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OSMANIAUOTVERSltYLIBRARY

CaUNo.

Author

*

<*VJIV*< V

Title yo*v-xv

AccessionNo.<^O&tf7

Thisbookshouldbereturnedonorbeforethedatelastmarkedbelow.

THEYAJURVEDA

Translatedby

DEVICHAND,M.A.

Ex.Principal,D.A.V.College*Hoshiarpur,

Ex.President,AryaPradeshikPratinidhiSabha,Jullundur, Ex.President,D.A,V.CollegeManagingCommittee,Hoshiarpur,

Ex*President,AryaSmaj,Hoshiarpur, Ex.President,DayanandDalitUddharMandal,Hoshiarpur,

Ex.President,AllIndiaDayanandSalvationMission,Hoshiarpur.

1959

PublishedbyJ

DEVICHAND,M.A.

Secretary,

AllIndiaDayanandSalvationMission,

Hoshiarpur.

AllRightsReserved

Printedby :

ShriDEVADATTAShaitri.V.V,,V.B.

attheV.V.R.I.PRESS,

SadhuAshram,

Hoshiarpur*

OM

INTRODUCTION

GenesisoftheVedas.

VcdasarecheWordofGod,revealedinthebeginningofcreation

forthemoral,spiritualandphysicalguidanceandupliftofhumanity.

Theyarerepletewitheternaltruthsandthrowafloodoflightonthe

variousaspectsoflifetomakeamanperfectandideal. GodoutofHis

infinitesourceofknowledgerevealsinthebeginningofcreation partofitadequatefortherequirementsofthesoul,itsspiritualsatis- infiniteknowledgeofGod, Godcreates,sustainsanddissolvestheworld. SwamiDayananda,whosecommentaryIhavemainlyfollowedinmy

a

faction,fulfilmentofitsthirstfortruthandmakingits journeyoflife

successful.

Godisinfinite,thesoulisfinite. Thefinitesoulcannotcontainthe

WhenevertheworldiscreatedGodrevealstheVedas.Thisprocesses

goingonsinceeternityandwillgoonforever.

RigVedaMandal10,Sukta90,Mantra9 ; Yajurvedachapter31,

verse7 ; AtharvaVedaKand10,Sutta7,Mantra20speakoftherevela- SamVeda

tionofthefourVedas Rig,Yajur,SamaandAtharva.

translation,hasdiscussedthesubjectmorethoroughlyinhisIntroduction

tothetranslationoftheVedas.

MaharshiPatanjaliwritesintheMahabhashya,thatthereare101

Shakhas(schoolsofthought)oftheYajurveda.Allofthesecommentaries

arenotavailableatpresentexcepttheKanva,Madhyandini,Taitriya,

Maitrayani,Kathak,andKapishthal. OnthispointMaharshiDayananda

agreeswithPatanjali.

/Thereare20380versesinallthefourVedas,asgivenbelow :

(

RigVeda

YajurVeda

10522

2006

1875

TherewasatimewhenthelearnedPunditsmemorisedoneormore AtharvaVeda

5977

)

Vedas,couldreciteorreproducethemfrommemory,butalasthissystem

isnolongerinvogueduetolackofpublicandstatepatronage.

ThenamesoftheRishisattachedtotheMantrasarethenames*6f

thoseresearchscholarsandseers,whoexpoundedthemeaningsofthe

2

YAJURVEDA

versesandcommenteduponthem. Theyarenottheauthorsorwriters

ofthoseversesasthewesternscholarssay.

Devataisthesubjectmatter

ofaverse,thetopicdiscussedinit. Allgoodmenandbeneficentforces

ofnaturelikeair,fire,water,electricity,months,sun, moon,breaths,

lightning,father,mother,teacher,preacher,andsoul,whicharebene-

ficialtohumanityarecalleddevatas. Theyarenotallliving,personified

beingsassomeerroneouslybelievethemtobe.

totheVedicwords,andnotthetraditional,customary,conventional,and ( ForcorrectinterpretationoftheVedas,thewordsshouldbetaken

intheirderivative,analyticalsense, i.e., root-meaningsshouldbegiven tostudytheVedas. Theshudrasandevenwomenareequallyentitledto

generallyacceptedones.^Thewordgft<?intheconventionalsense is

faeces,whereasin theVeda it signifieswater.

