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ceased to have the character of a p repa ratory school for public service . ...


~cien ce was to gain nOlhing by t.his; for ... Ihe gradu aling classes ... of 18 17 to

1830 contributed lay far Ihc l owe~t proportion of mCIlIIJI" rll 10 lile IIISlilll1 de
Fra llce.... In 1848, the Ecole wall ill da ngcr of hcillg c1o~t.... J.·' A. de Lu pparenl , Le
Cell,erwire de I'Ecoie I'Qly' ech llique ( Paris. 1894). pp . 6-7, 12- 15. [rl ,3]
[Ecole Polytechnique]
Vote of March 18. 187 1, allhe Ecole Polylec1milluc, on the l)Osition to he adopted
\'i~-a -\'is the Comm une: "Some ... wo nder wllat tllis committt.'e is tllat claims to
have been elected b y the federation of 300,000 ci tizcns. . . . Others ... proposc
taking lip the tradition of the past and )lutting thcmselvcs at the forefront of the
nlOvcmelit. M ter a \'ery lively hilt peaceful discussion, a vole is held : the I)artisans
of the Cent ral Committee arc fo urtcc n in nllm!Jer !" G. Pinet , Il istoire lie i 'Eco le
polyteclUlillue (Pa ris. 1887), )I . 293. [rl a, l ]
On commerce: " If competition between mer cha nts, ... or an y other matter, pre­
vents them from seUing their wares in timely fas hion , then the individual mercbaat In 187 1, the Ecole Poiytechnillue encountered j ustifi ed mistrust . Voices were
is fo rced .. 10 suspend business and cast the problem back o nlO the pro­ heanlto say: " T he Ecole is no longer whal it was in 1830! " ( Pinet , p . 297).
ducer s .... This is wh y we cannol distinguish between commercial a nd indu. trial [r l a,2)
crises, . 0 dependent is industry on intermediaries .... A fearsome audit iI COD­
dueled on aU I ssetA in circulation , and an enormous quantity of them are declared T'No characteristic passages from Edouard Foucaud, Paris inventeur: Physiologie tk
wOTthlen .... The times when commercial assets are subjected to audit are called l'indUJ/n"eftanfllist (Paris, 1844), on the conception of industry and of the worker
crises." Eugene Buret . De fa Misere des ciaueJ tabon euse. en Ansleterre et_ before 1848: "Industrial intelligence is the daughter of heaven. It loves and
France (Paris, 1840), vol. 2, pp. 211 , 213. [rI ,I) surrenders itsdf only to those whom society ... calls mmtuaJ laborers, those
whom intelligent persons know as bra/hm or worlurs" (p. 181). "Today, in the
" In 1860. having long slumber ed in the arms of protectionism, Fra nce abruptIJ__ nineteenth century, the dUlUd of the Romans, ... the serfof Charlemagne, the
awakened ' on the pillow of free trade.' Exercising the right conferred on him by \ pt!asant o fFrancis I- this miserable trinity which slavery has brutalized but which
the constitution of 1852, Napoleon nl had byp aued p arliament and neglti. ted to the genius ofemancipation has made radiant-is called the ptople" (pp.220-221).
open our borders to products from other oation8, at the &arne time ope~ leveral [r l a,3)
for eign ma rkets to our entrepreneu rs.... Long years of p rosperity b.d made it
possible for our industrial for ces . .. to wage a global struggle." Henry Fo~. "Without the advantages of wealth, . .. or a narrow mind, . . . the worker finds
Les Delksatio/U ouvriere, aux expositions uni ve r,eiks lOUS ie Second Emptn rttironent on an annuity to be oppressive, The sky above may wel.l. be cloudless,
(Montl uf,o n , 1905), p. 28. ['I ~l and his home may well be verdant, perfumed with 80wers, and enlivened by the
song of birds; yet his inacdve mind remains insensible to the channs of solitude.
Foundillg of the Ecole Polytechnique : l " T he Terror within , invader s at the bo.... If, by chance, his car should catch some sharp noise coming from a distant
ders ... ; the country in ruins, disorganized. able neither to acquire the sa1tpeter_ manufacruring plant, or even the monotonous churning of a factory mill, then his
needed for gun powder nor to run the factories needed for manu ractunos '. COUntenance immediately brightens; he no longer notices the birdsongs or the
(since nearly aU these fa ctories wer e ill the hands of ins urgents}--8 uch were the perfumes. lbe thick smoke escaping from the factory's high chim.ney, the ringing
ci.rcums tances .lD which
. dela. .
beratlons were he Id 10 roun d Ih, new ins titution . .. ' d. of the anvil, make him tremble with joy. These things remind him of the good old
bl f ' al Bloth.
_.1 '
' Ever ything that genius, labor, and concerteu action were ca p a e o , . n 01 ~ys of manuaJ labor motivated by a mind inspired." Edouard Foucaud, Paris
ut it ' was oow called up , so that Fr ance alone could l us tain itself agalDl t a InlJrtllt:ur: Physiologit tk l'i7ldustn·efta11( (Paris, 1844), pp. 222- 223. [rlnAI
P , ... for the duration of the war. however long an d ler n'11 ve lO
Europe I e 'II ~I'ghtprO
. ce 01
be' . . . . Ch aracteris tic of the Ecole Poly technique .. was the c~~te~ ee.... " 'Amid the reigning disorder.' writcs Vnulil hdle, ' their wt'll-known uniform, be­
pu rely theoretic 8tudies with a series of voca tional courses gea red to CIvil enpJI
;n, a rchitect ure. fortifications, mining, and evell lIaval constructions .. . . Napa-­
leon, ... made residence in the ba rracks 0 hI'Igatory f or SIUd ellIS . . . . T hen
the events of ... 18 15, afler which . .. one no longer concealed the hOI>C 0
f seeitaI
IO\·e.1 of 1111 , gave thelll a sOI'1 of of6cill l churac!cr. which !ul"llcd d Jem illto ... the
rnOst acti\·'O a nll most IIseful agellis of the u p a nd coming )lO\O·cr' .... ' ,Vh.!lIever
\o' e had to give all ortler tha i re<:luiretl the backi ng of l ome kiml of force.' sa y"

Ma ugllin , 'we would gcncr ally entrus t ilil execillioll to II s tulienl of Ihe Ecole
' rami'" e8.... TIIe 'illSt"lIIlion
the Ecole recruil more students from II riSlOcrlltlc I III
Polytechni(lue. The stllclent would d~cend the flight of ' tairs leadin« out from tbt lO'e nt on to invent as weU . I.magine the ,pectacle of a Lagrange who 8uddelily
Hotel de Ville. Before reaching the bollom , tep , he would address the crowd slOPped shari in the middle of hi a lecture alld was l08t ill thought. The room waited
whicll had become alleuti ve; hc would simply pronounce the words, "Two hlUt­
• ill silence. Finally he awoke and lot..! them of his glowing new discovery, barely
dred men , able and willing!" Then he would complete his descent and tu.rn alObe (orI1l 1.'(1 in his mind . . . . What a decline after those d ays! ... Mter the reports
into the street . At that very instant . one could see stepping fo r th fro m the waU. IIlIu le to the COllvelilion , read those of Fourcroy and Fontane8; yo u sink ... from
and marching behind itim-sonle with riRes, others just with , words--one rrta.b IIl1inhOOfllOold age." J . Michelet . Le PelJple (Paris, 1846), pp . 336-338.2 [da,l )
~·o men , twent y men , a nd then one hundred , four hundred , five hundred mell:

more than twice the nu mber needed . ,It G. Pinet, l/iJroire de I'Ecole polytechrUqtJe ;' I'l1rnassus of the triangle alld the hypotenuse"-Ibi, is what Paul· Ernest de
(Paris, 1887). pp . 156-157. [The two passages cited are from <Achille> VaulaheUe. Rallier, ill P(lriJ II 'exute po.'! (Pa rls, 1857), caUs the Ecole Polyteehniq ue (p . 19),
H~t oire det deux re&lauration.'! , vol. 8 , p. 29 1, and a leller of M. MaugoiD to u, [r2a,2]
Preue, Saumur, Marc h 8, 1853. ] [r2,l)
Ch. F. Vie!, as an adversary of engineering construction, no less than as a royal.
The students of the Ecole Polytechnique organize a relief fund to make it ealier for ist, was necessarily also an adversary of the Ecole Polytechnique. H e laments the
La Tribune to pay a fmc. (Pinet, p . 220. ) [r2.21 decline o f architecture as art-a decline "that began with that ternble period when
the throne o f o ur king was toppled ." Charles·Franc;ois Viel, De Ia Chute imminente
Lamartine in De.'!tinee5 de fa poe.'!ie, as cited in J\1jchiels: " AI. Lamartine, who_ de fa science de fa construction cUs batimen.s en France, vol. 1 (Paris, 1818), p. 53. The
,een with his own eyes the inteUectual servitude of the Empire, describes it .... 'It srudy of architecture as an is, according to him, more difficult than the mathe­
wu a univer sal confed eracy of the mathematical fonn ' of stud y, in opposition to matical theory of construction; as p roof, he cites the many prizes won in this field
thinking and poetry. Num ber alone was permilled, was honored , protected, aad by studen ts of the Ecole ft:llyteclmique. The author speaks contemptuously o f
paid . Since number does not think for itself, the nlwtary chief of that era had aeecl the new educational arrangements-"these new institutions professing everything
of no other . . . henchman .'tt Alfred Michiels. H ~toire des idee. Utreraira ­ with everything else"-and he writes on the same page: "Let us pay ho mage here
France au X IX' sikcle (Paris, 1863), vol. 2, p . 94. Id,3J to the government that has judged so weU of the difference between mathematics
and architecture, and which has p reserved the special school in Paris for the
Pinet dl u roire de "Ecole polytechnique (Pari" 1887) ) (p. viii) refen to tbe Eaey.. leaching of this an, and recreated the private boarding school o f Rome." Charles­
c10pedistes as " the true found en" of the Ecole Poly technique. (d,"] Franc;ois Vie!, De 1'/mpuiJJance des mathimah·ques pour QJJurer fa solidilt des bali·
mens (Paris, 1805), p. 63. Vie! emphasizes (ibid., pp. 31-32) the irrational element
" One tried b y every means pOllllible, but always without succe88, to win lite Ecole in the genuine study of architecture: "1be fonus preexist the construction and
over to the cause of the Bourbon8." Pinet, Hu toire de l'Ecok polytec~ COnstitute essentially the theory o f the an o fbuilding,tt ln 1819 (De fa Chute . .. ,
[<2,5) vol. 2, p. 120), he is still denouncing "the attitude o f the century ooward the fine
am in general, which it puts in a class with the industrial ans." [r2a,3]
Customs and pre<:epu of the student body at the Ecole Polytechnique, 88 apela­
bled in the <;Code X .... " It rested entirely on this ODe principle. which h.d ~ From the time of Napoleon I, the Ecole ft:llytechnique was subject to continual
upheld ever since the school was found ed : <An y resolution voted through i , oblip­ ~proach for providing practical training with an overly broad theoretical founda·
tory, no matter what the consequenCes might be. '" Pinet , pp. 109- 110. (12,61 tlon. These oiticisms led, in 1855, to proposals for reform, against which Arago
took a most determined stand. At !.he same time, he dismissed the charge that the
Michelet on the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole Normale: " Mter those :::: schr;>ol had becomc a breeding ground o f revolutionary animus: "I have been
trials, there seemed to be a "IOment of silence for aU human p auioDs; one . tol~ of a reproach directed against polytechnical instruction, and aecording to
h ave thought that ther e was no Jonger any pn'd "-mteres
e,8eu ' t
, oenv,
r . The leadiallie ~hich !.he mathematical disciplines-the sood y of differential calculus and of
men in the state and in science accepted the lIIost humble positions of pub lI'Itegral calculus, for example-would have the effect of tranSforming their 500·
' JImeb"c." 'Ifteen h un dred studenU­
instruction . I... «ra nge a nd Laplace tllug JIt aTit . dents into socialists o f the worst stamp.... How has it escaped the author of such
, J r
grown men who were III soniC cases a .rea y amous-came ... t 0 take thelf ........
d sea" arl1!proach that its immediate consequence is nothing less than to range the likes
uld inu­
at the Ecole Normalc and to lear n to teach . They came as b est I.Jley co ' rftOI o a liuygens, a Newton, a Leibniz, a Euler, a Lagrange, a Laplace among the
depth of winler. at that time of I){)vcrty and Canline .... A great citizen , Ca at; mOst hot·headed o f denlagogues? It is truly shameful that someone was led to
~e comparisons of this kind." <Franc;ois) Arago, Sur l'ancienne Ecole polytech­
••• WIlS tim relll fou nder of the Ecolc Poly technique. Tilcy learned with the r.e eaII

sold ier s .... Watching the ullinterrllptefl inventions of their teachers, the stud mque (Paris, 1853), p. 42. (r3.l )
In Le Cllre de villose. which Balzac wrote in the yea rs 1837 10 1845, the re a re 'Ve forls will be occupied by r egular army t roops! You admit then that , with II system
violent anacks on t he Eco le Poly technique (coming in the leiter of Grego'roy of forts , t he popula tion could not defe nd itself alone. This is . . an immense, a
Gerard 10 h~s palron , the ba nke r GrOS8.Cte le). Balzac fears thallhe forced 8tUdy~ terrible 11Ilmissio n ," Arago. S ur tes f'ortijicCllions de Paris (Paris, 1841), p p . 80­
the exact sClenccs would have devas tating effects on the spiritual constitution and 81. [r3a, l]
life s pan of the st udents. Still more c haracte ristic are the following rc Rections: ".
do lIot believe Ihal any engineer who ever left the Ecole could build one of the Marx 0 11 the June Ins urrectio n: " In order to dis pel the people's last illusion , in
miracles of architecture which Leonardo da Vinci e rected-Leonardo who w as a, orde r to e nable a complete break with the past, it was necessary for the customary
alice e ngineer, architect , and painte r, one of the inve ntor s of hydraulic science, the poetic acco mpanime nt of a Fre nch uprising, the e nthusiastic yo uth of the bour~
indefatigable constr uctor of canals. They arc so accustomed while not yet in their geoisie, the students of the Ecole Poly technique, the three~cornered hats-all to
• teen s to the baJd simplicity of geometry, that by the time they lea ve the Ecole th take the s ide of the oppressors." Karl Mar)!: , " Dem Andenken del' Juni-Kampfe r"
ha ve quite lost all feeling for grace or ornament. A column , to their eyes, is~ [Karl Marx als Dellker, Me1lsch Ilnd Revolutioniir. Cil. D. Rjazano v (Vienna and
useless waste of material. They return to the point whe re art begin&---<ln utility Berlin <1928> , p . 36]. ~ [r3a,2]
they ta ke their sta nd , and stay there." H . de Balzac, Le Cure de village , ed. Siecle
(Paris), p . 184. l <4 (r3,2] Agaill , in 1871, in his strategy for the defense of Paris, BJa nqui comes back to the
uselessness of the forl s whic h Louis Philippe erected agains t Paris. [r3a,3]
Arago's speech on the question of fortification s" is directed against the report by
T hiel'S a nd against Lamartine. The speech is dated January 29, 1841. One of its The postrevolutionary tendencies of architecture, which gain currency with Le.
most important sectio ns is headed: " The detac hed fo rts examined from the point doux, are characterized by distinct block·like structures to which staircases and
of view of their political significance. Is it true that governments have never re­ pedestals are often appended in "standardized" fashion. One might discern in
garded citadels as a means of subduing and s uppressing populations?" From thit this style a reflection of Napoleonic military strategy. With this goes the effort to
section : "!\t. Thiers d oes not like to admi t that any governme nt , in o rder to control generate certain effects by means of structural massing. According to Kaufmann,
t he po pulation , would e ve r resort to bombarding the towns .. . This illusion ettf'o "Revolutionary architecture aimed to produce an impression through giant
tainly does honor to his humanity and to his taste for fine arts; but ... few otben ~ses, the sheer weight of the fonus (hence the preference for Egyptian fonus,
would s hare it.. . And so . . . one ma y subscribe to the protestations of 1833 ­ \ Which. predates the Napoleonic campaign), and also through the handling of
against the de tached forts and the smaller fortresses without inc urring the epithet matenals. The cyclopean embossment of the saltworks, the powerful ordon­
of ' philistine,' o r ' madman ,' or other such compliments." Arago, Sur Ie, Fo"";" ~ce of the Palais de J ustice at Aix, and the extreme severity of the prison
fico tions de Paris (Paris, 1841) , pp. 87, 92-94. [13,31 d~lgned for this city ... speak clearly of that aim." Emil Kaufmann, Mm Ledoux
bu Le CorbuJier (Vienna and Leipzig, 1933), p. 29. [r4,1]
Arago fi ghts for the "continuous enceinte" as opposed to the " detached forti":
"Tile goal we should strive for, In fortifyin g Pans, is clearly to give this ~tie Ledoux's planned toll~belt for Paris : " Frum the beginning, he set his sights as high
city the means of defe nding itself solely with the aid of its Garde Nationa1e, itt U possible. His tollgates were inte nded to proclaim from afar the glory of t he

workers, the population of surrounding areas, and some detachments of ~ capital . Of the more t han forty gu ard houses, not one resembled any of the others,
army troops ... . This point granted, the best ramparts for Pa ris will be tho~ the and a mollg his papers afte r his death wer e found a number of unfinis hed pla ns for
popula tion find s to be best- t he ramparts most intima tely suited to the tastel, expanding Ih,. ys Iem . " Emil Ka u I ma nn , "
ronL e01U'
d bls
· Le CorbWJler:
. Ursprun15
customs, ideas, a nd needs of an armed bourgeoisie . To pose t he question in tbP Itlld EII/wicklllllg der a lltollomell Arcllitektllr (Vienna a nd Leipzig, 1933) , p. 27.
manner is to reject o ut of hand the sySlem of de tac hed forts . Be hind a continuoUJ [r4,2J
surrounding wall , the Garde Nationale would have news of t heir families at aD
times. The wounded would have access to care. In such a siluatio n , the apprehen­ ~Shorll y afte r ISOO, things wll re alread y so far a lullg Ihat the ideCis whic h appear
In Ledo ux a IIIl Ull' I I b
0 11 ec--e elnent a o ut ursts of passio na te natures- were bcing
sive guardsman would be as good as the seasoned vete ran . On the o ther hand , we
Ptopollnd e las Ire OulCla ' I t I oct rUle.
· . .. 0 nl y three decades separate the late work of
would be strangely deluded if we imagined that citi zens unde r d aily 'o bligations at
p '. . wi ' ,I lill I d· I .
. • . e m >0 les t Ie l eaclllll g~ of French classicism, from the
heads of fa milies and as heads of businesses would go , witho ut great reluctance, to " reCIS cies Ie,
II C I S .
I' / . 10 uru m I . wIlose thinking had a Ilecisive
s hut themselves up within the fOllr walls of a fort- that they wo uld be )lrepar~ to • O il S ( arc lI(ectl/re 0
InflUence II1.lrlllg. t IIe ". 1II1)J·n~ alii I III· t h e pe riod
. fo llowi ng. They ure the three dec­
seques te r the mselves at the ve ry momenl when ci rcumstances of the most pressiDI
E of l I '
.A!l OU X S career. Durullll , \,\' '' 0 a nllOUllce,l the no rm fro m Ilis chair al the
kind wo uld de ma nd their presence a t the domes tic hea rth or at the cou nte r, stOre.
or wo rkshop. I can alread y hear the response to such impe rio us demands: tile cole Hoya le Polyteclini'l"e ill Paris, ... di" e rges from Biollliel Oil all essential
points. His primt: r begins ... with violent attacks on Iwo ramous works of
BarOtlut: art . St. Peler 's in Rome, along with its square , and the Paris Pantheo.
are invoked a8 counlert:xamples . . . . Whereas Blonde! wa r ns or ' mOnotobO",
planimetry' and would nol be unmindful or the function of perspective, Our_tad
leeS in the elemt: nta ry Ichemata or the plan the onl y correct 80lutionl." Ebail
Kaufmann , Von Ledoux bil Le Corbwier (Vienna and Leipzig, 1933). pp. 50-51

The institution or the Ponl, et Chaus&ees <Civil Department of Bridges and IUp..
way,) had the unique privilege of coming through the greal Revolution unCOQ­
te!lted . [r4a,l j

The students of the Ecole Poly technique. according to 8artllelemy :

Clory 10 you , youlha or banqutu and da rts!
1I0w we apIllaudtd in our potu' ht arta
When on tht dusty tlreel you took your 8land.
Elega ntl y drened , with rifle in hand!

Barthelemy and Mer y, L 'InJllrrecrion (Paris , 1830), p . 20. [r4_,21

-First Sketches
Paris Ar cad es <I>

Thc:sc early SKetches for 1M AroukJ /tojtct (Gt.sammtllt Sduiftm, vol. 5 [Fr:mkfun: Suhrkamp,
1982}. pp. 991-1038) W'O l: wrium by Iknjamin in a bound notebook that oontains various other
IlOId and dratu dating from mic!.l927 to early 1930. Many of the sketches are crossed OUt in
Benjamin" manusaipt, presumably because in most casa they wen:. revised and transferred to the
these canceled sk(tches arc printed hue in a smalla type5ize. with
lJ\:LJ\usai}M of the ooll\vlutCl j
aos.s-referenccs 10 the corresponding mtric:t in the convolutes and early dnfts. (Some of the uncan·
ceIed sketches. in the larger type5Ue, were: also transferral to the convolutes, and arc accordingly
~OSHefcrell('.(d.) Crosa-r&renas should not be considered exhawtive. TIle numbering hae, as in
) "'The Arcades of P:u1s,~ is thai of the Gcnnan editor and bears no relation to the numbering o( the
CXllwolu{CI. 1bc sign <,,) indicates an illegible word.

The asphalt roadway in the middle: teams of harnessed humans, human car­
riages. Procession of human carriages. <Ao, P
The Street that runs through howes. Track of a ghost through the waIls of houses. <See
1..2,7.) <Ao,2)

People who inhabit these arcades: the signboards with the names have nothing in com­
mon with those that hang beside respectable CDD'}'W3YS. Rather, they recall the plaques on
til( railings of cages at the zoo, put there to indicate not so much the dwdling place ali the
name and origin of the captive animals. <See b O ,2.> <A°,3>

~rld of particu1ar secret affinities: palm D« and feather dwter, hairdryer and \knus de
Milo, champagne bottles, prostheses, and letter-writing manuals, <broken of}} <Sec a°,3
ilnd R2,3.) <A",4>

When, as children, we were made a present of those great encyclopedic works­

World and Mankind or The Earth or the latest volume of the Nt:'W Uniua;e­
w:un't it into the multicolored "Carboniferous Landscape" or "European Animal
Kingdom ofthc Ice Age" that we plunged firSt of all, and weren't we, as though at
: St sight, drawn by an indeterminate affinity bet'A-'een the ichthyosaurs and
~ns, the Illammoths and the woodlands? Yet this same strange rappon and
pnmordiaJ relatedness is revealed in the landscape of an arcade. Organic world
and inorganic world, abject poverty and insolent luxury enter into the most
COntradictory communication ; the conunodity intenningles and interbreeds as
Promiscuously as images in the most tangled of drean15. Primordial landscape of
consumption. <See a O ,3.) <A",5)
Trade and traffic an: die twO components of the st:rcct. Now, in the arcade me fint of Ihcae Everywhere stockings playa staJring role, They arc: found in the photographer's studio,
<error, corrected in A3a,7> has all but died OUt: the: traffic thc:n. is rudimentary. 1bc then in a doll hospital, and, one day, on dIe side: table of a tavern, watched over by a girl.
arc.1de: is a St~t of lascivious cOllunerce: only; it is wholly ada pted to arousing des~. {$ee "Arcades" and bO, l.) <Ao, IP
lllUS, there is no mystery ill the: faCI that whores fed spontaue:ously drawn dlCJ"C. BecaUSe
in this St:rccl all the: juices slow to a 51andsUU, the conunodity proliferates along the: hoUk nle arcade may be conceived as mineral spa <BlUnnennallt>. Arcade myth, with legen­
fronts and enters into new and famastic combinations, like: die: tissue in tumors. <Ao,6) dary source:· <Sec 1..2,6.) <A°, 12)

The will tums down the wide street into the teeth of pleasure and, as lust, drags It is high time: the beautics of the ninete:enth century were discovered.
with it into its gloomy bed whatever it finds in the way of fetish, talisman, and
gage: of fate across its path, drags with it the rotting debris of letters, kisses, and Arcade and railroad station: yes I Arcade: and church: yes I Church and railroad station:
Marseilles I <Ao, 14>
names. Love presses forward with the inquisitive fingers of desitt down the:
winding stn:et. Its way leads through the interior of the lover, which opens up to fuster and arcade: yes / fuste:r and building: no / I\>ster and <x): open I
him in the image of the beloved who passes lightly before him. This image: opens
up his interior to him for the first time. For, as the voice of the truly beloved Conclusion: erotic magic I lime: I Perspective I Dialc:tical rcvc:rsal (conunodity-type).
awakens in his heart an answering voice which he has n ever before heard in <Ao, 16>
himself, the words which she speaks awaken in him thoughts of this nc:w, much
more hidden ego that reveals to him her image, while the touch of her hand
awakens <broken off> <Ao,7]
, There: is, to speak once more of restaurants, a nearly infallible: criterion for determining
thc:ir rank.. This is not, as one might readily assume, the:ir price: range, \-\k find this
Game in which children have to form a brief sentence out of..,given words. 1bia unexpecte:d criterion in the color of the: sound that grttts us when <broken oID <8°, 1>
game is seemingly played by the goods o n display: binoculai£ and Sower seeds,
screws and musical scores, makeup and stuffed vipers, fur coats and revolvers. The solemn, reflective, tranquil character of the Parisian mealtime is measured

Maurice: Renard, in his book. Le Pml bleu, l has told how inhabitants of a distant pbnet
come: to study the: Bora and fauna indigenous to the lowc::r dqxh5 of the atmOSpbc::re-ia
- less by the particular dishes served than by the stillness that surrounds you in the
restaurant, whether it be before uncovered tables and plain white waILs or in a
iarpc:ted and richly furnished dining room. Nowhc:re does one find the hubbub
of a Berlin restaurant, where patrons like to give themselves airs and where food
other worm, to the: surface: of the earth. These: interplanetary travelers see in human
is only a pretext or necessity. 1 know a shabby, dark room in the very middle of
beings the equivale:nt of tiny <?> dc:c:p-sea fish-that is to say, beings who live: at the
which, a few minutes past noon, milliners from nearby shops gather around long
bottom of a sea. \Ak no more feel the pressure of die atmosphere than fish fed that of the
water; dlis in no way a1ten the fact dUll both se:u of creatures reside on an ocean Boor. marble tables. They are the only customers, keeping quite to themselves, and
With the study of the arcades, a closely related reorientation in space is opened up. ~ they have little to say to one another during their short lunch break. And yet-it
street itself is thereby manifest as (x> well·worn interior: as living space: of the: colleclMe., is merely a whispering, from which the clinking of knives and forks (refined,
for true collectives as such inhabit die: street. The collective: is an e:ternally awake, eter­ dainty, as though punctuated) continuously rises. In a "Chauffeurs' Rendez­
nally agitated being that-iII the space: bet\\'e(:n the building fronu-Iivc:s, c:xpc:rie:nces. vous; as the small bistros like to call themselves, a poet and thinker can have his
understands, invents as much as individuals do within the: privacy of their own four~. breakfast and, ill an international company of Russian, Italian, and French taxi
fur it, for dlis collective, e:narneled shop signs arc: a wall decoration as good as, if,~
drivers, ad vance: his thoughts a good distance, If he wants, ho'w ever, to enjoy the
better than, dlC inexpensive: olc:ograph above the: hearth, Walls with their "I\>st No ~
undjvided sociable silence of a public repast, he will not tum his steps toward any
arc: its writing desk, ne:wspaper stands its libraries, display windows its gfazed inaC~Ibk:
annoires, mailboxes its bronzes, benclles its bedroom furniture , and the: cafe terrace 15 the of the venerable old Paris restaurants, and still less toward one of the newer chic
balcony from which it loolu down on its household. As with a railing where: pavcr5 hang establisluncnts; rather, h e goes to seek out, in a remOle quarrier, the new Parisian
their coats before going to \\l{)rk, the vestibule is the hidden gateway which gives ontO a mosque. There he finds, along with the indoor garden and its fountains , along
row of courtyards-is, for it. the corridor that daunts the strangers and sefVC;S as the: key with the obligatory bazaar fuU of carpets, fabrics, and copperware, thrtt or four
to its dwe:lling. <Sec dO, 1 and M3a,4.> <Ao,9> Oledium-sized roo ms fumished with stools and divans and lit by hanging lamps.
He must of course bid adieu not o nly to French cooking, which he exchanges fOT
A factory of 5,000 workers for we:ddings and banquets. Attire: for bride and. grooJU. a choice: Middle Eastem cuisine, but above all to French wines. Nevertheless,
Birdseed in the fixative pans of a photographer'S darkroom.-Mme. de: Collsolis, Ball.c:l within mo nths of its opening, the best Parisian society had already discovered the
Mistress. Lc::ssons. C lasses, Routi:nes.-Mme. de Zalma, Fortunetcllc:r. possession by spr­ "kaets of the mosque" and now takes its coffee in the little garden, or a late
iu, Illusions, Secret Embraccs. <Sec "Arcades" and aO,3.> <Ao,10) , supper in o ne of the adjoining rooms. <8°,2>
U one wanted to characterUc the inexhawtible charm or Paris in a £ew won:h, one COUld conunentating <?> naturalist theater of Chirac housed the Theatre de verite, in
say that there is in tim atmosphere a wisely apportioned mixture, such that <broken om which one·act plays were performed by a nude couple. Today, one still finds in
<Bo,3) the Passage Choiseul the Bouffes Parisiennes, and if the o ther theaters have had
to close their doors, the small bare booths of the ticket agents open <something>
Carus on Paris, the atmosphere and its colors! / Paris as the city of painters I like a secret passage to all theaters. But this gives no idea of how strict the
Chirico: the palette of gray <see 01a,7 and 0Ia,8) <Bo,4) correlation between arcade and theater originally was. Under - , it was the
custom to name fancy·goods shops after the most successful vaudevilles of
Dreams vary according to where you ~ , what ~a and what street, but a~ the season. And since such shops, by and large, made up the most clegant part
all according to the time of year and the weather. Rainy weather in the city, in its of the arcades, tIle gallery was, in places, like the mockup of a theater. These
thoroughly ueacherous sweetness and its power to draw one back to the days of magaJiru de nouveau/is played a particular role here. <Co,3)
early childhood, can be appreciated only by someone who has grown up in the
big city. It naturally evens out the day, and with rainy weather one can do the Clarctie speaks of the "stifled perspective" of certain pictures and compares it to
same thing day in, day out-play cards, read, or engage in argument-wberea.s the airlessness of the arcades. <See El ,5.> But the perspective of the arcades can
sunshine, by conuast, shades the hours and is funhermore less friendly to the itself be compared to this "suffocated" perspective, which is precisely that of the
dreamer. In that case, one must get around the day from morning on; above aU, stereoscope. The nineteenth century <broken off> <CO,4>
one must get up early so as to have a good conscience for idleness. Ferdinand
H ardekopf, the only honest decadent which Gennan literature has produced, Energies of repose (of tradition) which carry over from the nineteenth century.
and whom I hold to be, of all the German poets now in Paris, the most unproduc­ Transposed historical forces of uadition. What would the nineteenth century be
tive and the most able, has in his "Ode vom seligen Morgen" <Ode to Blessed to us if we were bound to it by tradition? How would it look as religion or
Moming),"s which he dedicated to Emmy H ennings, laid out for the dreamer the mythology?"W: have no tactile <Jal.tisdv relation to it. That is, we ~ trained to
best precautions to be taken for swmy days. In the historytf the p«teJ maudib, view things, in the historical sphere, from a romantic distance. To account for the
the chapter describing their battIe against the sun is yet to be written; the fogs of directIy transmitted inheritance is important. But it is still too early, for example,
Paris, which is really what we ~ talking about here, were dear to Baudelaire to fonn a collection. Concrete, materialistic deliberation on what is nearest is
<See Ola,9.>. <Bo,5) _ \now required. "Mythology," as Aragon says, drives things back into the distance.
Only the presentation of what relates to us, what conditions us, is important. The
............... nineteenth century-to borrow the Surrealists' terms-is the set of noises that
Every year, one hears it said that the last Bastille Oay did not measure up to invades our dream, and which we interpret on awaking. <CO,5)
previous ones. Unfortunately, and by way of exception, it was true this time. 1be
reasons: Ftrst, the cool weather. Second, the city this year had refused to grant the A walk through Paris will begin with an aperitif-that is, between five and six
usual funds to the holiday committee. TIUrd, the franc has to some ~egtcc . o'cl~. I would not tie you down to this. YOu can take one of the great railroad
stabilized: And everyone knows what a splendid basis for popular fesl1vab a Statl~ns as your point of departure: the G~ du Nord, with trains leaving for
weakened currency is. Last year, when in July the franc was in the midst of a Berlin; the Care de l'Est, with departures for Frankfurt; the G~ Saint-Lazare,
terrific slump, the currency communicated its impetuosity to the desperate pub­ Where you can take off for London; and the Gare de Lyon, with its <xxxx> intO
lic. People danced as they had seldom done before. AI. the streetco~ers fOI:' the P.L.M. If you want my advice, I'd recommend the Care Saint-Lazare. There
could find the old image: long festoons of electric bulbs, platforms Wlth roUSl" you have half of France and half of Europe around you; names like Le Havre,
clans, crowds of the curio us. But the dynamism of the tempos was undoubtedly PrQvence, Rome, AnlSterdam, Constantinople are spread through tIle street like
weaker: and the three-day·long festivities did not extend so late into the night as s....·eet 6lling through a tone. It is the sCK:alled Quartier Europe, in which the
, bla of
in years past. On the other hand, its aftereffect was longer. A small assem ~ greatest cities of Europe have all conmllssioned a sueet as emblem of their
booths, suolling confectioners, targeNhooting <staltds) <broken off) <C ,I) prestige. A rather precise and rigorous etiqueue prevails in this diplomatic corps
of European streets. Each one is clearly set off against lhe others, and if they have
'ome bUSlllesS
. to transact with one another- at the comers-they come together
Death, the dialectical cenual station; fashion , measure of time.
Vcr)' courteously, without the slightest ostentation. A foreigner who was unaw~
In the first half of the previous century, theaters too, by preference, fo~nd a pia: of the fact would perhaps never notice that he was in a royal household here.
in the arcades. In the Passage des Panoramas, the l"b.eatrC des Vanetes stalldeS ~top this particular throne, however, is the G~ Sai.nt-Laz.are itself, a robust and
next to the Child~n's Theater of M . Cornte;' another theater, the Cymnase dirty sovereign lady, a clanging puffing princess of iron and smoke. <See Ll ,4.>
EnfanLS, was located in the Passage de l'Opera, where later on, arollnd 1896, ~ But we are by no means oblige~ to limit ourselves to railroad stations. Railroad
Thin~ now o~ the city's s~uarcs. Here, certain distinctions are called for: so:
stations make good starting points, but they also serve very well as destinatio

arc wllhoUl lustory and WIthout name. Thus, there is the Place de la Bastille and
surrcalis~-:-"wave .of dreams"-new ~ of flanerie . New nineteenth-century
past- Paris Its clasSIC locale. H ere, fashion has opened the place of dialectical
the Place de 101 Rcpublique, the Place de la Concorde and the Place Blanche, but e.xchange between woman and ware. The clerk, death, tall and loutish, measures
there are also others whose designers are unknown, and whose names are often
not to be found on any wall. These. squares are lucky accidents, as it were, in tht:
the century by the Y:r?'~rv~ ~ n~equin ~e1f to save costs, and manages
single-handedly the liqwdauon that m French 15 called "revolution." <See f O1
urban landscape; they do not ellJOY the patronage of history like the Place and Bl ,4.> And all this \\"C know only since yesterday. ~ look on the empo/
Vendemle or the Place de GJive, are not the result of long planning, but instead offices, and where <?> yesterday there was <?> ... a room. <0°, 1>
resemble architectural inlprovisations-those crowds of houses where the shabby
buildings collide in a jumble. In these squares, the trtes hold sway; here the Fashion was n~'Cr anything other than: provocation of death through the woman. Here
smallest trt~ afford thick s~de. At night, however, their leaves stand out asairut "ith the viCtOry of death, this prO\"OCabon has ended. Death has ereaed the armature of
the gas-burnmg street lamps like transparent <x> fruits . These tiny hidden squarca the whores as a pallid battle memorial on the bankJ of the new Lethe, which as river of
are the future; <?> Garde~ of the Hesperid~. <See Pl ,2.> Let us suppose, then. asphalt runs through the arcades. <See CU ,1 and 81 ,4.) <D0,2>
that at five 0 clock we Sit down to an apentif on the Place Sainte--Julie. Of one
thing we may be sure : we will be the only foreigners and will have, perhaps, not And no thing at all of what we are saying here actually existed. None of it has ever
even one Parisian near us. And should a neighbor present himself, he will moat lived-as surely as a skeleton has never lived, but only a man. As surely, how.
likely give the inlprcssion of being a provincial who has stopped in here at the ever, <broken off> <0°,3>
end of the day to have a beer. Now, here we have a IittJe secret password of
freemasonry by which fanatical Paris·aficionados, French as well as foreign, rec­ ..... Being past, being no more, is passionately at work in things. To this the historian
ognize one another. TItis word is "province." With a shrug of the shoulders, the: crusts for his subject matter. H e depends o n this force, and knows things as they
true Parisian, though he may never travel out of the city for ;'fars at a stretch. are at the moment of their ceasing to be. Arcades are such monuments of being.
refuses to live in <Paris>. H e lives in the trminne or the tUuxieme or the dix­ no-more. And the energy that works in them is dialectics. The dialectic takes its
huitibne; not in Paris but in his ammdwement-in the third, seventh, or twentieth. wa~ through the arcades, ransacking them, revolutionizing them, turns them
And this is the provinces. Here, perhaps, is the secret of the gentle hegemony
which the city maintains over France: in the hean of its neighborhoods, and <that
is to say, its> provinces, it has welcomed the other into itself, and 50 possessea
­ upSide down and inside out, converting them, since they no longer remain what
they are, from abodes of luxury to <x>. And nothing of them lasts except the
name: passage;. And: Passage du Panorama <sio. 1n the inmOSt recesses of these
more provinces than the whole of France. FOr it would be foolish to depend OIl names the upheaval is working, and therefore we hold a world in the names of
the bureaucratic d ivision into ammdwemenl.l here: Paris has more than twenty of old ~treets, and to read the name of a strtet at night is like undergoing a transfor­
mallOn <?>.
them and comprises a multirude of towns and villages. A young Parisian author.
J acques de Lacretelle, has recently taken as the theme of his dreamy <?> 81nerit
Fashion as parody of the Surrealism
this quest for the secret Parisian districts, provinces, ammdiuemenlJ, and has
(motley) cadaver Primal landscape of consumption I Colors
offered a description of a riveur parisirn <Parisian dreamer> that teaches us a great
deal in twenty pages.' Paris has its South, with its Riviera and sandy beach where Inhabitants
new construction plays; it has its foggy, rainy Breton coast on the banks of the Inner spaces
Seine <?>, its Burgundian market comer not far from the H ate! de Ville, and its Dialectical reversal I Paris dolls
Fashion a dialogue with the Int&ieur I Salon
harbor alleys of ill fame out of Toulon and Marseilles- naturally not on the knoll
of Montmartre bUI just behind the respectable Place Saint·Michel. There are
body, even with putrefaction. Mirror I Perspective
other spots thallook as though, Oil the photo of a <broken off> <GO,6> Theaters I Dioramas
MagaJin; de lIoulJ(:autb I Guides to Paris
M.old in which modernilY is Fashion I Tune
And to have missed lhe o nset of evening, with the question confided from ~ "'" Lethe (modem)
heart of the hour, is proof of a successful , abundant Parisian afternoon, which 15
mudl too beautiful to be merely a vestibule of the Moulin Rouge. On another
occasion in noctumal Paris, we will make sure to take our <x> only after dinner. ~et as interio)" I the sitting room I the dialectical relJ(:r;al
<Go,?> t refuge of the commodity
All this is the arcade in our eyes. And it was nothing of all this earlier. <See a",2 r.mpa5SC Maubert, fonnerly d'AmboiK. Around 1756, at NQ5. 4-6, a poisoner resided

- and C2a,9.) So long as the gas lamps, even the oil lamps ....'ere burning in thetn,
the arcades ""ert: fairy palaces. But if we want to think of them at the height r
their magic, we must call to mind the Passage des Panoramas around 1870 <n' 0
with her rwo assistants. All three were found dead one morning- killed through inhala·
tiOIl of toxic fumes . <See Ala,8.) <EO,10)
. . on
?nc ~ide, the~ ~ ~light; on the o ther, oil lamps, still Rickered. The decline sets In the Passage d e la Reunion there was once a courtyard; in the sixteenth cen­
m \\I1I.h deemc lighung. Fundamentally, however, It was no decline but, proper) tury, it was a meeting place for thieves. At the beginning of the nineteenth or end
speaking, a reversal. As mutineers, after plotting for days on end, take possess' Y of the eighteenth century, a dealer in muslins (who lesale) sets up shop in the
of a fortified site, so the commodity by a lightning stroke seized power over : : arcade. <[°, 11>
arcades. On]y then came the epoch of conunercial finns and figures. The inner
radiance of the arcades faded with the blaze of electric lights and withdrew into pleasure districts in 1799: the Coblentz' (for returning
1\\'0 emigres) and the
their names. But their name was now like a filter which let through only the mOSt Temple. <E",12)
intimate, the bitter essence of what had been. (This strange capacity for distilling
the present, as inmost essence of what has been, is, for true travelers, what gives Lc Charivari of 1836 has an illustration showing a poster that COVCT3 half a housefront.
The windows are left uncovered, except for one, it seems, out of which a man is leaning
to the name its exciting and mysterious potency.) <0°,6)
while cutting av.ray the obstructing piece of paper. <See G3,6.) <EO,13)

Architecture as the most important testimony to latent "mythology." And the Originally gas wa3 delivered to fashionable establishments in containers for daily con­
most important architecture of the runete(:nth century is the arcade.-The effort sumption. <See TI,5.) <[",14)
to awaken from a dream as the best example of dialectical reversal. Difficulty of
this dialectical technique. <0°,7) Thurn <?) as ~orama in the Galcrie Colbert

Wcien David, Le Diu-rt (perfonned ~fore (by?> Arab5), ChriJloplte C4ll)11lb (panorama
music). <See Hl ,5.) <[°,16)
Lorgnette dealer.

