necessary to the operation of
the satellite. The CBERS-2B is very similar to CBERS-1 and 2, but the IRMSS is
replaced by HC - High Resolution Panchromatic Camera.

1100 W of electrical power required for the operation of onboard equipment are
obtained through solar panels that open when the satellite is placed in orbit and remain
constantly oriented toward the sun for automatic control.

To meet the stringent pointing requirements of cameras needed to obtain high-
resolution images, the satellite has a precise attitude control system. In the case of the
CBERS-2B, a significant improvement is the installation of a GPS (Global Positioning
System) sensor and a star to watch mechanisms for attitude control. This system is
complemented by a set of hydrazine thrusters also helps in correcting possible
maneuvers of the nominal orbit of the satellite.

Internal data for monitoring the operational status of the satellite are collected and
processed by a distributed computer before being transmitted to the Earth system. A
system of active and passive thermal control provides the appropriate environment for
the operation of sophisticated equipment of the satellite.








Total mass 1450kg Total mass 1450kg
1100 W power output 1100 W power output
Batteries 2 x 30 Ah NiCd Batteries 2 x 30 Ah NiCd
Body dimensions (1.8 x 2.0 x 2.2) m Body dimensions (1.8 x 2.0 x 2.2) m
Panel Dimensions 6.3 x 2.6 m Panel Dimensions 6.3 x 2.6 m
Height of helium-synchronous orbit 778 km Height of helium-synchronous orbit
778 km
Propulsion hydrazine N x 1 16; N 2 x 20 Propulsion hydrazine N x 1 16; N 2 x
20
3-axis stabilization 3-axis stabilization
Supervisory board distributed Supervisory board distributed
Communication Service (TT & C) UHF and S-band Communication Service (TT & C)
UHF and S-band
Lifetime (reliability 0.6) 2 years Lifetime (reliability 0.6) 2 years

Table 3.0: General Specification

3.2 Specification of Sensor (WFI, CCD, IRMSS and HRC)

The CBERS satellite has a set of sensors and instruments - WFI (Wide FieldCamera
Target), CCD (High Resolution Imaging Camera), IRMSS (Scanning Imager for Medium
Resolution) and HRC (High Resolution Panchromatic Camera) with highest potential to
meet multiple application requirements. However, each sensor has its own
characteristics that make them more suitable for certain types of applications.
The potential application of a given sensor is a function of its characteristics of spatial
resolution, temporal resolution, and spectral and radiometric characteristics. In order to
maximize the results for best cost / benefit ratio should be considered a compromise
between the needs of the application and the characteristics of the sensors. Below are
listed some applications for each camera, though the universe of applications is much
broader.






CCD (High Resolution Imaging Camera)

By having a good spatial resolution - 20 meters - in four spectral bands, plus a
panchromatic, lends itself to observation of phenomena and objects whose detail is
important. Why have a field of view of 120 km, assists in municipal or regional studies. Given
its temporal frequency of 26 days, may support the analysis of phenomena whose duration
is consistent with this temporal resolution. This temporal resolution can be improved,
because the CCD is capable of side view. Their bands are located in the spectral range from
the visible and near infrared, allowing good contrast between vegetation and other objects.
















Table 3.1: Specification of CCD











Spectral bands 0.51 0.73 m (pan)
0.45 0.52 m (blue)
0.52 0.59 m (green)
0.63 0.69 m (red)
0.77 0.89 m (near infrared)
Field of view 8.3
Spatial resolution 20 x 20 m
Swath width 113 km
Mirror pointing capability 32
Temporal resolution 26 days nadir view
(3 days revisit using stereo mirror)
RF carrier frequency 8103 MHz e 8321 MHz
Image data bit rate 2 x 53 Mbit/s

IRMSS (Scanning Imager for Medium Resolution)

Present in CBERS-1 and 2, has two spectral bands in the mid-infrared region and a
panchromatic band with 80 meter spatial resolution plus one band in the thermal infrared
region with 160 meters.