TheBrahmanasand

UpanishadasdonotformapartoftheVeda. Theyarecompositionsof

manofamuchlaterdate. TheVedacontainsonlythe^ftctt(thereal

textoftheVedas)asrevealedbyGodinthebeginningofCreationon

Agni,Vayu,AdityaandAngiras,thefourRishismostcompetentto

receiveGod'sRevelation.

'

TheteachingsoftheVedasareuniversal^Yajurveda26-2clearly

enjoinsall learned personstopreach the Vedictruthsto all, the

Brahmanas,theKshatriyas,theVaishyas,theShudras,theChandalas,the

degradedandtheforlorn.Dwijas,thetwice-bornalonearenotentitled

readtheVedas. PersonslikeKavishAylush(theseerofR.V.X,30)a

Shudrabybirth,videAitareyaBrahmana11-19andwomenlikeLopa

MudraweretheseersofthemeaningsofVedictextsandtheirnames

arefromtimesimmemorialattachedtotheVedicverses. God is not

expectedtobepartialtooneportionofmankind,andantagonistictothe

otherbydeprivingthemoftheirbirth-righttostudytheVeda.

Inthe

eyesofGodallmen,highorlow,areequallyentitledtoGod'sgiftsand

bounties,say air,water,sunshineandHisKnowledge.

IntheVedic

churchnoneisreligiouslygreatorsmall. Allarebrotherswhoshould

  • amysteryunlessbythattermwemeansomethingbeyondourcompre- co-operatetoconducetotheprosperityandameliorationofmankind. parlance is

\AccordingtoSwamiBhoomanandaSaraswati,theVedicseer isa

poetandprophetbuthispoetryisnotimaginaryandhisprophecy is not

hensionandnotsomethingentirelyopposedtotheorderofNature?

Aseerof'secondsight 1

in

thespiritist

not

a

Vedic

seerorRishi. Apersonwhovoicesoutanumberofincoherentstate-

mentsvoidofanyclear,rationalsignificancelikethe"Revelation"of

fohnintheNewTestament isalsonoRishi. fAVedicseeristhe

INTRODUCTION

3

inspiredrecipientormediumofDivineRevelation apersonwho,bybis

righteous,pureandholylifeisabletograsphigherandDivinethings

whicharefarabovetheKenofthegeneralityofmankind.

SirOliver

Lodgecallssuchseersas'peaksofhumanity.')

AravindaGhoshaonSwamiDayanandaand

hisVedicinterpretation.

Amongthegreatcompanyofremarkablefiguresthatwillappear

totheeyeofposterityattheheadoftheIndianRanaissance,onestands

outbyhimselfwithpeculiarandsolitarydistinctness,oneuniqueinhis

typeashe is uniqueinhiswork- Suchistheimpressioncreatedonmy

mindbyDayananda.

ItwasKathiawarthatgavebirthtothispuissantrenovatorand

new-creator. Andsomethingoftheverysoulandtemperamentofthat

particularlandenteredintohisspirit,somethingofthathumanitywhich

seemstobemadeofthevirginandunspoiltstuffofNature,fairand

robustinbody,instinctwithafreshandprimalvigour,crudebutin

adevelopednaturecapableofbecomingagreatforceofgenialcreation. WhenIseektogiveanaccounttomyselfofmysentimentandput

intopreciseformtheimpression,Ihavereceived,Ifindmyselfstarting

fromtwogreatcharacteristicsofthisman'slife andworkwhichmark

himofffromhiscontemporariesandcompeers. OthergreatIndians

havehelpedtomakeIndiaoftodaybyasortofself-pouringintothe

themasgreatsoulsandgreatinfluenceswholiveoninthesoulofIndia. thefluentandindeterminatemasswhichwillonedaysettleintoconsis- psychologicalmaterialoftherace,aspiritualinfusionofthemselvesinto greaterthantheirdefiniteworks,buttheirinfluenceissowideand

tencyandappearasagreatformalbirthofNature. Oneremembers

Theyareinusandwewouldnotbewhatwearewithoutthem. Butof

nopreciseformcanwesaythatthiswaswhatthemanmeant, still less

thatthisformwastheverybodyofthatspirit.