In 1893 the arcaddi were closed to cocottdi. <See Hl ,4.)

Passage du Fbnt·Neuf: described in Zola's 7'hirele RtupJin, right at the beginning
I (identical with the earlier Passage Henri IV <?>'). <Eo,l 7>
Music in the arcaddi. "um/mlt magiqut.l Pim curituJd' With this cry, a peddler would
travel through the streets and, at a wave of the hand, step up into dwellinS' where be Elie Nachmeron <?) I Arcades: Bois.<fe-Boulogne (today: ),10Caire, Commerce,
operated his lantern. The '!!Jidu for the first exhibition of posters charncteristieally 6­ Grosse·TIte, Reunion. <[°, 18)
plays a magic lantern. <See Q,;!,3.) <E°,3)
"Wmter, with the famed warmth of lamps ... " PauJ de Kock, fA Grande Ville,
Rage for tortoisdi in 1839. Tempo of Banerie in the arcaddi. <See 02a,l.) d~ ~m

Names of magfIJinJ dt n()ulltauti; (most derived from successful vaudevilles): La Ville Paul de Kock: "numerals of fire" on the fronts of gambling houses. ([",20)
d'Honneur, La Vestale, Le Page Inconstant, Le Masque de Fer, Le Coin de la Rue, lA
Lampe Merveilleuse, Le Petit Chaperon Rou~ <Little Red Riding Hood>, Pr:tite Naneue, Passage Vivienne-sculptures at the entrance representing allegories of com­
Chaum.ihe Allemande <Gennan Cottage>, Mamelouk. <See Al,2.) <[°,5>
merce.1n an inner courtyard, o n a pedestal, a copy of a Greco-Roman Mercury.
<[°,2 1>
Sign above a confectioner's shop: "Aux Annes de \\\::rther." A glover's: "Au Ci·])evaPI
Jeone Homme" <Ibe Ci·Ocvant 'IDung Man). <See Al ,2.) <[°,6>
Years of industrial growth under Louis XVI II. <See Ala,9.)

Olympia-continuation o f the street. 7 Kinship with the arcade.

Louis Philippe drives out p rostitution from the Palais·Royal, closes the gambling
houses. <[",23)
Musee Grtvin: Cabinet des Mirages. Representation of a connection between
temple, railroad station, arcades, and market halls where tainted (phosphores­ Setup of the- panoramas: view from a raised platfonn, surrounded by a balustrade, of
cent) meat is sold. Opcra in the arcade. Catacombs in the arcade. <Eo,8> surfaces lying round about and beneath. The painting rum along a cylindrical wall
approxllllatdy a hundred meters long and twenry meters high. The principal panoramas
In 1857 the first electric stfCetlights in Paris (ncar die LoUVTC). <See TI ,4.) of PrCvost (dle great painter of panoramas): Paris, Toulon, Rome, Napldi, Amsterdam,
Talsit, Wagram, Calais, Antwerp, London, Florencc,lerusalcm, Athens. Among hU)Iqo
pm, Daguem:. <Sec QJa,I.> <EO,24) Rachel resided in the Passage VCro-Dodat. <Sec Ala,4.)

Site of the Passage du Caire in the notorious "Coor des Mil1lcles" (sec Hugo, Nofrt.~ 84 Rue Franciade, "Passage du Desir," which in the old days led to a lieu ga/(lnt.
de Paris). It was called the "court of mincles" because the beggars who made thD Plac:e <See A6a,4.) <£0,42)
their guild hall shed their feigned infinnities thae. <Sec AJa,6.> <E",25)
The panoramas in the Passage des Panoramas were dosed in 1831.
&bruary 12, 1790: execution of the Marquis de Favras (accused of COUnterrevolutionary
conspiracy). The Place de G~ and the scaffold decked with Chinese lanterns. <Set GuttkO\'>· repons that the exhibition salons were full oforiental scenes calrulated to arouse
Tla,9.) <E",26) enthusiasm for Algiers. <Set 12,2.> <E",44)

A Strasbourg piano manufacturer, Schmidt, made the first guillotine. Qyery for the arcades project.
Does plush first appear under Louis Philippe? <£°,4S>
Georama in the fourteenth ammd~/. Small nature·replica of France. <See Q;!,4.>
<£°,28) What is a "drawer playn? (Gutzkow, Brige aus Paris, vol. 1, p. 84)-(piea Ii
Jiroirs?) 13 <£",46)
Passage Vivienne the "solid" arcade, in contrast to the Passage des Panoramas. No luxury
shops in the fonner. Businc:nes in the Passage des Panoramas: Restaurant '\!!ron, Mar­ At what tempo did changes in fashion take place in earlier times? <Eo,47>
quis Chocolates, lending library, mwic shop, caricaturist, Theatre des Vari~tb (taiIon,
bootmakers, haberdashers, wine merchants, hosiers). <See A2,1.> <Eo,29) , Fmd out the meaning of bee de gaz" in argot and where it comes from. <E",48>

The perspective of the opera in the Mw~e Grtvin (on the Passage de 1'0pera, compare 14 Read up on the manufacture of mirrors.
Rml6mede 1'(0000).ll <E0,30) <£°,49)

) When did it become customary to give streets names that had no intrinsic rela­
The (caricaturist?) Aubert in the Passage Vero-Dadat. Marble pavementl
<[°,31) _ tion to them but were meant to commemorate a famow man, and so forth?
Roi-Ma~n <Mason King>--nickname of Louis Philippe. <Scc Ela,I .> <£°,32)
Difference between jJa.ssage and ali?
In 18631acques Fabien publishes PariJ m Jongt <Paris in a Dream..) He exp1airu there bow
electricity causes multiple blindings through excess of light, and induces madness becauIc: Early writings on iron construction, technology of faaory construction, and SO
of the tempo of news services. <See 82,1.> <£°),3) ~ ~w
Names ofjev.-c:lers written in false gemstones above their shops. <Set Al,2.) What is an astra1lamp? Invented in 1809 by Bordin-MarrdI <?>.15 <EO,53>

Transition £rom bou"·" ut to magasin. The shopkeeper buys provisions for a wed. and What an=: the atmospherica1 railroads of ValJance?L5 <£°,54>
., <EO3S)
withdraws to the ent:resoL <Set AI ,3.> ,
Where does the citation of Apollinaire in Creve! come from ?L1 <E",55)
In great vogue around 1820: caslunere.
:vn ere
is Picabia's proposal taken from- that of letting two mirrors face and look
Origin of the magic lantern. Inventor, Athanasius Kircher. lnto each other? Likewise cited in Creve!. As epigraph to the section on mirrors.
In 1757, there were only cafb in Paris. <Sec D3a,I .> <£",38)
~omJation about the construction of the Carccllamp, in which a clockwork mechanism
Identify the frontispiece to volume 1 of L'Hrrmite de la Chaussee d~ntin (PatU, ~vcs the oil from below up into the wick, when:::u in the Argand lamp (quinqut/) the oil
1813). L~ <E", 39) ps OUt of a reservoir into the wick from above, producing a shadow. <Sec Tla,7.>
"'Praise God and all my shopsn-saying attributed to Louis Philippe. Where did Charles Nodicr write against gas lighting?l8 <EO,58>
a good subject for wax. &redom <Lan~> is always the extema1 swfacc of uncon·
scious events. Therefore, it could appear to the great dandies as a mark of distinction. For
it is precisely <?> the dandy who despises new clothing; whatever he wean mwt appear
slightly frayed. A3 opposed to a theory of dreaIru that would revea110 w "'psyches," the
Tht: city madt: o f markt:ts. Thus Riga, whw vit:wed from tht: other sidt: of ~ ","Orld that comes to seem pointless. What about it? <See e°:2 and 02a:2.> <F" ,8>
river in tht: t:vt:ning light, looks likt: a warehouse:. When multicolored clouds
gatht:r over tht: oct:an, C hinest: It:gt:nd says tht: gods are coming togt:tht:r to hold Arcades: houses, passages, having no outside. Like the dream. <See Lla,L> <P,9>
a markt:t. Tht:y name this pht:noDlt:non hai-thi, or tht: S(:a·markt:t. <F>,h
Catalogue of muses: Luna, Countess Geschwitz, Kale Greenaway, Mors, Cleo de
Comparison of the arcades to the indoor arenas in which one Ieamc:d to ridt: a biC)'l:k. In Mbode, Dulcinea <variant: Hedda Gabler>, Libido, Baby Cadwn, and Friederike
these: halls the figure of tht: ",,"Oman assumed its most seductive aspea: as cydisL ibat g Kwipner. <See C l ,3.> <F",l O>
how she appears on contemporary posters. Chew: as painter ofthill feminine pulchritude.
<See 81 ,2.> <F",2) And boredom is the grating before which the courtesan teases death. <Sec 81,1.>
<F",Il >
Music in arcades. It seems to have settIed into these spaces only with the decline of the:
arcades-that is to say, only with the advent of mechanical mOllie. (Gramophone. 'The There are, at bottom, two sons of philosophy and two ways of noting down
~theaU'Ophone" in cenain respeas its forerunner.) Nevenhdess, there was music that
thoughts. One is to sow them in the snow-or, if you prefer, in the fire clay-of
confonned to the spirit of the arcades-a panoramic music, such as can be: heard today
only in old·fashioned genteel concern like those of the casino orchestra in Monte Carlo: pages; Saturn is the readt:r to contemplate their increase, and indeed to harvest
their 8owe:r (the meaning) or their fruit (tht: verbal apression). The other way is
the panoramic compositions of Oavid (I.e Di;ert, HlTWklnum). <See Hl ,5.> <F",3) ,
to bury them with dignity and ttect as st:pu1cher above their grave the image, the
The nine <sic> muses of SUIRalism: Luna, Cleo de Mtrode, Kate Greenaway, Man. metaphor-cold and barren marble. 21 <F" ,12>
Friederike ~mpner, Baby Cadum, Hedda Gabler, Libido, Angetika Kauffmann, Couuc­
ess Geschwitz.'20 <F" ,f) Most hidden aspect of the big cities: this historical object, the new metropolis, with its
wUform StrecU and endless rows of howes, has given material existence to those architec­
Amid the smoke of battle, on the printed piaure sheets, is smoke in which spirib rile tures of which the ancients dreamed-the labyrinths. Man of the aowd. Impulse that
(from the 7?louuznd and One Nights). <See 02a,8.> <F",5> ­ turns the big cities into a labyrinth. Fulfilled through the covered passageways of the
arcades. <See M6a,4.> <F",13>
There is a wholly unique experience <F,rfahrungJ of dialectic. Th~ compelling-the drat­
tic-experience, which refutes everything "gradual" about be:commg and shows all ~ I'trspective: plush for silk <?>. Plw h the material of the age: of Louis Philippe. <See El,7.>
ing "devdopment" to be: dialectical revenal, eminently and thoroughly ~m~ .. the <F",14>
awakening from dream. ror the dialectical schematism at the core of this. mapc ~
the Chinese have found, in their fairy tales and novellas, the most radi~ ~ Self·photography and the unrolling of the lived life before the dying. Two kinds of
Accordingly, wt: present the new, the dialectical method of doing ~tory: Wlth the : : : memory (Proust). <See HS,I and K8a,L> Relationship of this kind of memory with the
sity of a dream, to pass through what has been, in order to expcnence the p~t\\Ofld. dream. <P ,15>
waking world to which the dream refers! (And every dream refers to the waking
Everything previous is to be peneuated historically.) <See h O ,4 and KI,3.> <F",6>

Hegel: in itself-for itself-in and for ilS(:lf. 1n the Phiinoml7lofogie, these stages of
Awakening as a graduated process that goes on in the life of the individual as in ~t of the the dialectic bt:come consciousness-self-consciousness-reason . <F" ,16>
generation. Sleep its initial stage. A generation's experience of youth has.
mon with the experience <Erfahrung> of dreams. Its historical configu~t1~n ~ a For the Gamut in the word pQ.jJage. <P',17>
configuration. E..'Cry epoch has such a side turned toward dreams, the chil~ s Side. tions
previous century, it is the arcades. But where~ .the wu~ci?n of ear~ler genent-dsy ~~nshowers have given birth to many adventures.: 22 Diminishing magical power of the
explained these dreams for them in temu of rradiuon, of relig.ow doctnn.e, presetl. aD ram. Mackintosh. <See 01 ,7.> <F",18>
education sinlply amounts to the "disuaction" of children. What foUo~ here IS cJ
aperiment in the technique of awakening. The dialectical-the Copenucan~ p
What the big city of modem times has made of the ancient con ception of tht:
remembrance <flfendung deJ Eing(dt71AmJ> (Bloch). <See hO,4 and Kl ,I.> < ,
labyrinth. It. has raised it, through the names o f streets, into the sphere of lan·
Boredom and dust. Dream a ganllent one cannot rum. On tIle outside,.the gray ~ guage, raised it from out of the network of streets in which tilt: city <x> designated
(of sleep). Sleep state, hypnotic, of tIle dusty figures in tIle Muste GrCvin. A sleeper (x> within language <x>. <F", 19>
What was otherwise reserved (o r only a very few :>':::=~.~ri.::'~~"''''''' <>~ ":~~
nama-the city has made po5sible for all words, or atlea.u a great many: [0 be dcvactd
1be rrue expressive charaao- of street names can be recognized as soon as they arc set
beSide reformist proposals for their normalization. <Sec P2,4.> <F" ,32>
to the, noble Statu.! of name. And this supreme revolution in language wu canied
whallS most general: the street. And a vast order appc:an in the fact that all name. t,. o:-u Proust'S remarks on the Rue de Parroe and the Rue du 8ac.:ll <F" .33>
cities run into one another without exercising any influence <?> on one anotbc:r.~!:
those much~ names of great ,men. alrctdy haIf-congWed into concepts, ~ At the oonciwion of MaIiirt t t mimoirt, Bergson develops the idea that perception is a
more pa5$ through a filter and rcgam the absolute; through iu 5U'eet names ok_ ~ function of time. H, let us say, we were to live more calmly. according to a different
unage 0 f a ...
"-_.'.' 0 . . P3
'6.....,tlC cosmos. (..x;c; ,5.> • "~<tty.
,2•• rhythm, there would be nothing "subsistent" for us, but instead everything would happen

Only the meeting of two different street name; makes for the magic of .L_
"comer." <F".21)

Names of streets written vertically (when? <x> book? at any rate German). On
­ right before our eyes; everything would strike U5. But this is precisdy what occurs in
dreams. In order to understand the arcades from the ground up, we sink them intO the
deepest stratum of the dream; we speak of them as though they had struck w. A collector
lOOks at things in much the same way. llllngs come to strike the great collector. How he
himself pursues and encounters them, what changes in the ensemble of items arc effected
by a newly supervening item-all this shows him his affain dissolved in constant Bwe, like
the invasion of the leuers. (f'>.22) realines in the dream. (See Hla,5.> <PO,34>

lbe structure of book! like La GrtJtUk Ville, I.e Diahk a Paris, Les ~ pmw ,. Until ca. 1870 the carriage ruled. F1inerie. on foot, took place principally in the arcades.
nu--mim.cJ is a literary phenomenon that corresponds to the stereoscopes, panoramu, aM <See Ala,L> <F" ,35>
so Conh. <Sec ~ ,6.) <F" ,23>

The true has no windows. Nowhere does the: aue look out to the universe. And the
, Rhythm of perception in the dream: story of the three trolls. <F", 36>
interest of the panorama is in seeing the true city. "The city in the bottle"--the city
indoors. What is found within the windowujJ howe is the aue. One such windowk:II
howe is the theater; hence the eternal pleasw-e it affords. Hence, also. the pleasure takal
~ He explains that the Rue Grange-Bateliere is particularly dwcy, that one gets terribly
in those windowless rotundas, the panoramas. In the theater, after the ~ of the
grubby in the Rue Rbumur." Aragon, POJSM ck Paris (Paris, 1926), p. 88. 24 <See Dla,2.>
poformance:, the doon remain closed. Those passing through arcades are, in a cauia
(CO, I>
sense, inhabitarus ofa panorama. TIle windows of this house open out on them. They c.-­
be seen out these windows but cannot thcmsdves look. in. (Sec ~a,7.> (f'O.2'.
"The coarsest hangings plastering the walls of cheap hotels will deepen into
Paintings of foliage in the Biblioth«tue Nationale. This work. waJ done in . . . (P,25. splendid dioramas." Baudelaire, Paradis artifidels, p. 72.r. <co,2>

With the dramatic signboards of the magasins ck noulH:Qutb, Wart enten the service of the Bauddaire on allegory (very important!), Paradi; artificiels, p. 73.26
bwinessman." (Sec Ala,9.) (P;26.
"It has often happened to me to note certain trivial events passing before my eyes
Ptrsian fashion makes its appearance in the mania for magasins. as shOwing a quite o riginal aspect, in which I fondly hoped to discern the spirit of
the period. 'This,' I would tell myself, 'was bound to happen today and could not
Fate of street names in the vaults of the Metro. <Sec P2,3.> have been other than it is. It is a sign of the times.' Will, nine times out of ten, I
have come across the very same event with analogous circumstances in old
On the peculiarly voluptuous pleasure in naming streets. <See PI,S.>Jean B~ memo irs or old history books." A. France, u
Jardin d'Epicure, p . 113.'" (Set:
u Mmianisme, organisation ginirale Paris: Sa cOn.Jtitution gblirale, part 1 ~. 51.2.> (C0,4>

lS5S). "Rue du senegal," "Place d 'Afrique." <See Pla,3.) In this connecao~

something on the Place du Maroc. <See Pla,2.) Monuments are sketched out III ~e figure of the 8:lneur. He resembles the hashish eater, takes space up intO
this book. too. <P,29> ~lScif like the lauer. In hashish intoxicatio n. the space starts winking at us :
What do you think may have gone on here?" And with the very same question,
Red lights marking the entrance to the underworld of names. Link betweCll spa~ accosts the 8aneur. <See Mla,3.> In no other city can he answer it as
name and labyrinth in the Metro. <See Cla,2.> <P,30> ~eoseJy ~ he can here. For of no other city has more been written. and more is
hisOWn here about certain stretches of the city's streets than elsewhere about the
Cashio- as Danae. <See C I ,4.> <F',3I> tory of entire counuies. (CO,S>
Death and fashion. Rilke, the passage from the Duinrnr Ekginl .~8 las is it a question here of elcmal retum), but rather that the face of the world, the
colossal head, preciscly in what is newest never alters- that thi5 "newest" remains, in
CharacteristicofJugcndstil are posters with full·length figures . So long asJugc:nd. C'-c:ry respect, the SaJ1lC. TIm corutitutes the eternity of hell and the sadist's delight in
stillasted, man refused. to grant a place to things on the giant silver surface of the innovation. To determine the totality of traits which define this "modernity" is to repre·
mirror, and claimed it for himself alone. <Go,i') sent hell. <Sec SI ,5.~ <Go, 11>

l)cfinition of die "modem" as the new in the COntext of what has always already been Rc:jugcndstiI: I¥:ladall. <SeejI8,6.>
there. <Sec SI ,4.) <Go,8)
Careful investigation into the relation between the optics of the myriorama and
"The clever Parisians ... , in order to disseminate their fashions more easily, made USC or the time: of the modem, of the newest. They are related, cenainly, as the: funda­
an cspccially corupiruous reproduction of their new c:reatioru-namdy tailon' dum­ mental coordinates of this world. It is a world of sulCt discontinuity; what is
mies.... These dolls, which still enjoyed coruiderable imponancc in the sevmtcenth and always again new is not something old that remains, or something past that
eighteenth ccnruries, were given to little girls as playthings when their career a5 fashion
recurs, but one and the same crossed by countless intennittence:s. (!bus, the
figurines had ended." Karl Grober, Kinderspieluug aUJ alter Zeit (Berlin, 1927), pp. 31-32.
gambler lives in intennittence.) Intennittence means that every look in space
<See ZI ,!.> <Go,9)
meets with a new constellation. Intermittence the measure of time in film. And
what follows from this: time of hell, and the chapter on origin in the book on
Perspective in the course of centuries. Baroque galleries. Scenography in the
Baroque.30 <Go, 19)
eighteenth century. <Go, IO)

Play on words with "·rama" (on the model of "diorama") in at the beginning of All true insight fonns an eddy. To swim in time against the direction of the
Em Goriot. <See Qj. ,6.> <Go, ll> swirling stream. Just as in art, the decisive thing is: to brush nature against the
grain. <GO,20)
RUckert: virgin forests in miniature.
Perspectival character of the ainoline, with its manifold 8ounces. In earlier rimes, at least
To cultivate fidds where, until now, only madness has reigned. Forge ahea'5 with cbt: six petticoats were worn underneath. <Sec El,2.) <Go,21>
whetted axe of reason. looking neither right nor left 50 as not to succumb to the boner -­
that beckons from deep in the primeval forest. But every ground must at some point ba....: Wtlde's Salome-Jugendstil-for the first time, the cigarette. Lethe flows in the
been rumed over by reason, must have been cleared of the undergrowth of ddusion aad ornaments ofJugendstil. <GO,22)
myth. This is to be accomplished here for the terrain of the nineteenth cenrury. <See
Nl ,4.) <Go,IS)
"The Gum·Resin Doll." Rilke's piece on doUs.31

Microcosmic journey which the dreamer makes through the regions of his own body. For
Glass over oil paintings-only in the nineteenth century?
he has this in common with the madman: the noises emanating from within the body,
which for the salubrious individual converge in a steady surge of health and bring CIl
sound sleep if they arc not overlooked, dissociate for the one who dreams. BI~ pres­ Physiology of beckoning. The nod of the gods (see introduction to Heinle's
sure, intestinal chum, heartbeat, muscle sensatioru become individually percepuble ~ papers).'» Waving from the mail coach, to the organic rhythm of the trotting
him and demand the explanation which ddusion or dream image holds ready. 1biI horses. The senseless, desperate, cutting wave from the departing train. Waving
sharpened reuptivity is a feature of the dreaming colIeaivc, which settles into the ~ has gone astray in the railroad station. On the other hand, the wave to strangers
as into the insides of its own body.
• • ..1 _ _ _
must follow in its wake in order to expound the
'l9 ,, __ Kl 4 > <Go 14) passing by o n a moving train. This above all with children, who are waving to
mnetecnth century as Its UI~" VlSlon. <oK<;: ,. ' angels when they wave to the noiseless, unknown, never·returning people. (Of
COurse, they are also saluting the passing train.) <Go,25)
Rustling in the painted foliage under the vaulte:d ceilings of die: Bibliotheque Nationaic-
roduced by the: many pa<TM continually leafed through in the books here. <See S3,3.)
P 0- • <Go,15) O~heus, Eurydice, H ermes at the train station. Orpheus the one who stays
~hind. Eurydice in the midst <?) of kisses. Hennes the stationmaster with his
Signal disk. <See Ll ,4 .) This a neoclassical motif. With the neoclassicism of
Heathscanr all remains evcr new, ever the same (Kafka, Der lhIuP)· <See Sl ,4.) 6>
, -' <Go,l Cocteau, Stravinsky, Picasso, Chirico, and others, it has this in common: the
transitional space of awakening in which we now are living is, wherever possible,
Modernity, the time: of hell. TIle punisrunellls ofheUarc always the newest thing r~ n:averse:d by gods. nlis traversal of space by gods is to be understood as light·
this domain. What is at issue is not that ~the same dUng happen.s over and over ( , IUng·like. And only certain of ~ gods may be thought of here. Above all,
Hennes, the masculine god. It is characteristic that, in neoclassicism, the IDJ.IItI
who are so important for classical humanism mean nothing whatsoever. MOlt­
over, there is much in Proust that belongs in the contexts of neoclassicism: name. Danois- (See Yla,6.)
of gods. Also, the significance of homosoruality in Proust can be grasped frorn
this perspective alone. More generally, the progressive leveling of the difference Specialty a5 a criterion for the fundamental <?) differentiation of items displayed accord­
between masculine and feminine elements in love belongs in this space. But what ing to the intere.m of buyers and coUectors_ Here is the historical-materialist key to genre
is important above all in Proust is the stake which the entire work has in the: painting. <See A2,6 and 12a,7.> <Ho, 12)
supremely dialectica1 dividing point of life: waking up. ProUSt begins with a.
presentation of the space of someone awakening.-Where neoclassicism is basi. Wiertz the painter of the arcades: The Prmu;tun Burial,'f'k Suicide, 'f'k Burnt
cally lacking is in the fact that it builds an architecture for the gods passing by Child, Woman Reading a NofJtl, Hung" Madneu and Crime, Thoughu and V'uions 0/
which denies the fundamental relations of their coming-ta-appearance. (A bad. a Sroutd Head, The Light!IOUJe 0/ Golgotha, ~ Second qfltr Dealh, 'f'k Might
reactionary architecrure.) <Go,26) of Man Knows No BoundJ, TM lAJt Cannon (in this picture: airships and steam­
pOwered dirigibles as the harbingers of achieved peace!). With Wienz, "optical
It is one of the tacit suppositions of psychoanalysis that a clear-cut distinction betwcc:n illusions." Under TM Tn"umph 0/Light: "To be reproduced on an immense scale."
sleeping and waking ha5 no value for the human being or for the empirical impressions of A contemporary regrr:ts that Wienz was not given, say, "railway stations" to
consciousness in general, but yields before an unending variety of consciow states deter­ decorate. <Ho,13)
mined, in each case, by the level of wakefulness of aU psychic and corporeal centers. ThiI
thoroughly Ilucruating situation of a consciousness each time manifoldly divided betweaa 10 render the ima~ of those salons where the gue was envdoped in billowing drapery,
waking and sleeping ha5 to be tranSferred from the individual to the collective. Once tbiI where church doors opened within full·length mirrors and settees were gondolas in the
is done, it becomes clear that, for the nineteenth century, houses are the dream c0nfigura­ eyes of those who sat there, on whom the gaslight from a vitreow globe shone down like
tions of its deepest level of sleep. (See KI ,5.) <G°,27) the moon. <Sec: 11,8.> <Ho, 14>

lmponant is the M-Orold character of the gateS in Paris: border gates and aiumphal
All collective architecture of the nineteenth century constitutes the\towe of the arches. <Sec: C2a,3-> <Ho,15)
dreaming collective. <Ho,l)­ ,
On the rhythm of today, which determines this work. Very characteristic is the
Railroad·station dreamworld of departure (sentimentality). op~itio~ in film, between the dowruight jerky rhythm of the image sequence,
which satISfies the deep-seated need of this generation to see the "Bow" of"devd­
Continuous assimilation of the various architectural capsules to forms of the opment" disavowed, and the continuous musical accompanimenL ill root out
<HO ,3) ~ry trace of "deve1opment" from the image of history and to represent becom­
dream house.
mg-through the dialectical ruprure between sensation and tradition-as a con­
Terrestrial atmosphere as undersea. stel1ation in being: that is no less the tendency of this project. <Ho,16>

Line of men around the woman to whom they are paying court. Train of suitors. ~tati.on_ of the tendency of this projea with respea to Aragon: whereas Aragon
~lSts WIthin the realm of dream, here the concern is to find the constellation of awaken­
~d\~.e in ~go? there remains an impressionistic dement, namely, the "mythology"
Esprit de masque-when did this expression come into use? ( . this ullpresslofU5m mwt be held responsible ror the many vaOJOUS philosophemes in
~book), here it is a question of the dissolution of "mythology" into the space of history.
t, of course, can happen only through the awakening of a not·yet<onsciol1.'l knowl­
Collapse of the iron market-hall of Paris in 1842_ edge of wh:tt has been. <See Nl ,9.) <Ho, l7>

Dennery, Xmpar Hawer, Matithal Nt), u Nauftagt dL Lo I¥rouu (1859). u 'frenrbJn¢tfl In,cn·ors 0 f our childhood days as laboratories for the demonstration of ghostly
de tnre de fa Marh'nique (1843) , BoMmiml dL Porn (1843). <See Yla,6.) <Ho,8) phcnomcna. Experimental relations. The forbidden book. Tempo o f reading:
two anxietits, on different levels, vie with o ne another. The bookcase with the
Louis-Franli0is Clairville, UJ &pt Chateaux du diable (1844), usPommeJ de terre ~ oval panes from which it was taken. Vaccination with apparitions. The other
(1845), Rothomago (1862), Ctndriflon (1866)_ <See YIa,6.) <H ,9 Prophylaxis: "optical illusions." <H",18)
1bc writinp of the.5urTcallits treat 'WOrds like a-adc names and form texts that in 1'Q}ity The Bower as emblem of sin and its Ilia cruru through the stations of the arcades,
act as prospectus for enterprises not yet off the ground. Nesting in the trade names arc offashion, of Red on's painting- which Marius and Ary Leblond have described
qualities that in earlier ages wae looked for in the oldest words. <Sec Gla,2.) <Ho, 19> by saying, "It is a cosmogony o fB~rs ." (JO,7>

Daumier <?>, Grandville-Wiertz­ More on fashion: what the child (and, through faint reminiscence, the man)
discovers in the pleats of the old material to which it fastens while trailing at its
........... . ... mother's skirts. <See K2,2.) <1°,8)

F. Th Vucher, Mode und ..Qnismus (Stuttgan, 1879). The arcades as milieu of LautJiamont.

Uprising of the anecdotes. The epochs, currents, cultures, movements always concern the .. ........... ..
bodily life in one and the same, identical fashion. 1bere has ~ been an ~ that did
not feel itself to be "modem" in the sense of most ecccrun<; and suppose iudf to be Variow notes drawn from Brieger» and Vucher:
standing directly before an abyss. A desperately ~ear consci0U5n~ of gathering aisia ia Around 1880, out-and-out confiict between the tendency to dongatc: the female
something chronic in humanity. Every age unavOidably ~~ to l~ a .~ age. ~t the figure and the rococo disposition to accentuate the lower body through multiply­
"modernity" that concerns men with respect to the bodily 15 as vaned. m Its ~ U ing underskirts. <]0, 1>
the different aspcru of one and the: same kaleidoscope.~The COIl5tnJ~I15 of history ut
comparable to instruetions that commandeer the tnJe life and confine .Il to ~. On
In 1876, the derriere disappears; but it comes back again.
the other hand: the street insurgence of the anecdote. The anecdote brings things near to
us spalially, lets them enter our life. It represents the strict to the ~ ~f ~
which demands "empathy," which makes everything ~bstra~. EmpaJhJ.: thu u wNtl Floral forms in the drawings of cyclothymes, which for their part recall drawings
newJpaJKr uading tmninaJlJ in. The tnJe method of making things present 15: to ~ made by mediums. <]°,3>
them in our spatt (not to represent ourselves in their space). Only anecdotes can do tbiI
for us. Thw represented, the things allow no mediating constnJction from out of "larF Story of the child with its mother in a panorama. The panorama is presenting the Batt1e of
contexts."-It is, in essence, the same with the aspect of great things from t)e put-cbc Sedan. The child regrcu that the sky is overcast. "'That's what the weather is like in war,'
cathedn1 of Chartres, the temple of Paestum: to receive them into ~ s~ce (~ to fa:I aruwcrs the mother. <See 01 ,1.> <1· •4>
empathy with their builders or their.priests). Vk don't displace our being mto ~:
step into our life.-The same tcehnique of nearness may be observed, calcndriaDy,. .
!: I

AI. the end of the 18605, Karr writes that no one Ir.nows how to make mirrors
regard to epochs. Let w imagine that a man dies on the vuy day he rums fifty, which. anymore. <See RI ,7.> <]°,5>
the day on which his son is bom, to whom the. same thing.happens, and 5O~ 'IbI;~
would be: since the birth of Christ, not fony men have lived. Purpose of ~ 6ctioo. 10 1bc rationalist theory of fashion appears very characteristically in Karr. It bears a rcscm­
apply a standard to historical times that would be adequate and comprehetu1ble to ~ b~ to the religious theories of the Enlightenment. Karr thirW, for example, that long
life. ibis pathos of nearness, the hatred of the abstract configuration of human life 111 skiru come into fashion becawe certain women have an interest in concealing an unlovely
epochs, has animated the great skeptics. A good example is ~le France. ~ ~ r~. Or he denounces, as the origin of certain types of hats and ccnain hairstyles, the
oNV"l.ition between empathy and actualization: jubilees, Leopardi. 13.33 <See S12o,4, SI&,3, wuh to compensate for thin hair. <See BI ,7.> <]°,6>
1'1'- - <1°,2)
...... . ... . .. ..
Benda. rq>Orts on aGennan visitor's amazement when, sitting at a tahk d.',,!tt: : : :
fourteen days after the stonning of the Basc:ille? he heard s~ ofJ>olitlcs. Addendum to the remarks on Metro stations : it is owing to these stations that the
France's anecdote about Ebntiw Pilate, who, Ul Rome, while washing his feet, no ~ names of places where Napoleon I gained a victory are transfonned into gods of
quite recalls the name of the aucifiedJew.:J.I <See SI ,3.> < the underworld. <KO,!)

Masks for orgies. Pompeian tiles. Gateway arches. Greaves. Gloves., ~ radical alterations to Paris under louis Napoleon (Napoleon II I), mainly along the
axu running through the Place de la Concorde and the H&d de Ville, in <Adolf') Stahr,
Vi:ry important: buU's-eye windows in cabinet doors. But was there such a thing in F~ ~fo'!!JaArt:1l <vol.. I (O ldenburg, 1857) , pp. 12- 13.-5tahr, moreover, lived at that
tunc on Leiptigcr Piau. <Sec E1 ,6.) <Ko,2)
as weD? <See 12a,4.)

To make a auly palpable presentation of human beings-doesn't that ~ ~e broad &ulevard de StnlIbourg, which COlUlecu the Strubourg railway Jtali01l with
e BouIevardSaint·Denis. <Ko,3)
bringing to light OUT memory of them? '
Around the same time, the macadaroitation of the strttts- which
makes it POSSible. Other nanles: opnca1 bel~derc:.
despite the heavy rraffic, to carry on a conversation in from of a cafe without
shouting in
the otha person's ear. <See M2,6.>
<K",4) In the year in which Oaguerre uwemed photography (l839) his diorama
bumed down.
For the archite1: twai image of Paris the war of 1870 was perhaps a blessing <See~ ,5. )
, seeing that <K", 11)
Napoleon III had intended to alta whole sections of the city. Stahr thus
writes, in 1857.
that one had to make haste now to see the old Paris, "for the new mer, It remairu to be discovered what is meant when, in me dioramas, the variation
it seems, has ~ s in lighting
mind to leave but liu1e of it standing." <See El ,6.> which a day brings to a landscape take place in fifteen or thiny minutes
<K",S> . <See Qja,4.>
<Ko, 18>
Orname nt and boredom. <See 02a,2.>
The Berlin dioram a is closed on M ay 31, 1850; the picture s are sent, in
pan, to
Opposi tion of perspec tive and concret e, tactile nearness. St. ~tersburg. <K",19>
In the thwry of collecting, the isolation, the segregation of every single Fmt London exhibition of 185 1 brings together industries from around
object is very the world. fol­
important. A totality integral character always sund5 as far removed lowing this, the South K.eruington museum is founded . Second world exhibitio
as possib&c n 1862 (in
from utility and, in preeminent cases, resides in a strictly defined, phenom £qnd()tl .,.,. With the Munich exhibition of 1875, the German Renaiss
enologialty ance style oune into
quite remarkable type of "completeness" (which is diametrically opposed fashion. <See G2a,3.>
to utility). (5ee <K",20)
<K" ,8)
In 1903, in Paris, Emile Tardieu brought out a book entitled L'Ennui, in which
all human
Histori cal and dialectical relation between dioram a and photog raphy. acrivity is shown to be a vain attempt to escape from boredom, but in which,
at the same
time, what is, what wu, and what will be appear as the inexhaustible nourish
ment of that
Important in regard to collecting: the faa that .~ object .is detached feeling. In view ofsuch a portrait. one: might suppose the work to be some
. from all origiraI mighty classical
functions of iu utility makes it the more decided III It! mearung. It £uncnon monument of literarure-a monumem aert: pa-enniu$ erected by a Roman
s now as a true to the hudium
encyclopedia of all knowledge of the epoch, the landscape, the industry, and the vitae.31 But it is only the self-satisfied, shabby sdtolarship of a new HonWs
owner , who aims to
from which it comes. <See Hla,2.> rum the most serious matters -ascetic ism and martyrdom include
d-into documents of

There wu plwram a (travels on water; pled, "I go ~ ship;, na~o


~, cosmorama,
­ hi! thoughtless, spiritually barren, petty·bourgeois discontent. <See 01,5.)