Table 3.2: Specification of IRMSS

WFI (Wide Field Imager of Sight)

Can image the large territorial extensions of 890 km. This characteristic makes the
WFI very interesting to observe phenomena whose magnitude or interest is in macro-
regional or state scale. Due to this wide spatial coverage, temporal resolution has a gain -
images of a region with less than five days apart can be generated.

Spectral bands 0.63 0.69 m (red)
m (infrared)
Field of view 60
Spatial resolution 260 x 260 m
Swath width 890 km
Temporal resolution 5 days
RF carrier frequency 8203.35 MHz
Image data bit rate 1,1 Mbit/s
Table 3.3: Specification of WFI
HRC (High Resolution Panchromatic Camera)

Spectral bands 0.50 1.10 m (panchromatic)
1.55 1.75 m (shortwave infrared)
2.08 2.35 m (shortwave infrared)
10.40 12.50 m (thermal infrared)
Field of view 8.8
Spatial resolution 80 x 80 m (160 x 160 m thermal)
Swath width 120 km
Temporal resolution 26 days
RF carrier frequency 8216.84 MHz
Can image a relatively narrow range - 27 km - but with extremely high resolution, the
pixel dimension of 2.7. The mode of operation is established in a revisits 130 days. That is,
throughout the year it will be possible to have at least two complete coverage of the country.
With this camera you cannot have stereoscopy.










Table 3.4: Specification of HRC





Spectral Band 0.50 0.80 m (panchromatic)
Field of View 2.1
Spatial Resolution 2.7 x 2.7 m
Imaged Strip
Width
27 km (nadir)
Temporal
Resolution
130 days in the proposed
operation
Image data rate 432 Mbit/s (before compression)
Quantization 8 bits













Figure2.0 :The Image of CBERS-2









Table 3.5:Name of Item on Figure 3.1
1 - Service Module 5 - Middle Wall 9 - VHF Transmit
Antenna
13 - UHF Transmit
Antenna
17 - Solar Array
2 - Sun Sensor 6 - UHF Receiver
Antenna
10 - UHF Tx/Rx
Antenna
14 - CCD Camera 18 - S-Band
Antenna (TT&C)
3 - 20N Thruster
Assembly
7 - Infrared
Scanner (IRMSS)
11 - S-Band
Antenna (DCS)
15 - S-Band
Antenna (TT&C)
19 - UHF Receiver
Antenna
4 - 1N Thruster
Assembly
8 - IR Transmit
Antenna
12 - CCD Transmit
Antenna
16 - Payload
Module
20 - WFI
4.0 Data acquisition


The CBERS-1, 2 and 2B satellite to integrate the Brazilian Environmental Data
Collection System which is based on satellite and on the platform (DCPS) distributed data
collection network across the country. This system aims to provide environmental data
collected daily Brazil in areas different.

The DCPS is automated substations are typically installed in a remote location. Data
received from the DCP's sent to the satellite which then transmits back to a ground station
INPE, in Cuiab (MT) and Alcntara (MA). From the station, the data is transmitted to the
Mission Center, located in Cachoeira Paulista (SP), Brazil, where the data is processed and
distributed to users.

Registered users receive the file is processed using the Internet at most 30 minutes
after the satellite passes.

The data collected by satellites are used in several applications, such as CPTEC
(Brazilian Center for Climate and Weather Research and Forecasting) weather forecasts,
studies of ocean circulation, tides, atmospheric chemistry, agricultural planning and other
more, of the 600 platform was installed in Brazil. One important application is the monitoring
of the hydrological basin by ANA and SIVAM network platform, which provides a data stream
and rain Brazil.















Figure 3 : Example data Hydrological, Meteorological, Water quality and Chemistry of the
Atmosphere Platform locations.