TheexampleofMahadevaGovindaRanadepresentsitselftomy

mindastheverytypeofthispeculiaractionsonecessarytoaperiod

oflargeandcomplexformation. Vivekanandawasasoulofpuissance

ifevertherewasone,averylionamongmen,butthedefiniteworkhe

hasleftbehind is quiteincommensuratewithourimpressionofhis

creativemightandenergy.

So it iswithall.

Notonlyarethemen

formlessthatit haslittlerelationofanyformalworkthattheyhaveleft

behindthem. VerydifferentwasthemannerofworkingofDayananda. Here

4

YAJURVEDA

wasonewhodidnotinfusehimselfinformallyintotheindeterminate

soulofthings,butstampedhisfigureindeliblyasinbronzeonmenand

things. Herewasonewhoseformalworksaretheverychildrenofhis

spiritualbody,childrenfairandrobustandfullofvitality,theimageof

theircreator. hewassenttodo,chosehismaterials,determinedhisconditionwitha Herewasonewhoknewdefinitelyandclearlythework

sovereignclairvoyanceofthespirit,andexecutedhisconceptionwith

thepuissantmasteryofthebornworker. AsIregardthefigureofthis

formidableartisanin God'sworkshop,imagescrowdonmewhichareall

ofbattleandworkandconquestandtriumphantlabour.

myself,wasaverysoldierofLight,awarriorinGod'sworld,asculptor Here, I sayto

ofmenandinstitutions,aboldandruggedvictorofthedifficulties

whichmatterpresentstospirit. Andthewholesumsitselfuptomein

apowerfulimpressionofspiritualpracticality.

The combinationof

thesetwowords,usuallysodivorcedfromeachotherinourconceptions,

seemstometheverydefinitionofDayananda.

HebringsbackanoldAryanelementintothenationalcharacter.

Dayanandaseizedonallthatenteredintohim,helditinhimself,master-

fullyshapedintotheformthathesawtoberightandthrewitoutagain

intotheformshesawtoberight.Thatwhichstrikesusinhimasmilitant

andaggressive,wasapartofhisstrengthofself-definition.

HewasnotonlyplastictothegreathandofNature,butasserted

hisownrightandpowertouseLifeandNatureasplasticmaterial. We

canimaginehissoulcrying still touswithourinsufficientspringof

manhoodandaction. "Beathinkerbutbealsoadoer ; beasoul,but

bealsoaman ; beservantofGod,butbealsoamasterofNature."

InDayananda'slifeweseealwaysthepuissantjetofthisspiritual

Aspontaneouspoweranddecisiveness is stampedevery-
degradedbymisunderstandingtothelevelofanancientdocumentofbar- uponthisscripturedefacedbyignorantcommentandoblivionofitsspirit, itselfthedeepandenergeticspiritoftheforefatherswhomadethis

practicality.

whereonhiswork. Andtobeginwith,whatamaster-glanceofpractical

intuitionwasthistogobacktrenchantlytotheveryrootofIndianlife

andculture,toderivefromtheflowerofitsbirththeseedforaradical

newbirth. Andwhatanactofgrandioseintellectualcouragetolayhold

barismandtoperceiveinititsrealworthasascripturewhichconcealsin

countryandnation,ascriptureofdivineKnowledge,divineworshipand

divineaction. IknownotwhetherDayananda'spowerfulandoriginal

commentarywillbewidelyacceptedasthedefinite*wordontheVeda.

TJieessentialisthatheseizedjustlyontheVedaasIndia'sRockofAges

andhadthedaringconceptiontobuildonwhathispenetratingglance

INTRODUCTION

5

perceivedinitawholeeducationofyouth,awholemanhood,awhole

nationhood.RamamohanRoystoppedshortattheUpanishadas.Dayananda

lookedbeyondandperceivedthatourtrueoriginalseedwastheVeda.