To be mentioned in connection with the fashion in shawls: the characteristic


diapbanorama, picturesqUe views, piaorial voyages III a room, ptCtOriaJ and, properly
room-vo yaF.
diaphanorama. <See Qj ,U speaking, sole deooration of the Biedermeier room "was afforded
<K",ll) by the curtains,
which-- extn:md y refined and compounded preferably from severa1 fabrics
of different
coI.ors- wue furnished by the upholsterer. For ne:arly a whole century afterwar
Among the images: the sea of ice on the Grindd wald g1a~er ~ Sv?tze
r~d, view decoration amounts, in theory, to providing irutructions to upholsterers
d, interior
of the harbor of Genoa from rooms of the Palazzo Dona, Ultenor for the tasteful
VIew of.the arrangement of draperies." Max von Boehn, Die Mode im X/X Jahrhun
dert, voJ. 2 (Mu·
Gothic ~
cathedr al ofBrou in France, gallery of the Coloss eum in Rome, nich, 1907) , p. 130. <See EI ,!.>
. . light. <Ko,22>
U1 monun g m,~
Mantlep iece clocks with genre scenes in bronze. Tune looks out
from the base.
The play on words with "-rama" (see Balzac, Pm Gorio~ in Germa ny as wdL "b Double meanin g of the teno temp$<x>.3I <See 02a,3.)
<?> it <?> still in use?" <See OJ. ,6.> <K" 13)
Rue des lrruneu bb IndusU 'iels-ho w old is it? <See PI a,S.)
. .. ea
V*ather and boredom. The mere soporific, ~tlZlng ect w hich cosmic forces have
f the highcIl
on the ordinary man is attested in the rdanon of such a man to one
manifestations of these forees: the weather. Comparison with the way
srudies on metwro logy)3ti managed to illuminat~ the weather.~ ~

wea~ Bc:rlin-)
J:w. "For our type of man, train Stations are truly factories of dreams." Jacques
~i..(: Rcveur parisien," Nouutllt Rw utjra1l{aiJt, 192Z <See Ll ,4.>
de Lacretelle,
fountain creates in iu panicular location. ~ubule of Daguerre s diorama
<KG, 14) Within the frames of the picrures that hung 0 11 dining room walli, the advent
~ather in the casinos. <See 01,3.> of whiskey
~\"ertisem.ents, of Van HoUten Cocoa, of ... is gradually heralded . Naturall
y, one can
say that the bourgw is comfon of the dicing room has survived longest
A ballet w hose princip al scene takes place m. .
the casmo M
at ante C ar. 10 Noise of in small cafb and
other such places; but perhaps one: can also say that the space of the cafe,
. within which
er of the ~;-)
rolling balls, of O"Oupiers' rakes, of chips determ ining the charact C\"ery square meter and every hour is paid for much more precisely
than in apartment
hous ColI , evolved out of the latter. Apanm enu laid out like cafb-i n Frankiu
n am Main,
something very characteristic of that town. Attempt to formulate what there was inside. its continually reappearing doctor, with its enterprising merchant (cesar Birotteau), with
<See Gl,2.> <Ko,26) its four or five great courtesans, with its usurer (Gobscck), with its sundry soldiers and
bankers. But above all-and we see this again and again-it is from the same streets and
Empty, brightly lit streets all we enter cities at night. They surround us in fan-shaped comers, the same little rooms and recesses, that the figures of this world step into the light.
fonnation, travel out and away from us like rays of a mandorla. And the glance into a What else can this mean but that topography is the ground plan of every mythic space: of
room will always find a ~amily at a. meal?T occupied ~th some obscure niggling thing tradition, <7J..aditiOTlJraum>, and that it can become indeed its key-just as it became the
at a table under a hangmg lamp, Its white glass globe set Ulto a metal. frame. Such ~ key for Pausanias in Greece, and JUSt as the hiswry, layout, distribution of the Paris
are the ~rm cells of Kafka's work. And this experience remains an inalienable posseuion arcades are to become the key for the underworld of IltiJ centtlry, into which Paris has
of his generation, his only-and therefore ours, because only for it do the horror.furnish­ sunk. <See CI ,Z) <Lo, n
inS3 of incipient high capitafum 611 the scenes of its rn0.5t luminous childhood expa;.
ences.-Unexpectedly, the street cmcrga here such all we never otherwise expe:rie:nce it,
Stahr reporu that the premier cancan dancer at the BaI Mabille, a certain Chicatd. dances
as way, all built-up thoroughfare. <See 13,3.) <Ko,27)
under the surveillance of two police sergeants, whose sole responsibility is to keep an eye
on the dancing of this one man. <See 04,2.> <L°,8>
What, then. do we know of streetcomers, of curbstones, of the architecture: of the pave­
ment-....-e who have never felt the street, heat, filth, and the edges of the stones beneath
our naked soles, and ha\"1! never scrutinized the uneven placement of the wide paving furtraits of famous cancan dancers on display in the arcades (Rigolette and Frichcttc).
stones with an eye toward bedding down on them.39 <See P I,IO.> <Ko,28) <See Gla,!.> <Lo,9)

On Redon: "Unconcerned with every quick and ttansitory effect, h owever se­
Mode und Zynismu ro-from the copy in the <Prussian) National Library, one ductive, he ultimately and above all wishes to give his Bowers the very essence of
can see how o ften it was read in the past. <Lo,l) life and, so to speak, a p rofound sou!." Andre Me1lerio, Odi/rm R((irm (Paris,
1923), p. 163. <Lo, lO>
Redon was on very friendly terms with the botanist Armand Clavaud.
Redan's plan to illustrate Pascal.
"I am not insp ired by the supernatural. I do nothing but contemplate t'r extcmal
world; my works art true-whatever on e may say." Odilon Redon. <L°,3) __
tRedon's nickname, after 1870, in the salon of Mme. de Rayssac: the prince of
"A cMvaI de rerY()t"/ <spare horse> which. at Notre Dame de Lorette, would make pouihIc: dream. <Lo, 12)
the hard climb up the Rue des Martyn." <See MI ,l.> <Lo,4)
Redon's Bowers and the problem of ornamentation, especially in hashish. Flower
Andre Me1lerio Odi/(JTI Rt(i(JTI (Paris, 1923). Refer to the plates on pp. 57 and 117. world. <Lo, 13>
, <LO~)

"Rococo," at the time of the Restoration, has the meaning "antiquated." <Lo, 14>
Say something about the method of comp<l5ition itself: how.everything ~ is lhinking II
a specific moment in time must at all costs be incorporated mto the proJCCl then at hand.
Amane that the intensity of the projea is thereby attested, or that ?~'s ~ghts, &om Chevet, at the Palais·Royal, "bestowed " dessen in exchange for a certain sum of
the very beginning, bear this project. within them as their telos. So.1t U Wlth the p~ money spent on the fruits and dainties consumed at dinner. <Lo, 15>
PO rtion of the work , which aims to characterize and to preserve the mterva1s of reHect:ioO.
the distances lying between the most essential parts of this work, whi are ttl
med IJl()Il
0 ) Eugr:ne Sue-a castle in Blogue <&rdes?>, a harem in which there were women of color.
intensively to the OUL!ide. <See N I,3.) <L ,6 After his deatll, a le~nd that tlleJesuiL! had poisoned him. <See 12,1.> <L°,16>

The Human Comedy comprises a series of works which are not novc:~' in the o~ TIle: tin racks with artificial Bowers which can be found at refreshment ban in railroad
sense of the term but something lik.e epic tranScription of the tradluon from the of
stations, and dsewhere, are vestiges of tlle 801'al arrangements that fonnerly encircled the
decades of the R~toration. Entirely in the spirit of oral tradition is the interyninab.ilitythe <cashier>. <See T I,9.> <L°,17>
this cycle the antithesis to Flauben's rigorous conception of form. No doubt about It- .
nearer a :VOrk stands to the coUcctive forms of expression of the epic, the more it tends, .n
varying and episodic development, to sununon up the same recurrent circle ~f ~ The Palais-Royal is in its heyday under Louis XVIII and Charles X.
according to the eternal. paradigm of ~reek legend: Balzae had w:ur:ed this rec:din8
constitution of his world ~u~ p~ase topographic COntours. ~ U ~ b wiIb Marquis de 5evry: director of the Salon des Etrangers. His Sunday d inners in
ground of his mythology, Paris Wlth Its t:\'t'O or three great bankers (like Nuangw), ~ Romainville. <Lo, 19)
How Blucher gambled in Paris. (See Gronow, A w ckr grrmen Wtll [Stuttgart, 1908], p. 56.) envelop his sun, images arix: like tables of the gods, islands in the Mediterranean. <See
Blucher borrows 100,000 franC!! from the Bank of France. <See 01,3.> <L0.20> }1la,2.> <Lo,3 1>

A bell sounds: depanure for a journey <?> in the Kaisapanorama. <Sec C3,5.> <Lo,2 1> The need for sctUation as king·siu: vice. To fasten o n two ofthe seven deadly sins. Which
ones? The prophecy that men would be blinded by the efferu of too much dectric light,
Concerning the mythological to~phy of Paris: the ~er given it by it5 gateway.. and maddened by the rapidity of news reporting. <See B2,1.> <Lo,32>
Mystery of the boundary stone which, although located In the hean of the city, once
marked the point at which it ended. Dialectic of the gate: from triumphal arch to tnf6c As introduction to the sectio n o n weather: Proust, the story of the little wuther
island. <Sec C2a,3.) <Lo .22> roannikin. 42 M y joy whenever the m o rning sky is overcast. <Lo,33>

When did indwtry take posse55ion of the streetcomer? Architectural mililems of c0m­ DemOiselles: incendiaries disguised as women around 1830. <See 02,4.>
merce: cigar shops haw: the comer, apothecaries the stain . .. <Sec C2,4.> <Lo,23)
Around 1830 there was a newspaper in Paris with the name I.e Sytphe. rind a ballet about
Panes of glass in which not the chandeliers but only the cand1es arc: rc:Bectc:cl. newSpapers. <Sa A2,9.> <L°,35>
<xx> fasces, Phrygian caps, tripods.
Excursw on the PLace du Maroc. Not only city and interior but city and open air can
become entwined, and this intertWining can occur much more concretely. ibert is the
Place du Maroc in Belleville: that desolate heap of stones with it5 rows of tencmena <xx) the "playing-card kings o f stone" in Hackliinder.
became for me, when I happened on it one Sunday afternoon, not only a Moroccan deaen
but also, and at the same time, a monument of colonial imperiafum j and topograpbit <Carb von Etzel-railroad constructions.
vision WlU entwined with allegorical meaning in this square, yet not for an instant did it
lose it5 place in the hean of Belleville. But to awaken such a view is something ordinarity
reserved for intoxicant5. And in such cases, in fact, street names are like intoxicating
substances that make our perception more stratified and richer in spa~ than .it iI ill Variow of the Berlin arcades should be: mentioned: the colonnade in the vicinity
evuyday exi.!tence. The state into which these StTeet. names D"anSport <w>, their wn. _ of the Spittelmarkt (Lc:ipzigc:r Strasse), the colonnade in a quiet street of the
IvoaUria (but this is saying too litde, for what is decisiw: here is not the association but _ I clothiers' district, the arcade, the colonnade at the Halle Gate, the railing at the
interpenetration of images) ought also to be coruidercd in connectioo with certain cycloid entry to private ways. Also to be: kept in mind is the blue postcard of the Halle
stato. The patient who wanders the city at night for hours o n end and forgets the w.,­
Gate, which showed all the windows lit up beneath the: moon, illuminated by
home is perhaps under the sway of this power. <Sec Pla,.2.> <LO,25>
exactly the same light as came from the m oon itself. Think funher of the un­
touchable Sunday afternoon landscape that opens out somewhere at the end of a
Did the boolu o f antiquity have prefaces?
forlo rn secluded Sb"ttt o f "faded gentility"; in its nearness, the houses of this
<LO,21> dubio us neighborhood seem suddc:nly changed to palaces. <Mo,l>
Bonho mie of revolutions in lhe boo" on Baudelaire, E2.61

Magic of cast iron: "Hahblle WlU able then to convince himself that the ring around this
Arcades as temples of commodity capital. <See A2:l.>
planet was nothing other than a circular balcony 00 which the inhabitants of Saturn
strolled in the evening to get a breath of fres h air." Grandville, Un aum mtmtk <Paris,
Pas5age des Panoramas, fo nnerly Pas5age Mires. <Sec Ala,2.>
1844>, p. 139. (Perhaps belo ngs also under the rubric "Hashish., <See "The Ring of
Saturn" and Fl,7.> <Mo,2>
In the fidds with which we are concerned here, knowledge comes only in lightning
<Lo 30)
Dashes. The text is the long roll of thunder that follows. <See Nl ,!.> '
~mparison of Hegel's PlriUlomen%gie and the worb ofGrandville. Derivation ofGrand­
ville's work in temu of the philosophy of history. Imponant is the hypertrophy of the
The deepest enchantment of the collector: to put things under a spell, .as though at •
caption in thU work. Also, the consideration of Lauuiamont may be linked to Grandville.
touch of the magic wand, so that all at once, while a last shudder runs over them, th;~:
Grandville's worb are a veritable cosmogony of fashion. Equally imponant, perhap5, a
transfixed. All architecture beromes pedestal, sode, frame , antique memory to?md!e ~
comparison between Hogarth and Crandville. A part of Grandville's work might be
not be assumed that the collector, the aaneur, would find anything mange Ul arche­
entitled "Fashion's Revenge on the Rowers." Grandville's works are the sibylline boob of
ft)ptrouraniOJ-that place beyond the heavens where Plato locates the immutable raiIt
Publit:iti. Everything that, with him, has its preliminary fonn as joke, or satire, attains it5
types of things. He loses himself, assuredly. But in return, he has the strength .to !hi'
true unfolding as advertisement. <See 84,5 and G l ,3.> <Mo,3>
hinuelf up again to his full height-thanks to a project <?). From out of the Jl115t.S
~uperposition according to the rhythm of time. In relation to the cinema and to for the collective. It interprets these conditions; it explains them. In the dream, they find
the "sensational" ttanSmission of news. "Becoming" has for us-in regard to their (xprtJJirm; in the awakening, their illlt:rprttalirm. <Sec S2,1 and K2,5.> <Mo,14>
rhythm, according to our perception of time-no more claim as evidence. ~
decompose it dialectically into JrnsaHon and tradiHon.-Important to express lbe man who waits-a type opposed to the £Janeur. The £Janeur's apperception
these things analogously with respect to the biographical. <Mo,4) of historical rime, set ofT against the time of one who waits. Not looking at his
watch. Case of superposition while waiting: the image o f the expected woman
Parallelism between this work and the Traumpitl book. Common to both, the 5Uperimposes itself on that of some unknown woman. ~ are a dam holding
theme: theology of hell. Allegory<,> advertisement, types: martyr, t}'rant­ back the time which, when the awaited woman appears, breaks upon US in a
whore, speculator. <Mo ,5> oughry torrent. "Tous les objets sont des maitres" (Edouard Karyade). <Mo,15)

Hashish in the afternoon: shadows are a bridge over the river of light that is the The fact that we ""ere children during this time belongs together with its objective image.
street. II had to be this way in order to produce this generntion. lbat is to SiI}': ~ seek. a
teleological moment in the conlCXt of dreams. Which is the moment of waiting. The
dream wait.! secretly for the awakening; the sleeper surrenders himself to death only
Acquisition as decisive fact in collecting, <MO,7)
provisionally, waits for the second when he will cunningly wrest himself from its clutches.
So, tOO, the dreaming collective, whose children provide the happy occas.ion for its own
An of priming in reading and writing. Whoever can design at the most super­ awakening. <See Kla,2.> <M o, 16>
ficiallevd is the best author, <Mo,8)
Look intO the connection between colponage and pornography. Pornographic
Underground sightseeing in the sewen, Preferred route, CMtelet-Madeleine. <See , picture of Schiller-a litho: with one hand he gestures, picturesquely posed, into
C2a,7.> <Mo,9)
an ideal distance ; with the other he masturbates. Pornographic parodies of
Passage du Caire CJttttd in 1799 on the site of the garden of the Convent of the Daugh­ Schiller. The ghostly and lascivious monk; the long train of specters and de­
ten of God. <Sec A3a,6,) <Mo, IO) bauchery; in the Mbnoim tUS Saturnin, by Mme. de Pompadour, the lewd proces­
sion of monks, with the abbot and his cousin at the head. <M o, l7>
The best way, while dreaming, to catch the afternoon in the net of
plans, <See M3a,2.>
eveniril is to make
<Mo, II) ­ t *thinkare bored when
we know,
~ don't know what we are waiting for. And that we do know, or
is nearly always the expression of our superficialiry or inattention. Bore­
Comparison of the human being with an instrument panel on which are th0u­ dom is the threshold to great deeds. <See 02,7.> <Mo,18>
sands of decnic bwbs. Some of them go out at one moment, some at anotbcIt
<and> come back on again. <Mo, 12. QOlIded atmosphen:, cloud-dlangeableness of things in the space of vision <f/",.rionsraum>.
<M o, 19>
The pathos of this work: then: arc no periods of decline. Attempt to see the nineteenib
ccnrury just as positivdy as I tried to see the scvmtcenth, in the work on 1hwmpiel. ~ !ask of childhood: to bring the new v.-orld into symbolic space <$ymooiraum). 11K: child,
In faa, can do what the grownup absolutely cannot: remember the new once again. For
belief in periods of decline. By the same token, every ciry is beautiful to me (&om outside
its bordenl, just as all talk of particular languages' having greater or lesser value is to me us, locomotives alxcady have symbolic character because we met with them in childhood.
unacceptable. <Sec Nl ,6.) <Mo,13) Our children, hcw-rever, will find this in automobiles, of which we ourselves see only the
ocw, elegant, modern, cheeky side. <See KIa,3.> <Mo,20>
The dreaming collective knows no history. Events pass before it as always identical and
always new. The sensation of the ncwat and most modern is, in faa, as much a dreaDl <'!"~) glassed·in spot facing my seat at the Staatsbibliothek. Channcd circle inviolate,
formation of events as the "eternal return of the same." 11K: perception of space thai. vtrgm terrain for the soles of6gures I dreamed. <See NI,7.) <Mo,21>
corresponds to this perception of time is sUpeIp05ition. Now, as these formations ~
within the enlightened consciousness, political-theological categories arise to take their "She was everybody's contemporary." <Marcel J ouhandeau,> Prudmu HauttduUlTM
place. And it is only within the pwview of these categories, which bring the Bow of cvc:rus <Paris, 1927>, p. 129. <Sec: B2,5.) <Mo,22>
to a standstill, that !tutory forms, at the interior of this Bow, as crystalline constd1a~on.-:­
The economic conditions under which a sociery exists not only detennine that sooety lD <XXxxx>world-and fashion. 43 <Mo,23>
it.! material existence and ideological supentrucrure; they also come to expression. In ~
case of one who sleeps, an overfull stomach does not find it.! ideological supentru(:tUJ"e.lD At the en~ce to the skating rink, to the provincial pub, to the tennis court : pntaleJ. The
the contenLS of the dream-and it ill exactly the same with the economic conditiow oflik hen that lays the golden praline-eggs, the machine that 5tamp5 our names on nameplates,
slot machines, the mechanical fortwlCtcllcr-thcsc guard the: th.reshokl.
Oddly, SUCb again. isn't there a whole world of difference between a bad film of Faust and
machines don't flourish in the city but rather are a component of a good one?
excursion sites, cl \VIlat matter in culture arc not the great contrasu but the nuances. <It is from
beer gardens in the suburbs. And when, in search of a little greenery, them that>
one heads for tlle ....,orld <is) always <hom anew). <See Nla,4.>
these places on a Sunday afternoon, one: is turning as well to the mysterio <0", 1>
us threshoId..
P.S.: Automatic scales- the modemgn6tAj ;tauton. 44 Ddphi. <Sec GJ,4 and
Ila,4.> f\::dagogic side of this undertaking: WTo educate the image-making medium within w ,
<Mo,24> raising it to a stereoscopic and dimensional seeing into the depths of lWtorica
1 shadows."
The gallery that leads to the Mothers is made of wood. Likewise, in TIle words are <Rudolf> Borchardt's in Epikgomma tu Danlt, vol. I (Berlin,
the latge-sca)e
renovations of the urban scene, wood plays a constant though cver-shifting pp. 56-57. <Sec N I,S.)
role: amid the <0",2>
modem traffic, it fashions, in the wooden palings and in the wooden planking
O\'U open From the stan, to keep this thought in view and to weigh its COll5tructi\t: value
substructioll5, the ima~ of its rustic prehistory. <Sec C2a,4.> : the refuse­
<Mo,25> and decay·phenomena as precursors, in some degree mirages, of the great
synthes es that
follow. These new syntheti c realities are to be looked for everywhere: advcrW
Threshold and houndary must be very carefully distinguished. The Schwtlk ing,fi/m
<thresboki> rtaiily, and 50 on. <Sec YI ,4.>
is a umt'. And indeed a zone of tranSition. Tl11Il5fonnation, passa~ , Bight <0",3>
<jI) arc in the
word sdlwtllen <swell>, and etymology ought not to overlook thac senses.
On the other Of vital interest to rccogniz.c, at a particular point of development, currents of
hand, it is neassar y to keep in mind the immediate tectonic framework that thought at
has brougbt the crossro aru-namdy, the new view on the historica1 world at the point
the word to its currcnt meaning. Vk have grown very poor in threshol where a
d cxpcricnces. decision is forthcoming as to its reactionary or revolutionary application.
"Falling aslccp" is perhaps the only such experi~ that ~ to us. But In this sense,
also the ~ one and the same phenomenon is at work in the: SUJTaIists and in Heidegg
and Dow of conversa tion and the sexual pcnnutaooru of love, like the world er. <See 51,6.>
of figures m
the dream rise up over the threshold.-OUt of the 6eId of experience. <0",4>
proper to the
threshold ~Ivcd the gateWay that tranSforms whoever passes under its
arch. The ~ It is said that the dialectical method consists in doing justice, at each moment
man victory arch makes the reruming genera] a conquering hero. Amurdi , to the
ty of the rdicf concrete historical situation of its object. But that is not enough. rot it is just
on the inner wall of the arch-a classicist misunderstanding. <Sec 02a,1 and as much a
C2a,3.) maner of doingjusticc to the concrete historical situation of the inltmt taken
<Mo,26> in the object.
And tAiJ situation is always 50 COll5tituted as to be itself preformed in that
object; a~
all, however, the object is fdt to be concretized in this situation itself and
upraised from its
) fonner being into the higher concretion of now-being <]thJ.Iein>. In what
way tAiJ now­
J. w. Samson, IN R-auromode der Gtgmwarl (BcrIin, 1927) (Ml-m arks and imaga<?». being (which is something other than the now·beingof the present time <]ttttuil
» already
signifies, in itself, a higher concretion-this question, of course, can be entertain
<W,l) ed by the:
dialectica1 method only within the purview ofa philosophy of histOry that at
all points has
overcome the ideology of progress. In regard to such a philosophy, one could
Flower market : "Thtte -witho ut recurrin g to the efforts I Of the splendi speak of an
d archi­ increasing concentration (integration) of reality, such that everything past (in
tecture I To conceal from us its riches - I Flora in her tm/ple de IJtTdurt. its time) can
" <W,2) acquire a higher grade of actuality than it had in the moment ofits cxisring.
How it adapts
to this, its own higher actuality, is something determined and brought to pass
by the image
Description <?> from Fcrragus .45 as which and in which it is compre hcndcd .-To treat the past (better: what
has been) in
accordance with a method that is no lon~r historica1 but political. 10
make political
Heinrich Mann, Kai.Jtrin Euginit. 46 categories into theorecica1 categories, insofar as one dared to apply them only
in the sense
of praxis, because only to the presen t-that is the task. The dialccrical penetrat
ion and
aaualiza tion of former contexts puts the truth of all present action to the test.
The Trojan horse-a s snow <?>, as the imminent awakening steals intOthe
drc~N:~ hawcver : the explwive materials latent in fashion (which alway; refers back.
This means,
K2,4.> to 50mething
past) ha\t: to be ignited. <See K2,3.)
Dusk : the hour when great works are inspired (I'nspira tion litUrairt).
According to On the figure of the collector. One may stan from the faa that the true collecto
Oaudet, howeve r, the hour when mistake s are rna de ·m read'mg <.?). <W6>· r detaches
' the object from its functional relations. But that is hardly an exhaustive descript
ion of this
remarkable mode of behavior. 1m isn't this the foundation (to speak with
Kant and
Schopcnhauer) of that "disinterested" contemplation by virrue of which
the collector
attains to an unequal ed view of the object- a view whidl takes in more, and
The indestrurobility of the highest life in all things. Against the prognos
tica~rs, of de­ that of the profane owner and which we would do best to compare to the gaze
other, than
of the great
cline. One can make a film of Goethe's Fawt. And yes, isn't it an outra~e ,
and ISn ~~ physiognomist? But how his eye comes to rest on the object is a matter elucidat
ed much
a world of difference between the poem Fawl and the film Faust 1Certainl more sharpiy through <another> consideration. <Sec H2,7: H2a,I.>
y, there . <0°,6~
It muat be kept in mind that, for the colleCtor, the world is present, and indeed ordcud, bt. 'fhe grandiose m echanical-materialistic divinations of W1enz have to be seen in

- each of his objects. Ordered, however, according to a surpruing and, for the profane
unda:standing, incom~~emible ~nnection. ,This co~ecti.on stands t~ the cus~
ordcnng and schematu.atlon of things something as their arrangement U1 the dictionary
the context of the 5ubjeclS of his and, to be s ure, nOt only the ideal
tltopian 5ubjeclS but those allied to colportage and the ghastly. <0°, 17)
stands to a natural arrangement. Vk need only recall what importance a particular coUec­
Advertisement by Wienz: "M onsieur Wienz requires a servant skilled in the
to~ ~ttaches ~ ~n1y to his o~j~ but also ~ its entire:,' whc:~er th.U COIlCcms the
ongm and obJCcuve charactensbcs of the thing or the details of Its ostensibly extcrnaI painting of medieval accessories to do all his research work, etcetera, etcetera,
history: previow owners, price of purchase. CUJTeIll value, and so on. All of thcsc-tbe such as <]C>, etcetera." A.J. Wienz, Oeuvres /illiraires (Paris, 1870), p . 235.
"objc:ctive" data oogether with the other-come together, for the true collector, in every <0°, 18)
singte onc of his po5SCS5ions, to fonn a whole magic encyclopedia, a world ordtt, who.c
outline is thefale of his object. Here, thereforc, within this circumsaibcd field, wt can Of particular importance, the great "legend" with ,:hich Wienz has accompanied his
understand how great physiognomists (and collectors are physiognomists of the world of /tnJitJ tl uisions d'unt Ittt coupit (Tboughts and VL!ilOns of a Severed Head). The first
things) become interpreters of fate. It suffices to observe: just one collector as he handlts thing that strikes one about this magnetOpathic txpiriroa is the grandiose sleight of hand
the items in his showcase. No sooner does he hold them in his hands than he appcan which the COnsciOUSnes5 executes in death. "What a singular thing! !be head is here
inspired by lhem and seenu to look through them into their distance, like an augur. (Ie under the scaffold, and it believes that it still exists above, fonning part of the body, and
wouJd be interesting to simatc the bibliophile as the only type of collector who hal DOl: continuing to wait for the blOlY that will separate it from the lTllnk." A.J. Wienz, (ku I/rtS
WlCOnditionally withdrawn his treasures &om a functional context.) <See H2,7; H2a,1.) {ittiraim (Paris, 1870), p. 492. (At work here in Wienz is the same inspiration that ani­
<0°,7) mates the unfor~ttable short story by Ambrose Bierce.48 The rebel who is hanged from a
bridgt: Ol'er the river.) <See K2a,2.) <0°, 19>
Attempt to develop Giedion's thesis. "In the nineteenth century," he writes, ~COI\5truc:tica
plays the role of the subconsciow."~7 \\buldn't it be better to say wthe role of bodily Does fashion die because it can no longer keep up the tempo-at least in cenain fields ?
pr0ceMe5"-around which "artistic" architecrures gather, like dreams around the frame­ While, on the other hand, there are fields in which it can follow the tempo and even
work of physiological processes? <See Kla,7.) ~Oo ,8) dictate it? <See B4,4.) <0°,20)

Bear in mind that commentary on a reality (such as we are writing here) callJ for a method Title of a painting by Wienz: Les Chrues du prisen! devan! les hummes de l'atJtnir
completely different £rom that required by commentary on a text. In the one case, tbc <The 'Illlngs of the Present on Display before the Men of the Future>. Note­
scientific mainuay is theology; in the other case, philology. <Sec N2,l.» <0°,9) __
t wonhy is the tendency o f this painter toward allegory. For example, in the
catalogue d escription of the picture Une Second aprtl fa morl, we read: "Consider
Interpenettation as principle in film, in new architecture, in colportage. <0°,10) the idea of a book that has fallen from one's hands, and on its cover these words:
Lofly Achinxml7lls ifHumanity." Oeuvres /i/tbairn, p. 496. Figure of "civilization"
Fashion inheres in the darkness of the lived moment, but in the collective darkneu.­
and many other allegories in Le Dernier Canon. <0°,21)
Fashion and architecture (m the nineteenth century) belong to the dream conscioumeu 01
the coUective. We mWt look. into how it awakes. For example, in advcti.sing. \\buId
awakening be the synthesis derived from the thesis of dream consciowneu and me . Painting by Wienz: Le SotdJiet d'une dame beige. "TIlls painting was exeruted
antithesis of waking consciOUSnes5? <Sec K2a,4.> <0",11) with the intention of proving the necessity of having women trained in the use of
6rearms. It was Monsieur Wienz, as we know, who had the idea of setting up a
The problem of space (hashish, myriorama) treated under the rubric "Fanerie." specia1 rifle range for ladies and offering, as prize in the competition, a portrait of
The problem of time (intennittences) treated under the rubric "Roulette." the victorious heroine." Oeuurn (jUiraires, p. 501 (catalogue of works, edited by
<0°, 12) the painter himself). <0°,22)
Interlacing of the history of the arcades with the whole presentation . Passage o n the museum in PrOUSt. 19

Reasons for the decline of the arcades: widened sidewalks, electric light, ban on pros utu- Boredom of the ceremonial scenes depicted in historical paintings, and boredom in gcll"
. ' <0° 14> era]. Boredom and museum. Boredom and battle scenes. <See D2a,8.> <0°,24>
tlOn, culture of the open air. <Sce C2a,12.> . '

To be developed: mo tif of boredom amid half-finished material. Excursus on the battle scene!

The "ultimate aims" of socialism hardly ever 50 clear as in the case of Wiert1· 10 the complex of boredom and waiting (a metaphysics of waiting is indispensable) one
. h ere 10 .~ ,, -
. vu1 gar matenau:;m. <0°' 16> could no doubt assimilate, in a particular COntCXt, the metaphysics of doubt-In an allegory
The basIS
of Schiller'! we read of "the hesitant wing of the buttcrily."SO 1lU.s points to that a.saoQa. Notes on montage in my journal. Perhaps, in this same context, there: should be
tion of wingednes5 with the feding of indecision which i.! so charncterutic of hMhiab some inclication of the intimate connection that <exists> between the intention
intoxication. <See M4a, I.> <0°,26> making for nearest nearness and the intensive utilization of re:fuse-a connection
in fact exhibited in montage. <0",37>
HofmannsthaJ's plan for The Noviu and for The FOrtunetdler.' 1
Fetish character of the commodity to be conveyed through the example of prosti­
Fblcmic against iron rails, in the 18305. A. Gordon, A Treatise in EJementary Loconw/i <0",38>
tuOon .
wanted to have the "!team carriage" nul on lanes of granite. <Sec FJ,4.> <0°,20;;
On the interlacing of street and domestic interior: house numbers for the latter
Great collectors. Pachinger, W:llfskc:hl's friend, who has put together a collection that, in become cherished family photos. <0°,39)
it! array of prosaibe:d and damaged objects, rivals the: Figdor collection in Vienna. On the
Stachus, he suddc:nly stoops to pick up something he has been seeking for wec:b: a
Utter ambiguity of the arcades: Street and house. <0°,40>
misprinted streetcar ticket that was in circulation for only one hour. Grau in \Viihlgartcn.
The: family in which everyone collects something, for example matchboxes. Pachinga­
hardly knows any more how things stand in the world; explains to his visitors-al<mglide When and, above all, how clid the name "Wmter Garden" come to designate a
the most antique implements-the usc of pocket handkerchiefs, distorting mirrors, and variety theater? (Compare: Cirque d 'hirxr.) <0°,41>
the like. "Beautiful foundation for a collc:ction." Hocrschc:lmann. A Gcnnan in Paris who
collects bad (only bad!) art. <See H2a,2.> <0°,29> Traffic at the stage of myth. Industry at the stage of myth. (Railroad stations and
early factories.) <0°,42>
Waxworks: mixture of the ephemc:ral and the fashionable . \r\bman fastening her garter. ,
NadJa <Paris, 1928>, p. <200>.52 <See 83,4 and E2a,2.> <00,30) Tedium of the railway journey. Stories o f con ductors. H ere, Unold on Proust,
Franlifurter Zeitun/rJ 1926 or 1927. <0°,43>
Aporias of toWn planning (beauty of old disaicts), of museums, of street lWDCI, m
interiors. <See 12a,6.> <0°,SH Relation of myth and topography. Aragon and Pausanias. (Bring in Balzac here
as wc:ll.) <See Cl ,7.> <0°,44>
One can characterize the problem of the fonn of the: nc:w art straight on: When and bow ­ ,
will the lY'Orids of form which, without our having cxpc:cted it, have arisen, for ex•. , Boredom and: the commodity's wait to be sold. <0°,45>
in mechanics, or in machine: construction, and subjugated us-whcl will they make
whatever natun! thc:y contain into primal history? When will we reach a state of society ill Motif of dream time: atmosphere: of aquariums. Water slackening resistance.
<which these fomu, or> those: aruing from them, <rt'veal) thc:msd"es to us as naa:nl <0°,46>
forms? <Set: KJa,2.> <0°,32)
Reasons for the decline of the arcades: widened sidewalks, clccoic light, ban on prostitu­
On VcuillQt's "Paris is mwty and closc." Fashions and the complete antithesis to the . con, rult of the open air. <See C2a,12.> <0°,47>
open-air world of today. The "glaucous gleam" under the petticoats, of which Arap
speaks. The corset as the torso's arcade. What today is de rigueur among the lowest d.­ On the doll motif: "'lliu have: no idea how rc:pubive these automatons and dolls can
of Pl"05titutes-not to undress-may once have been the height of refiocment.. Hall"..,a r/ become, and how one breathes at last on encountering a full-blooded being in this soci­
Jejterday~faslll'o1lJ: to intimate a body that neuer knowJ.foll naAednw. <Set: £.2,2 ; 01a); Der Abend (Berlin, 1896), p. lZ <See 21 ,5.>
ety." Paul Lindau, <0",48>
83,1.> <00,33~

lOe modish green and red of recreation spots today, which corresponds ob­
On the renfmni, much also in Proust. Above all, the re:treat in the Bois.» scurdy-as a fashion phenomenon- to the knowledge we arc: trying to unfold
here, has a capital interpretation in a passage by Bloch, w here: he speaks of "the
&reen-papered chamber of m emory with cunains red as sunset." Geut tkr UtQpie
Rue Laferriere: fonnerly an arcade. See <Paul) Uautaud, Le Petit ami. <0°,S5) (Muruch and Leipzig, 19 18), p . 35 1. <0°,49>

Method of this project: literary montage. I nc:cdn't .say anything. Merely show. I shall The theory of not-yct-conscious knowing Illay be linked with the theory of forgetting
appropriate no ingenious fonnuiations , purloin no valuables. But the rags, the refuse:­ (notes on /)p- BI011dt £:ltkrt? and applied to the collective in it! various c:pochs. What
these I wiIluOt describe: but put on d.i.spiay. <Set: Nla,8.> <0°,36) Proust, as an indi";dual, directly cxpc:rienced <erlebte> in the phenomenon of remem­
brance, we have to ~perience <"faAr~ ~dy (with.regard ~ the nineteenth century) From Der Bauu, illustrated ladies' magazine published in Berlin (1857-): pearl
as wculTCnt.," "fashion," "tendency"-tn purushment, if you will, for the sluggishnea,; embroidery for boxes of Communion wafers or gambling chips, men's shoes,
which keeps us from taking it up ourselves. (Sce K.2a,3.> <0°,50)
glove box, small bolster, penwipers, needlecase, pincushion, slippers. Christmas
These: gateways are also thresholds. No stone step serves to mark them. But this marking
ilnnJ: lamp stands, game bags, bell pulls, fu-escreens , folder for musical scores,
is accomplished by the expectant posture of the handful of people. Tighdy mC3!UJ'td basket for knives, canister for wax tapers, pudding cloths, gambling chips.
paces reflect the fact., altogether unknowingly, that a (decision lies> ahead. C itation (from (0°,62)
Aragon> on people waiting in front of arcades.55 (Scc C3,6.) (0°,5 1>
The type of the 8!neur gains in distinctness when one thinks, for a moment, of
nus truly theory in Dacque:S6 that man is a genn. (There are gcrminaJ forma the good conscience that must have belonged to the type of Saint-Simon's "indus­
in nature that prescnt themselves as fuUy grown embryos, but without being trans. trial," who bore this title only as possessor of capital. <0°,63)
fonned .) It is, accordingly, in the early stages of developmeru that the human being-and
the human·like animal species, anthropoid apes-would have their most proper, moet
Notable difference between Saint-5imon and Marx. The fonner conceives the class of
genuinely "human" fonn: in the fully developed embryo of the human and the chimpan_
exploited (the producers) as broadly as possible, reckoning among them even the entre·
z« (that is, in the fully developed human and chimpanzee), the properly animal re­
preneur because he pays interest to his O'Witors. Marx, on the other hand, includes all
emerges. But <broken oID (00,52.
those who in any way exploit another----cvcn though they themselves may be victims of
exploitation-among the bourgeoisie. <Sce U4,2.) (00,64>
Study of the theoreticians ofJugendstii is imperative. FoUowing indication in A. G. Meyer,
EUtnhaulen (Esslingen, 1907): "Those endowed with an especially fine artistic conscicna:
have hurled down, from the altar of art, curse after curse on the building eng:incen.. k Exacerbation of class divisions: the social order as a ladder along which the
suffices to mention Ruskin" (p. 3). In the context ofJugerutil: Ftladan. <See FS,l.> distance from rung to rung grows greater by the year. Infinite number of grada­
<0 °,53. tions between wealth and poverty in the France of the previous century.

"It is becoming more and more diflicu1t to be revolutionary on both the spiritual
plane and the social plane at once." Emmanuel Berl, "Premier pamphlet," Europe, Byz.antine mysticism at the Ecole fulytechnique. See Pinet, "I.:Eoole polytechnique et les
75 (1929), p. 40. <00,'"
­ Saint-5imoniens," &vue tk Pam (1894). (0 0 ,66>

Floral art and genre painting.

, Didn't Marx teach that the bourgeoisie, as class, can never arrive at a perfectly clear
awareness of itself? And if this is the case, isn't one jwci6ed in annexing to Marx's thesis
~ can speak of twO directions in this work: one which goes from the past into the idea of the dream coUecti~ (that is, the bourgeois coUective)? (See S2,1.> <0°,67>
the present and shows the arcades, and all the rest, as p recursors, and one which.
goes from the present intO the past so as to have the revolutionary potential of \-\buldn't it be possible, furthennore, to show how the whole set of issues with which this
these "precursors" explode in the present. And this direction comprehends .. project is concerned is illuminated in the process of the proletariat'S becoming conscious
well the spellbound elegiac consideration of the recent past, in the form of its ofitscif? <0°,68>
revolutionary explosion. (0°,56)
The first tremors of awakening serve to deepen sleep-(trcmors of awakening). (See
Shadow of myth which this agitated age casts onto the past, as myth-bearing Kl a,9.> <0°,69>
H ellas (mylnolaltos) once did. <0°,57>
The Comptesfonlasliques d'Haussmann <byJules Ferry (1868» first appeared as a
Leon Daudet narrates his life topographicaUy. Paris viOl. series o f articles in Les Tanps. <0°,70>

Passage and procts. Mires.