Figure 4 : Typical platform for data collecting

The CBERS-1, 2 and 2B on board transponder access and transmission characteristics are
presented in the table below. These transponders are also installed on CBERS-3 and 4.


Characteristic of the Data Collecting System
Type of access of the system Random
DCP Transmission
Carrier frequency 401.635 MHz 30 kHz
EIRP 33 dBm
Transponder Transmission
2267.52 MHz (S-Band)
462.5 MHz (UHF)
EIRP 20 dBm (S-Band)



The operation of CBERS satellites is shared between Brazil and China according to a
handover schedule. All special requests and agreements for direct reception in third
countries are managed and negotiated by both sides. The data distribution policy adopted
for CBERS Program has followed a pattern of enlarging the distribution while lessening the
costs. In Brazil and China, the full resolution data are delivered free through the internet.
Third parties interested in receiving direct downlink CBERS data are encouraged to assume
the same free data policy.
The application of this data policy in Brazil and in China resulted in an enormous
increment of new users and new applications. In Brazil, for example, INPE (National Institute
for Space Research) - the institution that collects, processes and distributes CBERS data
delivers regularly more than 300 scenes a week since the application of this data policy. Up
to now, more than 350,000 CBERS-2 scenes have been delivered around the country.
Seeking to improve the remote sensing in South America, and as part of this free distribution
policy, Brazil has adopted the same policy for its neighboring countries. Because of this
Brazilian policy, South America countries are regularly using CBERS-2 data for their remote
sensing development and surveying policies.
In Brazil, governmental, private, NGO, educational organizations related to agriculture,
environmental surveying, forest, law enforcement, are users of CBERS data. The free data
policy has changed the way people work with remote sensing. New and better-trained
professionals have been introduced to the remote sensing services market, as they are
exposed to the satellite products in a routine basis in their schools and offices. Government
organizations and NGOs can now use up-to-date CBERS data in their surveying and
mapping projects and tasks. We believe part of the recent development of the remote
sensing field in Brazil can be credited to the CBERS-2 data and to this data policy.


PROCESS

There are four main steps in the proposed methodology:
1. field data processing
2. image processing
3. statistical analysis
4. spatial analysis

Field data processing.
The stand variables measured/calculated for each plot were: age (t), site index (SI),
number of trees per hectare (N), square mean diameter (d
g
) and mean height (Hm), stand
basal area (G) and volume (V). Total volume estimation implied estimation of total height of
the trees not directly measured using the generalized height-diameter relationship locally
developed by Sevillano-Marco et al. (2009). The computation of aboveground tree biomass
fractions was determined by applying allometric relationships developed by Balboa-Murias et
al. (2006) for the species in Galicia using destructive sampling methods. Carbon pools in
tree biomass were estimated by fractions as a percentage of the corresponding
aboveground dry biomass using the reference found for radiate pine by Ibez et al. (2002)
which states 49.7 g C for every 100 g of dry wood. Mean, maximum, minimum and standard
deviation for each of the main stand variables used in the study.

Image processing
Concerning ASTER data, crosstalk, atmospheric and topographic corrections were
performed. The rectification process results in an overall root mean squared error (RMSE) of
less than 0.5 pixels. In addition, pan-sharpening was directly applied to the short wave
infrared band in order to merge the scene into one image of 15 m resolution; and the
following Spectral Vegetation Indexes (SVIs) were calculated: Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Normalized
Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) and Simple Ratio (SR)

Regarding the CBERS CCD data, the image was co-registered with the field plots and
the rectification process resulted in an overall RMSE of less than one pixel. Linear Spectal
Mixture Analysis (LSMA) was applied to the corrected image. We defined three endmembers
(soil, vegetation and shade) whose spectral signatures were mainly obtained from the
scatter-plot of the original image. In addition to the fraction images (vegetation fraction UV-,
soil fraction US-, shade fraction UW-), the following indices were calculated: Global
Environmental Monitoring (GEMI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and NDVI

Finally, an average 3x3 filter was applied to the original bands, SVIs images and fraction
images as a previous step to the extraction of digital values for the field plots surveyed.
These values, stored with the information supplied by the field inventory, constitute the
complete work data set corresponding to the ASTER and CBERS CCD scenes to be
statistically analyzed.