Andintheworkasinthemanwefindthatfacultyofspontaneous

definitelabourandvigorousformationwhichproceeds,fromaninner

principleofperfectclearness,truthandsincerity. Tobeclearinone's

ownmind,entirelytrueandplainwithone'sselfandwithothers,

whollyhonestwiththeconditionsandmaterialsofone'slabour,is arare

giftinourcrooked,complexandfalteringhumanity.

Itisthespiritof

theAryanworkerandasuresecretofvigoroussuccess. It is goodthat

thespirtoftheMastershouldleaveitstraceinhisfollowers,^thatsome-

whereinIndiathereshouldbeabodyofwhomitcanbesaidthatwhen

aworkisseentobenecessaryandright,themenwillbeforthcoming,

themeansforthcoming,andthatworkwillsurelybedone. the

vision, truthinthe intention,truth

in

(Truth^seemsasimplethingand is yetmostdifficult. Truthwas

themaster-wordoftheVedicteaching,truthinthesoul, truthin

Aryatva,aninnercandourandastrongsincerity, act.jPracticaltruth, clearness_atylopen

honour iii th_ewordanddeed,wasthetemperamentoftheoldAryan

morals. ThiswasthestampthatDayananda left behindhimand

it shouldbethemarkandeffigyofhimselfbywhichtheparentageof

hisworkcanberecognised.

MayhisspiritactinIndiapure, unspoilt,

unmodifiedandhelptogiveusbackthatofwhichour life stands

speciallyinneed,pureenergy,highclearness,thepenetratingeye, the

masterfulhand,thenobleanddominantsincerity.

f DayanandaacceptedtheVedaastherockoffirro^Jjoundation^he

took inspirationforexternalwork,butheregarded it forhisguidingviewoflife,hisruleofinnerexistenceanJTiis it asevenmore,the

wordofeternal Truthonwhichman'sknowledgeof Godand his

relationswiththeDivineBeingandwithhisfellowscanbe rightlyand

whenitssensewasnolongerunderstood,evenwhenitstraditionswere securelyfounded,

f Butamongall thematerialsofourpasttheVeda isthemost

venerableandhasbeendirectlyandindirectlythemostpotent. Even

lostbehindPauranicforms,itwasstill heldinhonour,thoughwithout

knowledge,asauthoritativerevelation,andinspiredBookofKnowledge,

thesourceofallsanctionsandstandardofalltruth.)

/WhileWesternscholarshipextendingthehintsofSayanaseemed

tohaveclassedtheVedaforeverasaritualliturgytoNatureGods,the

geniusoftheracelookingthroughtheeyesofDayanandapiercedbehind

6

YAJURVEDA

theerrorofmanycenturiesandagaintheintuitionofatimelessrevelation

andadivinetruthgiventohumanity. Inanycasewehavetomakeone

choiceoranother. EithertheVedaiswhatSayanasays it is, andthen

wehavetoleave itbehindforeverasthedocumentofamythologyand

ritualwhichhavenolongeranylivingtruthorforceforthinkingminds,

orit iswhattheEuropeanscholarssayitis,andthenwehavetoput

it awayamongtherelicsofthepastasanantiquerecordof semi-

barbarousworshiporelseitisindeedVeda,abookofdivineknowledge,

andthen it becomesofsupremeimportancetoustoknowandtohear

itsmessage.

ItisobjectedtothesenseDayanandagavetotheVedathat it is

notruesense,butanarbitraryfabricationofimaginativelearningand

ingenuity,tohismethodthat it is fantasticandunacceptabletothe

criticalreason,tohisteachingofarevealedscripturethattheveryidea

isarejectedsuperstitionimpossibleforanyenlightenedmindtoadmit

ortoannouncesincerely. IwillnotexaminethesolidityofDayananda's

interpretationofVedictexts,noranticipatetheverdictofthefuture

onhiscommentary,nordiscusshistheoryofrevelation. I shallonly

statehisbroadprinciplesunderlyinghisthoughtabouttheVedathey

presentthemselvestome.