Good fonnulation by Bloch apropos of 17Ie AUiIlus £topet; history displays its Scotland
(0°,60> Yard badge. Utat was in the COntext of a convenation in which I was describing how this
Movenlent o f the life of fashion : change a little. Work-comparable to the method of atomic fission, which liberates the enonnous ener­
gies bound up within the atom- is supposed to liberate the enomlOUS energies of history
In jazz, noise is emancipated.Jazz appears at a mo ment when, increasingly. n~Lse that arc slumbering in the "once upon a time" of classic historical narrative. The history
is eliminated from the process of production, of ttaffic, and of commerce. Lilte­ thai Wall bent on showing things "as they reaUy and truly were" was the strongest narcotic
wise in radio. <0 0,61) of the nineleenth cenlury. <See N3,4.> <0°, 71)
Concretion extinguishes thought; abstraction kindles it. Every antithesis is ab­

mation, actualization of the object but rather assume, for its part, the configura­
stract; evt:ry synthesis, concrete. (Synthesis extinguishes thought.) <00.7lb
tion of a rapid image. The small quick figure in contrast to scientific complacency.
This configuration of a ra pid image goes together with the recognition of the
Fonnula: construction out of facts. Consauction with the complete elimination
"now" in things.'" But not the future . Surrealist mien of things in the now;
of theory. What only Goethe in his morphological writings has attempted.
philistine mien in the furore . The illusion overcome here is that an earlier time is
<0",73) in the now. In truth: the now <is) the inmost image of what has been. <0°,81)
On gambling. There is a certain 5UUc.turc of fate that can be rccognittd only in mo
and a certain structure of money that can be recognized only in fate. <Xc 03,6.> ney.
<0",74> For the flower .s«tion. Fashion joumals of the period contained insttuctions for preserving
bouquets. <See J4,2.) <I"', I)
The arcade as temple of Aesculapius. Medicina1 spring. The course of a cure.
Arcades (as reson spas) in ravines. At Schuls·Tarasp, at Ragaz. The gorge as
The mania for chamber and box. Everything came in cases, was covered and
landscape ideal in our parents' day. <See L3,1.> As with the impaa of very distant
enclosed . Cases for watches, for slippers, for thermometers-all with embroidery
memories, the sense of smell is awakened. To me, as I stood before a shop
on fine canvas. <See 14,4.> <1"',2)
window in Saint-Moritz and looked on mother-of-pearl pocketknives as "~
ries," it was as tho ugh at that moment I could smell them. <0",75) Analysis of dv.'Clling. The difficulty here is that on the one hand, in dwelling, the age­
old-perhaps etemal-has to be recognized: image of that abode of the human being in
The things sold in the arcades are souvenirs <AtuknAm>. The "souvenir" is the the maternal womb. And then, on the other hand, this motif of primal history notWith­
Conn of the commodity in the arcades. One a1ways buys only memento.s of the standing, we must understand dwelling in its most exll'Cme fonn as a condition of nine­
commodity and of the arcade. Rise of the souvenir industry. As the manufaaun:r tecnth-ccntury existence, one with which we havc begun to break. The original fonn of all
knows it. The custom-house officer of industry. <Stt]53,l.) <0 0 ,76) dwelling is existence not in the house but in the shell. The difference between the two:
<the latter) bears quite visibly the impression of its occupant. In the most extreme in·
H ow visual memories emerge transfonned after long years. The pocketknife th.t stance, the dwelling bc<::omes a shell. The nineteenth century, like no other century, was
addicted to dwelling. It conceivcd the residence a5 the receptacle for the person, and it
came to me as I chanced upon one in a shop window in Saint-Moritz. (with the -­
I encased him, with all his appurtenances, so deeply in the dwelling's interior that one
name of the place inscribed between sprigs of mother-of-pearl edelwei.u) had • might be reminded of the inside of a compau case, where the instrument with all its
taste and odor. <00,77) accessories lies embedded in deep, usually violet folds of vclvct. It is scarcdy pouible
nowadays to think of all the things for which the nineteenth century invcued truis:
Rather than pa55 the time, one must invite it in. 10 pas! the time (to kill cimc, cxpd ttl: 10 pocket watches, slippers, egg cups, themlOmcters, playing cards. What didn't it provide
be drained. Type: gambler, time spill5 from his every pore.-To store time like a bauI::ry: with jackets, carpets, wrappers! The twentieth century. with its porosity and traruparenC)',
the type, fianeur. FmaJly, the synthetic type (takes in the energy "time" and passes it oa ill its tendency toward the well-lit and airy, has nullified dwelling in the old sense.Jumping­
altered fonn): he who walts. <Sec: 03,4.) <0°,78) . 01T point of things <?>, like the "homes for human beings" in Ibsen's MaJtn- Builder. Not
by chance a drama rooted inJugcndsril, which itself unsettled the world of the shell in a
"Primal history of the nineteenth century"-this would be of no interest if it were under­ radical way. Today this world is highly precarious. Dv./elling is diminished: for the living,
stood to mean that fomu ofprimal history are to be reco....ered among the inven~ ~the through hotel rooms; for tlle dead, through the crematorium. <See 14,4.> <po,3)
nineteenth century. Only where the nine~enth century would be presented ;u onguwy
fonn of primal history-as a fonn, that is to say, in which the wnok of primal history to Dialectics at a standstill-this is the quintessence of the method. <1"',4)
renews itself that certain of its older traits would be only as precursors of me.e
recent ones-only there docs this concept of a primal history of the nineteenth centurY "To dwell" as a transitive verb. For example, "Indwelt spaces"-this gives a sense of the
ha....e meaning. <See N3a,2.) <0°,79)
hidden frenetic topicality of dwelling. lliis topicality consists in fashioning a shell. <See
14,5.) <PO,S)
All categories of the philosophy of history must here be driven to the point of
indifference. No historical category without its natural substance, no nacura1 Kitsch. Its economic analysis. In what way is manifest here: the overproduction
category without its historical filtration . <0°,80) of commodities; the bad conscience of producers. <PO ,6)

Historical knowledge of the truth is possible only as overcoming the illUSOry Fashion. A sort of race for first place in the social creation. The running begins
appearance <Al!foebung deJ &heinJ). Yet this overcoming should not signify subli­ anew at every instant. ContraSt between fashion and uniform. (1"',7)
Thomasius, tOm Recht cUJ Schlafi und ckr TrQ.'ume (Halle, 1723). (PO,S) Hans Kistcmaecker, wOie Klcidung der Frau: Ein eroti5ches Problem" <\\bmen's Cloth­
ing, A Problem in Eroties>, <iird,u'l1nr, vol. 8 (1898). The author probably
Simme1, PhilruophiJche Kultur <Leipzig, 1911> (fashion). Paniu.a. <Q:,I I>

Louis Schneider, OjJnr/Hu1l (ParU, 1923).s9 <Q',12>

Am 1 the one who is called W.B.? Or am I simply called W.B.?This, in fact, is the: I.e Guide historique et anecdotique de Paris (Paris, Editions Argo).60 <Q',13>
question which leads into the mystery of a person's name, and it is very aptly
fonnulated in a posthumous fragment by Hennann Ungar: "Does the name
attach to us, or are attached to a name?" H. Ungar, "Fragment," in Das
"* can be sure that the art of an earlier period-in its sociological sphere of
influence, in the hierarchies that were founded on it, in the manner of its forma­
Stidl'UJort, Newspaper of the Theater on Schi£Ibauer Danun (December 1929), tion-was much more closely rdated to what today is fashion than to what today
p.4. <Q:,l> is known as art. Fashion: aristocratic-esotenc origin of the most widely distrib­
uted articles of use. <Q',14>
Waxwork" in Lisbon, inJoachim Nettdbeck's autobiography. <Q: ,2)
Misunderstanding as constitutive clement in the development of fashion. No
Anatole France, the series of novels with M. Bergeret. <Q:,3> sooner is the new fashion at a slight remove from its origin and point ofdeparture
than it is turned about and misunderstood. <Q',15>
Das Kapital, vol. I, origina1 edition, p. 40; vol. 3, pp. 1-200, especially 1500'.»
Tendency of the profit rate and the average profit rate to fall. <Q: ,4>
Meuemich, Drnltwiirdiglta'ten (Munich, 1921 ).61 <Q',16>
Kafka, "Der Landant" <A Country Doctor> (a dream). <Q:',5)
Hans von Veltheim, Hiliogabale, ou Biographie du XIX' siicle cU fa France
In The Arcades Project, contemplation must be put on trial. But it should defend (Braunschweig, 1843). <Q',17>
itself brilliantly and justify itself. <Q:' ,6)
Grasse andJiinnicke, Kun.stgrolerbliche Allerliim" und Kuriosiliilen (Berlin, 1909).
Happiness of the collector, happiness of the solitary: tate·a.-tate with things. Is not \ <Q',18>
this the felicity that suffuses our memories-that in them are alone with
particular things, which range about us in their silence, and that even the people On La MUftte de PortU:i.62 FITSt performance 1828. An undulating musica1 extravaganza,
who haunt our thoughts then partake in this steadfast, confederat.. silence 01 an open made of draperies, which rise and subside 0\-'0' the words. \hy evident the
success which this musical mUllt have had at a time when fa drapnie was beginning its
things. The collector "stills" his fate. And that means he disappears in the world triumphal procession (at lint, in fashion, as Turk.ish shawls). lbe 'I1owrum rmIm cupiduP
of memory. <0...\1> of the revolutionary is understood by this public to mean interest in fancy goods. With
good reason it was shown a revolt whose premier task is to protect the king from its own
E.. T. A. HolTmann, "Die Automate" <Automata> (&rapirmsbriider <The Serapion BreIb­ effttt. Revolution as drapery cO\'ering a slight reshuffle in the ruling circles, prc:ciscly what
ren, 1819- 1821 >, vol. 2). <Q:' ,S) OCCUlTed in 1830. <Sec B4,3.> <Q',19>

HolTmann as type of the Baneur. "Des Vetters Eckfenster" <My Cousin', Corner Wal'
Henri ste, FramiisUdre WirtsdlajbKtWr ichte.64 <Q',20>
dow> the testament of the Baneur. ThUll Hoffmann's great success in France. In the
biographical notes to the five·volume collection of his later writin~, we read: "Hoffma:M
was never really a friend of the great outdoors. What matte~d to him more.than ~4 On the dialectical image. In it lies time. Already with H egel, time enters intO
else was the hwnan bc:ing-communication with, observauons about, the sunple Sight 0 , dialectic. But the Hegelian dialectic knows time solcly as the properly historical, if
human beings. Whenever he went for a walk in summer, whi~ in good weathe~ not psychological, time of thinking. "The time differential <Zeildifferentiat> in
pened every day toward evening, he always made for Lltose pubhc places "'{here he would which alone the dialectical image is real is still unknown to him. Attempt to show
run into people. On the way, there was scarcely a tavern or pastry shop where he this with regard to fashion. Real time enters the dialectical image not in natural
not look in to see whether anyone-and if so, who-m.ight be there." <See M4a,2.>
<<X,!» magnitude-let alone psychologically-but in its smallest gestalt. <See N l ,2.>­
All in all, .the temporalmomellrum <da.J Z eilmomenl> in lhe dialectical image can
Annature of physiognomic studies : the Baneur, the collector, the fotgU, the gambler. ~ determined only through confrontation with another concept. TIlls concept is
<Q!',lO) the "'now of recognizability" (Jeta ckr Erlm mbarll:eit>. <<r' ,21 >
Fashion is intention that ignites; knowledge, intention that extinguishes.

VVhat is "always the same thing" is not the event but the newness of the event,
the shock with which it eventuates. <Q:,23)

Am I the one who is called W.B., or am I simply called W.B.? These are two side,
of.a med~o~, .b.ut the second side ~ worn and.e£fa~d, while the first is freshly
nunted. This lIlltial take on the quesllon makes It eVident that the name is object
of a mimesis. Of course, it is in the nature of the latter to show itself not in what
is about to happen, but always only in what has been-that is, in what has been
lived. The habirus of a lived life: this is what the name preseIVes, btl[ also marb
out in advance. With the concept of mimesis, it is further asserted that the realm
of the name is the realm of the similar. And since similarity is the organon of
experience <Erjahrung>, it may be said that the name can be recognized only in
the contexts of experience. Only in them is its essence-that is, linguistic ea­
sence-recognizabJe. <Q;,24)

Point of departure for the foregoing considerations: a conversation with WlCSCD­

grund on the operas Electra and Carmen. To what extent their names already
contain within themselves their distinctive character, and thus make it possible
for the child to have a presentiment of these works long before he comes to know
them. (Cannen appears to him in the shawl which his mother has around her 011.
evenings when she kisses him good night before going to the opera.) The knowI- _
edge contained in the name is developed most of all in the child, for the mimcric
capability decreases with age in most people. <Q;.25)

1bis brid" essay. dating from the summer or fall of 1927 (GekUIIlflt'itt &hrifim, voL 5, [Frankfurt:
Suhrkamp, 1982]. pp. 1041-1043), is the only completed text we have from the earliest period of
work on 17u ArcadiJ i'rr!Jtct, when Benjamin was planning 10 write a DeWlIpapef articIc 011 the. P.uis
arada: in collaboration with Ff2lll HUJd. The aniclc may have been written by Benjamin and
Hessel togetha. (Sec ~Malcriab for 'Arcada.''')

On the Avenue Champs-Elysecs, between modern hotels with Anglo-Saxon

names, arcades were opened recently and the newest Parisian PaJ,jIJge made its
appearance. For its inaugural ceremony, a monster orchestra in uniform per­
formed in front of Bower beds and Bowing fountains. The crowd broke, groan­

- ing, over sandstone thresholds and moved along before panes of plate glass, saw
artificial rain fall on the copper entrails oflate-mOOd autos as a demonstration of
tthe quality of the materials, saw wheels turning around in oil, read on small black
plaques, in paste-jewel figures, the prices of leather goods and gramophone re­
cords and embroidered kimonos. In the diffuse light from above, one skimmed
over 8agstones. While here a new thoroughfare was being prepared for the most
fashionable Pam, one of the oldest arcades in the city has disappeared-the
Passage de 1'000ra, swallowed up by the opening of the Boulevard Haussmann.
JUSt as that remarkable covered walkway had done for an earlier generation, so
today a few arcades still preserve, in dazzling light and shadowy comers, a past
become space. Antiquated trades survive within these inner spaces, and the
merchandise on display is unintelligible, or else has several meanings. Already
the inscriptions and signs on the entranceways (one could just as well say "exits,"
since, with these peculiar hybrid fomu of house and street, every gate is simulta­
neously entrance and exit), already the inscriptions which multiply along the
walls within, where here and there between overloaded coatstands a spiral stair­
Case rises imo darkness-already they have about them something enigmatic.
"Alben at No. 83" will in all likelihood be a hairdresser, and "Theatrical Tights"
wilJ. be silk tights; but these insistent letterings want to say more. And who would
have the courage to take the Wlapidated stairs up one flight to the beauty salon of
Professor Alfred Bitterlin? Mosaic thresholds, in the style of the old restaurants
of the Palais-Royal, lead to a diner de Paris; they make a broad ascent to a glass
door-but can there really be a restaurant behind it? And the glass door next to
it, which announces a casino and pennits a glimpse of something like a ticket
booth with prices of seats posted-would it not, if one opened it, lead one into
darkness rather than a theater, into a cellar or down to the street? And on thr:
ticket booth hang stockings once again, stockings as in the doll hospital aOOq
the way and, somewhat earlier, on the side table of the tavem.-ln the crowded
arcades of the boulevards, as in the semi'"!iesened arcades of the old Rue Saint_
Denis, umbrellas and canes are displayed in serried ranks: a phalanx of colorful
<The Arcades of Paris>
crooks. Many are the instirutes of hygiene, when= gladiators are wearing onhope­
dic belts and bandages wind round the white bellies of mannequins. In the (Paris Arcades II )
windows of the hairdressers, one sees the last women with long hair; they spon
richly undulating masses, petrified coiffures. How brittle appears the stonework
of the walls beside them and above: crumbling papier-mache! "Souvenirs" and
bibelots take on a hideous aspect; the odalisque lies in wait next to the inkwdl',
priestesses in knitted jackets raise 310ft ashtrays like vessels of holy water, A
bookshop makes a place for manuals of lovemaking beside devotional prints in These originally untitled tOW (GaamllW'ltt &Ariflm, vol. 5, [Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982J, pp. 1044­
color; next to the memoirs of a chambermaid, it has Napoleon riding through 1059), wrillen on Ioosc shccu ofexperuive handmade paper folded in half, date from 1928 m, at the
latest., 1929, when Benjamin was planning to write an essay cntitIcd "PuUc Pusagm: Ene diaIek.
Marengo and, betwttn cookbook and, old-English burghers tread­
tische Fttric" (Paris Arcades: A DWeaicaI Fa.iryIand). In the manu.saipt they an: foUowcd by
ing the broad and the narrow way of the Gospel. In the arcades, one comes upon citations which were largdy tnnsfened to the convolutes and which then::fore an: not reproduced in
types of collar studs for which we no longer know the corresponding collars and the Gcnnm edition at this point. The ordering of the entries here it that of the Getman editor. who
shins. If a shoemaker's shop should be neighbor to a confectioner's, then his also gives their original order in the manu..saipt:
festoons of bootlaces will resemble rolls of licorice. Over stamps and letterboxcs Ms. 1154 recto: aD, I: aD,3; bO,I: b°,2.
roll balls of string and of silk. Naked puppet bodies with bald heads wait for Ms. 1154 verso: cD,3; eO,1.
M.s. 1155 recto: cO,I; cO,4; dO, l : dD,2: c°,2.
hairpieces and attire. Combs swim about, frog-green and coral-red, as in an
~is. 1155 verso: h°,5.
aquarium ; ttumpets tum to conches, ocarinas to umbrclla handles; and lying ill Ms. 1160 verso' hD I· a°,2. f" I ' h D,2. h°,3 . hO4' a°,5
the fixative pans from a photographer's darkroom is birdseed. The concierge of ..... Ms. 1161 veno: f",i;'e°,2;'f",3;'ao,4; (-,I. ' " .
the gallery has, in his loge, three plush-coven=d chairs with crocheted antimacu­ These texts wen: among those from whkh Benjan1in read to Adorno and Horkheimer at Klmigstein
sars, but next door is a vacant shop from whose inventory only a printed biD and Frankfurt in 1929. Prominent correspondences to entria in the convoluta and to the (:Nay
remains: "Will purchase sets of teeth in gold, in wax, and broken." Here, in the ~Arcadc:s" an: indicated in emu·references.

quietest part of the side-alley, individuals of both sexes can intervi~l' for a staff
position within the confines of a sitting room set up behind glass. On the palc:<OJ. "In speaking of the inner boulevards," says the R/uJtraled Guide to PariJ, a com·
on=d wallpaper full of figures and bronze busts falls the light of a gas lamp. An old . plete picture of the city on the Seine and its environs from the year 1852, "we
woman sits beside it, n=ading. FOr years, it would seem, she has been 31one. And have made mention again and again of the arcades which open onto them. These
now the passage is becoming mon= empty. A small red tin parasol coyly points arcades, a recent invention of indusuialluxury, are glass-roofed, marble-paneled
the way up a stair to an umbrella ferrule factory; a dusty bridal veil promises!­ ~rridors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners have
rq>OSitory of cockades for weddings and banquets. But no one believes it any JOined together for such enterprises. Lining both sides of these corridors, which
longer. Fire: escape, gutter: I am in the open. Opposite is something like an arcade get their light from above, are the most elegant shops, so that the arcade is a city,
again-an archway and, through it, a blind alley leading to a one-windoWed a world in miniarurr:, in which customers will find everything they need. During
H6tel de Boulogne or Bourgogne. But I am no longer heading in that directi~n~ I SUdden rainshowers, the arcades are a place of refuge for the unpn=pared, to
am going up the street to the ttiumph31 gate that, gray and glorious, was built.Ul Whom they offer a secure, if restricted, promenade-one from which the mer­
honor of Louis the Gn=at. Carved in relief on the pyramids that decorate Its c.h~ts also benefit." The customers are gone, aJong with those taken by surprise.
columns are lions at rest, weapons hanging, and dusky trophies. Rain brings in only the poon=r clientele without waterproof or mackintosh.
These "....e n= spaces for a generation of people who knew little of the weather and
Who, on Sundays, when it snowed, would rather warrn themselves in the winter
~dens than go o ut skiing. Glass before its time, pn=mature iron : it was one
s~gle line of descent-arcades, winter gardens with tlleir lordly pabns, and
railroad stations, which cultivated the faJse orchid "adieu n with its Buttering
petals. They have long since giyen way to the hangar. And today, it is the same
with the human material on the inside of the arcades as with the materials of their on the tip of o ne's tongue. After all, no thing of the lo t appears to be new. The
construction. Pimps are the iron bearings of this street, and its glass breakabka goldfish come perhaps from a pond that dried up lo ng ago, the revolver will have
are the whores. Here was the last refuge of those infant prodigies that saw ~ been a corpw delicti, and these scores could hardly have preserved their pre.
light of day at the time of the world exhibitions: the briefcase with interior vious owner fro m starvation when her last pupils stayed away. <See R2,3.>
... lighting, the meter-long pocket knife, or the patented umbrella handle with built-
in watch and revolver. And ncar the degenerate giant creatures, aborted and
j broken-down matter. We followed the narrow dark corridor to where-between
a discount bookstore, in which colorful tied-up bundles tell of aU sons of failure
Never truSt what writers say about their own writings. When Zola unden ook to
defend his 'lhirbe Raquin against hostile critics, he explained that his book was a
f and a shop selling only buttons (mother-of-pearl and the kind that in Paris ~
called tk fan taisit)-therc stood a son of salon. On a pale-colored wallpaper fun
scientific study of the tem~raments. His task had been to show, in an example,
exaaly how the sanguine and the nervow temperaments aa on o ne another-to
of figures and busts shone a gas lamp. By its light, an old woman sal reading. the detriment of each. But this explanation could satisfy no one. Nor does it
They say she has been there alone for years, and collects sets of teeth "in gold, in explain the unprecedented admixture of colponage, the bloodthirstiness, the
wax, and broken." Since that day, moreover, we know where Doctor Miracle got cinematic goriness of the action. Which-by no accident-takes place in an
the wax o ut of which he fashioned Olympia,I They are the true fairies of these arcade. Ifthis book really expounds something scientifically, then it's the death of
arcades (more salable and more worn than the life-sized ones): the formerly the Paris arcades, the decay of a type of architecture. The book's atmosphere is
world-famous Parisian dolls, which revolved on their mwical socle and bore in saturated with the poisons of this process, and its ~ople are destroyed by them.
their anns a doll-sized basket out of which, at the salutation of the minor chord. a _ ID ~ ~u
lambkin poked its curious muuJe. <See AI , I ; F3,2; H1,1 ; Zl ,2.> <aG,l)
One knew of places in ancient Greece where the way led down into the under­
All this is the arcade in our eyes. And it was nothing of all this. They <the world. Our .waking existence likewise is a land which, at certain hidden points,
arcades> radiated through the Paris of the Empire like grottoes. For someone leads down mto the underv.rorld- a land full of inconspicuous places from which
entering the Passage des Panoramas in 1817, the sirens of gaslight would be dreams arise. All day long, suspecting nothing, we pass them by, but no sooner
singing to him on one side, while oil-lamp odalisques offered enticements &om has sleep come than we art eagerly groping our way back to lose ourselves in the
the other. With the kindling of electric lights, the irreproachable glow was extin- .... dark corridors. By day, the labyrinth of urban dwellings resembles COnsclOW­
guished in these galleries, which suddenly became more difficu1t to find-which hess; the arcades (which are galleries leading into the city's past) issue unre­
wrought a black magic at entranceways, and peered from blind windows into marked Onto the streets. A1. night, however, under the tenebrous mass of the
their own interior. It was no t decline but transformation. All at once, they were h~uses, th~ denser darkness bursts forth like a threat, and the nocrumal pedes­
the hollow mold from which the image of "modernity" was cast. -clue, the man humes past- unless, that is, we have: emboldened him to tum into the
cenntry mirrored with satisfaction its most recent past. Here was the retirement narrow lane. <See CIa).> <ao,5>
home for infant prodigies ... <See C2a,9; TIa,8; $la,6) <.0.2>
Falser colors are possible in the arcades ; that combs are red and green stuprises
When, as children, we were given those great encyclo pedic works World II1Ul no ~ne. Snow White's stepmother had such things, and when the comb did not
ManAind, New UnitxrJt:, 'Ihe Enrtn, wouldn't our gaze always fall, first of all, on do Its ~ork, the beautiful apple was there to help out- half red, half poison­
the color ilIwtraoon of a "Carboniferow Landscape" or o n "Lakes and Glaciers ~en, like cheap combs. Everywhere stockings playa starring role. Now they are
of the Ftrst Ice Age"? Such an idea! panorama of a bardy elapsed primeval age I~g under phonographs, across the way in a Stamp shop ; another time o n the
opens up when we look through the arcades that art found in all cities. Here: Side table of a tavern, where they are watched over by a girl. And again in from of
resides the last dinosaur of Europe, the consumer. On the walls of these caverns, the stamp shop opposite, where, between the envelopes with various stamps in
their immenlOrial Bo ra, the commodity, luxuriates and enters, like cancerous refined assonments, manuals of an antiquated an of life art lovelessly dis.
tissue, into the m ost irregular combinations. A world of secret affinities: palm.~ ~nsed-Secret Embraw and Maddening i lluJioru, introductions to ouunoded
and feather duster, hair dryer and Venus de Milo, prosthesis and leuer-~~ Vlees an~ discarded passions. The shop windows arc covered with vividly col­
manual come together here as after a lo ng separation. The odalisque lies Ul wall. ~red Epmal-style posters, on which H arlequin betroths his daughter, Napoleon
next to the inkwell, priestesses raise aloft ashtrays like patens. These it~ on ndes. through Marengo, and, anud all types of standard anillery pieces, delicate
display are a rebus; and <how> one ought to read here the birdseed kept lJI. the EnglISh burghers travcl the high road to hell and Lhe fo rsaken path of the Gospel.
fixative-pan from a darkroom, the Bower seeds beside the binoculars, the ?ro~en No CUStomer ought to enter this shop with preconceived ideas· on leaving he
screws ato p the musical score, and the revolver above the goldfish bowl-IS n~ will be the more Content to take home a volwne : MaJebranche'; Rechercne de fa
uiritl, or Mus Dau}: The Journal 0/ an English Equestrienne. <See G1a,1 and information bureaus and detective agencies, which there, in the gloomy light of
"Arcades." > <b", l) the upper galleries, follow the trail of the past. In hairdressers' windows, you can
see the last women with long hair. They have richly undulating masses of hair,
To the inhabitants of these arcades we are pointed now and then by the signs and which are "pennanent waves," petrified coiffures. They ought to dedicate small
inscriptions which multiply along the walls within, where here and there, be­ votive plaques to those who made a special world of these buildings-to Baude­
tween the shops, a spiral staircase rises into darkness. The signs have little in laire and Odilon Redon, whose very name sounds like an all too well·rumed
conunon with the nameplates that hang beside respectable entryways but ~ ringlet. Instead, they have been betrayed and sold, and the head of Salome itself
reminiscent of plaques on the cages at zoos, put there to indicate not so much the made into an ornament- if that which sorrows there in the console is not the
dwelling place as the origin and species of the captive animals. Deposited in the embalmed head of Anna Czyllak. And while these things are petrified, the mao
letters of the metal or enameled signboards is a precipitate of all the forms of sonry of the walls above has become britde. Britde, too, are the mosaic thresh·
writing that have ever been in use in the \r\b;t. "Albert at No. 83" will be: a olds that lead you, in the style of the old restaurants of the PaIais-Royal, to a
hairdresser, and "Theatrical Tights" will probably be silk tights, pink and light "parisian Dinner" for five francs ; they mount boldly to a glass door, but you can
blue, for young chanteuses and ballerinas ; but these insistent letterings want to hardly believe that behind this door is really a restaurant. The glass door adja­
say something more, something different. Collectors of curiosities in the field of cent promises a "Petit Casino" and allows a glimpse of a ticket booth and the
rultural history have in their secret drawer broadsheets of a highly paid literature prices of seats; but were you to open it-would it open into anything? Instead of
which seem, at first sight, to be commercial prospeCtuses or theatrical bills, and entering the space of a theater, wouldn't you be stepping down to the street?
which squander dozens of different alphabets in disguising an open invitation. Where doors and walls are made of mirrors, there is no telling outside from in,
These dark enameled signs bring to mind the baroque lettering on the cover of with all the equivocal illumination. Paris is a city of mirrors. The asphalt of its
obscene books.-Recall the origin of the modem poster. In 1861, the first litho­ roadways smooth as glass, and at the entrance to all bistros glass partitions. A
graphic poster suddenly appeared on walls here and there around London. h profusion of windowpanes and mirrors in cafes, so as to make the inside brighter
showed the back of a woman in white who was thickly wrapped in a shawl and and to give all the tiny nooks and crannies, into which Parisian taverns separate,
who, in all haste, had just reached the top of a flight of stairs, where, her head half a pleasing amplitude. \-\bmen here look at themselves more than elsewhere, and
turned and a finger upon her lips, she is ever so slightly opening a heavy door to from this comes the distinctive beauty of the ParisielUle. Before any man catches
reveal the starry sky. In this way WUkie Collins advertised his ratest book, one of __ sight of her, she has already seen herself ten times reflected. But the man, too,
the greatest detective novels ever written, 'l'he Woman in Whik Still coior<iess), I sees his own physiognomy flash by. He gains his image more quickly here than
the first drops of a shower of letters ran down the walls of houses (today it poun elsewhere and also sees himself morc quickly merged with this, his image. Even
unremittingly, day and night, on the big cities) and was greeted like the plagues of the eyes of passersby are veiled mirrors. And over that wide bed of the Seine,
Egypt.-Hence the anxiety we feel when, crowded out by those wllO acruaDy over Paris, the sky is spread out like the crystal mirror hanging over the drab
make purchases, wedged ben-veen overloaded coatstands, we read at the bottom beds in brothels. <See H1a,1; Rl,3 ; "Arcades.") <c",l>
of the spiral staircase: "Institut de Beaute du Professeur Alfred Bitterlin." And the
"Fabrique de Cravates au Deuxieme"- Are there really neckties there or noc:? ' Let two mirrors reflect each other; then Satan plays his favorite trick and opens
("The Speckled Band" from Sherlock Holmes?) Of course, the need1~rk ~ here in his way (as his partner does in lovers' gazes) the perspective on infinity. Be
have been quite inoffensive, and all the imagined horrors will be classified obj(c­ it now divine, now satanic: Paris has a passion for mirror-like perspectives. The
tively in the statistics on tuberculosis. As a consolation, these places are sddom Arc de Triomphe, the Saae Coeur, and even the Pantheon appear, from a dis­
lacking institutes of hygiene. There gladiators wear orthopedic bel~, ~d ban­ tance, like images hovering above the ground and opening, architecturally, a fata
dages are wrapped round .the white bellies of mannequins. Som: thing mdu: morgana. Baron von Haussmann, when he undertook to transfonn Paris during
the owner of the shop to Clfculate among them on a frequent baslS.- Many tile period of the Third <correction: Second> Empire, was intoxicated with these
the aristocrats who know nothing of the Almanach de Gotha: "Mme. de Con' perspectives and wanted to multiply them wherever possible. In the arcades, the
solis Ballet Mistress-Lessons, Classes, Numbers:' "Mme. de Zalma, Fortune· perspective is lastingly preserved as in the nave of a church. And the windows in
telle;." And if, sometime in the mid-Nineties, <we had) asked for. a prcdi~tion, the upper story are choir lofts in which the angels that men call "swallows" are
surely it would have been: the decline ofa culture. <See Gl ,6 and "Arcades. ) nesting.-"Hirondellrs <-women> who work the window." <See Rl,6 and
<bo,2> Ola,2.) <co,2>

Often these inner spaces harbor antiquated trades, and even those that are thor' A.mbiguity· of the arcades as an ambiguity of sp ace. Readiest access to this phe·
oughly up to dale will aequire in them something obsolete. TIley are the site of nOmenon would be afforded by the multiple deployment of figures in the wax
museum. On the other hand, the resolute focus on the ambiguity of s~
focus obtained in the arcades, has to benefit the theory of Parisian streets,
outennosL, merely quite peripheral aspect of the ambiguity of the arcades .
n.: iIlclined to linger before the transparent image o f the o ld thermal baths of
ContreXeville, it was as though he had already wandered, in some previous life,
along this sunny way between poplars, had brushed against the stone wall close
provided by thdr abundance of mirrors, which fabulously amplifies the sp~ by_modest, magical effects for domestic use, such as o therwise would be expe'
and makes orientation more difficult. Perhaps that isn't saying much. Neverthe­ rienced only in rare cases, as before Chinese groups in soapstone or Russian
less : though it may have many aspeCts, indeed infinitely many, it remains-in the: lacquer-painting. <See ~ ,2.> <c",4>
sense o f mirror world-ambiguous, double-edged . It blinks, is always just this
one-and never no thing-out of which another immediately arises. The s~ Streets are the dwelling place o f the collective. The collective is an etema1ly
that tranSforms itself does so in the bosom of nothingness. In its tarnished, dinicd wakeful, . etemally .agitated being that-in .the space between the building
mirrors, things exchange a Kaspar-Hauser·look with the nothing: it is an utterly fronts-lives , expenences, understands, and mvents as much as individuals do
equivocal wink coming from nirvana. And here, again, we are brushed with icy within the privacy of their own four walls. For this collective, glossy enameled
breath by the dandyish name of Odilon Redon, who caught,like no one else, thiI shop signs are a wall decoration as good as, if not better than, an oil painting in
look of things in the mirror of nothingness, and who understood, like no one the drawing room of a bourgeo is; walls with their "Post No Bills" arc: its writing
else, how to join with things in their collusion with nonbeing. The whispering of desk, newspaper stands its libraries, mailboxes its bronze busts, benches its bed­
gazes fills the arcades. There is no thing here that does not, where one Icut room furniture, and the cafe terrace is the baJcony from which it looks down on
expects it, open a fugitive eye, blinking it shut again; and should you look more its household. The section of railing where road workers hang their jackets is the
closely, it is gone. To the whispering of these gazes, the space lends its echo: vestibule, and the gateway which leads from the row of courtyards out into the
"Now, what," it blinks, "can possibly have come over me?" VW: stop short ill open is the long corridor that daunts the bourgeois, being fo r the courtyards the
some surprise. "What, indeed, can possibly have come over your Thus ~ entry to the chambers of the city. Among these latter, the arcade was the drawing
gently bounce the question back to it. Here, the coronation of Charlemagne room. More than anywhere else, the street reveals itself in the arcade as the
could have taken place, as well as the assassination of Henri Iv, the death of furnished and familiar interior of the masses. (See M3a,4.) <dO,1)
<Edward's> sons in the Tower, and the ... That is why the wax museums are
here. TIlls optical gallery of princes is their acknowledged capital. For Louis XI, The bourgeois who came into ascendancy with Louis Philippe sets store by the
it is the throne room; for York, the Tower of London; for Abde1 Krim, the desert; ­ pansfonnation of near and far into the interior. He knows but a single scene: the
and for Nero, Rome. <See R2a,3 and ~,2.) <c°,8) Clrawing room. In 1839, a ball is held at the British embassy. Two hundred rose
bushes are ordered. "The garden," so runs an eyewitness account, "was covered
The innermost glowing cells of the viJk Jumiire, the old dioramas, nested in tbc:Ie by an awning and had the feel of a drawing room. But what a drawing room! The
arcades, one of which today still bears the name Passage des Panorafuas. It wu, fragrant, well-stocked Sower beds had turned into enormousjardiniiru, the grav­
in the very first moment, as though you had entered an aquarium. Along the: wall ~ed walks had disappeared under swnptuous carpets, and in place of the cast­
of the great darkened hall, broken at intervals by narrow joints, it stretched like • . trOn benches we found sofas covered in damask and silk ' a round table held
land of illuminated water behind glass. The p lay o f colors among deep-sea fauna books and albums. From a distance, the strains of an orch~tra drifted intO this
cannOt be more fiery. But what came to light here were open-air, atmospheric colossal boudoir, and, along the triple gallery of Sowers on the periphery, exuber­
wonders. Seraglios are mirrored on moolit waters; bright nights in deserted parts ant young people were passing to and fro . It was altogether delightfull" The
loom large. In the moonlight you can recognize the chateau of Saint-Leu, w~,. dus~ fata morgana of the winter garden, the dreary perspective of the train
hundred years ago the last Conde was found hanged in a window. A light ~ ~ StatlOn, with the small altar o f happiness at the intersection of the tracks-it all
burning in a window of the chateau. A couple o f times the sun splashes Wlde U1 molders, even today, under spurious constructions glass before its time p=na­
tu . "
between. In the clear light of a summer morning, one sees the rooms of .the re' tron. <Toward the) middle of the p revious century, no one as yet understood
Vatican as they would have appeared to the Naz.arenes; not far beyond rues how to build with glass and iron. The problem, however, has long since been
Baden-Baden in its entirety, and were we not writing o f 1860, one could per~P' solved by the hangar. <Now) it is the sanle with the human material on the inside
make out among its figurines, on a scale of 1:10,000, Dostoevsky on the castnO of ~e arcades as with the materials of their construction. Pimps are the iron
terrace. But candlelight, too,-is ho nored. Wax tapers encircle the murdered ~uc beanngs of this street, and its glass breakables are the whores <See 14 l ' F3 2'
FI ,2.> . '" ,
de Berry in the dusky cathedral that serves as mo nuary chapel, and hanginS <dO.2>
lamps in the skies beside2 practically put round Luna to shame. It was an unpar­
alleled experiment on dle moonstruck magic night o f Romanticism, and its noble F?r the flane~r, a transformation takes place with respeCt to the street : it leads
substance emerged victorious from this ingenious trial. For anyone who ~ hilll through a vanished time. He strolls down the street; for him, every street is
precipitous. It leads downward- if not to the mythical Mothers, then into a Past realized: here, at one time, after Paris had gotten its first omnibuses, the cheval de
that can be all the more profound because it is not his own, not private. Never­ renfort was harnessed to the coach to reinforce the two other horses . <See Ml,2­
theless, it always remains the past of a youth. But why that of the life he baa MI ,5.> <eo, P
lived? The ground over which he goes, the asphalt, is hollow. His steps awaken
surprising resonance; the gaslight that Streams down on the paving stones ~ Boredom is a warm gray fabric lined on the inside with the most lustrous and
an equivocal light on this double ground. The figure of the Rfu1eur advances over
the street of stone, with its double ground, as though driven by a clockwork,
colorful of silks. In this fabric we wrap ourselves when we dream. * are at home
then in the arabesques of its lining. But the sleeper looks bored and gray within
mechanism. And within, where this mechanism is ensconced, a music box is his sheath. And when he later wakes and wants to tell of what he dreamed, he
palpitating <0 like some toy of long ago. It plays a rune: "From days of youth, I conunwucates, by and large, only this boredom. For who would be able at one
from days of youth, I a song is with me still:' By this melody he recognizes what stroke to rum the lining of time to the outside? Yet to narrate dreams signifies
is around him; it is not a past coming from his own youth, from a recent youth, nothing else. And i.n no other way can one deal with the arcades-structures in
but a childhood lived before then that speaks to him, and it is all the same to him which we relive, as in a dream, the life of our parents and grandparents, as the
whether it is the childhood of an ancestor or his mm.-An intoxication cornea embryo in the womb relives the life of animaJs. Existence in these spaces Rows
over the man who walks long and aimlessly through the streets. With each step, then without accent, like the events in dreams. FUnerie is the rhythmics of this
the walk takes on greater momenrum; ever weaker grow the temptations of slumber. In 1839, a rage for tortoises overcame Paris. One can weD imagine the
bistros, of shops, of smiling women, ever more irresistible the magnetism of the ' elegant set n:Limicking the pace of this crearure more easily in the arcades than on
next streetcomer, of a distant square in the fog, of the back of a woman walking the bouJevards. Boredom is always the external surface of unconscious events.
before him. Then comes hunger. He wants, however, nothing to do with the , For that reason, it has appeared to the great dandies as a mark of distinction. <See
D2a,1 and D2a, 2.>
myriad possibilities offered to sate his appetite, but like an animal he prowll
through unknown districts in search of food, in search of a woman, until, utterly
exhausted, he stumbles into his room, which receives him coldly and wean a Here fashion has opened the business of dialectical exchange between woman
strange air. Paris created this type. What is remarkable is that it wasn't Rome. and ware. The clerk, death, tall and loutish, measures the century by the yard,
And the reason? Just this: does not dreaming itself take the high road in Rome? ~ marm~quin himself to save costs, and manages single-handedly the
And isn't that city too full of themes, of monuments, enclosed squares, national­ liqUidation that m French is called "revolution." For fashion was never anything
sluines, to be able to enter tout ro/i"~with every cobblestone, every shop sign, lother than the parody of the motley cadaver, the provocation of death through
every step, and every gateway-into the passerby's dream? The national charac­ the woman, and bitter colloquy with decay whispered between loud outbursts of
ter of the Italians may also have much to do with this. For it is not the forc:ignen me~cal jubilation. This is why fashion changes so quickly: she titillates death
but they themselves, the Parisians, who have made Paris the ~oly city of the and IS already something different, something new, as he casts about to crush her.
Fo~ a hundred years she holds her own against him. Now, finally, she is on the
Raneur-the "landscape built of sheer life," as Hofmannsthal once put it. land­
scape-that, in fact, is what Paris becomes for the Rfu1eur. Or, more precisely, rhe
city neatly splits for him into its diaJectical poles: it opens up to him as a ~.
pomt .
. of quitting the field. But he erects on the banks of a new Lethe which rolls
Its asphalt stream through arcades, the armature of the whores as a battle memo­
scape, even as it closes around him as a room.-Another thing: that anamnestIC rial. <See BI ,4.) <f" 1>

intoxication in which the Raneur goes about the city not only feeds on rhe
sensory data taking shape before his eyes but can very well possess i~ of When Hack1ander made use of this "newest invention of industria1luxury" for
abstract knowledge- indeed, of dead facts-as something experienced and lived on~ of his fairy tales, he too placed the marvelous dolls in the dangerous arcade
through. 1bis felt knowledge, as is obvious, travels above all by word of ~outb which sister T mchen, at the behest of the fairy Concordia, has to wander in
from one person to another. But in the course of the nineteenth century, It was ~rder fit.lally to rescue her poor brothers. "Fearlessly, Tmchen stepped across the
also deposited in an immense literarure. Even before Lefeuve (who quite aptly ~ order mto the enchanted land, all the while thinking only of her brothers. At
urSI she . d
~otlce no
thin g unusuaJ, but soon the way led through an enormous
made the following fo mmla the title of his five-volume work), "Paris street by
street, house by house" was lovingly depicted .IS storied landscape fo~g a ~11~ enurely filled with toys. She saw small booths stocked with everything
backdrop to the dreaming idler. The srudy of these books was, for the Parislaflt ;:nagutable-carousels with miniarure horses and carriages, swings and rocking
like a second existence, one wholly predisposed tOward dreaming; the knowledge I;r:cs , but above ~. the most splend~d doUhouses. Around a small covered table,
these books gave him took fonn and figure during an afternoon walk before the th g dolls ~ere SItting on easy charrs ; and as 'Iiochen turned her gaze upon
aperirif. And wouldn't he necessarily have felt the gentle slope behind the cb~ bO~l, the largest and ~ost ~eautif~1 of these ~?lls stood up, made her a gracious
of Notre Dame de Lorette rise all the more insistently under his sales if be , and spoke to her m a little vOice of exqwslte refinement." The child may not
wan~ to hear of toys that are bewitched, but .the evil spell of this slippery J>ath superstition. Thus in gambler and prostitute that superstition which arranges the
readily takes the fonn, even today, of large arumated dolls. But who still remon. figures of fate and fills all wanton behavior with fateful forwardness, fateful
bers, nowadays, wheK it was that in the last decade of the pKvious century concupiscence. bringing even pleasure to kneel before its throne. <Sce 01 ,1.)
women would offer to men their most seductive aspect, the most intimate pro _ <g", I)
ise of their figuK? In the asphalted indoor arenas where people learned to n:'e
bicycles. The woman as cyclist competes with the cabaret singer for place of TIle father of Surrealism was Dada; its mother was an arcade. Dada. when the
honor on C heKt's posters (the tifJichts) and gives to fashion its most daring line tWO first met, was already old. At the end of 1919. Aragon and Breton, Out of
_ZlJ~Bl~ ~ antipathy to Montpamasse and Mont:rnart:n=:, transferred the site of their meet­
ings \\~th friends to a cafe in the Passage de l'{)pera. Construction of the Boule.
Few things in the history of humanity are as well known to us as the history of vard Haussmann brought about the demise of the Passage de 1'000ra. Louis
Paris. Tens of thousands of volumes are dedicated solely to the investigation of Aragon devoted 135 pages to this arcade; in the sum of these three digits hides
this tiny spot on the eanh's surface. For many streets, we know about the fate of the number nine-the number of muses who presided as midwives at the birth of
every single house over a period of centuries. In a beautiful tum of phrase, Hugo Surrealism. These stalwart muses are named Ballhorn, Lenin, Luna, Freud,
von H ofmannsthal called this city "a landscape built of pure life." And at work in Mors, Marlitt, and C itroen. A provident reader will make way for them all, as
the attraction it exercises on people is the kind of beauty that is proper to great discreetly as possible, wherever they are encountered in the course of these lines.
landscapes-more precisely, to volcanic landscapes. Paris is a eounterpan in the In Paysan de Paro, Aragon conducts as touching a requiem for this arcade as any
social order to what Vesuvius is in the geographic order: a menacing, hazardou. man has ever conducted for the mother of his son. It is there to be read, but here
massif, an ever-active June of revolution. But just as the slopes of \ksuvius, one should expect no more than a physiology and, to be blunt, an autopsy of
thanks to the layers of lava that cover them, have been transfonned into paradisal these parts of the capital city of Europe, parts that could not be more mysterious
orchards, so the lava of revolution provides uniquely fertile ground for the bios­ or more dead. <Sce Cl,3.> <ho, t>
somingof art, festivity, fashion. <Sec C l ,6.) (F,3)
The Copernican revolution in historical perception is as follows. Formerly it was
Hasn't his etemal vagabondage everywhere acrustomed him to reinterpruing thought that a fixed point had been found in "what has been," and one saw the
the image of the city? And doesn't he transform the arcade into a casino, into a_ present engaged in tentatively concentrating the forces of knowledge on this
gambling den, where now and again he stakes the red, blue, yellow jelotU of 'ground. Now this relation is to be overrumed. and what has been is to acquire its
feeling on women, on a face that suddenly surfaces (will it return his look?),on.
mute mouth (will it speak?)? What, on the baize: cloth, looks out at the: gambler
dialectical fixation through the synthesis which awakening achieves with the:
opposing dream images. Politics attains primacy over history. Indeed, historical
from every number-luck, that is-here, from the bodies of all the women, "facts" become something that just now happened to us, just now struck us: to
winks at him as the chimera of sexuality: as his type. This is nothing other than establish them is the affair of memory. And awakening is the great exemplar of
the number, the cipher, in which just at that moment luck will be ..lilled by name. memory-that occasion 011 which we succeed in remembering what is nearest,
in order to jump immediately to another number. His type-that's the: number ' most obvious (in the "I"). What Proust intends with the experimental rearrange­
that blesses thirty-six-fold , the one on which, without even trying, the eye of the ment of furniture. what Bloch recognizes as the darkness of the lived moment, is
voluptuary falls, as the ivory ball falls into the red or black compartmenL He .
nothing other than what here is secured on the level of the historical, and collec­
leaves the Palais·Royal with bulging pockets, calls to a whore, and once maR! lIVely. There is a not-yet-conscious knowledge of what has bun: its advancement
finds in her anns the corrununion with number, in which money and riches. has the structure of awakening. (See Kl ,2.> <ho,2>
otherwise the most burdensome, most massive of things, come to him from the
fates like a joyous embrace returned to the fuU. For in gambling hall and bord~ Ll this historical and coUective process of fixation, collecting plays a certain role.
it is the sanle supremely sinful, supremely punishable delight: to challenge fate ~ Collccting is a fornl of practical memory, and of all the profane manifestations of
pleasure. That sensual pleasure, of whatever stripe, could detennine the theo~ogt' the penetration of "what has been" (of all the profane manifestations of "near­
cal concept of sin is something that only an uns aspecting idealism can belieVC· ncss") it is the most binding. lllUS, in a certain sense, the smallest act of political
Detennining the concept of debauchery in the theological sense is nothing el5e reflection makes for an epoch in the antiques business. ~ construct here an
but this wresting of pleasure from out of the course of life with God, whose a1ann clock that rouses the kitsch of the previolls century to "assembly." This
covenant with such life resides in the name. TIle name itself is the cry of naked genuine liberation from an epoch has the structure of awakening in the following
lust. This holy thing, sober, fatclcss in itself-the name- knows no greater ~. respect as well : it is entirely ruled by cUlUung.J For awakening operates with
versary than the fate that takes its place in whoring and that forges its arsenaJ III CUlllung. Only with culUung, not without it, can we work free of the realm of
dream. But the~ is also a false liberation. whose sign is violence. Htte,
too, d-.:
law prevails by which the exertion brings about itS opposite. This fruitless
tion is represented, for the period in questio n here, by Jugend stil. <See
HIa,2 and