Statistical analysis
First, a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to verify the existence of relationships
between the RS data and the field data. Afterwards, predictive linear and non-linear
regression models were tested for estimation trials, quantifying the relationships between
stand variables and reflectance.
As Pearson coefficients do not show but linear relationships between two variables and
considering that some models imply more intricate relationships between the dependent
variable and more than one independent variable, the model equations were tested taking
into account all the possible combinations of independent variables (all bands, fraction
images, and vegetation indices) for each dependent variable considered. Comparison of the
different models fitted was based on numerical analyses and residuals graphical inspection.
Three goodness-of-fit statistical criteria obtained from the residuals were examined:
coefficient of determination (R
2
), RMSE, and mean percent standard error (S%) .
A subsample of 25% of the training plots of the field data set was subsequently used for
independent validation. The same statistics that served as decision criteria (R
2
, RMSE, S%)
were calculated for validating the models that had previously best performed.
Spatial analysis
The aforementioned layer of radiata stands generated from the NFM was overlaid to the
ASTER image to select the surface occupied by the species to be quantified (which resulted
in 69.39 km
2
of radiata stands). The values obtained in all the coinciding pixels were
accordingly classified and displayed, resulting in layouts of spatial distribution patterns of
stand basal area, volume and aboveground stem biomass.

5.0 BAND COMBINATION

The three sensors are:
1) Wide Field Imager (WFI) (900km swath; 258m resolution; 2 bands);
2) Infrared MSS (IRMSS) (120km swath; 78m resolution; 4 bands including thermal);
3) Charge Coupled Device (CCD) (120km swath; 19.5m resolution; 5 bands).
Figure 1 shows the detailed sensor of CBERS









Figure 5.0 : Sensor bandwidth of CBERS-2



















6.0 Limitation


According to most authors, the use of the satellite allowed an analysis of the general
environmental characteristics of the area sampled, but the possibility of a more detailed
analysis that depends on the availability of scenes with a spatial resolution compatible so
that targets are worked on a larger scale. That is, the spatial resolution is large which
generates small-scale images. With this system it is possible to detect only thinning with
more than 25 area there. The use of CBERS images to generate maps for use and
occupation and vegetation appeared to be satisfactory for the features of greater geographic
coverage, the use of field visits or images of higher spatial resolution to obtain details
regarding infrastructure will be necessary true properties.

Another limiting factor is the spectral resolution of only four bands, three of the visible
and near infrared, these images despite having favorable spatial resolutions indicate some
weaknesses that can result in inferior products compared to others available. These
weaknesses are expressed in radiometric correction model, faults in the sensor or in post
processing of data and also the results of image classification with low rates of agreement
with reality.

The highlighted CBERS image does not show the expected sharpening edges of
features, this fact demonstrates the fragility of the radiometric correction; since the CBERS,
according to the surveyed literature, do not have adequate mathematical parameters for
radiometric correction.

7.0 Example of the satellite image.















Figure 7.0 : Chinese technicians examining the CBERS-2
spacecraft at CAST




Figure 7.1: Artist's view of the CBERS-2 spacecraft
























Figure 7.3 : Exploded view of the CBERS-2 spacecraft structure and its components












Figure7.4 :Photo of the CBERS-2 launch










Figure 7.5 :Stage separation of CBERS-2
8.0 Satellite applications

Images acquired by CBERS are used in important fields, such as controlling
deforestation and burning in the Amazon, monitoring of water resources, urban growth, land
use, weather, studies on ocean currents, tides, atmospheric chemistry, agricultural planning ,
educational purposes, and countless other applications. It is also critical for large national
strategic projects, such as Prodes, assessment of deforestation in the Amazon, DETER,
assessment of deforestation in real time, and the monitoring of sugarcane areas
(CANASAT), and monitoring of watersheds by networks ANA platforms and Sivam, which
provide the daily stream flow and rainfall data from Brazil, among others. Between private
companies and institutions using their images are IBAMA, INCRA, Petrobras, Aneel,
Embrapa and state departments of Finance and Environment.