Tostartwiththenegationofhisworkbyhiscritics,inwhose

mouthdoes it lie toaccuseDayananda'sdealingswiththeVedaofa

  • arbitrarilyeruditeingenuity,ofgreatlearningdivorced,asgreatlearn- criticalandcomperativeobservation ingtoooftenis,fromsoundjudgementandsuretasteandafaithful fantasticorarbitraryingenuity?Norinthemouthofthosewhoaccept Sayana'straditionalinterpretation. Forifevertherewasamonumentof ; fromdirectseeingandofteneven fromplainestcommonsenseorofaconstantfitting tothetextinto

theProcrusteanbedofpreconceivedtheory.Itissurelythiscommentary, mostenormousdifficultiesignoredandpreconceivedprejudice main-

otherwisesoimposing,sousefulasfirst crudematerial, soeruditeand

laborious, lefttousbytheAcharyaSayana. Nordoesthereproachlie

inthemouthofthosewhotakeasfinaltherecentlaboursofEuropean

scholarship. Forifevertherewasatorofinterpretationinwhichthe

loosestveinhasbeengiventoaningeniusspeculation,inwhichdoubtful

indicationshavebeensnatchedatascertainproofs,inwhichtheboldest

conclusionshavebeeninsisteduponwiththescantiestjustification,the

tainedinfaceoftheclearandoftenadmittedsuggestionsofthetext, it

issurelythislabour,soeminentlyrespectableotherwiseforitsindustry,

goodwillandpowerofresearch,performedthroughalongcenturyby

EuropeanVedicscholarship,

INTRODUCTION

1

AninterpretationofVedamuststandorfallbyitscentralcon-

ceptionoftheVedicreligionandtheamountofsupportgiventoit by

intrinsicevidenceoftheVedaitself. HereDayananda'sviewisquite

VedichymnsarechantedtotheOne nottheignorant,mindyou,buttheseers, themenofknowledge,

clear,itsfoundationunexpugnable.

Deityundermanynames,nameswhichareusedandevendesignedto

expressHisqualitiesandpowers. WasthisconceptionofDayananda's

arbitraryconceitfetchedoutofhisowntooingeniusimagination?Notat

all ; itistheexplicitstatementoftheVedaitself ;

11

"Oneexistentsages

''speakofmanyways,asIndra,asYama,asMatriswan,

asAgni." The

VedicRishisoughtsurelytohaveknownsomethingabouttheirown

religion,more,letushopethanRothorMaxMuller, andthisiswhat

theyknew.

ImmediatelythewholecharacteroftheVedais the fixedinthesense

merely

meteorological and

Dayanandagaveto it ; themerelyritual, mythological,polytheistic

interpretationof Sayana collapses,

naturalisticEuropeaninterpretationcollapses. Wehaveinsteadareal

scripture,oneoftheworld'ssacredbooksandthedivinewordoflofty

andnoblereligion.

Dayanandaassertsthepresenceofanethicalelement,hefindsinthe

VedathelawoflifegivenbyGodtothehumanbeing. AndiftheVedic

godheadsexpressthepowersofasupremeDeitywho is Creator,Ruler

andFatheroftheuniversethentheremustinevitablybeintheVedaa

largepart,ofcosmology,theLawofcreationandcosmos. Dayananda

assertsthepresenceofsuchacosmicelement,hefindsintheVedathe

secretsofcreationandlawofNaturebywhichtheOmniscientgoverns

theworld.

Neitherwesternscholarshipnorritualisticlearningliassucceeded

ineliminatingthepsychologicalandethicalvalueof thehymns,but

theyhavebothtendedindifferentdegreestominimise it. Western

scholarsminimisebecausetheyfeeluneasywheneverideasthatarenot

primitiveseemtoinsistontheirpresenceintheseprimevalutterances;

theydonothesitateopenlytoabandonincertainpassagesinterpretations

whichcannothaveoccurredtoprimitiveminds!(Sayanaminimisesbecause whichtheyadoptinothersandwhichareadmittedlynecessitatedby

theirownphilologicalandcriticalreasoningbecause,if admittedalways,

theywould ofteninvolvedeepandsubtlepsychologicalconceptions

histheoryofVedicdisciplinewasnotethicalrighteousnesswithamoral

andspiritualresultbutmechanicalperformanceofritualwithamaterial

reward. TheVedaisasmuchandmoreabookofdivinelawasBibleor

^

ZoroastrianAvesta.