Dialectical structu re of awakening: J"m1embering and awaking are

~~ -
most inti. The Ring of Satur n
matdy related. Awakening is namdy the dialectical, Copern ican turn
of ranem.
brance <EingedmAen>. It is an eminently composed reversal from the
world of or
dreami ng to the world of waking. For the dialectical schematism at
this physiological process , the Chines e have found, in their fairy tales
the COre of Some Remarks on Iron Construction
and DOYel­
las, the most radical expression. The new, dialectical method of doing
teaches us to pass in spirit- with the rapidity and intensity of dreanu
what has been, in order to experience the present as waking world,
a world to According to Gretel Adorno, this text (~SIITIUJK/tt SUl1jjit'll, vol. 5 [Frankfu
which every dream at last refers. <See Kl,3.) n: Suhrkam p, 19821.
<ho,4) pp. 1060-1063) was "one: of the first pia:.cs fkrYamin read to us in <1929
in) Mniglllein- (cited in
Gmfflnu/u ScAriftm, vol. 5, p. 1350). Benjamin hinuclf filed the text at
the beginnin g or Convolu te
These notes devoted to the Paris arcades were begun under an open G. Rolf Tiedema nn suggests that it may have been intended lU a radio
sky of ' broadcas t for young people.
cloudless blue that arched above the foliage: and yet was dimme d by but thi.nlu it more likely to haVl: been il newspaper or magazine article
the miIliom that was never publishod. !be
of leaves from which the fresh breeze of diligence, the stertorous breath pie« wall wrinen in 1928 or 1929.
of re­
search, the storm of youthful zeal, and the idle wind of ruriosity have raised
the The beginning of the nineteenth cenrury witnes~d those initial experim
dust of cenruries. The painted sky of swnme r that looks down from ents in
the arcades iron consttuction who~ results, in conjunction with those obtaine d from
in the reading room of the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris has stretche experi­
d its ments with the steam engine, would so thoroughly transfo nn the face
dreamy, unlit ceiling over the birth of their insight. And when that sky of Europe
opened to by the end of the cenrury. Rather than attempt a historical account of
the eyes of this young insight, there in the foreground were standin this proc­
g ~ot the ess, we would like to focus some scattered reflections on a small vignett
divinities of Olymp us-not Zeus, Hephaestus, Henne s, or Hera, Artemis e which
, and_ has been extracted from the middle of the cenrury (as from the middle
A1hen a-but the Dioscuri. 4 <See NI,S,) of the
<h°,5) \ thick book that contains it), and which indicates, although in grotesq
ue style,
what limitless possibilities were seen revealed by consttuction in iron. The
comes from a work of 1844-G randvi lle's Another World- and illustrat
es the
adventures of a fantastic little hobgoblin who is trying to find his way
outer space: "A bridge -its two ends could not be embrac ed at a single
and its piers were resting on planetS -led from one world to anothe r
by a cause­
way of wonderfully smooth asphalt. The three·hundred·thirty-three-th
ousand th
pier rested on Saturn. There our goblin noticed that the ring around
this planet
was nothing other than a circular balcony on which the inhabitants
of Saturn
strolled in the evening to get a breath of fresh air."

G;u candelabra appear in our picrure as well. They could not be overloo
ked, in
those days, when speaking of the achievementS of technology. Wherea
s for us
gas lighting often has about it something dismal and oppressive, in that age
represented the height of luxury and splendo r. When Napoleon was
interred in
the church of Les lnvalides, the scene lacked nothing: in addition to
vdvet, silk,
gold and silver, and wreaths of the inullon als, there was an eternal
lamp of gas
OVer the resting place. An engineer in Lancaster had invented a
device that
people regarded as a veritable mirdcle -a mechanism by which the church
OVer the tomb was automaticaUy illuminated by gasligh t at dusk and
by which
the Banies were automatically extinguished at daybreak.
ror tM rest, people were accustomed to seeing gas in conjunCtion with cast iraQ allow our sted furnishing! of today to be what they are, shiny and dean, a
at those degant establishments that were just then starting to appear: the arcades. hundred years ago men took great pains, by means of subtle coating techniques,
The leading fancy-goods stores, the chic restaurants, the best confectionen, and to make it appear that iron furniture-which was already being produced by
so on found it necessary to secure a place in these galleries in order to p~ then-was crafted from the finest wood. It was at this rime that manufacturers
their reputations. Out of these galleries emerged, a little later on, the great depan. began to stake their reputations on bringing out glasses that looked like porce·
mem stores, of which the pioneering modd, Au Bon Marche, was designed by lain, gold jewelry resembling leather Straps, iron tables with the look of wicker·
the builder of the Mel Tower_ work, and other such things.

Iron construction began with winter gardens and arcades-that is, with ~nuinc None of these efforts succeeded in covering over the chasm which the develop­
luxury establishments. 'kry quickly, however, it found its true range of technical ment of technology had opened up between the builder of the new school and
and industtial application. What resulted were. constructions that had no prece­ the artist of the old type. Raging undemeath was the battle between the academic
dent and that were. occasioned by wholly new needs: covered markets, railroad architect, with his concern for stylistic forms, and the engineer, who dealt in
stations, exhibition halls. Engineers led the way. But poets, as well, displaym formulas. As late as 1805, a leader of tM old school published a work with the
amazing foresight. Thus, the French Romantic Gautier declares: "A proper archi­ ritle: "On the Uselessness of Mathematics for Assuring the Stability of Build­
tecrure will be created the moment we begin making use of the new materials ings.'" When this struggle finally, toward the end of the century, was decided in
furnished by the new industry. The advent of cast iron enables and calls for many . favor of the engineers, a reaction set in: an effon to renew an on the basis of
new forms , as we can see in railroad tenninals, suspension bridges, and the technology's own rich store of forms . was Jugendstil. At the same rime,
arches of winter gardens." Offenbach's Parisian Lift was the first theatrical piece however, that heroic age of technology found its monument in the incomparable
to be set in a railroad station. "Railway depots," they used to be called back then; Mel Tower, of which the first historian of iron construction wrote: "Thus, the
and they inspired tM strangest notions. A decidedly progressive Belgian paintc:I; plastic shaping power recedes here before. a colossal span of spiritual energy....
Antoine Wiertz, sought permission around midcentury to decorate tM halls of Every one of the twelve thousand metal fittings, each of tM twO and a half
railroad stations with frescoes. million rivets, is machined to the millimeter.... On this work site, one hears no
chisel-blow hberating fonn from stone; here, thought reigns over muscle power,
Step by step, the technology of that era took possession of new fields; it did so m__ I
which it transmits via cranes and secure scaffolding."J
the face of difficulties and objections of which today we can scarcely form a
conception. In the 1830s in England, for example, a bitter controversy arose ~
the issue of iron rails. Under no circumstances, it was argued, could enough BOO.
ever be procured for the English railway system (at that time planned on only the
smallest scale). The "steam carriages" would have to run on lanes of granite.
Alongside the theoretical battles were ongoing praCtical struggles with materials. .
The story of the bridge over the Ftrth ofTay is an especially memorable example.
Six years were. required for the construction of this bridge: 1872 to l~. And
shortly before its completion, on February 2, 1877, a hurricane (of the parccuIarly
violent son that assail the inlet of the Tay and that also caused the catastrO~ of
1879)1 blew down twO of the biggest supporting piers. And not only brid~
construction made such demands on the patience of engineers; with runnels, 11
was no different. When, in 1858, plans were afoot for the twdve-kilorneu:r
tunnd through Mont Cenis, the estimated length of time for the work was seven

Thus, while in great things heroic efforts were expended on precedent-se~

ground breaking achievementS. in little matters there was often-strange to say.
something motley. It is as though people, and "artistS" in particular, did not qurte
dare to acknowledge this new material, with all its possibiliries. Whereas ~
Walter Benjamin consulting the Grand Dichonnalre univem/ du dix­ Walter Benjamin at the card catalogue of the Bibliotheque Nacionale in Paris,
MUuieme ;ilde at the Bibliothtque Nacionak in Paris, 1937. PhotO Photo by Gis~le Freund.
by GisCle Freund.

Expose of 1935, Early Version

11K earliest p~ draft or the ~ of 1935 is untitlcd in the manuscript) may constirutc
Bc:njamin's first draft. Some pap appear to be m.iJsing, and £or SOlD(. pangnphl there are two OT
e--"en me: separate "'enioru. \ \k ha~ chosen 10 tranSlate only paHage5 praenting substantial
dirrCTCIlOOl from the definitive tell! of the ex~, whlch appears on pages 3- 13 of this volume.
Jliwagc:s thai Iknjamin cros.sed out appear in curved braclteut }. The complete draft is printed in
Dtu RwagtIt-WtTJ:, vol. 5 of Benjamin's ~lk Sduijit'll (Frankfun: Suhrbmp, 1982), pp.
1223-1237; it is followed by a venion whkh Benjamin salC to Adorno and which, with respca 10 the
uarulatcd texts, contains only minor varianl5.

I. Fourier, or the Arcades

Chaquc epoque live Ia swvantc.

-~1ichclct, ~Avc:nirl Avenir!ft

Corresponding to the form of the new means of production, which in the begin­
ning is still ruled by the form of the old (Marx), are, in the social superstrucrure,
wish images in which the new and the old interpenetrate in fantastic fashion .
TIlls interpenetration derives its fan tastic character. above all, from the fact that
what is old in the current of social development never clearly stands out from
what is new, while the latter, in an effort to disengage from the antiquated,
regenerates archaic., primordial elements. The utopian images which accompany
the emergence of the: nc=w always, at the same time, reach back to the primal past.
In the dream in which each epoch entertains images of its successor, the latter
appears wedded to dements of primal history. The: Idecoons of the base by the
superstructure are therefore inadequate, not becausc= they will have bc=en con­
sciously falsified by the ideologues of the ruling class, but because the new, in
o rder to take the fonn of an image, constantly unites its elements with those of
the classless society. The collective unconscious has a greater share in them than
the consciousness of the: collective:. From the former come the images of utopia
that have left their trace in a thousand configurations of life, from buildings to The flineur as counterpan of the "crowd." The London crowd in Engds.
fashions. The man of the crowd in Fbe. The consummate 8ineur is a bohemian, a
These relations are discernible in the utopia conceived by Fourier ... diracini. He is at home not in his class but only in the crowd-which is to
say, in the city. Excursus on the bohimien. His role in the secret societies.
. . . In the dream in which each epoch entertains images of its successor; the latter Characterization of professional (on.spirateurJ. The end of the old boheme .
appears wedded to elements of primal history-that is, to elements of a classless Its dissociation into legal opposition and revolutionary opposition.
society. And the experiences ofsuch a society-as stored in the unconscious of the Baudelaire's ambivalent position. His Bight into the asocial. He lives '-Vith a
collectivc:-{never come to rest on the threshold of the mOSt ancient cultures, but prostinne. {The an theory of l'art pour l'art. 1t arises from the artist's pre­
take up elements of natural history intO their movement. This movement engen. monition that he will henceforth be obligr:d to create for the market.}
ders,} engender, in combination with what is new, me utopia that has left its traec:
The motif of death in Baudelaire's pactt)'. It merges with his image of Paris.
in a thousand configurations of life, from enduring edifices to passing fashioIU.
Exrursus on the chmonic side of the city of Paris. Topographic traces of
the prehistoric: the old bed of the Seine. The subte.rranean waterways.
The catacombs. Legends of subterranean Paris. Conspirators and commu­
nards in the catacombs. The undersea world of the arcades. Their impor- i
III. Grandville, or the World Exhibition tance for prostitution. Emphasis on the commodity character of the
woman in the market of love. The doll as wish symbol.
The phantasmagoria of the flineur. The tempo of traffic in Paris. The city as
Fashion: "Madam Death! Madam Death!"
a landscape and a room. The department store as the last promenade for
-Leopardi. "Dialogue between Fashion and Death" the 8ineur. There his fantasies were materialized. The 8inerie that began
as an of the private individual ends today as necessity for the masses.
\\brld exhibitions propagate the universe of commodities. Grandville's late fan­
tasies confer a commodity character on the universe. They modernize: it. Thus, Art at war with its own commodity character. Its capirulation to the commod­
Saturn's ring becomes a cast-iron balcony on which the inhabitants of Saturn -­ ity '-Vith J'art pour ['art. The birth of the GeJamlAutUfwu* from the spirit of
take the evening air. The literary counterpan to this graphic utopia is found in J'art pour l'art. Baudelaire's fascination with Wagner.
the books of the Fourierist Toussenel. Fashion prescribes the ritual according to
[2) Baudelaire's genius, which is nourished on melancholy, is an allegorical ,
which the commodity fetish demands to be worshipped. Grandville extends the genius. "Tout pour moi devient alIegorie." For the first time, with Baude-­
scope of fashion to objects of everyday use, as well as to the cosmos. In taking it
laire, Paris becomes the subject of lyric poetry. Not as homeland; rather,
to an extreme, he reveals its nature. Fashion always stands in opposition to the the gaze of the allegorist, as it falls on the city, is the gaze of the alienated
organic. Not the body but the corpse is the most perfect objea for its art. h . man.
defends the rights of the corpS(: before the living being, which ;t couples to the
inorganic world. The fetishism that succumbs to the sex appeal of the commod· The 8ineur is a man uprooted. He is at home neither in his class nor in his
ity is its vitaJ nerve. On the other hand, it is precisely fashion that triumphs over homdand, but only in the crowd. The crowd is his element. The London
death. It brings the depaned '-Vith it into the present. Fashion is contemporary crowd in Engels. The man of the crowd in fbe. The phantasmagoria of the
'-Vith every past. 8aneur. The crowd as veil through which the familiar city appears tranS­
For the world exhibition of 1867, Victor Hugo issues a manifesto ... formed. The city as a landscape and a room. The department store is the
last promenade for the flaneur. There his fantasies were materialized.
The flaneur as boMmien. Excursus on the bohtmien. He comes into being at
the same time as the art market. He works for the '-Vide anonymous public
V. Baudelaire, or the Streets of Paris of the bourgeoisie, no longer for the feudal patron. He fonns the reserve
army of the bourgeois intelligentsia. His initial efforts on behalf of con­
[1) Baudelaire's genius, in its affinity for spleen and melancholy, is an alle~ri­ spirators in the anny give way, later, to efforts on behalf of working-class
ca1 genius. "Tout pour moi devient allegorie." Paris as object of allegoncal insurgents. He becomes a professional conspirator. He lacks politica1
perception. The allegorical gaze as gaze of the alienated. FUneur's lack of schooling. Uncertainty of class consciousness. "Political" and "social" rev0­
participation. lutions. The Communi.II ManjftJto as their death certificate. The boheme dis­
solves into a legal opposition and an anarchist opposition. Baudelaire's am­ essence of the images which the dreaming subject of history engenders. The an
bivalent position between the two. His Hight into the asocial. that doubts its task must make novelty into its highest value ...
The motif of death in Baudelaire's poetry penetrates the image of Paris. The ...............
"Tableaux parisiens," the Splun de Paru. Excursus on the chthonic side of The press organizes the market in spiritual values, in which initially there is a
the city of Paris. The o ld bed of the Seine. The subterranean channels. Leg­ boom. Eugene Sue becomes the first celebrity of thefiuilleton. Nonconfonnists
ends of subterranean Paris. Conspirators and communards in the cata­ rebel against the commodity character of art. They rally round the banner of t'art
combs. Twilight in the catacombs. Their ambiguity. They stand midway pour ['art. From this watchword derives the conception of the tota] work of an,
between house and street, between pavilion and hall. The undersea world which would seal art off from the further development of tec1mology. The Ce­
of the arcades. Their importance for prostitution. Emphasis on the Com­ jamtlwrutwerk is a premature synthesis, which bears the seeds of death within it.
modity character of the woman in the market of love. The doll as wish The solemn rite with which it is celebrated is the pendant to the distractions
symbol. which surround the apotheosis of the commodity. In their syntheses, both ab­
stract from the social existence of human beings. Baudelaire succumbs to the
rage for Wagner.
Tout pour moi devient Alligorie.
-Baudelaire, ~Le Cygne"

Baudelaire's genius, which is nourished on melancholy, is an allegorical geniw. VI. HaU88mann, or the Strategic Embellishment of Paris
For the first time, with Baudelaire, Paris became the subject oflyric poetry .. . ,
... increased the financia1 risks ofHaussmannization.
The world exhibition of 1867 marked the high point of the regime and of
Facilis desccnsw Avemi. Haussmann.'s power. Paris is confirmed as capita] ofluxury and of fash­
-V><giI ions. Excursus on the political significance of fashion. Fashion's innova­
tions leave intact the framework of domination. For those who are ruled,
It is the unique disposition of Baudelaire's poetry that the image of the woman it passes the time in which those who rule luxuriate. The insights of
and the image of death intenningle in a third: that of Paris. The Paris of his F.Th.Vtscher.
poems is a sunken city, and more submarine than subterranean. It is the city of a
Haussmann attempts to bolster his dictatorship.
death-fraught idyll. Yet the substrate of this idyll is nothing nawral, and consists
in neither the subterranean channels of Paris nor its catacombs and the legends
that have grown up around them. It is, rather, a social, and that is to ~. a
I modem substrate. But precisely the modem, La modmiiti, is always citing p~ .
Fais voir, en dijouant 1a ruse,
history. Here, this occurs through the ambiguity peculiar to the SQCial reIan<>.ns
o rCpublique, a ces pelVers
and products of this epoch. The twilight of the arcades, which contemporanc:s Ta grande face de Meduse
compared to an undersea landscape, lies over the society that built them. Their Au milieu de rouges iclairs.
construction itself is ambiguous. They stand midway between house and s~
-Chanson d'ouvrias vers 1850
on the one hand; between pavilion and hall, on the other. At the same time, this
ambiguity set the tone for the market of love. Prostitution, in which the woman , The barricade returns to life during the Commune. It is stronger and better
represents merchant and merchandise in one, acquires a particular significance. secured than ever. It stretches across the great bouJevards and shields the
trenches behind it. If the Communist Manifesto ends the age of professiona1 con­
spirators, then the Commune puts an end to the phantasmagoria according to
Je voyage pour conruUU"e rna giographie. which the proletariat and its republic are the fulfillment of 1789. TIlls phantasma­
The last poem of I.e; Fleur; du mal: "Le Voyage." The lastjoumey of the 8fu1eur: goria conditions the forty years lying between the Lyons insurrection and the
death. Its destination: the new. Newness is a quality independent of the use value Paris CQmmune. The bourgeoisie did nOt share in this error ...
of the thing. It is the last word of fashion. It is the semblance that forms the ... ...........
[1] {Balzac was the first to speak of the ruins of the bourgeoisie. But he still
knew nothing about them. It was Surrealism which first got a glimpse of
the field of debris left behind by the capitalist development of the forces of
But it was Surrealism that first opened OUT eyes to them. These ruins became,
Materials for the Expose of 1935
for Surrealism, the object of a research no less impassioned than that which the:
hwnanists of the Rataissance conducted on the remnants of classical antiquity.
Painters like Picasso and Chirico allude to this analogy. This unrelenting con.
frontation of the recent past with the present moment is something new, histori­
cally. Other contiguow links in the chain of generations have existed within the
collective consciousness, but they were hardly distinguished from one another
within the coUective. The present, however, already stands to the recent past as
These: materials COnsUl or noutiOIlI, schcmc:s, and methodological rdkaions ( ~lk Sdui/ktt,
the awakening stands to the dream. The development of the forces of produc­ , 'Ol 5 [Frankfurt: Suhrk.amp, 19821, pp. 1206-1223, 1250-1251), which are conncacd to 8c:n­
tion, in the course of the previow century, shattered that cenrury's wish symbols jamin's work on a ~gmU1l..l ptan ft for 1M Arr.aikl Proftd. Begun in March 1934, this 'NOI'k cu.1mi.
even before the monwnents representing them had collapsed, and before tht: naled in the cxpoK of 1935, wParls, We: Hauptstadt des XIX. Jahrhunderu." Certain of the notc:J,
paper on which they were rendered had yellowed. In the nineteenth cenrury, this such as No.3, may date from the lale t'Naltics. A rdatively precise dating is possible only for No.5,
wOllen Fcbnlary- May 1935, and for Not. 20-25 (ICC Trarulawn' NOICS 9 and 10). 1hc thematic
development of the forces of production worked to emancipate the forms of
construction from art, just as in the sixteenth century the sciences freed them­
, ordering of the materia] is \hat of the GcI'Il'Wl editor. Passages CIl:l5ICd out by BaYamin arc in rurvaI
bnckeu {}. Ediwrial irucrtiOIU are in angular bradtetl (). Square brackets [I are 8c:njamin'•.
selves from philosophy. A start is made with architecture as engineered. construc­ \\brds enclosed in double square bradtetl IT]I arc tala additions. The symbol <x) indicates illegible
tion. Then comes the reproduction of nature as photography. The creation of maleriaJ.
fantasy prepares to become practical as commercial art. Literature submits to
montage in the feuilleton. All these products are on the point of entering the
No. 1
market as commodities. But they linger on the threshold. They stop halfway. _
Value and commodity enter on a brief engagement before the market price I 1848 December 10: election of Louis Bonapane
makes their union legitimate. From this epoch derive the arcades and intlrieurs, Bloc of Catholics, Legitimists, Orleanists ; Napoleon promises freedom
the exhibition halls and panoramas. They are residues of a dream world. But of instruction
given that the realization of dream dements, in the course of waking up, is the Ledru-Rollin gets 400,000 votes; Lamartine 8,000; Cavaignac
paradigm of dialectical thinking, it follows that dialectical thinking is the organ of 1,500,000; Napoleon 5,500,000
historical awakening. Only dialectical thinking is equal to the recent past, because
1850 Loj Failoux
it is, each time, its offspring. Every epoch, in fact, not only dreams the one to
Bail for the newspapers raised to 50,000 francs
follow but, in thw dreaming, precipitates its awakening. It bears its end within
E1ectorallaw, the right to vote conditional on three years'
itself and unfolds it-as Hegel already noticed-by cunning. The r.uliest monu'
residence in a municipality, as ceni.6ed by tax lists
ments of the bourgeoisie began to oumble long ago, but we recognize, for the
first time, how they wen: destined for this end from the beginning. 1851 Rejection of the Napoleonic amendments to the electoral law
Victor Hugo tries in vain to mobilize the workers against the coup
December 20: plebiscite; 7,500,000 yes; 650,000 no
1852 November 20: plebiscite on reestablishment of the Empire. 7,839,000
yes; 53,000 no; 20 percent abstaining
1863 Thiers and Berryer elected to the Chamber
1866 Fonnation of the TIers Patti under Ollivier
1868 Restoration of freedom of the press and freedom of assembly
1869 Republicans 40 sealS (Gambetta, Rochefort); Union LilXrale 50; TIers
Parti 11 6. Bonapar?slS in the minority
Gaslight in Bauddaire
~ 1870 Plebiscite: 7,350,000 votes for the constitutional monarchy, against

~ 1864
1,538,000 (BonapaJ'tists and RepuhliCaJu)
Concession of the right to strike
Passage: de l'Opera
Aragon's technique compared V>'ith photographic technique

Fair in the basement ("Carnival of Paris")
1848 Abolition of the obligatory uniform for the Garde Nanonale I Tdeology of Paris: Eiffd Tower and motorways
!-5 Increase of the number of electors through universal suffrage, from
200,000 to over 9,000,000
Parisian streets in French literature (statistically)
I The system of Parisian streets: a vascular network of imagination
".. Emoluments for a member o f parliament : 25 francs per day
March 17 and April 16: violent demonstrations for the postponement {Bemouard: Parisian dialects during the war}

1~ of elections to the Constituent Assembly

Cassation <?> of the Garde Mobile
Sam Coeur: ichthyosaur; Eiffd T()\\.'er: giraffe
BabyCadum [[Mm,. Zahnall
F"<Juoof walls
18311£. Parti du Mouvtment : Laffitte, Lafayette, Barrol
?ani de Resistance: Pericr, Mole, Guirot, Thiers {Paris and the traveling <?> authors
Aragon Vague de rives
Nineteenth century: kitsch, new collections
No.2 Mirrors in the cafes: for the sake of the light, but also because the rooms are
Fashion so small}
1866 The head like a cloud, high above the valley of the dress
Lamps in the fonn of vases: the rare Sower "light" is put in oil No_4
1868 The breast covered with a fringed border Themes 0/the ArcatUs Project
Architectural forms on clothes Entrance of the railroad into the world of dream and symbol
VISitation of the Virgin, as theme of fashion images {Presentation of historica1 knowledge: according to the image: of awakening}
Fashionable clothing, as theme for confectioners FOlmer's "industrial fugue" as signature of an epoch that is crowned by the
Motifs of hedges (n, of gossamer <?> appear on clothes 1850-1860 world exhibitions
w,roan as equilateral triangle (crinoline) The Garde NationaJe, military order of industry and commerce
W>man as X-End of the Empire- {The domestic interior (furniture) in Poe: and Baudelaire}
Jacket as double: door Sponsorship of the three kingdoms for the arcade: the mineral kingdom with
glass and iron; the vegetable kingdom with the palm: the animal kingdom
Dress as fan
with aquatic fauna
Infinite possibility of pe:nnutation with the dements of fasrtion
The crisis that hits landscape: painting with the advent of the diorama ex­
tends to the portrait with photography
No.3 (W!eru as ennoblcr of the diorama}
n~ Btj( BooA on Paris From department store to world exhibition
Mirror city (the glass-plated amloire) {Haussmann's "'strategic embellishment" of Paris}
Energi~ of the big city: gasoline tanks {Fourier's archaic idyll: the child of nature as consumer; Pestalozzi's modem
utopia : the bourgeois as producer}
Illuminated advenising: new type: of writing (no illuminated advertising in
the arcad~) (Napoleon I as last representative of revolutionary terrorism, insofar as the
bourgeoisie is concerned)
Signboards: old type: of writing
The not-yet-conscious knowledge of what has been stems from the now The untranslatable literature of Rllnerie. "Paris sbttt by street and house by
{History of the Paris Stock Exchange and the Salons des Etrangers} house"
The past unfolds in the wax museum like distance in the domestic interior_ The Raneur and the ooUector; the archaic Paris of Blnerie
(The Baneur skins actuality)
No.5 {The city as a landscape and a room}
11Mmes W ille Arcade; Projul II> {Ega/iii as phantasmagoria}
The camouflage of bourgeois dements in the hohbne. {The tempo of Banerie and its cessation; exemplified by the restaurant and
the means of transport}
The boheme as form of existence of the proletarian intelligentsia.
Indecision of the fllneur; ambiguity of the arcades ; opaqueness of class rela­
The ideologues of the bourgeoisie: Victor Hugo, Lamartine. On the other tions
hand, Rimbaud
The bourgeoisie's mailres tk pkliJir: Scnbe, Sue. {The doll in the annex to the cocotte's}
Industrialization of literature, the "negro"; industrialization of literature {Sexual-psychological interpretation of the cult of dolls ; body and wax figure '
through the P"" <fuguise} ,
Industrial poetry of the Saint-Simonians
, Interior and museum
Beginnings of trade in modem artworks
{jugendstil, or the end of the interior (Jugendstil and poster).}
{Panoramic literature}
{Beginnings of the GJamtkumtwtrk <total work of art> in the panoramas} Emancipation and prostitution
Literature and commerce (names of magazines derived from vaudevilles) Girardin; the demoiselles of 1830; Fourier and Feuerbach
Specialty and originality Emancipation and the Saint..simonians; the cashier
Cult of love: attempt to deploy the technical force of production in opposi­
Inspiration for early photography: in ideas with Wienz, in teehnology with tion to the natural force of production
{Arago's speech in the Chamber on photography} {I Balzac's theory of pha­ Rise of the proletariat; its awakening in theJune InsUITeCtion
togrnphy} [The labor exchanges}
{Photography at the industtial exhibition of 1855} The cultu:re of the nineteenth century as a gigantic effort to stem the forces of
Meaning of the photographic reproduction of artworks ; overcoming of art production
through ph(otography) {Premature syntheses. Insurance against the proletariat}
Photography and decmc.light (Nadar) The Garde Nationale
{Attitude of the reactionary intelligentsia toward photography (Balzac)}
Precursors of stocks and bonds
{The veristic art of photography founded on the fashionable illusionism of
the panoramas} Change in the fonns of property as a result of the railroad
Wiertz as precursor of montage (realism plus tendentiousness); st.ereorama Corruption in the awarding of contracts during construction on the railroad
and painting (Wiertz) and during Haussmann's renovations

Three aspects ofBlnerie; Balzac, Poe, Engels ; the illusionistic, psychological, {Plekhanov on the world exhibition of 1889}
econODllC Museufns and exhibitions
Flincrie as hothouse of illusion; Servandoni's pro~ct {The ~nthronement of the commodity (advertising and exhibitions) J
Influence of industry on language later than on the image (in the case of the Tools and workers with Haussmann
{End of the arcade: the bicycle palaces)
Allegory and advertisement (Baudelaire)
Ebmts of contact between Saint-Simonianism and fascism
Eblice and conspirators; the porte-lanterneJ <lantern carriers)
[The IuUckknack I?>}
{Construction has the role of the
subconscious} {The collector}
Physiognomic digressions Construction in city planning {The curiosity shop as domestic interior}
the fl!neur ! {the bohemian} The role of the big city in the
{the gambler}! the {dandy}! nineteenth century {Early socialism, the police, conspirators (re Fourier) J
{the collector} Haubert's style
Snob (the new) \\brkers' associations {After-effect.s of 1789}
the new as antithesis to {Blurred class divisions} (The Comm<wUst) Manifesto as
what confomu to a plan lma~ and destruction in history
Fourier's serenity Historical anamnesis {Conspirators and the boheme} conclusion of the first period}
Godin and FOrd Not-yet-consciow knowledge {Technical wonders in the service of insurrection}
The industrial Christ (Lamartine) of what has been
Mercury in Fourier {Abolition of fashion} Promiscuity and hostility among the cI.asses; their commWlication in the om­
Effect and expression , nibus
Huysmans describes M6:Wmontant
(The doubt about history)
Components of death I Excursus on The workers' associations
Toppling of illusionism in the cityscape: perspectives
{"The Commune as test of the revolutionary legend}
{"Their introduction into the interior through the minor}
{Fashion in Apollinaire} {Gabet and the end offashion)l
Why was there no French Idealism?
{"The city as object of fashion (Lefeuve)}
Sensual delights of the bourgeois
Relation between technology and art as key to fashion
Hedonism and cynicism
{"The phenomenon of the quartieTJ (Julesjanin)}
lliusionism of the cocottes
Participation of women <in> the nature of the commodity, by virtue of fashion .
{Connection of fashion with death) The arcades as dream- and wish-image of the collective
{Theories offashion: Karr I Vtscher} Fermenters of intoxication in the collective consciousness
Fashion and colportage: "everybody's contemporary"2 1 {Phantasmagoria of space (the 8ineur); phantasmagoria of time (the gam­
{Inclusion of sex in the world of matter}
{Lafargue on the gambler.J {Phantasmagoria of society: (the bohemian)I
{Razing of the Passage de l'Opera during construction of the Boulevard
Haussmann} Atmosphere of the dream: climate

{Irruption of perspective into city planning: end of the arcades} The dream of empire; the Muses I {Basing of the first factory buildings on
residential homes}
{Formation of workers' districts in the suburbs}
{The Empire style as expression of revolutionary terrorism}
flbe end of the quarh"erJ v.tith H aussmannJ
Empi~ fonn of the first locomotives; technology under control I Treasury of
(The. language of the prefect of police) images of technology
{Decline of the arcades in TMreJe Raquin} Are there English in8ucnces on the Empire style? I Technology and the new
Attaching to the first appearance of the machine under the Empire was the Dialectic of the commodity
- sense of a restoration of antiquity
{Napoleon's attitude toward industrials and intellectuals}
A canon for this dialectic to be d rawn from
The positive in the fetish

fThe world exhibition of 1867} Dialectic of the newest and o ldest

Fashion is a canon for this dialectic also
{Grandville and Toussenel j Cabell I {Grandville and the advertisement}: The o ldest as newest: the daily news
dream and awakening
The newest as o ldest : the Empire
Bourgeois hedonism
{ ~cue of the utopians ; approaches to Fourier in Marx and Engels}
Fourier and Scheerbanj {Fourier's living on in lola}
Frrst dialectical stage: the arcade changes from a place of splendor to a place
(Fourier andJ ean Paul) I the true meaning of utopia: it is a precipitate of col.
lective dreams of decay

{The enthronement of the commodity on a cosmic scale I Commodity and Second dialectical stage: the arcade changes from all unconscious experience
fashion} to something consciously ~netrated

Advertisement and poster (business and politics) Not-~t-conscious knowledge of what has been. Strucrure of what-bas-been
at this stage. Knowledge of what has been as a becoming aware, one that
, has the structure of awakening.
{Dominance of finance capital under Napoleon III}
{Offenbach and the operetta} Not-~ t-conscious knowledge o n the part of the collective

The opera as center:! All insight to be grasped according to the schema of awakening. And
shouldn't the "not-yet-conscious knowledgen have the structure of dream?
{Crinoline and Second Empire}
Eblemic againstJung, who wants to distance awakening from dream.
Parisian chronicles} {the terrifying knock on the door}
the ugliness of the object is the terrifying knock
No.6 on the door when we're asleep5
Provisional Schemata ~ fashion an epoch in the history of the antiques trade and construct a
Revolutionary praxis clock by which to tell when o bjects are ripe for collecting.}
Technique of street fighting and barricade construction ~ construct an awakening theoretically- that is, we imitate, in the realm of
Revolutionary mise en Jehu language, the trick that is decisive physiologically in awakening, for awak·
Proletarians and professional conspirators ening operates with cunning. Only with cunning, not without it, can we
Fashion work free of the realm of dream.
"everybody's contemporaryn Awakening is the exemplary case of remembering: the weighty and momen­
Attempt to lure sex into the world of matter I
tous case. in which we succeed in remembering the nearest (most obvious).
\Vhat Proust intends with the experimental rearrangement of furniture is no
No.7 different from what Bloch tries to grasp as darkness of the lived moment.
Dialu h'cal &hnnata H ere the questio n arises: In what different canonical ways can man behave
(the individual man, but also the collective) with regard to dreaming? And
Hell-golden age
what.sort of comportment. at bottom, is adequate to [rue waking being?
~ywords for hell : ennui, gambling, pau~rism
A canon of this dialectic: fashion \r\k conceive the dream (1) as historical phenomenon, (2) as collective phe­
The golden age as catastrophe nomenon.
Efforts <?> to shed light on the dreams of the individuaJ with the help of the Economic rudiments
doctrine of the historical dreams of the collective. the consumer
{\\.e teach that, in the stratification of the dream, reality never simply is, but luxury buildings
rather that it strikes the dreamer. And I treat of the arcades precisely as fashion and boulevard
though, at bottom, they were something that has happened to me}
'We have to wake up from the existence of our parents. In this awakening, we Reversal
have to give an account of the nearness of that existence. Obedience as miscarried matter
category of nearness in religious education. Collecting as profane category altered tempo
of nearness; the collector interprets dreams of the collective. da/efotidique : 18936

Freud's doctrine of the dream as a phenomenon of nature. Dream as histori­ {New meaning of the arcades
cal phenomenon. Aragon: new mythology
relation to the nineteenth century
Opposition to Aragon: to work through all this by way of the dialectics of
awakening, and not to be lulled, through exhaustion, into "dream" or "my_
discovery of perspective}
thology." What are the sounds of the awakening morning we have drawn
into our dreams? "Ugliness," the "old-fashioned" are merely distorted
morning voices that talk of our childhood. {Chapters
Street Names I Perspective I Collecting I Interior of the
, street I Fashion I}
Thesis and antithesis are to be drawn together into the dream-variation­ Fashion always places its fig leaf on the spot where the revo­
image <Traum-Wantkl-Bild>. The aspects of splendor and misery attaching lutionary nakedness of society may be found. A slight ad­
to the arcades are dream vision. The dialectical reversal in synthesis is justment and ... But why is this adjustment &uitful only
awakening. Its mechanism. How we free ourselves from the world of our when it is carried out on the body of the recent past?
parents through cunning. Antinomy of the sentimentaL On the hallucina­ (Noah <?> and his shame?)
tory function of architecture. Dream images that rise up into the waking
No. 10
Epitome of the false redemption: ]ugendstil It proves the law according to
which effort brings about its opposite.
The motif of dialectic should be delineated specifically in reference to (F"rrst treaunent of decline: Aragon}
perspective Dialectic of the MagtlJin; de nouveau/b {Theory of the collector
luxury and fashion commodity miscarried matter Elevation of the corrunodity
Theory of awakening to be developed on the basis of the theory of boredom. to the status of allegory}
Theory of perspective in connection with Flaubert. Perspective and plf h. Dialectlc of sentimentality (sentences from "Dream Kitsch"Y
• {Archaeology of the <x>. Dream is the earth in
which finds are made.}

Dialectic of Bauerie the interior as street Ouxury)

the street as interior (misery)

Dialectic of fashion pleasure and cadaver

{lkginning: description of th~ present'­ {Attempt at a det~nnination of the No. 12
day arcades essence of stIttt names : th~y ~ Methodological
Th~ir dial~crica1 d~veIopment: com­ not pure allegories
Dialectical images are wish symbols. Actualized in them, together with the
modity I perspective Mythological T<o)pography: Bal­ thing <Sathe) itself, are its origin and its d~cline.
Acruality of th~ arcades in th~ir dream "",}
suucrure} What son of perceptibility should the presentation of history posses.!? Nei­
ther the cheap and easy visibility of bourgeois history books, nor th~ in­
sufficient visibility of Marxist histories. What it has to fix perceptually are
Thesis Antithesis the images deriving from the collective unconscious.
Flowering of the arcades under Decline of the arcades at th~ end The <d~velopment) of the productive forces of a society is determined not
Louis Philippe of the nineteenth cenrury only by th~ raw materials and instrum~nts at that society's disposal, but
also by its milieu and the experiences it has th~re.
The panoramas Plush
Th~ magasins Miscarried matt~r Waiting as fonn of existence of the parasitic elements.
Love The whore

No. 13
Synthesis J(rn1 'IMmes and rormulations
Discovery of th~ arcades {With the expanded range of transportation, th~ informational merits of
The unconscious knowl~dge of what has painting diminish. In reacrion to photography it begins initially, over the
been becomes conscious course of half a century, to stress the elements of color in th~ picrure. Ju
I Theory of awak~ning I Impressionism yields to Cubism, painting opens up a wider domain-on~
Dial~ctic of persp.
Dial. of fashion
­ into which photography, for the moment, cannot follow.}
{For a subjecrive point of view on the presentation of the new, as it appears at
Dial. of sentimo ro.idcenrury in the society and its milieux, no on~ can take responsibility:
hence the lens <das ObJdtiu).}
{Dioramas Waiting and Jetting wait. Waiting as form of existence of the parasitic ele­
Plush-perspective ments.
Rainy weather}
No. 14
No. ll Fundamental Qyestions
Fundamental for C riticism Erroneous The historical significance of semblance <&hein>
Syst~maric exterior architecture \\.brld exhibitions and working class {What are the ruins of the bourgeoisie?)
Commodities-mat~ria1s Fourier and arcades
Where, within the new, runs the boundary between reality and semblance?
Ur-history of th~ feuilleton Ur-history of the nineteenth cenrury
Golden age and hell IPainting in the negative of the trace ] Relation between fa1s~ consciousness and dream consciousness. Mirroring
Theory of phantasmagoria : cu1rure Countinghouse and chan1ber of COOl­ takes place in the dream consciousness. Collecrive dream consciousness
men:< and superstructure. .