As previously mentioned, the sensors have specific applications based on their
different characteristics. The CCD sensor possesses potential in various application areas of
study such as:
Vegetation: identification of forest areas, forest changes in parks, reserves,
native or planted forest area quantification, recent fire scars;
Agriculture: identification of farmland, area quantification, monitoring
development and agricultural expansion, quantification of center pivots, aid in
crop forecasting, various inspections.
Environment: identification of anthropogenic anomalies along water courses,
reservoirs, forests, urban neighborhoods, roads; analysis of natural episodic
events compatible with camera resolution, mapping of land use, urban
expansion.
Water: identifying limits continent-water and coastal management studies,
reservoir monitoring.
Cartography: given its feature of allowing targeted side to 32 east and west,
in small steps, enables the acquisition of stereoscopic images and the
resulting cartographic analysis. This feature also allows imaging of a certain
area on the ground at shorter intervals, which is useful for monitoring the
effects of dynamic phenomena.
Geology and Soils: support for soil survey and geological.
Education: generation of supporting educational activities in geography,
environmental material, and other disciplines.

The sensor IRMSS possess the same applications the CCD, with the necessary adaptations,
plus additional as analysis of phenomena that exhibit changes in surface temperature,
generation of state mosaics generation image charts.

The WFI, in turn, can be used to generate state or national mosaic generation
vegetation index for monitoring purposes; monitoring of dynamic phenomena, such as
agricultural crops, persistent fires; warning system in the WFI image serves as an indicator
for acquiring images of higher resolution CCD or IRMSS and coupling to other global
systems of data collection from low to medium resolution.

Finally, to HRC, we can mention the following uses, among others: the generation of
detailed national or state mosaics, updating thematic maps and other types of cards,
generation of products for the purposes of local or municipal planning, urban applications
and intelligence.CCD Camera supports the runtime analysis of the phenomenon is
compatible with temporal resolution. Temporal resolution can be increased as the CCD has
the capacity side. The band, which is located in the zone of visible and near infrared
spectrum, allowing good contrast between plants and other types of objects.


9.0 2 different type of application (from 2 journal) summaries the journal
focusing on their methodology and result. Compare both applications in term of
their uniqueness.

First, summary for the First Journal is about the CCD (High Resolution Imaging
Camera) sensor, as previously mentioned, the sensors have specific applications based on
their different characteristics. The CCD sensor possess potential in various application areas
of study such as vegetation, agriculture, environment, water, cartography, Geology and Soils
and Education. Then, its about the sensor IRMSS possess the same applications the CCD,
with the necessary adaptations, plus additional as analysis of phenomena that exhibit
changes in surface temperature, generation of state mosaics generation image charts.
Besides that, he methodology is about the WFI (Wide Field Imager), in turn, can be used to
generate state or national mosaic generation vegetation index for monitoring purposes;
monitoring of dynamic phenomena, such as agricultural crops, persistent fires; warning
system in the WFI image serves as an indicator for acquiring images of higher resolution
CCD or IRMSS and coupling to other global systems of data collection from low to medium
resolution. Finally is about the HRC (High-Resolution Panchromatic Camera), we can
mention the following uses, among others such as the generation of detailed national or
state mosaics, updating thematic maps and other types of cards, generation of products for
the purposes of local or municipal planning, urban applications and intelligence.
First, summary for the Second Journal is about the CCD sensor, where the temporal
resolution can be improved as the CCD has the capacity of side view. Its bands are located
in the spectral zone of the visible and near infrared, which allow good contrast between
vegetation and other type of objects. Next is about the IRMSS where its near to same with
CCD but its have the additional applications such as analysis of phenomena that present
surface temperature modifications, generation of state region mosaics, generation of image
charts. Moreover, the methodology is about the WFI is able to image large territorial
extensions, 890km wide. This characteristics makes WFI very interesting for observing
phenomena whose magnitude or interest lie in the macro-regional or state scale. Finally is
about the HRC is apt to image a relatively narrow strip - 27km- and with extremely high
resolution, of 2.7m pixel dimension. The operation mode is based on a 130 days revisit. In
this fashion it will be possible to obtain at least two complete coverages of the country. This
camera will not be able to provide stereoscopy.


