You are on page 1of 5

Car Performance Formulas

Air Resistance (Air Drag) (AR):




where:
AR = air resistance [N]
= air density [kg/m
3
] 1.202 kg/m
3
, at sea level and at 15
o
C
A
f
= car frontal area [m
2
] 1.2 : 3.2 m
2
, for small and mid size cars
C
d
= coefficient of aerodynamics resistance (drag coefficient) 0.2 : 0.5 for cars
v = car relative velocity [km/h]
v
car
= car velocity [km/h] (v
car
= v, at stand still wind, v
wind
= 0)
v
wind
= wind velocity [km/h]

* ( + ), (+) with head wind, the wind velocity opposite the car velocity direction (against) .
(-) with tail wind, the wind velocity in the same direction as the car velocity (with).



Rolling Resistance (RR):


where:
RR = rolling resistance [N]
f
r
= coefficient of rolling resistance 0.015 : 0.02 (hard surface) 0.2 : 0.3 (sand)
w = car weight [N] 10000 : 24000 N, for small and mid size cars
m = car mass [kg] 1000 : 2400 kg, for small and mid size cars
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 [m/s
2
]



Gradient Resistance (GR):


where:
GR = gradient resistance [N]
w = car weight [N] = mg [kg m/s
2
,

(N)]
= gradient angle < 2.3
o
(highways), 5.7 : 6.9
o

(local roads), 11.5
o
(max. grad)
S = gradient percentage [%]
S < 4% (highways), <10% : 12% (local roads), 20% (maximum gradient)
G = gradient ratio [1: n = 1/n]
<1:25 (1/25) highways, < 1:8 (1/8) local roads, 1:5 (1/5) maximum grad.

* ( + ), (+) with the car going up hill (ascending). {resistance effort}
(-) with the car going down hill (descending). {tractive effort}


Inertia Resistance (IR):


where:
IR = inertia resistance [N]
m = car mass + equivalent mass of rotating parts [kg]
a = car acceleration [m/s
2
], (from 0 to 100 km/h in: 6 s (4.63 m/s
2
), 18 s (1.543 m/s
2
))
m
car
= car mass [kg]
m
eq
= equivalent mass of rotating parts [kg]
= [ I
w
(1/r
w
)
2
+ I
p

f
(i
f
/r
w
)
2
+ I
e

t

(i
f
i
g
/ r
w
)
2
]
where:
I
w
= polar moment of inertia of wheels and axles 2.7 [kg m
2
]
I
p
= polar moment of inertia of propeller shaft 0.05 [kg m
2
]
I
e
= polar moment of inertia of engine 0.2 [kg/m
2
] + polar moment of
inertia of flywheel and clutch 0.5 [kg m
2
]

f
= mechanical efficiency of final drive

t
= mechanical efficiency of transmission system (
g
x
f
)
i
g
= gearbox reduction ratio [i
g1
or i
g2
or .]
i
f
= final drive reduction ratio
r
w
= tire radius [m]

* ( + ), (+) with the car in acceleration. {tractive resistance}
(-) with the car in deceleration. {tractive effort}


Total Resistance (TR):


where:
TR = total resistance [N]
RR = rolling resistance [N]
AR = air resistance [N]
GR = gradient resistance [N]
IR = inertia resistance [N]


Car Velocity (v):


where:
v = car velocity [km/h]
r
w
= rolling radius of the tire [m]
N
w
= tire rotational speed [rpm]
N
e
= engine rotation speed [rev/s, (rpm)]
i
g
= gearbox reduction ratio
i
f
= final drive reduction ratio


Wheel torque (T
w
):


where
T
w
= wheel torque [Nm]
T
e
= engine torque [Nm]
i
g
= gearbox reduction ratio
i
f
= final drive reduction ratio

t
= total transmission efficiency
P
w
= wheel power [kW]
P
e
= engine power [kW]


Wheel Power (P
w
):


where:
P
w
= wheel power [kW]
T
w
= wheel torque [Nm]
N
w
= wheel rotational speed [rev/s, (rpm)]
N
e
= engine rotational speed [rev/s, (rpm)]

t
= total transmission efficiency


Car Tractive Effort (TE):


where:
TE = tractive effort [N]
T
w
= wheel torque [Nm]
T
e
= engine torque [Nm]
P
w
= wheel power [kW]
P
e
= engine power [kW]
v = car velocity [km/h]
i
g
= gearbox reduction ratio
i
f
= final drive reduction ratio
v = car velocity [km/h]


Surplus Effort (SE):


where:
SE = surplus effort [N]
TE = tractive effort [N]
TR = total resistance [N]

* At maximum car speed, SE = 0