More prcci ~ detemlinarion of the Sarum problem The dialectic, in standing still, makes an image. Essentia1 to this image is a
commodity Barcelona beton semblance.
Fetish and death's head
TIle now of recognizability is the moment of awakening.
No. 19'
In the awakening, the dream stands still.
{The merit of this litUe volumc lies in UIC evocation of the different districts
The historical movement is a dialectical movement. But the movement of
of a great city. IL is not Uleir picturesque aspect that concerns the author,
false consciousness is not. This consciousness becomes dialectical also in
nor anything exterior. It is, rather, ule unique character conferred on each
the awakening.

.1( No. 15
of these quartim by the social strata infomting them and the occupations
of the residents.}

If the speculative phenomena attendant on "Haussmannization" remain for

Mdhodologiw Re,foC/ifn1S the most part in shadow, the tactical interests of the reform-interests
Make use of srudies on the "now of recognizability" which Napoleon 1Il willingly concealed behind his imperial ambitions­
emerge more clearly. A contemporary apology for Haussmann's projeCt is
Make use of Proust's description of awakening comparatively frank on this subject. It commends the new Streets for "not
Awakening as the critical moment in the reading of dream images subserving the customary tactics of the local insurrections." lkfore this,
Special claims of the recent past on the method of the historian Paris had already been paved in wood so as to deprive the revolution of its
building material. AJ Karl Gutzkow writes in his Pan.ur Briefr:n, "no one
Demarcation from culrural history builds barricades out of blocks of wood ." To appreciate what is meant by
this, recall that in 1830 some six thousand barricades were counted in the
Reread Hegel on dialectics at a standstill , city.
The experience of our generation: that capitalism will not die a narural death.
Here, for the first time, the recent past becomes distant past. Primal history Louis Philippe already had the nicknanle "Roi-Ma\-on" <Mason King>. With
fonus part of the recent past,just as mountains, seen from a great dUtance, Napoleon III, the mercantile, hygienic, and military forces bent on trans­
appear to fonn part of the landscape lying before them. fonning the city's were allied with the aspiration to immortalize

No. 16
- <onescif> in monwnents of lasting peace. In Haussmann he <x> found the
energy necessary for implementation of the plan. Putting the energy to
v.'Ork was, of course, not easy for him.
WitJengrund A careerist in the service of a usurper
Dialectical image and dialectics at a standstill in Hegel
Destructive-Pacific Imperialism
No. 17 "TIle Haussmanruz.ation of Paris"

The Fourierist utopia announces a tranSfonnation in the function of poetry III. Haussmann and Napoleon III The c:arecrut serving thc usurper
II. Strategic embellistullelll
III. Fantastic accounts of Hau5smann
No. IS Strategic embcUislnnCIll Napoleon as pretender to the thronc
The tcclutique ofbanicade fighting Thc coup d'~tat and Haussmann
Placed, thus, in the center of history, <broken off> The strategic lines TIle police and Orsini's assassination
The theoretic base attempt
AJ man fonus the center of the horizon that, in his eyes, stretches around
Juruprudcncc HaussmauJl and the parliament
him, so his existence fonus for him the center of history. Looking about
The spectacles; aesthetics Haussmalm's later <:areer
him at the midday hour, he invites the emaciated spirits of the past to dine
at his table. {The historian presides} over a ghosuy meal. The historian is HaUSlIlllaIUl'S means
the herald who swrunons the departed to this banquet of spirits. Significancc of substructions
TIIC railroads
The living generation <broken off> TIle wo rld cxhibitio ns
TIle ncw city planning
No. 21
Plan of March 1934 [ Fragments of the genera1layout
[[Portrait of Haussmann;
destructive energies in him1I VI. (Haussmann, or the "Strategic Embellislunent" of Paris
Excursus on the gambler
'I'M tkmolili01lJ of Paris
The end of the arcades
Capital of the Nineteenth Century Technique of st:reet· and barricade·fighting
The political function of fashion ; critique of crinoline in F. Th. VlScher
+Haussmann, or Strategic The Commune)
Grandville, or the \o\brld Exhibition., Fetish character of the commodity I. Fourier, or the Arcades
Baudelaire, or the Street! ofParu-*) Transitory aims of constructions in iron.
Louis Philippe, or the Theho~ Moreover: iron, as the first artificial
lnterio~'''''' '''''' building material, is the first to
+Daguerre, or the Panorama The collective WlOOllSciow
undergo a development. TIlls
Fourier, or the Arcade!
proceeded more and more rapidly in
II Psychology of the newspaper: [[Cross·schema! the course of the cenrury. Arcades in
the need for novelty]] Paris MetaphysiC!
Fourier are designed for dwelling.
Proletariat PhysiognomiC! (7) The Empire style
Dialectics]] Materialist tendencies in the bourgeoisie (Jean Paul, Pestalozzi; Fourier)
...., Fashion Rise of the arcades Marx and Engels on Fourier
•.., F11neur The arcades in Fourier Theory of education as root of utopia
...., Boredom ...., Jugendstil Uugendstil as end of the interior) Fourier's afterlife in Zola
++ the collector Zola: U 1favail The beginnings of iron construction I The disguising of construction
II. {Daguerre, or the Panorama
I. Fourier, or the Arcades Excursus on an <and) technology (Beaux-Arts and Ecole I\llytechnique)
His figure set ofT against the Empire I Antiquity and Cockaigne I Historical
~ 2' The welcoming of photography (Balzac and Arago)
o t The confrontation between art and technology in Wiertz
Fourier andJean Paul l Why there was no French idea.lism 2 ~ Railroad stations and halls as new sites for an
[II. Daguerre, or the Panorama (Passage des Panoramas, 1800) t CII The panoramas as transitional phenomenon between an and the tech­
Panoramas I Museums I Exhibitions I The prematuJ"C: syntheses I The nique of reproducing nature
breakthrough of the daguerreotype I Irruption of technology intO the Excursus on the later development: extension of the commodity world
realm of an) through the photo
III. Louis Philippe, or the Interior {Paris as panorama; the panoramic literature, 1830-1850
The dream house·· ' (The collector I The £laneur ' The gambler) (Life of the worker as subject of an idyll))
rv. Grandville, or the W:lrld Exhibition . . Coll: ctor Photography at the industrial exhibition of 1855
Happiness in machinery I The conunochty m the cosmos I Gambler Rear-guard action by an against technology, in Talmeyr (1900))
Fourier's dream Forger
Plekhanov on 1889 Fllneur III. Grandville, or the WOrld Exhibitions
V. Haussmann, or the Embellishment of Paris Fashion as means of conununicating commodity character to the cosmos
••• Origin of the arcades and Magic of cast iron in outer space and in the underworld
primal history Further development of the arcades in the exhibition halls ; Paxton's
.. the chthonic Paris Crystal Palace of 185 1
TI1C sex appeal of the commodity (The cashier as living image, as allegory of cash)
Mobilization of the inorganic through fashion; its triumph in the don Cult of love : attempt to bring natural production into opposition with indus­
(Thc love market of Paris) trial production
Paris as material of fashion ; psychology of the quarti" inJanin and
Lefeuve [The concept of culture as the highest development of phantasmagoria)
(The battle between utopia and cynicism in Grandville) [The concept of eternal rerum: the "last stand" against the idea of progress)
Grandville as precursor of advcrtising graphics [Annihilation of the phantaSmagoria of culturt in the idea of etema1 return)
The world exhibition of 1867; triumph of cynicism; Offenbach as its
demon [Odradek and the dialectic of the commodity)
Grandville and the Fourierists (foussenel's philosophy of naturt) [Attempt to banish elUlui by dint of the new]
7le unilXT'saJ extension ofcommodity c/wract" to tire ll-'OTld ofthings [Waiting for the new: in the last poem <of u; Fleur; du ma/}-going to meet
Body and wax 6gure
the ncw- but running intOdeath]
Chthonic clements in Grandville I {Chthonic elements in the image of
The sPir:W.liU No. 24
{Waiting as fonn of existence of parasitic dements}
No. 22 , Actualized in the dialectical image, together with the thing itself, are its origin
OnV and its decline. Should both be eternal? (eternal transience)
{Critique of modcmity (presumably a separate section). The new has the [Is the dialectical image free of semblance <&Irein>?J
charactcr of a semblance <&lreincharaktm and coincides with the sem· [The now of rccag:niz.ability is the moment of awakening}
blance of the eternally recurrent. The dialectical semblance of the new and
always identical is the basis of "cultural history."} {[Proust: description of awakeningJ}
r [Hegel on dialectics at a standstill]
{TIle experience of our generation : that capitalism will not die a natural
Four digressions on boredom. The snob, who lives in the semblant world of death)
the new and ever identical, has a constant companion: boredom. With
For the first time, here, the recent past becomes distant past
Proust, snobbism becomes the key to the social analysis of the upper CTUSL
The total work of art represents an attempt to impose myth on society (myth \ The GeJamIAun.slwn'i represents an attempt to impose myth on society (myth
being, as Raphael rightly says <in Proudhon, Marx, Piawo (Paris, 1933», being, as Raphael righdy says, p. 171, the precondition for the oeuvre d'art
p. 171, the precondition for oeuvre; d'art intigra/es).
intigra/e) .
"Everybody's contemporary" and eternal n=currence

No. 23 10
No. 25
nne cternal return as nightmare of historical consciousness)
[Jung wants to distancc dream from awakening) The question posed in I: What is the historical object?
{"Thrcc aspects of Hancrie: Balzac, Poe, Engels ; the illusionistic, the psycho­ The response of III : The dialectical image
logical, the cconomic} . The uncommon ephemerality of the genuine historical object (Bame) com­
{Scrvandoni <?)) pared with the fixity of the philological object. Where the text is itself the
rnlC new as antithesis to what confoons to a plan) absolute historical object-as in theology-it holds fast to the moment of
extreme ephemerality in the character of a "revelation."
Allegory and advertising [the personification of commodities rather than of
concepts;J ugendstil i.ntroduces the allegorical 6gure to advertising] The i.dea of a history of hwnanity as idea of the sacred text. In fact, the his­
tory of humanity-as prophecy-has, at all times, been read out of the sa­
cred text.
The new and ever identical as the categories of historical semblance.-How
stands the matter with regard to eternity?
The dissolution of historical semblance must follow the same trajectory as Materials for "Arcades"
the construction of the dialectical image
Figures of historical S(:mblance: I.
II. Phantasmagoria
III. Progress

Among Benjamin's papers an: the following malr:rial.s, consisting of typewritten sheets with addi.
lions in his own and in Franz Hessd's hand. These notes and skc!Ches (GeJammeIU &luffttrl, vol. 5
(Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982), pp. 1341-1347) r:vidently rdale 10 the abortive collaboration with
Hessel on the arcades. Typewrinen lexl is prinled here in italia; Benjamin's longhand notations, in
underlined italics; and Hessel's longhand notations, in roman type. Passages thaI an: crossed OUI in
the manuscript an: in curved brackets I } here.

Picture puzzles of the French Revolution or V"mok W()T/d H istory (paris tf Ike
Romans, Middle Ages, ancien regime, rroolution, and so on.) Baiuu;'s str(eiJ
and COTTIn'S. (SU(, Hugo, and others.)
May 1 on tke Bu//( Rouge.
NroJ and old catacombs, Mitro, wine cellars, ancient sit(s.
Strut vending.
1M stred where nroJspapm are print(d
Lost animals (the pound)
\ . 1M slaughterhouses
Social fortifications.
{Stroll along vanish(d town walls (ancient)
Philip Augustus, Louis XII, Farmm -Grneral and th( Iastf()Ttification, now in the
, prf)(W 0/ bnng dnnolishd}

Gasoline. (The perfect chauffeur in Paris)

n( jreside and the "Lantenu "
'The lastjacm
Old sign.'!.
Conuenienca and inconueTliences (tobacco, mailboxa, tickets, post"" pillars, and so
Parisians on Paris. How afirst-daJJ restaurant comes into being.
Pickup, mome, stn:etwalker, tart, artiste, and so on. Apiritf£ place, time, varietieJ
Paris aJpine. Fair.
Droelopmental and artUm history 0/lite Eiffil TO'UIer. Huw I driue m) car in Paris
Afln-nOOTl in MonlmlJrtre. Theater with/ewer than 5 00 Hats.
Etiquette.for mealtimeJ (Punxyon 0/pleasure)
InojJmJiw monuments FQJhionable teas.
IIfout alnUS" kJ enfonb tavern wilh musical entertainment.
Biography of a street (Rue Saini-Honore, or Rivoli) 1, 000 meter; 0/modnn art (Rue de la Boitie)
Annualfoir. Great and small labyrinth 0/Paris Catacombs and Paris.
Fashion houstJ Paris translated <traduit>.
The bridgtJ. Utukrground MUlspapers
DoorJ and windowJ. Parisian mimm,ftom the bistro to Vmailles.
Archiltctum 0/chance. (lW/m) Tjpes 0/cocottes: streelwallr.m, m6mes. call girls (deluxe) sodal relab'ons
ArcadeJ. tarts lionesses girlfrirnd liaison sweetheart artisle
Hotel Artiste smcuse.
Dance IuJII. Toysh&/, saddlers IuJrntJJ malr.m hardware store
The JmalkJt Jquare in Paris. mings 0/'ytJteryear and tlte /il!.ej &cre Ferme I.N.
Church windowJ A wall!. with lite secret agent.
The partsjrom Moneeau to ButttJ-Chaumonl.
Small Jide alley in the PaJJage fUS Panoramas: service pas;age with iron ladders on
Street 0/art fUalm (1,000 meters of painted canvas)
the walk
1M SUnM) 0/the poorer cUwtJ Vuilors' cards are made immediatelyj boots immediately cleaned
Tea in lite &is.
\ . Mruaic thmholds, in the style o/'tlte old mlaurants in Ihe Palais-Royal, lead to a
America and AJia in Paris diner fU Paris atfiueji-anCJ- so broad and empty are they, that one cannot be­
ReaJJuring advice/or museum visib. lieve there is really a m laurant up there. m e Jame is /nie o/tlte rntrance to lite
Ittit Casino. There you indeed see a hooth and prices 0/seatsj but you haue
Lunch hourfor drtJJmU.m' QJrutants. (Fairy tale motif.)
thefeeling thai, once through the gfaJJ door, you would wind up on the street
(Physiology of the box) again instead o/in a theater.
Remarltable history 0/the droelopmrnl 0/Jmail mtaurantJ. Many institlilej qfhygiene For the biceps, hip reducer, gladiators with orthopedic
IWith Saini-Simon, Lise/otte, and other rt1Jtntlnb in Vmailles.} belts Bandages round the while beUies of mannequins
All sorb 0/racing. In old hairdressing sa foTIS, the hut womrn with loug hair, uudulating "perma1lent
wave," petrified coiilureJ.
The SUnMy 0/the poOrtr ckweJ. if these laUer are petnfied, the stOTlt'Worl!. of the arcades, by contrast, o/IeTl Juu the
StaircaJtJ, windows, doors, and signboard.; qfParis. dfict 0/'crumbliTlg papier-miicM.
Dance halIJ qfdifferent districtJ Rjdicul~us "Jouuenirs " and bibelots- quite hideous
Paris alpine. OdalisqueJ stretched out next 10 iTlltwell,- priestmes raise aloft ashtrays like
Th.e diJeuner rd drWmaAers' Q,SJistants. patens.
''A la Capricieuse," lingrr1'e de loul genre. A factory producing cockadc=s for wc=ddings and banquetS, "fine::ry for mar.
Doll mentkr, rieds."

Fan factory untkr the arch 1. (Not long ago, a piece 0/old Pam disappr:ared-the PQJsagt: de l 'Opira,
which once ledfrom the boulevards to the old apera theater, Construelion ifthe
Booluhap on the maUlnine: Etreintes secretes, Art d'aimer. Affolantu Illusions, Us
Bouleuard Haussmann swallowed it up, And so we turn our allenHon to the ar.
Insatiablu, &hool ifLolX, Mimoim d'une bonne Ii toutfoire. In their midst,
cades that still exist, to the bnghter. liuelier, and in some caJes renovatr:d ar­
Imagu d'EPiTUlI. Harlequin betrotlu his daughter, Imagu ifNapoleon. Am1­
cades ifthe opera district, to the narrow, o/ien empty and dwt-covered arcades
lay, Wtzy to heaven and hell, with capHon in Freruh and German (in dnJoti01Uz/
if more obscure neighborhoods, They work, the arcades-sometimes in their to­
shop on the Rue du VtJI de Gnice English the broad and the narrow way),
tality, sometimes only in certain par/J-QJ a PQJ/ become space; they harbor an.
Typographies. Hquated trades, and r:ven those that are thoroughly up to date acquire in these
VISitors' cards while you wait inner spaces something archilic,) Since the light comes only from above through
glass roo/i, and all stairways to the lift or nght, at entranceways between tM
Everywhere, QJ addition to the program, as guest star: stockings, Now lying next to shops, lead into darkneJJ, our concr:ph'on o/life within the TOOTTU to which these
S()11ie photos, now in a tauern, watched ouer by a girl (we:: think of the theater in stairways ascend remains somroJhat shadowy.
Montrouge, where, during tM day, they hang on the ticket booth that opem only la, The Illustrated Guick to Pam, a compkte picture ifthe city on the Seine and
at evening) 11s enuiromfrom the year 1852, writes 0/the arcades: <the::re follows the cita.
Stairway to the Arabic mtaurant, lILba/) tion found at the beginning of "The Arcadc=s of Paru").
Frequently, handbags (peh'/J s(Uj) in open cardboard boxes, wrapped in tWue pa­ 2. At the entrance gates ifthe arcades (am: couldjwt as
p<T. well say "exit gates," since, with these peculiar hybrid
forms if house and street, euery gate is simultaneously
In the building next door, wherc= the::re is a gate::way, almost an arcade::: Mme.
entrance and exit}-at the entrance gates am:.fou/s, on
de umsolis, Maftrwe de Balkt-LefonJ, Cours, Numirru, Mme, Zahtld, Carto­
eitna sick, remarkable and someh'mes enigmah'c
inscriPh'ons and signs, which qftenHmes mulhply akmg
{Narrow alley J behind Hotel de Boulogne, with one window abow hairdmser. 1le the walls within where, here and there, between the
girl waiting below and the one looking out if the window, 'flu wholeftamed by shops, a spiral staircaJe rises into darkneJJ. We
the entryway. surmise that "Albert au 83" wl1l be a hairdreJJer, and
no miJomibi/ifl "Maillo/J de Theiitre" will most liRely be silk tigh/J,
<Drawing by Hc=ssel representing the gate::way me::nconed>
toward the new pinR and light blue,jOryoung singer; and dancers; but
This in from of me (as seen from the cafe) and, to the right, the Gate of [Saint· age: it can come these insistent k llerings want to say more to UJ and
Denis dedicated to] Louis the:: Great, with couchant lions, wc=apons, and \ no mOr( in the somr:thing different, And should we jind ourselues
vague ttophic=s on pyramids. future lTOwded out by those who actually buy and sell, and
lift standing br:tween ouerloaded CDatraclu at the
In the arcades, bolder colors are prusible, There are red and green combs,
bottom ifthe spiral staircaJe, where we read "Insh'tut
Pmerved in the arcades are typu ifcollar studsfor which we no longer knou; the de Beauti du PrqfiJJeur Alfred Billerlin," we cannot
corresponding collars or shir/J, butfiel anxious, And the "Fabnque de Crauates au
Should a shoernaker's shop be neighbor to a corifectioner's, his display ifshoelaces 2e _ Does it maRr: necRtiesfar strangling? Oh, the
wiil start to ruemble licorice. needleworR there WIN be quite inoffensive, if course,
but these dark dilapidated stairs maRe usfiel tifTaid,
{There are maTlY stamp shops (wh ich, with their ~~th American ~ummi~gbird But: "Union artiscique de:: France au 3en _ What
stamps on paper stained by damp, remind the uUllor.from Berlm ifchIldhood
can that be? (hi all arcades-the wide and crowded
and cuckoos).} ones 0/the bouleuard, no leJJ than the narrow dejerted
One could imagine an ideal shop in an ideal arcade-a shop which bn'ngs together onr:J near the Rue Saint-Denis-there are display; 0/
ail mi tiers, which is doll clinic and orthopedic imtitute in one, which seJis trum~ canes and umbrelim: sr:rried ranlu o/coloifu' croolu.)
pets and sMils, birdseed infixah'w pansfrom a photographer's darkroom, ocan­
na; as umbrella handles.
~ 3. {Oflen, thest inTier spaces /w,rbor antiquated tradeJ, A boo!.slore plaw/oget,," 011 neighboring .Ihelvel {alluring manuaJ.s 0/the art
and wen those thai are thoroughly up to dille will . oflove, J introductions to outmoded !liUl. accountI 0/llrange jJa.slions and viul,
, acquire in them Jomething {archaic} ob.wletel and memoir.l ofa maitiuroant, with viIJidly colored Epinal prints, on which

In the wide ami crowdtd areaMS of/he boulevards, Harlequin betroths hu daughter. NapoleOll n'del through Marengo, and, elMe

as in lht narrow deserted arcades near the Rue be.side all typel ofartillery piem, Old EngliJh burghm travel the broad,bath
Sainl-Dtnu, 111m are alwop displa)J of umbrelku to hell and the narrow path ofthe Grupe!. J
" and caneJ: J("jed ranks ofcolorjUl croolu
'~" {Many are the institutes oJhygiene, where
I+e.snved in the arcade.s are typel ofcol/o,r ltud.sfor which we no /Ollger know
the co"e.sponding col/arl or JhirtJ.
M gladiators have on orthoftedic hells, and tlrert are Should a lhoernak~J lhop umbrel/o, hand1es <broken off>
:;; bandages around the white bellies of mannequitU.} 5. AI Ihe entrance to OIIe 0/the poorel/ arcadel, we could read.' "Bureau tk Place­
{In the shop windows offne hairdrwm, one sm 11Imt pour Ie PerJonnel des Deux &xe.s,""founded in 1859.
the last women with long hair; they have ridaly 7M bmannti mwlljw here tlw.t can be inftrTed from tlK fact tlw.l a
undulating mlWeJ of hair, which are "jurmanent ./Jlamntnl bureau for it exut.s <marginal note>
wawJ/' petrified coff!llres: And, while thest are nis J/ood ahove "Article de Paris, Speciali/il pour Rwains." We followed the
turned to slone, the masonry oftht walls aboue is ntlrTOW dark corridor /0 where-between a "/ibrairie m lO!de, in which

"{Bautklairr. "La like crumbling papi«-.machi. ofboo!.s w~e llacked in dUlty h'ed-up bund1el, and a Jhop lelling only
chrodyre." Rulon. Brittle, too, are the mOJo;, thmholds that lead you, buttons (molher-of-pearl, and lhe kind that in Pari; iJ called "tkfon/aiJie")­
Bautklaire. who Iw.w in the style of the old mtaurantl ofthe Palau­ we diJlOuertd a .lor! ofJalon. On the pale-colored wallpaperfoil offigure; and
made a .IPecial world out Royal, to a "dina- tk Paris "for fiwftancs; they bUlt.s lhone a gas lamp. By it.s lighl, an old wtWIan .Iat reading, 1ky laY .lhe
• mount boldly to a glaJS door, but you (ilTI hardiy
oOair. "BetrfJ,yed and has bem Ihtre alone for yearJ.
.Iold" that iJ a [ale lhat bdinN tlw.l behind this door is really a mtaurant. {Halling jJa.sJed a Jtamp lhop wilh Sou/h Amen'can hummingbird ltampJ on pa­ bectWIeJ inlelligible The gfaJS door adjacent promise.s a "PeHt Casino" per ltained by damp, we ctWIe 10 an office Jhrouded in black.: there, gold and lU'
within theK .sPaw. Htre. and allow.l a ofa ticket booth and pria.s of /J(1' iJ purchased. J 'There, the proprietor JUIu .let.s ofleelh in gold, in wax, or

the head ofSalome itself .Ieat.s; but wa-e you to opm il and go in, wouldn't brokm:
ha; buome all ornament,. you ralh~ come out on the .street instead ofinto the "And nolfar fiwn th~e muJl haw Jtood the ofjim in whicl!. toward 1M
or rather. a ghrutly lKad .Ipace ofa theat~7 " Or into a darkneu judi a.s beginning oft'" Bietkrmriuperiod. Doc/or Miracle created his Obm"ia.
that now tlw.l into whidi all .stair.l lead at Ihe enlrancrnHlJ.I For thQ are 1M lruefairi(j o[thm arcad{J (more;a/abk and more worn
Salom,'l and IIOW Anna on either .Iitk 7) IMn Iht (i/i-si;e gngJ: 1M formtr£r world· famow Parisian dg/is. wh;ch
CvllaA J Rjt.s hm and rrwlwd on tOOr muskgl soc" and bore in their amy a doll·sited Witt!
Ihere untkcidlilJ out ofwhic". at the sa/utah'on ofthe minor chord. a lambkin boked it;
""f1ik door. jll WI. has a mirror in the middle and. .Iinu all \ .
cun'ow muuk <marginal note>
wal4 are breached lq mirrorJ. there iJ no telling out.sid{ trom in. But a .small, red Hn paraJol, al thefoot ofa llaircase elrue by, point.s Ihe way
with all the eguil/OCal illumination. Paris UIhe city ofmirror; ... J coyly to a factory producing umbrellaftrrule.s.
4. {In the arcade's {bolder} falser color.l are pru.sible; that comb's are red arut. ffem
iJ not Jurprising, Jurprim no Olll. Snow White J J/epmotlKr had 'such thmgs..
And whm Ihe comb did no/ do itJ work. a red-g;rem apple w? needed.
Tldel a mele ha lar. numb o.sea aooila I or a m I em •
1m. Shall we not. how;;)(r. take advantage of/hiJ litualion ;n order to haf)(.§J.
neighbor lome battm d <?> creatu re who <broken off> .
In l uch {Iii agau] the Hckel WaJ born . .'
"Souvenirl" and bibdotl call become particularly hideoU.l; the odaluque fte.s In
wait next 10 the inkwell; prie.steJJeJ elevate aJhtrays like patens.
EIKrywh~e ltocking; playa l /a r:ing role~now Iyi~g next 10 lome photo­
graphs, llOW in a doll hrupi/al, now OIl a .sule table 111 a taut:rn, watched ouer
by (l girl.
" Dialectics at a Standstill" '''The Story of Old Benjamin"
Translators' Notes' Guide to Names and Terms ' Index


Tht! Passage Choiswl, 1908. Photographer unknown.

Dialectics at a Standstill
Approaches to the Pauagen-Werk

By Rolf Tiedemann

There art book! whose fate ha5 ~cn settled long before they even exist as boob.
Benjamin's tmfinished Pa.uagen-Wtrk is jwt such a case. Many legends have been woven
around it since Adorno fint mentioned it in an essay published in 1950.] Those legends
became even more complexly embroidered after a two-volume ,decrioD of Benjamin's
!etten appeared, which abowKled in statements about his intentions for the project. But
these statements wttc neither complete nor coherent. 2 & a result, the mo5t conaadiaory
rumon spread about a book that competing Benjamin interpreters persistently referred to
in the hope that it wouJd solve the puuJes raised by his intellectual physiognomy. 1hat
hope ha5 remained unrealized. 1be ans~r that the fragments of the PasJagrn-Werk give to
iu readers instead rauows Mephisto's relon, "Many a riddle is made here," with Fawt's
"Many a riddle mwt be soh'cd here."
In fact, for some years the texts that provide the most reliable information about the
project Benjamin worked on for thirteen years. from 1927 until his death in 1940, and
that he regarded as his masterpiece, have been available. Most of the more important
texts he wrote during the last decade ofhis life arc offshoots of the Pa.s.sagton-WtTA. U it had
\ been completed, it would have become nothing less than a materiafut philosophy of lhc
history of the nineteenth century. The expose entitled "Paris, the Capital of the NUlC­
tccnth Century" (1935) provides us with a sununary of the themes and motifs Benjamin
W\U concerned with in the ~r work. The text introduces the concept of "historica1
\ .
schematism" (5:1 150),3 which was to serve as the basic plan for Benjamin's construction
of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, "Das Kunstwcrk im Zcita1tcr seiner tcdmi­
schcn Rcprodmicrbarkeit" (The \o\brk of Art in the Age of Technologica1 Rcproduabil­
ity; 1935- 1936) has no thematic COlUlcction with the Pauagm-WtTA (dealing with
phenomena belonging to the twt:ruieth rather than to the rUnctttnth century), but is
nevertheless relevant from the point of view of methodology. In that essay, Bel~amin tries
to '''pinpoint the precise spot in the present my historica1 construction would take as its
vanishing point' (Letters, 509). The great, fragmentary work 0 11 Baudelaire, which came
into being in the years 1937-1939, offen a "miniature model" of 'the ArcacUJ Projttt. The
methodological problems raised by the "\\brk of Art" essay \\"ttC, in their turn, addressed
O uC( more in the theses "-Ober den Begriff der Gcschichte" (On the Concept of History).
In Adomo's opinion, these theses "more or less sununarizc the epistemologica1 coruidcra·
tions that developed concurrently with 1M Arnuks Project."" What survives ohhis pro}
Cct.- the countless notes and excerpts tlmt constitute the fifth volume of Benjamin's

NO(cs for this ea:5ay begin on page: 10 12.

C(S(lmmelie SchrifJro-rarcly go theoretically beyond positions that have been fonnulated with and final ly ovcrgrovro by quotations and bibliographic notes, and in places with
more: radicall y in the texIS mentioned above. Any study of the Pasulgro- Werk (Bcnjamir.a'. conunentary. Both the "Convolutes" and the "Fint Sketches" arc published in extenso as
intentio ns hardly lay thcmselve! o pen to a simple perusal) must therefore deal with tilt tlley arc found in the manuKript, but ~The Arcades of Paris" i.s rrcated in a different
"\M:Jrk of Art" essay, the texts devoted to Baudelaire, and the theses "On the Concept of manner. 111e notes and quotations in this manuscript ....'(:re never n:ally worked out: they
History." Th~ must always be present to the student's mind, even though they an:: must have eitller been trarulferred to the "Convolutes" or been discarded. They have
manifestly aUlonomous-vmtings either introductory (O the Pauogro- WerA: or distinct therefore not been included in d lis edition. Only fully formulated text.! ha,,'(: been publish­
• from it. ed; tlleir order has been e!tablished by the editor. These text.!, among the most important
The publi!hcd volumes of the pllJS(lgro-WerA: begin with tv."O texu in which!ktyanlin and. if I may say so, the most beautiful of Benjamin's texts, surface again at various places
presents the proj«t in summary, lint in 1935 and again in 1939. Togtther with the early in tile "Convolute!." Published as a whole, however, they convey an impression of the:
a5a)' "Der Satunuing, oda Etw.u vom Eismbau" ([be Ring of Saturn, or Some R.e­ essay Benjamin mulled o\'er but ne\'(:r actually wrote. The last text, ~1bc: Ring of Sarum,
marlu on Iron Construction), th~ texts arc the only ones belonging to the Arc:adca or Some Remarks on Iron Construction," also belongs to the: first phase ofhis project. It
complex that may be said to be complete. 1bcy were not, however, intended for publica­ may, in fact, be a journal or newspaper article, an offshoot of the: Pa.uagtn-WtTA: wroch
tion. The earliu, Gennan one was written for the lnstitut fUr SoUalforschung, which, at a never made it into print.
result, accqxed the Piwagro-WrrA: as one of its sponsored research projccu. The other The fragments of the PaJStZgnl-WtTA: can be compared to the materials used in building
text, written in French, came inio being at Max Horkheima 's instigation : Horkhcimcr a house, the o utline of wroch has just bct:n marked in the ground or whose foundations
hoped to make usc of it to interest an American pattOn in Benjamin. The most imPOrtant arc just being dug. In the twO exposes that open the fifth volume of the Guanuru:/tt
pan, a.!i wdl as the lengthiest section, of Volume 5 of the GtSdmmdtt &llrifltn consists of Sc/Iriflnl, Benjamin skctche! broad outlines of the plan a.!i he had envisaged it in 1935 and
the manuscript of the "Aufz.eiclulUngen wld Materialien" (Note! and Materials; here in 193 9. The five or six sections of each expose should have corresponded to the same
called the "Convolute!"), which is subdivided thematically. 1bis is the manusaipt tlw number of chaptCfll in the book or, to continue the analogy, to the five or six floon of the
had been hidden in the Biblioth~que Nacionale during 'Wlrld War n. projected house. Next to the foundations we find the neatly piled excerpts, which would
Benjamin probably worked on this manuscript from the fall or winta of 1928 until the have been used to construct the walls; Bc:pjamin's own thought.! would have provided the
end of 1929, and then again from the beginning of 1934. The last entrie! were made in mortar to hold the building together. 111e reader now possesses many of these theoretical
the spring of 1940, inunediatdy before 8a~amin fled Paris. The present order of the and interpretive reflections, yet in the end they almost .seem to vanish beneath the very
notes docs not corre!pond to the o rder in which they were originally entered. It SCClDI weight of the excerpts. It i.s tenlpting to question the sctlSe of publishing these oppressive
that Bel*min would begin a new convolute, or sheaf of note!, whenever a new themf: chunks ofquotations-whether it would not be best to publish only those tcx:ts written by
suggested itself and demanded to be treated. Within the different sheafs that were com- _ Benjamin himself. These text.! could have been easily arranged in a readable fonnat, and
posed simultaneously, the notes may evince the chronological order in wroch they were they would have yidded a poignant coUection of sparkling aphorisms and disturbing
written down. ~t e,,'(:n this chronology is not always identical with that of the !lOU:I' fragments. But this wouJd have made it impossible to guess at the project attempted in the
actual conception. At the beginnings of those rubriC!! that had guided his research in ill Pauagtn-WtTA:, such a.!i the reader can discc:m it behind these: quotations. Benjamin's
earlie!t stage, we find notes Benjamin incorporated from older manuscripts. Here the intention was to bring together theory and materials, quotations and interpretation, in a
note! have been rearranged, and therefore the first pages of the respective ooUectioos of IJ\tW constellation compared. to contemporary methods of representation. The quotatiOns
material foUow certain clear principles. By contrast, rubriC!! either added to or newly and the materials would bear the full weight of the project; theory and interpretation
begun from 1934 onward groeral1y 0'1\'(: their order to the coincidenCe! of Benjamin'. .....ould have to withdraw in an ascetic manner. Benjamin isolated a "central problem of
studies or, C\'(:n more so, 10 his reading.j \ historical materialism," which he thought he could solve in the Pauagm-WtrA:, namely:
The section "Erste Notizen" (5:99 1- 1038), here called "FlfSt Sketclle!," consists of
consecuti\'e notes that \,'(:re begun about the middle of 1927 and terminated in J)eccmber In what way i.s it possible to conjoin a heightened graphicness <,AnscAaulidikit> to
1929 or, at the latest, by the bcgUuungof 1930. They <m published in their entirety, even the realization of the Marxist method? 'The first stage in this undertaking will be to
though their contentll have for the most part been incorporated into the larger "Convo­ carry over the principle of mOntage intO history. TItat is, to a.!isemble Large-scale
consO'Uctions out of the smallest and most precisely cut componentll. Indeed, to
lutes" section. It is only with their help that we can trace the "transfomtation process" that
discover in the analysis of the small individual moment the crys tal of the total event.
detennined the traJtsition from the first Stage of the work to the second. The first of the
' (N2,6}6
"Friihe Entwlirfe" (Early Draft.!) entitled "Passagen" (Arcades), dates b.. ~ to the very
first phase of the work, mid-1927, when Benjamin intended to coUaborate with Franz llle components, the structural clements, are the countless qUOtations, and for this reason
Hessel on aJ'oumai article. 111e draft may weU ha\'c been written by lk,~amin and Hessel they calUlOt be omittcd. Once ramiliar with the arclutecture of the whole, the reader will
. • '5
together. "Pariser Passage:n II ~ Olere called "The Arcades of Paris~) shows BenJanun be able to fCad the exccrpts witllom great difficulty and pinpoint in almost every one that
attempts in 1928 and 1929 to write the essay he thought tlle Fb.Hagt:".-Wtr1 would be­ clement which must havc fascinated Bel~alllin. 111e reader will also be able to specify
come. Bc:n;amin wrote chese texts in a format totally unusual for lum and o n ,,~ry wroch function a.n excerpt would have .served in die global construction-how it might
expensive handm ..1de paper, which he never used before ~r after. ~le can ea.!iil ~ unagu
' " have been able to become a "crystal" whose sparkling light itself reDect.s the total e\'(:nt.
that he approached their composition as he wo uld a festive occasion. But hc did not get The reader' wiU, of course, ha"'(: to draw 0 11 dlC ability to "interpolate into the infinitesi­
vcry rar. The discrete lext.!. whose sequence he did nO( establish, are soon interspersed Illally small," a.!i Bel~amin defines the imagination in Einbalr1lJlra.sM (One-Way Street}.1
ror the reader endowed with such an imagination, the dead letters Benjamin collected teenth centu ry, and in it a specific mytllologil ",fHknIl. It is to that modem mythology that
from the holdings of the Bibliothequc Nationalc will come to life. Fbhaps ~ the Aragon devotes the preface to his PaySllll dt PoriJ, while Breton's Nadja reaches up into it!
building Benjamin did nOt manage to build will ddineate it.sclf before the imaginatively artificial sky. In his essay "Su~m ,~ which he called an "opaque folding scrc:en placed
speculative eye in shadowy outlines. before the Passagm_l#r!n (Leiters, 348), Bcnjanlin praised the Surrealis ts as "the first to
These shad0\Y3, which prevent w from making a 5wvcyable, coruistent drawing o f the perceive the revolutionary energies that appear in the 'ounuoded; in the first iron con­
architecture, are often traceable to problcnu of a philological nature. The fi-agmeru.s, struCtions, the first factory buildings, the earliest photos, the objects that begin to be
which are mostly short and often seem to abbfn'iale a thought, only rarely allow us to extinct, grand pianos in the salon, the dresses of five years ago, fashionable restaUTants
glimpse how Benjamin planned to link them. H e would o ften first write down idca&, when the vogue has begun to ebb from dlem.»9 TIIis stratum of material, the alluvium o f