8

YAJURVEDA

(Dayanandaaffirmsthatthetruthsof modernphysicalscienceare

discoverableinthehymns/|There is nothingfantasticinDayananda's

ideathatVedacontainstruthofscienceaswellastruth ofreligion.

I

willevenaddmyownconvictionthatVedacontainstheothertruths

ofsciencethemodernworlddoesnotatallpossess,andinthatcase

Dayanandahasratherunderstatedthanoverstatedthedepthandrangeof

theVedicwisdom.^Objectionhasalsobeenmadetothephilologicaland isanerror. Inearlylanguagethewordwasalivingthingwithessential

etymologicalmethodbywhichhearrivedathisresults, especiallyinhis

dealingswiththenamesofgod-heads. Butthisobjection, Ifeelcertain

powersofsignification ; its rootmeaningswererememberedbecause

theywerestillii)use,itswealthofforcewasvividlypresenttothemind

ofthespeaker. ' TheNiruktabearsevidencetothiscapacityandinthe

BrahmanasandUpanishadaswefindthememoryofthisfreeandsymbolic

useofwordsstillsubsisting. inmatterofintelligentopinionandscholarshipmenseemlikelytodiffer

Interpretationindetailisaworkofintelligenceandscholarshipand

totheendofthechapter,butinallthebasicprinciples, inthosegreat

ofVedaitself,bylogicandreasonandbyourgrowingknowledgeofthe andfundamentaldecisionswheretheeyeofintuitionhastoaidthe

workingsoftheintellect,Dayanandastandsjustifiedbythesubstance

pastofmankind.TheVedadoeshymntheoneDeityofmanynames fulfilit ; itdoespurporttogiveustheLawoftheCosmos.

andpowers ; itdoescelebratethedivineLawandman'saspiration

to

OnthequestionofrevelationIhaveleftn^elfnospacetowrite.

SufficeittosaythatheretooDayanandawasperfectlylogicaland it is

quitegrotesquetochargehimwithinsinceritybecauseheheldtoand

proclaimedthedoctrine. Therearealwaysthreefundamentalentities

whichwehavetoadmitandwhoserelationswehavetoknowifwewould

understandexistenceatall,God,NatureandtheSoul. IfasDayananda

heldonstrongenoughgrounds,theVedarevealstousGod,revealstous

theLawofNature,revealstoustherelationsofthesoultoGodand

hemightwellholditforaninfalliblescripture. revelation ofdivine Therestisaquestion

is

it

a

asDayanandaheld,itrevealsthemtouswithaperfect truth,flawlessly,

Naturewhat

but

Truth?

And if,

soalsohasitdeniedmanythingswhichamoremodernthought ofthemethodofrevelation,ofthedivinedealingswithourrace,of is very

man'spsychologyandpossibilities. Modernthought,affirmingNature

andLawbutdenyingGod,deniedalsothepossibilityofrevelation,but

busy,reaffirming.

INTRODUCTION

9

Wecannotdemandofagreatmindthatitshallmake itselfaslave

tovulgarlyreceivedopinionorthetransientdogmasofthehour; the

veryessenceofitsgreatnessis this,that itlooksbeyond,that it sees

deeper.

InthematterofVedicinterpretationIamconvincedthatwhatever

maybethefinalcompleteinterpretation,Dayanandawillbehonoured

wasessential.Hehasfoundthekeysofthedoorsthattimehadclosed clues.

obscurityofoldignoranceand age-longmisunderstandinghiswasthe

eyeofdirectvisionthatpiercedtothetruthandfastenedonthatwhich

asthefirstdiscovererof theright

Amidst thechaosand

andrentasunderthesealsoftheimprisonedfountains.