Comparison of Uniqueness for 2 Journal

Applications

Journal 1

Journal 2

Vegetation

identification of forest areas, forest changes in parks, reserves,
native or planted forest area quantification, recent fire scars

-

Agriculture

identification of farmland, area quantification, monitoring
development and agricultural expansion, quantification of
center pivots, aid in crop forecasting, various inspections


identification of agricultural fields, area quantification,
monitoring of agricultural development and expansion,
quantification of central pivots, support for crop forecasting,
various inspections

Environment

identification of anthropogenic anomalies along water courses,
reservoirs, forests, urban neighborhoods, roads; analysis of
natural episodic events compatible with camera resolution,
mapping of land use, urban expansion


-

Water

identifying limits continent-water and coastal management
studies, reservoir monitoring.


Identification of water-continent borders, coast studies and
management, reservoir monitoring.











Cartography

given its feature of allowing targeted side to 32 east and west,
in small steps, enables the acquisition of stereoscopic images
and the resulting cartographic analysis. This feature also
allows imaging of a certain area on the ground at shorter
intervals, which is useful for monitoring the effects of dynamic
phenomena

as this camera has sideways pointing of 32 east and west,
in few steps, it enables the acquisition of stereoscopic
images for a proper cartographic analysis. This feature also
makes possible the acquisition of images of a certain area in
a terrain in shorter intervals, which is useful for the
monitoring of dynamical phenomena

Geology and Soils

support for soil survey and geological

support for soil survey and geology.
Education: generation of support material for educational
activities in geography, environment and other subjects

Education

generation of supporting educational activities in geography,
environmental material, and other disciplines

-

Table 9.0:The Comparison of Applications in Term of Their Uniqueness for 2 Journal
9.0 Conclusion
A partially completed and ongoing project, the CBERS is one of the programs
responsible for major advances towards overthrowing the concentration of expertise in the
aerospace industry, as well as representing economic and technological development in
Brazil and China and all countries that enjoy the results obtained with their satellites.
Important for all sectors of activity related to remote sensing and agriculture; area comprising
the environmental study, urban, climatologically and even educational occupation, the
CBERS project has shown the validity of alliances as opposed to competition, for mutual
development applied to products quality.
REFERENCE

- -http://www.landmonitor.wa.gov.au/reports/other/arspc13_wu_cbers_final.pdf
- http://www.cbers.inpe.br/ingles/satellites/aplications.php
- http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0104-77602013000100013&script=sci_arttext
- http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~acrs2001/pdf/317long.pdf
- https://calval.cr.usgs.gov/documents/CBERS2.pdf
- http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/pres/stsc2007/tech-01.pdf


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Fragments of Native Forest, For Different interpreters, with the use of Landsat
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649-656, May / June. 2005

- JR, R. F. V .; Pissarra, T. C. T .; STEPS, A. O .; RAMOS, T.G .; ABDALA, VL
Diagnosis of Permanent Preservation Areas in the River Basin Tejuco,
Ituiutaba-MG, using GIS technology. Eng. Agrc., Jaboticabal, v.30, n.3, p.495-
503, May / June 2010.