pointed scribbles. It is Unposlliblc to detemune wt\(:ther he plaJUlcd to retain them in the the rc:cent pan, also pertains to the Pa.ssagm-WtT!.JUSt as Aragon. sauutering through the
course of his work. Some theoretical notes contradia each other; others are hardly Passage de 1'0pera, was pulled by a vague de ri!KJ into Strange, ungiimpscd reahns of the
compatibk. Mo~r, many of Benjamin's texts arc: linked with quotations, and the mere Real, so Benjamin wanted to submerge himself in hitherto ignored and scomed reaches of
• interpretation of those citations cannot always be separated from Benjamin's OWn posi. history and to salvage what no o ne had seen before him.
tion. TIlcrcfore, to assist the reader in finding his bearings in the: labyrinth this volume The nearl y depopulated aquan'um IIumlJin, as Aragon described the Passage de l'Opera
presents, I shall bricOy sketch the essentiab of 8cnjamin's intentions in his Pas.wgrn-Wer.> in 1927, twO years after it had been sacrificed to the completion of the: inner circle of
point out the thcon!tical nodes of his project, and try to approach explication of some of boulevards-the ruins of yes terday, where: today's riddles are solved-was unmatched in
it! central categories. its influence o n the P.usagm- WtT~ (see Letters, 488). Benjamin kept quoting the luror
glauqul of Aragon's arcades: the light that object! are immersed in by dreams, a light that
The PtlJ.Sagm-WtT! is a building with two completely different floor plans, each bdonging makes them appear strange and vivid at the same time. If the concept: of the concrete
to a particular phase of the work. During the first phase, from about mid-1927 to the faU fonned one pole of Benjamin's thcorc:tica.l armarurc:, then the Surrealist theory of dreams
of 1929, Benjamin planned to write an essay entitled "Pariser Passagen: Eine dialek.tiscbe nlade up the other. The divagatioru of the first Arcades "sketch" take place in the field of
Ferne" {Paris Arcades: A Diale<:tical Fairyland}.! His earliest references to it in letten tension between concretization and the dream. l° lbrough the dream, the early Surrealists
characterize the project as a continuation of One-Way Strut (J..etten, 322), though Ben­ deprived empirical reality o r all its power; they maltreated empirical reality and it! pur'
jamin meant a continuation less in terms of it! aphoristic fonn than in the specific kind 01 posi\'C rationa] organization as the mere: content or drc:anu whose language can be only
concretization he attempted there : "this extreme concreteness which made itself felt there indirectly dc:coded. By ruming the optics of the dream toward die waking wodd, one
in some instances- in a children's game, a building, and a situatio n in life"-should now could bring to binh the concealed , latent thought! slumbering in that wodd's womb.
be captured ~ for an epoch" (Letters, 348). Benjamin's original intention was a philosophi­ Benjamin wanted to proceed similarly with ~ representation of history, by treating the
cal one and would remain so for all those yean: "putting to the test" (du Proht /JIll J,as nineteenth-century world or things as if it were a wodd of dreamed things. Under capital­
Exemptl) " to what extent you can be 'concrete' in historical-philosophical contc:lW" (Lee­ ist relationships of pnxiuCtion, history could be lik.ened to the unconscious actions of the
ters, 333). H e tried to represent the nineteenth century as "commentary on a reality" dreaming individual, at insofar as history is man·made, yet without consciousness or
(0 0 ,9), rather than construing it in the abstract. \r\i! can put together a kind of "catalogue design, as if in a dream. " In order to understand the arcades from the ground up, we: sink.
of themes" from the ~ FU'st Sketches" about the P.usagm-WtT!. The catalogue shows us tJicm into the deepest stratum or the dream" (F",34). If the drc:am model is applied to the
what the work was supposed to treat at this levd: sUttU and warehouses, panoram». nineteenth century, then it will strip the era of it! completeness, of that aspea. that is gone
world exhibitiolU, types of lighting, fashion, advertising and prostitution, collecwrs, the forever, of what has literally become history. The means of produCtion and way of life
flineur and the gambler, boredom. H ere the arcades themselves are on]y one theme \ . dominant in that period were not only what they had been in their time and place;
among many. They belong to those urban phenomena dlat appeared in the eady ~ Benjamin saw the image-making imagination o r a collective unconscious at work in
teenth century, with the emphatic claim of the new, but they have meanwhile lost their them. That imagination went beyond its historical limits in the drc:am and aaual1y
functionality. Benjamin disCO'IIe:red the: signature of the early modem in the.ever ~ touched die present, by transrerring " the thoroughly fluctuating situatio n of a conscious­
rapid obsolescence of the inventions and innovations generated by a d e\'eloplllg capital­ ness each time manifoldly divided between waking and sleeping," which he had discov­
ism's productive forces. H e wanted to recover that feature from the appearances of the ered in psychoanalysis, ~ from the individual to the collective" (Go,27). Benjamin wanted
unsightly, inlmti01ll rata, the physiognomic way: by showing rags, as a mo ntage of ~ to draw attention to the fact that architectonic construCtions such as the: arcades owed
(0 0 ,36). In OM- fffly Stru t his thinking had similarly lost iuelf in the concrete a:Ji paIUOJ­ dleir existence to and served the industrial order o r production, while at the same time
lar and had tried to wrest his secret direcdy, without an y theoretical mediation. S~ch a containing in themselves something unfulfilled, ncvc:r to be: fulfill ed within the confines of
surrender to singular Being is the distinctive feature of this thinking as such. It 15 not capitalis m- in tills case, the glass architecture of die future Benjamin often alludes to.
affected by the rattling mechan.isms of undergraduate philosophy, widl its tranSCen&:n~ ~ Each epoch" has a "side tumed toward dreams, the child's side" (F",7). The scrutiny this
tabletS o f commandments and prohibitions. Rather, it limits itSelf to the somewhat side of history was subjected to in Benjamin's observation was d esigned to "liberate the
less pursuit of a kind of gentle empirical experience" (Empirie) . Like Goethe's Empi,u, It enomlOUs ener gies ofllistory . .. that arc: slumberin g in the 'once: upon a time' ofclass ical
docs not deduce the essence behind or above the thing- it knows it in the things them­ historical llarrative" (0 0 ,71 ).
selvc:s. . Almost conculTmtly with his first notes for tile Powagm-lYerk, Benjamin included in
TIle Su~u were the first to discO\'Cr the Illaterial world characteristic o f die rune­ llis writi.n~ many protocols o f his own drc::uru; dlis was also when he began to cxpc::ri·
ment with drugs. Both represemed attempts to break the fixatioru and the encrustation. the inunenion of what has been intO layers of dreams, represented not an end in itself for
in which thinking and its object, subject and object, have been frou:n under the: Pres.ture the Passagt'l1-Werk, but rather its methodological arrangement, a kind of experimental
of industrial produaion. 1I In dreams as in naroot.ic intoxication, Benjamin watched "a setup. The nineteendl ce:ntury is the: dream we must wake up from; it is a nightmare that
world of particular secret aflinitics" reveal ilSdf, a world ill which things Oller into "the \...ill weigh on the present as long as its spell re:mains unbroken. According to Benjamin,
Illost contradictory communication" and in which they could display "indefinite affini. dIe inlagcs of dre:aming and awakening from the dre:am are rtlated as expression is related
tics" (Ao,4-5). Intoxication and the dream seemed to unlock a rc:alm of experiences in to Lnterprttation. He hoped that the images, once interpreted, would dissolve: the spell.
• ....iUch the Id still communicated mimetically and corporeally with things. Evcr since his Benjamin's concept of awakening means the "genuine liberation from an epoch" (h0,3), in

" earlier philosophical explorations, Benjamin sought a concept of experience that would
explode the IimitatiOOll set by Kant and regain "the fullnes5 of the concept of experience
the double sense of Hegel's Aujlubung: the IUnelttnth cenrury would be transcended in
that it would be preserved, "rescued" for the present. Benjamin definc:s "the new, the
held by earlier philosophers," which should restore the experiences of thcology.12 But the dialectical method of doing history" in these words: "with the intensity of a dre:am, to pass
experiences of the Surrealists taught him that it was a malter not of restoring theological dlJ"Ough wllat has been [daJ GewtStntj, in order to c:xperience the present as the waking
experience but of transporting it into the profane: world to which the dream refers" (F" ,6). nus concept is based on a mystical conception of
history thaI Benjamin was nevtt to abandon, not even in his late theses "On the Concept
These experiences are by no means limited. to dreams, ooun of hashish eating or
of History." Every present ought to be synchronic with cenain moments of history, just as
opium smoking. It is a cardinal eITOr to beliCYC that, of "Surrealist experiences," we
know only the religious ecstasies or the ecstasies of drugs .... But the true, creative every past becomes "legible" only in a ce:nain cpoch-"namely, the one in which human­ of rdigious illumi.nation certainly does not lie in narcotics. It reside:! in a ity, its eyes, recognizes JUSt this particular dream image as such. It is at this
profane illumination, a materialistic, inspiration to which hastu.m. moment that the historian take:! up ... the task of dream interpretation" (N4,1). 10ward
opium, or whatevtt ebc: can give a preliminary lesson. (SlY, 2:208-209) this end, we neW not a dragging of the past into the mythological, but, on the contrary, a
"dissolution of 'mythology' in the space: of history" (H°,I7). Benjamin demanded a "con­
Benjamin wanted to carry such profane illumi.nations intO history by acting as an inta­ crete, materialist meditation on what is nearest" (daJ .N'"adute); he was interested "only in
preter of the dreams of the nineteenth-century world of thin~. The epistem.ic intentioo. the presentation of what re:late:! to us, what conditioll.'l us" (CO,S). In this way the historian
manifest here: seems to fit in with the context of Benjamin's soon·to-be·formulated theory should no longer try to enter the past; rather, he should allow the past to enter his life. A
of rniInttic ability, which is, at its core:, a theory of experience. t3 The theory holds that -pathos of nearness" should replace: the vanishing "empathy" (10,2). For the historian,
experiena rests on the ability to produce: and.percc:ive similarities-an ability that under­ past obj«ts and events would not then be fixed data, an unchangeable given, bccawc
went significant chan~ in the course of species history. In the beginning a scnsuout. dialectical thinking "ransacks them, revolutionizes them, rums them upside down"
qualitative type: of behavior of men toward things, it later transformed itself phyiogmeci-__ (0",4); this is what must be accomplished by awakening from the dream of the nineteenth
cally into a faculty for apperceiving nonseruuous similarities, which Benjamfn identi6cd ce:nrury. That is why for Benjamin the "effOrt to awaken from a dream" represents "the
as the achievc:ments of language and writing. VIS-a'vis abstracting cognition, his coocepc best example of reversal" (D°,7).
of experience: wanted to maintain mUllediate contact with II1inKtic behavior. He wu "The key to what may have been Benjamin's intention while working on the: first phase
concerned about "palpable knowledge" (gtjiihlta W"usm), which "not only feeds 00 me of the Passagm-Wtrk may be found in the sentence:, "Capitalism was a narural phenome­
sensory data taking shape before: his eyes, but can very wdl possess itself of abstraCt non with which a new dream-filled sleep came over Europe, and, through it, a reactivation
knowled~-indeed , of dead facu-as something experienced and lived through" (eO,l ). of mythical forces" (KIa,S). Benjamin shares his project, dIe desire to investigate capital­
Images take the place: of cOllcepts-the enigmatic and vexing dream images which lUdc aD ism, with historical materialism, from which he may well have appropriated the project in
that falls through the coarse mesh of semiotics-and yet those images alone balancc \be. the fint place. But the: concepts he uses to define capitalism-nature, dream, and myth­
c:xertions of cognition. The ninet«nth-ctntury langua~ of images represents that cc:n­ originate from the terminology of his own metaphysically and theologically inspired
rury's "deepest level of sleep" (Go,27)-a slttp that should be awakened by the~­ thought. TIle key concepts of the young Benjamin's philosophy of history center around
Werk. a critique of myth as die ordained heteronomous, which kept man banished in dumb
Benjamin knew that dtis motif of awakening separated him from the Surrc:alists. ~ dependence throughout preltistory and which has since survived in the most dissimilar
had Died to abolish dIe line of denlllfCation between life and art, to shut off poc:trY III forms , both as unmediated violence: anl in bourgeois jurisprudence.14 The critique of
order to live writing or write life. For the early Surrealists, both dream and reality would capitalism in dIe first Arauks sketch remains a critique of myth, since: in it the nineteenth
wu-avel to a dreamed, unreal Reality, from which no way led back to contemporary cenrury appears as a domain where: "only nladness has reigned until now." '"But," Ben­
praxis and its dc:mands. Benjamin criticized Aragon for "persisting within t"J: rc:alm of janUn adds, "every ground must at some point llave been turned over by reason, must
dreams" and for allQl.vmg mythology to uremain" with him (H°, 17). Aragon's mytho.logy have been cleared of dl~ undergrowth of ddusion and myth. 1bis is to be accomplished
re:mains mere mythology, unpenetrated by reason. Surrealist imagery evens out ~e ~er­ here for dIe terrain of dIe nineteendl century" (Go, 13). His interpre:tation recognizes
ellCes separating Now from Then; instead of bringing the past into the present, It drives foml.'l still ullhistori<:al, still imprisoned by myth, fonus that are only preparing them­
~dUngs back into the distance: again" and re:mains bound, Min the 5~, [tol ! selves, in such an interpre:tation, to awaken from myth and to take away its po....t t.
romantic distance:" (C",S). Be!~amin , on dIe other hand, wamed "to [bnng] dunV neat, identifies diem as dIe dominant foml.'l of con.sciousness and dIe UI13~ry of
to allow dlc:m to "st~p jnto our lives" (1°,2). What linked his methods to Surrealist ones, incipient high capitalism: die "sell.'lation of the newest and most modem," as wen as the
image of the: "eternal return of the samc~-both are "dream fomlatioll5 of~. various reasons. Retrospectively, he placed responsibility 00 problems of representation:
dreamed by a coUeaivt: that "knows no history" (MO, 14). He spew in direct theol~
- terms in his interpretation of the modern as "the time afheU";
the "rhapsodic nature" of the work, which he had already annouoced in the first sketch's
subtitle, "a dialectical fairyland" (Letters, 488). 11lc "illicit 'poetic'" fonnulation he then
thought he was obliged to usc was irreconcilable with a book that was to have "our
What matters here is that the: face of the world, the colossal head, pr«isely in what
generation's dccisi\-'C historical interest.!! as it.!! objea" (Scholcm Letters, 165). Benjamin
is newest never itself changes-that thi:! "nelo'o"CSt" remains in all rc.spcw the same.
nus constitutes the eternity of heU and the sadist's delight in innovation. To deter. beliC\'Cd that only historical materialism could safeguard those interl·..m ; the aporias he
• mine the totality of trait:! which define this "modernity" is to represent hell. (9°,17)
encountered while composing the Rusagrn-WerA:, then, undoubtedly culminated in the

" Since it is a "corruncntary on a reality," which sinks into the historical and intcrprc15 it u
project's position in relation to Marxist theory. Though Benjamin professed his COnmllt­
lIIent to Communist pany politics to begin with, he still had to convince himself of the
it would a text, theology was called upon w provide the "scientific mainstay" of the necessity to proceed from a political creed to the theoretical study of Marxism, which he
PtWagt1l-Werk (0 °,9), though at the same rime politics was to retain its "primacy over thought could be appropriated for his purposes e\-'Cn prior to his actual study. His inten­
history" (h0,2). At the time of the first Arauks sketch, Benjamin was concerned leu with a tion was to secure the Pa.uagrn-WerA "against aU objections ... provoked by metaphys.
mediation of theological and political categories than with their identity. In this ~ was ics"; "the whole mass of thought, origi.nal1y set intO motion by metaphysics," had to be
very much like Ernst Bloch in Crist der Utop;.e (Spirit of Utopia), which he cxplicit1y took subjected 10 a "recasting process" which would aUow the author to "face with equanimity
as his modd. He rq>eatedly had recourse to Blochian concepts to charaaeriu: his own the objects orthodox Marxism might mobi.l.i.ze against the mcthocI of the work" (Letters,
intentions, as in "rashion inheres in the darkness ofthe lived moment, but in the: collcccive 489). Benjamin traced the end of his "blithely archaic philosophizing, imprisoned by
darkness" (00,11). Jwt as for Bloch the experiencing individual has not yet achiemI nature," which had hccn the basis of the "romantic fonn" and the "rhapsodic nai~tC" of
IlWtery over himsdf at the moment of experiencing, for Benjamin the historical phen0m­ the first sketch, to convcnations with Adorno and Horkheimcr that he as
ena remain opaque, unilluminated for the dreaming coUective. In Bloch's opinion, indi­ "historic" (Letters, 488-489). These took place in September or October 1929, in Frank..
vidual experience is always experience of the immediate past; in the same: way, furt and KOnigstein. In aU probability, both Horkheimer and Adorno insisted in dis­
Benjamin's interpretation of the present refers to the recent past: action in the present cussions of the submitted texts-mainly the "Early Drafts" published with the
mearu av.rakcning from the dream of history, an "explosion" of what has been, a rcvoIu­ Pa.uagtn-WerA:- that it was impossible to speak. sensibly about the nineteenth century
tionary tum. He was convinced that "the whole set of issues with which this project it without considering Mant'! analysis of capital ; it is entirdy possible that Benjamin, who
concerned" would be "illuminated in the process of.the proletariat's becoming cooscioua at that time had read hardly anything by M:ux, was influenced by such a suggestion. IS Be
ofitsclf" (0 °,68). He did not hesitate to intapret these facu as pan of the prepararion lOr that as it may, Benjamin's letter to Scholem ofJanuary 20, 1930, contains the Statcmc:nt
the proletarian revolution. "'The dialectical penetration and acrualizaoon of former COIl-.... that he would have to stud y ccnain featurt:S of both Hegelian philosophy and CDpiIlJi in
texts puts the truth of aU present action to the test" (0 °,5). It is not the action itsdfbut ill order to complete his projea (Letters, 359). Benjamin had by no means concluded such
theory that is at stake here. This defines the task of the historian as "rescuing" the: past: or, studies when he returned to the Pa.uagl1l-WerA four)'tan later. The "new face " (5:1103)
as Benjamin fonnulated it with another concept taken from Bloch, "awakening a not·yet­ the work unveiled, due not a little to Benjamin's political experiences in exile, re~aled
conscious knowledge of what has been" (H°, I7) by applying the "theory of not-yet­ itself in an emphatic recourse to social history, which had not been whoUy rdinqui5hcd in
conscious knowing . . . to the coUective in its various epochs" (0 °,50). At. this stage, the first sketch but which had been concealed by that sketch's surrealist intentiollS. None
Benjamin conceived of die p(JJJ(Jgrn-WerA as a mystical reconstitution: dialectical thinking of the old motifs were abandoned, but the building was given stronger foundations.
had the task of separating the future-laden, "positive" element from the backward .. ~ ~lOng the themes added were Haussmann's influence, the struggles on the banicades,
tive" d ement, after which "a new partition had to be applied to this initially cxclU(leG, ~ways , conspiracies, compagnonnagl, social movement.!!, the Stock. Exchange, economic
negative component 50 that, by a displacement of the angie of vision ..., a positive history, the Commune, the history of sectS, and the Ecole Fblytcchnique; moreover,
dement emerges anew in it toO-something different from that previousJy signified. And Benjamin began assembling excerpts on Marx, Fourier, and Saint-Simon. This thematic
so on, ad infinitum, until the entire past is brought intO the present in a historical apocat»"" expansion hardly meant dmt Benjamin was about to reso-ve a chapter for each theme (be
tasis" (Nla,3). In this way, the nineteenth century should be brought into the prcsc:nc now planned to write a book instead of an essay). The book's subjea was now defined as
within the Rusagm-WerA:. Benjamin did not think revolutionary praxi5 should be allowed ~ the fate of art in the nineteenth century" (Letters, 5 11) and thw scaned more narrowly
at any lesser price. For him revolution was, in its highest forni, a liberation of the past. ,conceived than it had been. 1bat should not be taken too liternlly, however: the 1935
which had to demonstrate " the indestructibility of the highest life in all thin~" (00,1). At eXpose, after aU, in which most clearly delineates his intentions in his work's
the end of the 19205, theology and communism converged in Benjamin's ~ought. ~ second stage, still list.!! every theme the Rusagtn-HtrA: was to treat from the outset: ar'
metaphysical, historical-philosophical, and theological sources that had nurtured both his ~ad~ , panoramas, world exhibitions, interiors, and the streets of Paris. This expose's tide,
esoteric early writings and his great aesthetic works until UrspTlmg dls tkutschm 1ftWer­ Paris, the Capital of the Nineteenth Century." remained the definitive tide and was
spielJ (Origin of the Gcnnan Trauerspid) ....'Cre still Bowing and .....o uld also nurturC the a~propriatcd for another expose-a French prospectus-in 1939. This prospectuS con­
Pa.uagtn-WtrA:. tams a decisi\'C reference to ~ dle new and far·reaching sociological perspecti\I"CS" of the
second sketch. Bcnj3.J1UIl wrole thaI these new perspectives would yield a "secure frame­
TIle Pas.uzgn'I-WerA: was supposed to become aU of mat, and it became none of mat-tO \\'Ork of imerpretiVl: intefCOllIl«tioru" (Letters, 490). But his interpretation was now
echo a famous phrase: of Benjami.n's (0°,6). He interrupted work in die faU of 1929 for sUP~d to trace die book's subject matter-the a tltural superstructure of nineteenth­
century France- back to what Marx had called the fetish character of commodities. In (Expose of 1935, section I). To begin with, the phantasmagoria seems to ha\"e a transfigur­
- 1935 the "unfolding of this concep!:" would "constitute the crota" of the: projected work,
(Scholem Lctt.erS, 159), and by 1938 dl(~ "basic categories" of till: Passagen- WtrA: wouJd
"converge in the detennination of the fetish character of conunoditic:s" (5:1166). TIli.!
ing function: woTid exhibitions, for example, tnlIufonn the exchange value of commodi­
ties by fading, as in a film, from the abstractness of their valuation. Similarly, the collector
tranSfigures things by divesting them of their conunodity dwacter. And in this same way,
notion surfaces only once in the first sketch (0 °,38); it was then by no means ckar that iron corullnJction and glass architecture are transfigured in the arcades because "the
commodity fetishism ","'as destined to Conn the central schema for the whole project. century could nOt match the new technical possibilities with a order" (5:1257) .
• When Benjamin wrote the first expose in 1935, he was probably 5lill unfamiliar with the As Benjamin in late 1937 came across Auguste Blanqui's L'Eternitlpar leJ a..c/reJ-a cosmo­
relevant discwsion in Marx's writings. He apparently on,ly began to "look around . .. in logical phantasmagoria written by the revolutionary while in prison-he reencountered
" the firSt volume of Capital" after completing the expose (5:1122). He was familiar with the his own sp«ulation about the nineteenth century as Hades. The semblance character
theory of commodity fetishism mainly in Lukac's venion; like many other left-wing (Scheinhafle) of all that is new and that the century liked to show off as modem par
intcUectuals of his generation, Benjamin largdy owed his Marxist competency to the excellence was consununated in iu highest concept, that of progress, which Blanqui
chapter on reification in Lulclcs's History and Ckw CorucioUJ1lw. denounced as a "phantasmagoria of history," as "something 50 old it predates thinking,
Benjamin wished to treat culture in the era of high capitalism like Lukac's translation which struts about in the dothes of the New; as the eternal recurrence of the same, in
back intO philosophy of the economic faa of commodity fetishism, as weU as his applica_ which mankind figures "as one of the damned" (5: 1256). Benjamin learned from BIanqW
tion of the category of reification to the antinomies of bourgeois thoUghL Marx showed that the phantasmagoria embraced "the most bitter criticism," the harshdt indictment of
that capitalist production's abstraction of value begeu an ideological consciousness, in society" (5: 1256-1257). The transfiguring aspects of phantasmagoria change to enlighten­
which labor's social character is reflected as objective, thing-like characteristics of the ment, into the insight "that mankind will remain under the power of mythical fear as long
product!! of that labor. Benja.min recognized the same ideological consciousness at work. in as phantasmagoria hu a place in that fear (5:1256). The century always transccnd.'I the
the then-dominant "reified conception of culrurc," which obfu.K:ated the fad that "the "old social order" in its cultural phantasmagoria. A5 "wish symbols," the a.n:ades and
aeations of the human mind . .. owe not just their origin, but also the ways in which they interiors, the exlubition halls and panoramas are "residue of a dream world." They are
have been handed do\'lO, to a continuing social labor" (5:1255). The fate of nineteauh­ pan of B10dllan dreaming ahead, anticipating the future: "Every epoch, in fact, not only
century culture lay precisely in its commodity character, which Benjamin thereupon dreams the one to follow, but, in dreaming, precipitates iu awakening. It bean its end
represented in "cultural values" as plum~. Phantasmagoria: a B~k, a dco:p­ within itself." Insofar as diaJectical thinking tries to define as well as to expedite this end of
tive image designed to daule, is already the commodity iuclf, in which the ~ decaying bourgeois culture, it became for Benjamin the "organ of historical awakening"
value or value-fonn hides the use value. Phantasmagoria is the whole capitalist produc­ (Expose of 1935, section VI, end).
tion pr0ces.5, which constitutes iuclf as a natural force against .the people who carry it out. ..... "The property appert.ainmg to the eommodity as its fetish character attaches a5 weU to
For Benjamin, cultural phanwmagorias exprcs5 "the ambiguity peculiar to the social the commodity·producing society-not as it is in itself, to be sure, but more as it repre­
relations and product!! of this epoch" (Expose of 1935, section V). In Marx, the same sents itself and thinks to undmtand itself whenever it abstracts from the fact that it
ambiguity defines "the economic world of capitalism": an ambiguity "exemplified quite produces precisely commodities" (X I3a). That was hardly Marx's opinion. H e identifies
clearly in the machines which aggravate exploitation rather than alleviate the human lot" the fetish charaeter of the commodity through the fact that the features of man's labor
(K3,5). The concept of phantasmagoria that Benjamin repeatedly employs seems to be I 6PJNar to him as what they are: "as material relations bernttn persons and socia.I relations
merely another tenn for what Marx called commodity fetishism . Benjamin's term. can between things."17 The analysis of capital establishes the quid pro quo of commodity
even be found in Marx's writings: in Capitals first chapter (on fetishism), in the f~ fetishism as objective, not a5 a phantasmagoric. Marx would necessarily have rejected the
passage about the "definite social relation" which molds labor Wider capitalist conditions notion that the commodity-producing society might be able to abstract from the fact that
of production, that very relation is said to "assume .. . the phantasmagoric form of a it produces commodities in any other way than by really ceasing to produce commodities
relation bernttn things" for the people concemed. 16 Marx had in mind the circumstanttS in the transitio n to a higher social fonnation. It is not difficult-though also not "'cry
of the bourgeois economy's "necessarily false" consciousness, which is no leu false for productive-to point out Benjamin's miscomprehensions of Mancist theory.
being necessary. Benjamin's interest in culture was less for its ideological cont.ent, ~­ Benjanlln showed little interest in a Marxist tlleory of art, which he considered "one
ever, whose depth is unearthed in ideology critique, than for its surface: or extenor, whic:? moment swaggering, and the next scholastic" (N4a,2). He valued three shon sentences by
is both promising and deceptive. "TIle creations and life-styles that were mainly condi· Proust mo re highly than most of what existed in the fidd of lnateri.a.list analysis (K3,4).
tioned by commodity production and which we 0 ...."( to the previous century" are "~u­ The majority of Marxist an theorists explain culture as the mere reflection of economic
ously transfigured in their inullediate presence" (5:1256). Benjanlln was intewn!d m that developmem ; Benjamin refused 10 join them. He viewed the doctrine of aestlletie reDee­
inunediate presence ; the secret he was tracking in the Rusagal-W<i'I'"k is a secret that ~mes tion as already undereut by Marx's remark tl131 "the ideologies of the superstructure
to appear. The "luster with which the conunodity·producing society .surrou~ l~ refl«1 relatiOlu in a false and distorted manner." Benjamin follov."(d this remark with a
(5: 1256) is phantasmagorical- a luster that hardly has less to do \'lIth the be~utiful question:
appearance" of idealist aesthetics than with commodity fetishism. Phamasmagonas are
the "century's magic images" (I :1153); they are the Wun.schbilder, the wish symbols .or If tlle infrastructure in a certain way (in tlle materials of tllought and experience)
ideals, by which that collective tried "both to O'o 'ercome and to rransfigure the immat~n~ dctemllllcs tlle superstructure, but if sudl detemulla tion is !lOt reducible to simple
of the socia.I product and the inadequacies in the social organiution of producuon reflection., then how should it be dl3.Tacterized? As iu expression. '!be superstruc­
ture is the expn:uion of the infraslJUctute. The economic conditions under which image. Physiognomic thought was assigned the task of "recognizing the monument.! of
.society c:xisu are expressed in the superstrucrure, precisely all , with the sleeper, an the bourgeoisie as ruuu eve:n be.fore they have: crumblc:d" (Expos~ of 1935, section VI,
O\-'CrfuU stomach finds not its reflection but its expression in the contenLS of dreams end).
whidl, from a tall3a1 point of vic:w, it may be: said to "condition." (K2,5) , TIle prolegomena to a materialist physiognomies that can be glcaned from the Pas'
Benjamin did not set out according to ideology critique ;I' rather, he gave way to tht: SQg~, WtT,t . counts among Bel~anlin's IIlOS~ prodigiow conceptions. It is the program.
notion of materialist physiognomies, which he probably understood as a complement, or mauc harbmger of that aestheuc theory which Mantism has not been able to develop to
• an extension. of Marxist theory. Physiognomies infers the interior from the exterior; it this day. Whether BenjanUn's real.ization of his program was capable of fulfilling its
decodes the whole from the detail; it represents the general in the particular. Nominal_ promise, whether his physiognomies was equal to its materia1ist task, could have been
istically speaking, it p~eds from the tangible objca; inductively it commences in tht: pJ'O\'eJl only by the actual composition of the Passagtn· WtTk itself.
realm of the intuitive. The R:!.sJagt71-WtTk "deals fundamentally with the exprcssh1! char­
aacr of the earliest industrial product..s, the earliest indwttial architecture, the ~est Modified concepts of history and of the writing of history are the link belWttn both
machines, but also the earliest department stores, advertisements, and 50 on" (Nl a,7). In AmuUJ sketches. ~ir barbs are aimed at the nineteentb-century notion of
that expressivt: character, Benjamin hoped to locate what eluded the inunroiate grasp: the progress. With the excepcion of Schopenhauer (by no coincidence, his objective: world
SigMtur, the mark, of the nineteenth cenwry. He was interested in the "thread of expres­ bears the name "phantasmagoria"), idea.list philosophers had turned progress into the
sion": "the expression of the economy in its rulture will be presented, not the economic "signature of historical process aJ a whole" (Nl 3,l ) and by doing so had deprived it of it.!
origins of rulture" (Nla,6). Benjamin's trajectory from the 6r:st to the second sketch of the airica.l and enlightenment functiOD!. Even Marx's DUSt in the unfolding of the. productive:
RuJagtn,WtTA documents his effortS to safeguard his work against the demand.! ofhistori­ rorces hypostatized the concept of progress, and it must have: appeared untenable to
cal materia.lism; in this way, motifs belonging to metaphysiC! and theology survived Benjamin in light of the experience of the twentieth cenrury. Similarly, the. political praxis
undamaged in the physiognomic concept of the epoch's d w ing Stage. To describe the of the: worker's movcment had forgotten that progress in temu of proficiency and infor­
expression of economics in culture was an attempt "to grasp an economic process as mation docs not necessarily mean progress for humanity itself- and that progress in the
perceptible Ur-phenomenon, from out of which proceed all manifestations of life in the domination of nature corresponds to societal rcgras.21 In the 6r:st Artades ske.tch Ben·
arcades (and, accordingly, in the nineteenth century)" (N la,6). BenjanUn had already jamin already demanded "a philosophy of history that at all points has overcome the
enlisted Goethe's prima1 phenomenon (Urplriinomen) to explicate his concept of truth in ideology of progress" (0 0 ,5), one such as he later worked out in the historica.1·philosophi·
Origin of the Gmnan 'traumpiel: 19 the concept of "origin" in the 'trlUltTspitl book would cal theses. There: the image of history reminds the reader more of Ludwig Klages's lethal
ha....e to be "a striCt and compelling transfer of this Goethean 6r:st principle from the realm juggling with archetypal images (Urbiltkr) and phantoms than ofthe diale.ctic of the forces
of nature to that of history." In the PaJ.Jagtn, WtTA, then: ­ and the relations of production. It is that Ange1 of History who appears in one of the.
theses as an allegory of the bi..u orica1 materialist (in Benjamin's sense):l2 and who sees all
I am equally concerned with fathoming an origin. To be specifiC, I pursue the origin history as a catastrophe "which ke.q» piling wrecka~ upon wreckage and hurls it in front
ofthe fomu and mutations of the Paris arcades from their beginning to their dedinc:, of his feet" (RluminatiOTlJ, p. 259). The Angel abolishes all categories which until men
and I locate this origin in the economic facts. Seen from the standpoint of causality, have: been used for representing history: this materialist sees the "everything 'gradual'
howe\'er (and that means considered as causes), these: facts lYOU!d not be primal about becoming" as refuted, and "development" is shown to be only "seeming" (p,6;
phenomena; they become such only insofar as in their own individual develop­ Kl ,3). But more than anything else, he denounces the "establishment of a continuity"
ment-"unfolding" might be a better term-they give M to the whole series of the (N9a,5) in history, becawe the only evidence of that continuity is that of horror, and the
arcade's concrete historical fonns ,jwt as the leaf unfolds from itself all the riches of ~ge:l has . to do with salvation and redemption. The: PaJJagt7I,WtTk was supposed to
the empirical world of plants. (N2a,4) bnng nothing less than a "Copernican revolution" of historical perception (F",7; Kl ,l -3).
Past history would be. grounded in the. present, analogous to Kant'S epistemological
Metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties reappear here in the theory of epistemol­ grounding of objectivity in the depths of the subject. The 6r:st revolution occurttd in the.
ogy, e"'Cn though they seemed vanquished after they learned of their ironic unnwking by relationship in which subject and object, present and past meet in hjstorical percepcion:
economies. How could Ur-phenomena, which represent themselves as the expression of
economic facts, distinguish from those ideas in Benjamin's 'traumpitl book Fonnerly it was tllOUght that a fixed point had been found in "what has been," and
which represent themselves by empirical means? Benjamin rcso!ves this problem with his OI~e saw the present engaged in temativc:ly concentrating the forces of knowledge: on
early notion of a monadological truth, whidl presides at every phase of the PaJ.Jgtn-WtTA tlus ground. Now tills relation is to be overturned, and what has been is to become
and remai.ns valid even in the theses "On the Concept of History.~ Whereas in die the dialectical reversal- tile irnlption of awakened consciousness. fblities attains
'traumpitl book the idea as monad "contains the image of the world" in .it3e.if,20 in the primacy over history. The facts become something tim just now first happened to
us, first struck us; to establish them is tll(~ affair of memory. (K I ,2)
PaJSagtn , WtTA the expression as Ur-phenol.llenon contains the image of history in itse!f.
-nle essence or capitalist production .....ould be comprehended vis·a·vis the concrete his· The lllstoricalline of vision no longer falls from the presellt back OntO history; instead it
torical fomu in whidl the economy finds its rultural expression. The almr3ctiolls of mere: tra\'C ls from history fonvard . Benjamin tried to "'recognize tlxlay's life, today's fornu in
conceJ>lual dUnking ,",,'ere: insufficiem to demystify tills abhorrent state of affairs, such that tllC life and in the apparcntly secondary, lost fornu " of tile llineteenth century (N t ,II).
a mimetic-intuitive correcth'C was imposed to decipher tile code of til(: un.ive:nal in the: Our contemporary interest in a historical object seems "itself prc:fonned in tlmt object,
and, above all," it feels "this object concretiw:l in itself and upraised from its forma being two meanings in Benjamin's texu; they remain somewhat undivulged, but even so cannot
into the higher conemion of now-being 17tttlJet'/U] (waking being!)" (K2,3). The objttt of be brought totally in congruence. Oncc-in the 1935 expost, which in this regard .um­
his[OT}' goes on changing; it becomes ~historical" (in this word's emphatic 5CJU(:) only marizes the motifs of the first draft- Benjamin localized dialectical images as dream and
when it becomes topical in a later period. Continuous relationships in time, with which wish images in the coUective subconscious, whose "ima~-making fantasy, which was
history deals, are superseded in Benjamin's thought by constellations in which the past stimulated by the new" should refer back to the " U"-pasr" : "In the dream, in which each
coincides with the present to such an extent that the past achieves a "Now" of its "rttog_ epoch entenains images of its successor, the latter appears wedded to elements of U,.­
• nizability." Benjamin developed this "Now of Recognizability," which he sometimes re­ history-that is, to elements of a classless society. And the experiences ofsuch a society­
ferred to as his theory oCknowledge (5:1148), from a double frontal position against'both as stored in the unconscious of the coUective---engcnder, through interpenetration with
idealism and positivistic historicism. While dK latter tried to move the historical narrator what is new, the utopia" ~ of 1935, section I), TIle modem is said to quott
hack into dK past, so that he could comprdlend "emphatically" (soldy &om within) the U,.-history "by means of the anlbiguity peculiar to the social relations and produru of this
whole of the 1ben, which 6lled "homogeneous, empty time" as a mere '"mass of data" epoch," In tum, "Ambiguity is the manifest imaging of dialectic, the law of dialectics at a
(JlluminatiOnJ, p. 264), idealist constructions of history, on the other hand, usurped the standstill. This standstill is utopia, and the dialectical ima~, therefore, dream ima~. Such
prospect of the future and posited in history the existence of the natural plan of a procc:as, an image is afforded by the commodity per se: as fetish" (Expost of 1935, section V),
which runs on autonomously and can, in principle, never be completed. Both relegate These statements drew the resolute oiticism of Adorno, who could not concede that the
~everything about history that, from the very beginning, ha! been wuimely, sorrowful, dialectical image could be "the way in which fetishism is conceived in the collective
WlSuccessful" (1i-aumjJUl, p.l66) to forgetting. The obj«t of that matel'iafut historical consciousness," since commodity fetishism is not a "faa of consciousness" (Letters, 495),
narratn~ Benjamin wanted to II')' out in the P.wagm-Werk would be prec:isdy what Under the influence of Adorno's obje1::tions, Benjamin abandoned such lines of thought;
history staned but did not carry OUt. !bat the of the past are tint detectab&e the corresponding passages in his 1939 expose wen: dropped as no longer satisfactory to
after a crn.ain period is not due to the historian's whim; it bespeaks an objective historial their author (see 5: 1157). By 1940, in the theses "00 the Concept of History," "dialectic
constellation: at a standstill" seems to function almost like a hrolistic principle, a procedure that enables
the historical materia.list to maneuver bU objeru:
History is the object of a construct whose site is not homogeneous, empty time, but
time filled by now·time 17rntui~ . Thus, to Robespieru ancient Rome was a past A historical materia.list cannot do without the notion of a present which is not a
charged with now-time, which he blasted out of the continuum of history. 1bc transition, but in which time stands still and has come to a stop. For this notion
French Revolution viewed itself as Rome incarnate. It qUoted ancient Rom<:. (/Ullmi­ defines the present in which he himself is writing history.. , . Materialist historiogra­
Mlimu, p. 263) phy ... is based on a constructi\~ principle. Thinking involves not only the 80w of
thoughts, but their arrest as well. Where thinking suddenly stop.! in a configuration
Benjamin wished to continue along this line in the Pawgm-Werk. The present would
pregnant with tensions, it gives that conliguration a shock, by which it crystallizes
provide the text of the book; history, the quotations in that text. "To write bUtory .. . .
into a monad. A historical materia.list approaches a historical subject only whert he
means to atr history" (Nll,3). encounters it as a monad. In this SD'Ucturc he recognizes the sign of a mwianic
Benjamin's Copernican revolution of historical intuition also (and above all) meant dw
the traditional concept of truth was to be turned on iu head: , \
cessation of happening, or, put dilferendy, a revolutionary chance in the 6gbt for the
oppressed past. (Rlum;nalimu, pp. 264-265)
Resolute refusal of the concept of "tinleless truth" is in order. Nevertheless, truth is
In fact, Benjamin's thinking was invariably in dialectical images. h oppo.sed to the
not-as ManWm would ha\~ it-a merely contingent function of knowing, but is \ .
Marxist dialectic, which "regards every ... developed social fonn as in 8uid move­
bowld to a nucleus of time lying hidden within the knower and the known alike.
ment,"24 Benjamin's dialectic tried to halt the 80w of the movement, to grasp each
nus is so true that the eternal, in any case, is far more the rume on a dl'C5s than
becoming as being. In Adorno's words, Benjamin's philosophy "appropriates the fetish­
some idea. (N3,2)
ism of commodities for itself: everything must metamorphou: into a thing in order to
The temporal core of history cannot be grasped as really happening, stretching forth in break the catastrophic spell of things.1t2S H is philosophy progressed imagistically, in that it
the real dimension of time; rather it is where evolution halts for a moment, wh~ the sought to "read" historical social phenomena as if they were natural historical ones.
d,namu of what is happening coagulates into, where time itself is conde~ '?~o : Images became dialectical for this philosophy because of the historical index of every
differential, and where a Now identi6es iudf as the "Now of a particular rec~bility. single image. "In the dialectical ima~" of this philosophy, "what has been within a
In such a Now, "truth is charged to the bunting point with time" (N3, 1). The Now would particular epoch is always simultaneously 'what has been from time immemorial'" (N4,1),
have thus shown itself to be the "inmost image" (0 ",81) of t.he arcades themselves, of By so being, it remained rooted in the mythical. \'c:t at the same time, the historical
fashion, of the bourgeois interior-appearing as the image of all that had bttn', and whose llJ.aterialist who seittd the inJ.age should possess the skill 10 "fan the spark of hope in the
cognition is the pith of the Pi:uJavn-Werk, Benjamin invented the term "dialectical im­ past," to wrest historical tradition "anew , , . from a confonnism that is about to over­
ages" for such conligurations of the Now and the 1ben; he defined their content :u a power it" (/IIum ;natioru, p. 255). 'Through the immobilizing of dialectic, the bUtorical
~dialectic at a standuill." Dialectical image and dialectic at the standstill arc, without a "victon" have their accounts with history canceled, and all pathos is shifted toward
doubt, the central categories of the Rwagen-Werk . Their meaning, however, remained salvation of the Oppl'C5sed.
iridcscc:nt; it never acltieved any terminological eonsistency. 23 1M: can distinguish at least For Belljanull, freewlg the dialectical image was obviously not a method the historian
could employ at any time. For him~ as for Marx, historiography was inseparable from clocks, as during the July revolution in Paris. The gaze, which exorcized images from
political practice: the rescuing of the past through the writer of history remained bound to objects blasted loose from time, is the Gorgon gaze at the 'Jtu.1eS lIippocratica of history,"
the practical liberation of hwnanity. ContraSted v..>ith the Marxist concepcion, however, me "petrified primordial landscape" of myth (iraum piel, p. 166). But in mat mystical
according to which ~capitalist production begets, with the inexorability of a law of nature moment when past and present enter "lighming·like" into a constellation- when the true
its own negation,"26 Benjamin's philosophy preselVCS anarchist and Blanquian element.!:· image of the past "Bashes" in the "now of its recognizability" {N9,7)-that image becomes
a dialectically reversing image, as it presents itself from the messianic perspective, or (in
In reality, then: is not one moment that does not carry its own revolutionary Oppor­
• materialistic tenns) me perspective of the re....olution.
tunity in itself. ... The particular revolutionary opponunity of each historical mo­
" ment is confirmed for the re ....olutionary thinker by the political situation. But it is no
less confinm:d for him by the power this moment has to OfK'n a very particular,
From this perspecti....e of "messianic time," Benjamin defined the present as catastrophe
(I :1243), as the prolongation of mat "one single catastrophe" which meets me Angelus
heretofore closed chamber of the past. Entry into this chamber coincides exactly Novus when he looks back on past history. It might appear as if Benjamin wished to
with political acnon. (1:123 1) reintroduce the "large hyphen between past and future:'28 which was thought to be
eradicated after Marx. Yet even Benjamin's late work does not fully forgo historical
Fblicical action, "no matter how destructive," should always "reveal itself as messianic" reference. Henri Focillon defined the classical in art as "lnmMur rapUk," as the dutirou
(I :1231). Benjamin's historical materialism can hardly be severed from political messian­ , ad,m( of the Greeks, and Benjamin wanted to use that definition for his own concept of
ism. In a late note, perhaps written under the shock of the Hitler-5talin pact, Benjamin messianic standstill (see 1: 1229). The dialectic at a standstill, the final coming to rest, the
fonnulated as "the experience of our generation: that capitalism will not die a natural. ending of the historical dynamic which Hegel, foUowing Aristotle, wished to ascribe to
death" (Xlla,3). In that case, the onset of revolution could no longer be awaited with the the state, was, for Benjamin, pre6gured only in art. A "real definition" of progress,
patience of Marx; rather, it had to be envisaged as the eschatological rod of history: "the therefore, could emerge only from the vantage point of art, as in the Passagro-Werk;
classless society is not the ultimate goal of progress in history but its rupture, so octcn
In every true work of art there is a place where, for one who removes there, it blows
attempted and finally brought about (1 :1231). Myth is liquidated in the dialectical image
cool like the wind of a coming dawn. From this it follows that art, which has often
to make room for the "dream of a thing" (1:1 174); this dream is the dialectic at a standstill,
been considered refractory to every relation wim progress, can provide its true
the piecing together of what history has broken to bits (see Illuminations, p. 257), the
definition. Progress has its seat not in the continuity of elapsing time but in its
tiHun of the Lurian Kabbalah.'21 Benjamin did quote the young M:ux, who wanted to
interlerences. (N9a,7)
show "that the world has long possessed the dream of a thing that, made conscious, it
would possess in reality" (N5a,1). But for the interpreter of dialectical images, true reality In this sense, it may even be possible to save that problematic definition from the first
cannot be inferred from existing reality. H e undenook to represent the imperative and the ...... expose, according to which in the dialectical image the mythical, Ur-historical experiences
final goal of reality as "a prefonnation of the final goal of history" (N5,3). The awakening of the collective unconscious "engender, through interpenetration with what is new, the
from myth would foUow the messianic model of a history immobilized in redemption as utopia"-and that utopia "has left its trace in a thousand configurations of life, from
the historian of the P~-Werk had imagined it. In his dialectical images, the bunting enduring edifices to passing fashions" (section 1). Benjamin devised his dialectic at a
of time coincides with "the birth of authentic historical time, the time of truth" (N3,l ). standstill in order to make such traces visible, to collect the "traSh of history," and to
Since the dialectical images belong in such a way to messianic time, o~ since they should I ' "redeem" them for its end. He undertook the equally paradoxical and astonishing task of
at least let that time reveal itself as a flash oflighming, messianism is introduced as a kind presenting history in the spirit of an anti-cvolutionary understanding of history. As a
of methodology of historical research-an ad....entureSOme undertaking if ever there ~ "messianic cessation of the event," it would have devolved upon the dialectic at a stand·
one. "The subject of historical knowledge is the struggling, oppressed class itself" (nIunli­ still to bring home in the Rusagro-Werk the very insight Benjamin had long assimilated
nations, p. 260); one may imagine the historian of the dialectic at a standstill as the herald when he began mat projea.: "the profane ... although not itself a category of this [messi­
of that class. Benjamin himself did not hesitate to call him "a prophet tumed backward," anic] Kingdom, is at least a category, and one of the most applicable, of its quietest
borrowing a phrase from Friedrich Schlegel (1:1237); he did not dismiss the Old Thsta· approach." 29 Benjamin's concept of profane illumination would remain "illuminated" in
ment idea that prophecy precedes the Messiah, that the Messiah is dependent on proph­ tllis way to the end; llis materialist inspiration would be "inspired" in the same way, and
ecy. But Benjamin's historiographer is "endowed with a weal. messianic power, a power to his materialism would prove theological in the same way, despite all "recasting processes."
which the past has a claim." The historian honors that claim when he captures that Benjamin's historical materialism was historically true only as me puppet, "which enlists
"image of the past that is not recognized by the present as one of its own conr." and the services of theology." Nevenhdess, it was supposed to "win" (Illuminations, p. 253).
thus "threatens to disappear irretrievably" (Illuminah'ons, pp. 256-257). BenJamm was One can be excused for doubting whemer this intricate claim could ever be honored. In
able to recognize only the mythical Ever-Same (lmmergltidlt) in historical evolutions an~ that case, the reader, who has patiently foUowed me topography of the Passagro-Werk,
was wlable to recognize progress, except as a Sprung-a "tiger's leap into the" past" (/l~um.'- illcluding all the detours and cul-de-sacs this edition does nOt veil, may think he is, in the
1Ultions, p. 263), whicll was in reality a leap out of history and the entry of the messlaIUC end, faced with ruins rather than with virginal materials. What Benjamin wrote
kingdom. He tried to match this mystical conception of history with a version of dialectics about Gennan iraum pid hov.-cvcr, holds true for the PlJJJagrn+Werk: namely, that "in the
in which mediation would be totally eclipsed by reversal, in whicll atonement would have ruins of great buildings the idea of the plan speaks more impressively than in lesser
to yield to aiticism and destruction. His "blasting" me dialectical image "out of ~e buildings, however well preserved they are n (iraumpitd, p. 235).
continuum ofhiswrical process" (NlOa,3) was akin to that anarchistic impulse which tIles
to Stop history during revolutions by instituting a new calendar, or by shooting at church - Translated by Gary Smith and Andr! Ltftvert
continued, "told me how to find you. He said you would take me across the border into
Spa.Ul." He said what? O h weD, yes, "mtill Hrrr Grnwlzl"-my husband-would say that.
He would assume that I could do it, whate\'er "it" might be.