HistoryintheVedas

SwamiDayanandadoesnotbelieveinhistoryintheVedas.Western

scholars like Griffith, Max-Muller,MonierWilliams, Macdonnel,

Bloomfield,andEasternscholarslikeSayana,Mahidhar,Ubbatand

DamodarSatavalekar,believeinhistoryintheVedas. Historyinthe

VedasmilitatesagainstitseternityandrevelationfromGod,andreduces

ittoaman-madecomposition.

TheinterpretationputbyPanditSatavalekaronthe22nd,23rd

versesofSukta28,Mandal7oftheRigVeda,clearlyshowsthathedoes

notbelieveintheinfallibilityoftheVedas. YaskaAcharya,theauthor

oftheNiruktadoesnotbelieveinhistoryintheVedas,buttherewere

scholarsinhistimealsowhobelievedinhistoryintheVedas. According

totheetymologicalformationoftheNirukta,all socalledhistorical

namesdenoteordinarythingsaccordingtothescienceofrhetoric.

Inordinaryusage3T^Sfffe^threetensesareusedtodenotethe

historynourishtraditionintheVedas,takingthesetensestodenotethe past. WhereverthesetensesareusedintheVedas,theinterpretersof

past. Thisistheirerror.

PaninisaysinhisAshtadhyayi3p^fe5J5;OT^ffo: 3-4-6. Kashka

interpretsitlikethis. c< spjfaf^t^13^^^H^T^Jsp^^fsfZ; JR33T:

*?^f?cT | M

IntheVedasg^SI^fa^areusedinallthethreetensesin

connectionwithverbalroots. Takingtheiruselimitedonlytothepast

anddeducehistorytherefromisincorrect. TheVedasareeternal,hence

intheirsightalltensesareliketheeverpresent,andtherearisesno personalnames. Scholars,whentheygiveupgrammarandNirukta,the

questionintheVedasaboutthepasttense. Onthissupportallthe

tensesgenerallydenotingthe past denote ordinarily the present.

SimilarlytheVedicwordsbeingderivativesarenot traditional or

10

YAJURVEDA

twoimportantlimbsofVedicinterpretation,begintoimporthistory ill

theVedas,andtracethereintheunfoundedtraditionsofBabylonia.

Patanjali,theauthorofMahabhashya,commentingonthisexposition

ofKashka,writesthattointerpretthesethreeLakarasasdenotingthe

pasttensewhenusedintheVedas, iscontradictorytothescienceof

grammar,theirmainlimb. AslongasPanini'sVyakaranisextant,to

interprettheVedictextsashistorical,isaclearsacrilegeontheVedic

verses.

HavingfailedtounderstandthederivativesignificanceofVedic

words,scholarshavemisinterpretedthemasnamesofhistoricalperson-

ages. BelowIgivethetruesignificanceofcertainVedicwordswhich

thecommentators, mistaking for historical names, haveuselessly

attemptedtoprovehistoryintheVedas.

  • 1. Sita. ThiswordusedintheVedadoesnotsignifythewifeof

ShriRamChandra.

Itmeansthefurrowtracedinafieldbytheplough.

  • 2. BabaraisnotthenameofaKingoraperson.Itdenotestheair

thathums,thundersandflows.

  • 3. Sudasisnotthenameofaking. Acharitablydisposedperson

iscalledSudas.

^l:TOWTfR:T Nirukta2-25.

  • 4. Paijwan isnotthenameofaKing. An individualwhose *Vedicspeech. 6.

impetuosity is constant, whosespeedorforce is unending iscalled

Paijwan,videNirukta2-24.

5.

Devasisnotthenameofaking. It is thenameofalearned

priestwhoofficiatesatasacrifice.

Agu(*rg)doesnotdenoteanyhistoricalpersonage.Anignorant

persondevoidofknowledgeandVedicspeech is calledAguW^not,3

  • 7. DevapiintheVedaisnotthenameofany historical person.

Devapiisapersonwhoadmiresandbefriendsthelearned. nameoflightningorthunderbolt. It isalsothe

  • 8. Shantanuisnotthenameofaking. AccordingtoYaska,a

manoftranquillitywithmentalpeace iscalledShantanu. Wateris

alsocalledShantanuasitgrantspeaceandconducestothegoodof

humanity.

  • 9. Angirasisnotthenameofanyspecialperson. Blazingfire

iscalledAngiras.

God is alsocalledAngiras,asGod isFire (*rifc)

Godengulfstheearthaswedothebreaths,henceHe isAngiras.

A

INTRODUCTION

11

learnedpersonisalsocalledAngiras. RishiDayanandawrites

*briflsn*nr%*frft?TW[ HewhoknowsisAngiras.

10. Inthe13thchapteroftheYajurVedathewordVasishtha

occursinthe54thverse,Bhardwajinthe55th,Jamdagniinthe56th,

Vishvamitra inthe57th,andVishwakarmainthe 58th. Historical

schoolofthoughtinterpretsthesewordsasnamesofRishis,butthe

ShatpathBrahmaninterpretsthemthus,

  • (a) JTlflftIsffaS3tfa: I

PranaiscalledVasishtha,asitisexcellentofallbreaths*

  • (b) *TO>t*?T31left; I

MindiscalledBhardwaj,asitstrengthensbyfood. EyeiscalledJamadagni,asit seestheworld.

fo*Ifc*fnras&fo: i

  • (d) (c) ^P55f*(3mi[*CTO I (e) IntheBrahmanGranthasVasishthais describedasPrajapati,God,

31*T

SpeechisVishwakarma as it manifestsandilluminatesall

EariscalledVishwamitra,asithearsallthings,andalldirec-

tionsbefriendit.

topics.

King,andhouseholdlord. Jamdagniisabospokenofassuch. Vishva-

mitraisdescribedasspeech, Vishvakarma,themasterofalldeeds,

isspokenofasGod,King,Prajapatiandhousehold RishiYajnavalkyaspeaksoftherightearasGautama,andtheleft

lord.

earasBhardwaj. HedescribestherighteyeasVishwamitraandthe

leftasJamdagni,therightnoseasVasishthaandtheleftasKashyap. China-claybasins. InAstrologytheyarespokenofasdirectionsand

Speech is describedasAttri,asfoodistakenbythetongue. Beingthe

eater,oneis^rft,srftis3T%fromtheroot

toeat.

11.

Urvashi is notahistoricalname.333$t3RTT: I Lightningis

Urvashi,whichcontrolsallthings. 35i|3T?3^. Thatwhicheatsmuch.

LightningisUrvashithefallofwhichconsumesmanyobjects.

12.

Pururavaisnotthenameofaperson. Itisthenameofacloud,

whichroars,thundersandmakesnoise,videNirukta5-46.

13. Apsaradoesnotdenotecelestialdancing nymphs.

In

the

UpanishadstheyarecalledPranas. InShilpSanghitatheymeanthe

sub-directions. Inbacteriologytheymeanwaterygerms. InAlchemy

theydenoteelectriccurrents,

12

YAJURVEDA

  • 14. BhriguisnotaproperNoun.Theywhoexertforselfmain-

tenanceareBhrigus.

*Tforself-maintenanceJJexertthemselves*

They

areBhriguswhocontinuetheirexertionstotheextreme.

15. SayanaconsidersBheda,Tritsu,Yamuna,Ajasa,ShigruandYakshu

tobehistoricalnames.

This is anerroneousview. Therightinter-

pretationofthesewordsisgivenbelow.

(1) Bheda : Anenemy'semissarywhocreatespartiesinthe

society.

x>

(2) Tritsuisaherowhoovercomesallafflictions.

(3) Yamunaisaruler,anadministratorwhomaintainslawand

discipline.

(4) Ajasaisaherowhoexertsandagitates.

(5) Shigru.Hewhopossessesbeauty,excellenceinaction.

(6) Yakshu : Asacrificer,whoperformstheYajna,

16. Bharataishewhowantstoadvanceandprogress,beingwell-

fed. Bharata,thebrotherofShriRamChandrahasnoplaceintheVeda.

Tritsuishewhoisthirstyfor