The Story of Old Benjamin

- Benjamin was still standing in the open door becaus~ there ~ no ~m for a.second
person bet\'>'Cen the bed and the wall. Qyickly I told him to walt for me m the bIStro on
the village square. . .
From the bistro, we went for a walk so that \\-'C could talk Wlthout being overheard. My
husband had no way of knowing, I explained, but since my arrival here at the border
By Lisa Fittko region last week I had found a safe way to cross the frontier. I had scaned by going d~
to the port and chatting with some of the longshoremen. One of them led me to the uruon
steward, who in tum directed me to Monsieur Az6na, the mayor of the next village,
Banyuls-sur-Mer: the man, I had been told back in Marseilles, who would help me find a
safe road for those of our family and friends who were ready to aoss over. An old
socialist, he was among those who had aided the Spanish republic by passing desperately
needed doctors, nurses, and medicine aCTOSS the border during the Spanish civil war. account was written in English, in NOVttIiber 1980, by Lisa Fiuko, who ~panicd ~ What a great penon, this Mayor Azema, I wcnt o n to tell Benjamin. He had spent
across the Pyrt:nccs 10 the French·Spanish border at the end of September 1940 (and who larcz­ hours with me working out every detail. Unfortunately, the famous road along the
5Cttled in the United Statal. It is printed in English in Gesamnu:fJe &hriflm, vol. 5 (Frankfurt: cemetery walls of Cerberes was closed. It had been quite easy, and a good number of
Suhrkamp, 1982), pp. 1184-1194, with supplememary material Oetten) rdating mainly to the un­ refugees had used it for a few months, but now it was heavily guarded by the G~es
solved mystery of the Mlarge black briefcase" which Benjamin was carrying. Included (p. 1203) it Mobiles. On orders of the Gcnnan Commission, no doubt. The only truly safe crossmg
Benjamin'. last leiter, dated fun·Bou, September 25, 1940, and addressed both to Henny GurIand,
that was left, according to the mayor, was "fa roult Listrr. ".. "1bat meant that we had to
who was with him at the cnd (see Gershom Scholcm, Waitn' lknjamin: 'Ill Stury 0/ II ~lIip,
trans . Harry 20hn [New )brk: Schocken, 1981J, pp. 224-226), and to Thcodor Adorno; it is in
cross the Pyrenees farther west, at a greater altitude; it meant more climbing. .
.,'rench, in a form rewllStructed from memory by Hermy Gur1and, who had felt it necessary to "That will be all right,M Benjamin said, "as long as it is safe. 1 do have a heart condi­
destrOy the original: M In a situation presenting no way out, I have no otherchoice but to make an end cion," he continued, "and I will have to walk slowly. Also, there are two more persons who
of it. It is in a small village in the Pyrenees, when: no one knows me, that my tife will oome 10 l dole joined me on my aip from Marseilles and who also need to cross the border, a MIS.
[00 J 4lAtwrJ. , I u k you to a-ansmit my thoughts [pmsfflJ10 my friend Adorno and to cxpIain to him_ Gurland and her teenage son. \-\buld you take them along?"
the situation in which I find myself. 1'hcre is not enough time ranaining for me to write all the ktu:n Sure, sure. "But Mr. Benjamin, do you realize: that 1 am not a competent guide in this
I woukIlikc to write." region? 1 don't really know that road, 1 have never been up that way myself. I ha\'C a pica
of paper o n which the mayor penciled a map of the route from his memory, ~ then he
1bis happened exaaly forty years ago. I finally have: to kttp my promiK to write down described to me some details of turnS to be taken, a hut OD the left, a plateaU Wlth seven
the story. People keep saying:Jwt write it the way it was ••• pine IJtt5 which has to remain to our right or wc will end up too far north; the vineyard
1 do remember eI.~rything that happened ; I think I do. !nat is, I remember the factS. that leads to the ridge at the right point. You want to take the risk?"
But can I re·li\~ those days? Is it possible to step back and into those times when there was "Yes," he said without hesitation. "The real risk would be not to go:"
no time for remembering what nonnallife was like, those days when we adapted to~ '
and sauggled for survival ... ? Glancing at him, I remembered thai this was not Benjamin's first anempt to get out of ~e
• The distanee of the yean-forty of them-has put eI.'CnLS for us into perspective, many trap. Impossible for anyone who knew aboul his fonner try to forget it. The apoc:alypt'lc
beliel.~. It seems to me, though, that this perspective, under the pretense of insight, easily atmosphere in Marseilles in 1940 produced iu daily absurd story of anempted escape:
turns intO simple hindsight, reshaping what was.... H ow will my recoDections ,tand up plans around fantasy boau and fable captains, visas for counaies unknown to Atlas, and
against this trap? passportS from counuies that had ceased 10 exist. One had become accustomed to lcam­
And where do I start? , ing through the Daily Grapevine which foolproof plan had suffered tod~ ~e fate of a
&ptnnbtr 25, 1940 House of Cards. '*' still were able to laugh-we had to laugh- at the COffilC Side of some
Port-Vtndns (PyrinirJ On"entaitJ, France) of these tragedies . TIle laughter was irresistible when Dr. Friu Fraenkd, with frail body
and gray mane, and his friend Walter, with his sensitive scholar's head and
1 remember waking up in that narrow room under the roof where I I,ad gone to sleep a pensive eyes behind thick glasses, were, through bribery, smuggled on a freighter, dressed
few hours earlier. Someone was knocking at the door. It had to be the little girl from up as French sailors. They didn't gel very far.
downstairs; 1 got out of bed and opened the door. But it wasn't the child. 1 rubbed my Luckily, they did get away, though, d ue to the generalized state of confusion.
half-closed eyes. It was one of our friends , Walter Benjamin-one of the many who had
poured into Mancilla when the GemwlS overran France. O ld Benjamin, as I wually We agreed that we would try to see Mayor Azana once more, this rime together, so that
referred to him, I am not surc why-he was about forty-cight. Now, how did he get here? we could both memorize every detail. I notified my sister-in·law-she, the baby, and I
uGniidigr Frau," he ,aid, "please accept my apologies for this incon..'Crucnce." 'fhC
world was coming apart, I thought, but not Benjamin's polittJU. "In' Hrrr he GtmaItJ; • General Li5le1' or \he Spanis~ Republican Army had led his troops along iliat roule.
were going to cross the border and go to Ponugal the next week-and 1 went to Banyuls H e said that his decision to spend the night at the clearing was unshakable since it was
with Benjamin. based on simple re:asoning. The goal was to cross the border so that he and !ill manuscript
H ere I have a lapse of memory. Did we dare to take the train in spite of the constant would not fall into the hands of the Gestapo. He had reaclIed one third of this goal. !fhe
border checks? I doubt it. ~ must have walkQ:l the six or eight kilometers from Pon-Yen. had to return to the village and then do the entire way again tomorrow, his heart would
dres on. the . rocky path which by now was familiar to me. 1 do remember finding the: probably give out. Ergo, he would stay.
mayor m !ill office, how he locked the door and then repeated his instructions and I sat down again and said: "Then I tOO will stay."
ansl'.'CrCd our questions. He smiled. "Will you defend me against your wild bulls, gniidige Frau'"
Two days before, after he had drawn the sketch of the road for me, he and (had My staying would not be reasonable, he explained quietly. It was essential that I check
stepped to the window and he had pointed out the directions, the far-away plateau with back with Azlma and that I get a good night's sleep. Only then would I be able to guide
the scven pine rrccs, and somewhere high up there: the crest which v.'e would have to the Gurlands back before sunrise without possible error or dday, and continue to the
cross. "On paper, it looked like an easy walk," I had said, "but it seems that we have to border.
cross the high Pyrenees ... ?" He had laughed: "That's where Spain is, on the other side Of course, I knew all that. Above all, 1 had to get hold of some bread without ration
o f the mountains." stamps, and perhaps some tomatoes and black-market ersatz mannalade, to keep us going
He now suggested that we take a walk this aftc:moon and do the first part of the route during the day. I think I had only tried to shock Benjamin into abandoning his plan, but
to test whether we would find our way. "\bu go up to this clearing here," he said pointing of course it hadn't worked.
it out on his sketch. "Then you return and check it out with me. )Du spend the night at the:
inn and tomorrow morning around five o'clock, while it is still dark and our people go up On the descent, I tried to concentrate on the road so that I would be able to find my way
to their vineyards, you start out again and go all the way to the Spanish border." Benjamin in the dark the next morning. But my mind kept nagging: he shouldn't be up there alone,
asked how far it was to the clearing. "Less than an hour ... wcll, c.enainly not more: than this is all wrong... . Had he planned it this way all along? Or had the walk exhausted him
two hours. Just a nice walk." ~ shook hands. 'Je flQUJ remercie i,ymimmt, MrmJieur It so much that he had decided to stay only after we arrived? But there: was this heavy
Maire," I heard Benjamin say. I can still hear his voice. briefcase that he had taken along. ~re: his swvival instincts intact? If in danger, what
~ got his companions who had been waiting at the inn and ~plained our plan. TIley would his peculiar way of reasoning tell him to do?
seemed to be cooperative, not the complaining k.ind that 1 dreaded so much in ticklish
situations. ~ walked slowly, like tourists enjoying the scenery. 1 noticed that Benjamin During the winter, before France's surrmder, my husband and Benjamin had been
was carrying a large black briefcase which he must have picked up when we had stopped together in one of the camps where the French govenunent imprisoned the refugees from
at the inn. It looked heavy and 1 offc:rcd to hdp him carry it. "TIili is my new manu' Nazi Gennany-together with the Nazis. They were at the Camp de ~rnuche, close to
script," he explained. "But why did you take it for this walk?" "\bu must understand that Nevers. In one of their conversations Benjamin, a heavy smoker, revealed that he had quit
this briefcase is the most imponant thing to me," he said. "I cannot risk losing it. It is the a few days ago. It was painful, he added. "Wrong timing," Ham told him. Seeing
manuscript that mUJI be saved. It is more imponant than 1 am." Benjamin's inability to handle "the adversities ofouter life which sometimes come ... like
TIlls expedition won't be easy, I thought. Walter Benjamin and hiS puuling ways. wolvcs"l-at Vernuche all of life was adversity-Hans had become used to hdping him
1bat's JUSt what he is like. When trying to pass for a sailor in the port of Marseilles, had "'p<.
he toted the briefcase? But I better keep my mind on the road, I said to myself, and try to H e now tried to show Benjamin that in order to tolerate crises and keep one's sanity,
figure out Azlma's directions on the little map. \ . the fundamental rule was to look for gratifications, not punishments. Benjamin answered,
Here was the empty shed the mayor had mentioned, so we were:n't lost ... not yet "I can bear the conditions in the camp only if I am forced to inunerse my mind totally in
Then we found the path with a slight tum to the left. And the huge rock he had described. an effort. To quit smoking requires this effort, and it will therefore save me."
A cleari.ngl1bat must be it. ~ had made it, after almost three hours.
This was about one third of the total route, according to Azlma. I don't remember it as The next morning everything seemed to be going well. The danger of being seen by the
being difficult.we sat down and rested for a while. Benjamin stretched out on the grass ~lice or CUStoms guards was greatest when leaving the village and starting up the foot­
and closed his eyes, and I thought it must have been tiring for him. hills. Az6na had insisted: Start out before sunrise, mingle with the vineyard workers on
We v..-ere ready to start the descent, but he didn't get up. "Are you all rightr I asked. y?u.r wa?, up, don't carry anything except a muut/e, don' t talk. 1bat way the patrols can't
"I am fine," he answered , "you three go ahead." disunguL'l h you from the villagers. Mrs. Gurland and her young son, to whom I had
"And your explained these rules, carefully followed them, and I had no trouble finding the way.
ur am staying here. I am going to spend the night here, and you will joiu ~le in the The closer we came to the clearing, the more tense 1 grew. Will Benjamin be there?
morning." Will he be alive? My imagination started turning like a kaleidoscope.
This was worse than 1 had expected. What do I do now? All I can do is try and reason Fmally. H ere is the clearing. H ere is old Benjanlin. Alive. He sits up and gives us a
with him. This was wild mountain tenitory, there could be dangerous animals. AI; a friendly look. Then I stare at his face-what has happened? 1lIose dark purple blotches
matter of fact, 1 knew that there: were wild bulls. It was late September and he had nothing under his eyes_could they be a symptOm ofa hean attack?
with which to cover himself. There were smugglers around, and who knew what they He guessed why r stared. Taking off his glasses and wiping his face \.\I'ith a handker­
might do to him. He would have nothing to cat or drink. Anyhow, tlus was ins ane.
chief, he said : "Oh that. TIle morning dew, you know. The pads inside the framC!, see? After the vineyard, we rested on a narTOW hi1.bidc- the same plateau where we met our
TIley stain when they get damp." Greek a few weelu later. But that i5 another story. TIle sun had climbed high enough to
My heart StOPped beating in my throat and slipped back down to where it belonged. warm us, so it must have been about four to five hours since: \\'C had started out. ~
nibbled on the food I had brought in my muutte, but nobody ate much. Our stomacllS had
From here on, the uccnl was steeper. Also, we began to be repeatedly in doubt about shrunk during the last months-first the concentration camps, then the chaotic retrc:at­
which direction to take. To my surprise Benjamin was quite able to understand our litde fa pagaille, or The Total Chaos. A nation on the run, moving south; at our baw the
map, and to help me keep our orientation and stick to the right road. empty villages and ghOSt towns- lifeless, soundless, till the rattling of the German tanks
The word "road" be~ more and more symbolic. There "'Cre stretchC! of a path, but gulped up the stillness. But, again, tha.t is another story, a \'Cry I~ng one.
more often it became a hardly discernible trail among boulders- and then ' the steep While "''e rested, I thought thai this road across the mountalns had rumcd out to be
vineyard which I willlKVU forget. longer and more difficult than "'C could have guessed from the mayor's description. On
But first I ha\'C to explain what made this route so safe. the other hand, if one "'Cre familiar with the terrain and didn't carry anything, and were:
Following the initial descenl, the path tab para11el to the widely known "official" road in good shape, it might really take considerably less time. Like all mountain people,
along the crest of the mountain chain, which was quite passable. "Our" road- the: R~lt Monsieur Aztma's ideas of distanCC and time were elastic. How many hours were "a few
LiJt"' and an old, old smugglers' path-ran below and somewhat rucked w ide the ft
hours to him?
overhang of the crest, out of the sight of the French borda guards a~. At. a Ouring the foUowing winter months, when "'C did this border crossing sometimes
few point! the rvro roads approached each otha closely, and there v.'C had to keep silent. twice or even three times a week, I often thought of Benjamin's self-discipline. I thought of
Benjamin walked slowly and with an even measure. At regular interva1s-1 believe it it when Mrs. R. Started whining in the middle of the mountains: " . .. don't you have an
was ten minucC!- he stopped and rested for about one minute. Then he went on, at the apple for me ... I want an apple ...," and when Fraulein Mueller had a sudden fit of
same steady pace. He had calculated and worked this OUt during the night, he told me: screaming ("acro-dementia; we called it); and when Dr. H. valued his fur coat more than
"With this timing I will be able to m.ake it to the end. I rest at regular interva1s-1 must his safety (and ours). But these again are different stories.
rest btfort I become exhausted. Never spend yourself." Right now I was sitting somewhere high up in the Pyrenees, eating a piece of bread
What a strange man. A crystal.cJear mind; unbending inner strength; yet, a wooJy­ obtained with sham ration tickets, and Benjamin was requesting the tomatoes: "With
headed bungler. your kind pennission, may I ... ?" Good old Benjamin and his Castilian court ceremony.
Suddenly, I realized that what I had bcc:n gazing at drowsily was a skdeton, sun
The narure of his strength, Walter Benjamin once wrote, is "patience, conquerabk: by bleached. Perhaps a goat? Above us, in the southern blue sky, rvro large black birds
nothing."2 Reading this years later, I saw him again walking slowly, evenly along the circled. Mwt be vulrures-I wonder what they expect from w . . . . How strange, I
mountain path, and the contradictions within him lost some of their absurdity. -- thought; the usual me would not be so phlegmatic about skeletons and vultures.
W: gathered ourselves up and began trudging on. The road now became reasonably
Mrs. Gurland 's son,Jose-he was about fifteen years old-and I took rums carrying the straight, asccncIing only slightly. Still, it was bumpy and, for Bc:njamin, it mwt have been
black bag; it was awfully heavy. But, I rccall, we all showed good spirit!. There was some strenuous. He had been on his feet since seven o'clock, after all. His pace slowed down
casy, casual conversation, turning mosdy around the needs of the moment. But mainly, some more and he pawed a little longer, but always in regular interVals, checking his
we were quiet, watching the road. watch. He seemed to be quite absorbed by the job of timing himself.
Today, when Walter Benjamin is considered one of the century's leading scholars and
aitics-today I am sometimes asked: What did he say about the manwaipt? Dict.bc· Then we reached the peak. I had gone ahead and stopped to look around. TIle view came
discuss the content!? Did it develop a novel philosophical concept? on so sudden, for a moment it struck me like afota morgmw. Down there below, from
Good God, I had my hands full Steering my little group uphill; philosophy would have where we had come, the Mediterranean reappeared. On the other side, ahead, steep
to wait till the: downward side of the mountain was reached. \-\'hat mattered now was w cliffs-another sea? But of course, the Spanish coast. Two worlds ofblucness.ln our back,
save a few people from the Nazis ; and here I was with this-this-Aommhn- MUl, " dr6It to the north, Catalonia's RouJJillon country. Deep down fA ate Vnmcillt, the aurunm
tk ~-this curious eccentric. Old Benjamin: under no circumstances would he part with earth in a hundred shades of vemUllion. I gasped: nC\'Cr had I seen anything so beautiful.
his ballast, that black bag; we would have to drag the monster across me mountains.
I knew that we were now in Spain, and that from here on the road would run straight
Now back to the steep vineyard. There was no path. \-\.t climbed between the vinesta1b, until the descent into the town. I knew that now I had to rum back. The others had
heavy with the almost ripe, dark and sweet Banyu1s grapes. I remember it as an almost the necessary papers and vi5as, but I could not risk being caught on Spanish soil. But,
vertical incline ; but such memories sometimes distort the geometry. Here, for the first and no, I could not yet leave this group to themselves, not quite yet. Just another short
only time, Benjamin faltered. More precisely, he tried, failed, anrl..t/len gave fonnalnoUce s~tch ...
that this climb was beyond his capability.J <m and I took him between us; with his arms
on our shoulders, we dragged him and the bag up the hill. He breathed heavily, }'Ct he Putting down on paper the details which my memory brings back about this first time I
made no complaint, not even a sigh. He only kept squinting in the direction of the black crossed the border on the Route List"', a nebulous picture surfaces from wherever it has
"'g. been buried all these years. Three women-two of them I know vaguely-aossing our
road; through a haze, I.sec: us slanding then: and tallting for a short while. They had come FOr all th.1t came later. Then, back in Banyub, after my first trip on the Liuer route, I
up a different road, and they then continued their way down to the Spanish side sepa_ thought : Good old Benjamin and his manuscript are safe, on the other side of the
rately. The encounter did not particularly surprise or impre5ll me, since so many people mountains.
weJ'e trying to escape (1\:eJ' the mountains.

In about a wc:c:k the word came: Waller Benjamin is dead. He took his life in Pan·Sou the:
\-\k passed a puddle. The water was greenish slimy and stank. Benjamin knelt down to night after his arrival.
drink. The Spanish border authorities had infonnc:d the group that they would be n!Nmc:d to
~ 'Ibu can't drink this water,~ I said, "it is filthy and surely contaminated." 1bc: water­ France. New orde:rs, jwt n!ccive:d from Madrid: Nobody can enter Spain without the
bottle I had taken along was empty by now, but thus far he hadn't mentioned that he was French exit visa. (Several diffc:rc:nt versions- exist of the reason Spain gave this time for
thirsty. closing the border: apatriJd may not travel through Spain; or Spanish transit visas issued
~ I do apologize," Benjamin said, "but I have no choice. If I do not drink., I might nOl: be: in Marseilles WCn! invalid.) Whatever the ne:w directive: was, it was lifted soon. Had then!
able to continue to the c:nd." He bent his head down towards the puddle. bc:c:1l time for the: news to reach the: Fn!nch side of the: frontier, crossings would have bc:c:n
"LUten to me," I said. "Will you please: hold it for a moment and listen to me? ~ have halted while watching dc:vc:lopments. we were living in the: "Age of New Dirtttives" ;
almost arrived; just a short while and you have made it I know you can make it But to every gm.'alUllc:ntal office in every country of Europe .sec:mc:d to devote full time: to
drink. this mud is unthinkable. \bu will ~ typhus ..." decreeing, n!\'Oking, enacting, and then lifting orders and regulations. \bu just had to
"True:, I might. But don't you sec, lhc: worst that can happen is that I die of typhus ... learn to slip through holes, to tum, to wind, and to wriggle your way out of this c:vc:r­
AFTER crossing the border. The: Gestapo ""(m't be able to ~ me, and the: manuscript changing maz.c:, if you wanted to survive.
will be safe. I do apologize." But Benjamin was not a wriggler ...
He drank. ".. . faul Jt dibrouiller": one has to rut through the: fog, work one's way OUt of the
The: road was now running gently downhill. It must have: been about cwo o'clock in general collapse-that had bc:oomc: the only possible way of life in France. 10 most, it
the afternoon whc:n the rocky wall gave: way, and in the valley I saw the village, very meant things like buying forged bn!ad tickets or extra milk for the kids or obtaining some
close. kind, any kind of pennit; in other words, to get something that didn't officially exist. To
"'That is Port-Bou down there:! The town with the: Spanish border control whc:rc: you some, it also meant to get such things by "collaborating." For us, the: apa1riJeJ, it was
will present }'Ourselves. This street leads straight down. A rc:al road!" primarily a matter of Staying out of concentration camps and escaping from the Gestapo.
Tv.'O o'clock.. ~ had started out at five in the: morning, Benjamin at sevm. A total of But Benjamin was no Jibrouillmd ...
almOSt nine hours. In his remote:ness, what counted was that his manuscript and he were:. out of the: reach
~I have to go back now," I continuc:d. "Y* are in Spain-v.~ ha\"C been in Spain for of the Gestapo. 1bc: crossing had exhausted him and he: didn't bc:lic:vc: that be cou1d do it
almost an hour. The descent won't take long; it's so close: that you can sec every house: again-he had told me so during our climb. Hc:rc:, lOO, he: had calculated in
from hc:rc:. 'Ibu will go directly to the border post and show your documents: the: traYd advance: he had enough morphine: on him to take his life .several times aver.
papers, the Spanish and Portuguese: traruit visas. When you have: your c:ntry stamp, you lmprc:.s.sed and shaken by his death, the Spanish authorities let his companions con­
take the next train to Lisbon. But you know all that. ... I must go now, arif Wieder· , \ tinue their travc:l.
JtMn ••."
For a mome:nt., my eyes foUowed them as the:y wc:rc: walking down the road. It's ~
July 1980
now for me to get out of hc:rc:, I thought, and started to walk back. I walked on and felt: During a recent conversation with Professor Abramsky from London, we: talked about
This isn't alien country any mOn!, I am no s~r here, as I was only this morning. It Walte:r Benjamin and his work, and I mentioned his last walk.
also surprised me that I was not tired. Eve:rything fc:lt light, I was weightle5ll and so was Then I got a call from Professor Gershom Scholem, a trustc:c: of Benjamin's literary
the: rest of the: world. Benjamin and his companions must have made it by now. How estate and his closest friend . He had heard from Abramsky about our conversation and
beautiful it was up hen!! wanted to know morc. I ga\."C him a summarizc:d description of the C\"Cnts on that day
Within cwo J:wurs I was back down in Banyuls. Nine houn uphill, twO hours down. almost forty years ago.
During the following months, by the time we: were: able to find our way blindfolded, v.~ He asked for e\"Cty detail concerning the manuscript:
once made it up to the border in CWO hours, and a few timc:5 in three to four hours. 1bat "There is no manuscript," he said. "Until now, nobody knew that such a manuscript
was when our "frcightn was young, strong, in good fom) and, above all, disciplined. I ever existed."
have never sc:c:n these: people again. but from time to time: a name comes up and suddc:nly I am hearing: then! is no manuscript. Nobody knows about the heavy black briefcase
something clicks. Henry Pachter, historian: Heinz and his friend, aII-Wrie record ".""? carrying the papers that WCn! mOn! importam to him than anything e:lse.
hours. Or Prof. Albert Hirschman, economist at Princeton: young Hemmnt. I was OlO­
cally ill when he came down to the border. He prc:ssun!d a Fn!nch hospital into admitting • see F. V. Grunfc:ld, Hannah Attndt, G. Scholem c:t aI.
me, then crmsc:d O\fC:r, guided by my husband, in about tlu« hours. r will write that story t Statdess penons. literally wPeopIe ",ithout F3.therland~ -official Frendl tam £01" refuged &om
down another time. .1 Nazi Germany whose citizenship had bc:cn taken away by the Nazi p'l:rrunent.
Hannah ~dt. has written about the "little: hunchback~ · whose thrcat Betyamin fclt

- ~ughOut. his life: ~d against whom he took all prccautiOIl5. Benjamin's "system of TO­
VL'IIOru, agamst possible danger ... invariably disregarded the real danger," she sa 3 p
But It seems to me now that the "real danO'l"J''' was not disrc:-...l d by WaJ D~: .
d . th 'gh ' t'L ..- - 6 .......<: ler ~lJamm
urmg al m t m curt-Bou; it was JUSt that his real <lange: his ali differed
ours. He must have mel again the little hunchback in Port-&u n:
Benjamin hunchback, and he had to COIM to lenns with him. ...
tZ,. from
\ cry own, th.! Translators' Notes
Perha~ I will go 10 fbrt.~ and try to pick up some: traw, to retrace what ha «i
°n that Side: of the mountauu forty years ago, with the help of some: of our old ~.l_
down there. WI

Perhaps there will be another ending to this story.

GS Waller Benjamin, Gautmefu Sdri/lm, 7 ,,00. (I-' Suhrkamp, 1972- 1989).

].1.. Jean ~tc:, tr.uu[ator of the l'lwagnt-WtT.t into French: Paro, (.Il/Jitak du XIX' JiMe
(Paris: Editions du Ccrf, 1989).

R.T. RoLfTIcdanallll, editor of the JUuagm -W(TA:, GS, vol . 5 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982).
SW Walter Benjamin, $eluted mitingJ. \blume I: 19 13-1926 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1996). ~luDie 2: / 927-1931 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univenity
Prr.Q, lm).

Previously published tnrulatioru ha\'e hem modified, where necessary, to accord with the passage.
cited by Benjamin.

Expose of 1935
This synop.sis of 'f'M ArctuUJ Projut, titled "Paris, die Hauptstadt des XIX. Jahrhundens"
(GS, vol. 5, pp. 45-59), was written by Benjamin in May 1935 at the request of Friedrich
fullock, codirector of tlle Institute of Social Research in New 'IDrk. It was first published
~ . in Walter Benjamin, Sdrriflm, 2 vols. (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1955). The tranSlators are
indebted to the previow English tranSlatiON by Qyimin Hoare (1968) and Edmwxi
Jephcott (1978).
I . TIle mttgaJ;1I de 1IOUIJtQutiJ offered a complete selection of goods in one or another
specialized line of businc.u; it had many rooms and several stories. with a large staff
of employees. llie first such store, Pygmalion, opened in Paris in 1793. The word
noulJtQuti means "newnc.u" or "novelty"; in the plural, it means "fancy goods."
2. Honore de Balzac, ~ Hiuoire et physiolgie des boulevards de Paris," in George Sand,
Honor~ de Balzac, Eugene Sue, el aI .• u Diab/e Ii Pari;, vol. 2 (Paris. 1846), p. 91.
[RTJ See AI ,4 ill tlle Convolutes.
3. Karl Boenicher, ~ Das Prinzip der Hellenischen und Genllallismen Bauweise hill­
sichtlicll der Obertrngung in die Bauv.-eise ullserer Tage" (addres.s of March 13,
1846), in .(um huruurljiillrigen ~burtjtag Karl Boll;cllm (Berlin, 1906). p. 46. [R.T)
See FI , I in the ConvolUtes.
• ~ Gcnnan fairy-tale figure who causes ;ill oIlifc: '~ mis(ortUnc:s; he trips you, he breaks your 4. Sigfried Ciedion, &um in FranAmcll (Leipzig, 1928), p. 3. [R.T]
(avon~c:loy. he: spi& your soup. 5. Paul Scheerbart, Gftua",hiteAtur (Berlin, 1914). [R.T.] In English, GlaJJ ArcAitu lllre,
tranS.Janles Palmes (New York: ?raeger, 19n).
6. Jules Michc.lct, "Avenirl Avenirl" EurrJjN, 19, no. 73 UaJlUary 15, 1929): 6. [R.T.) Ex-poH. of 1939
7. Sa Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Die ckutsck Ilkologie (The German Ideology) The second expose, "Paris, Capitale du XlXan. sicclen (Grsammtlle &lrriflt1l, vol. 5,
pan 2; in English in Marx and Engels, Collected WorL, vol. 5, traru. C. P. Magill pp. 60-77), was written by Benjamin in March 1939, in French, at the request of Max
(New \brk : lntemational Publi5hers, 1976). The in question is on pp. 513­ Horkheimer, who was attempting to enlist a New \brk banker named Frank Altschul as a
backer ro r 1M Arauks Project. For thi.! expose, Benjamin added a thcoreticallntroduction
8. SccJcan Paul, "Levana, oder Enichungslehre" (1807); in English, "Levana, or D0c­ and Conclusion. In reformulating his Gcnnan expose in French, he made a number of
trine of Education," trans. Erika Casey, in J ean Paul: A Renda (Baltimon:: Johns significant changes, particularly with regard to Fourier (A, Il), Louis Philippe (c, II and
9 Hopkins University Press, 1992), pp. 269-274.
III), and Baudelaire (D, II and Ill), while dropping much ractual material. Sec his letter to
9. A.J. Wiertz. "La Photographic," in Wieru, (burts littiraires (Paris, 1870), pp. ·309ft". Horkheimer of March 13, 1939, in GS, vol. 5, p. 1171 . In our translation of the second
[R.T.] Sec YI ,1 in the Convolutes.
c.xpose we have tried to reproduce the often subtle divergences from the ,.,Iording of the
10. Ferdinand Langl~ and Emile Vandcrburch, LAuis-Brrmu tI u Saillt-$illlonien; Ruodk lint, ~ well as the numerous verbal para1Iels (where it is a question of translati ng a
Ik LAuis XI (Th~tTc du Palais·Royal, February 27, 1832), cited in Th~on: Moret,
L'Histoire par Ie lhidlre, 1789-1851 (P-.uU, 1865), vol. 3, p. 191. tnUlSlation).
II. Acrually, it was Ernest Rolan; sec G4,5 and G13a,3 in the Convolutes. 1. Sec SIa,2 in the Convolutes. The formula does not appear in Schopcnhauer. [R.T.]
12. Sigmund Englinder, Gtsdluhte tkr .fram.Misdten Arbriter-ASJOOah'ont1l (Hamburg, 2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Die Ireilige Falllilie (1845); in English, 1"he Holy
1864), vol. 4, p. 52. {R.T.] Family, trans. Richard Dixon and CJcmcns Dutt, in Marx and Engels, Collected WorL,
13. Marx, lJaJ Xapitai, vol. 1 (1867); in English, Capr.·tal trans. Samuel Moon: and Ed­ vol. 4 (New 'lbrk: Intemational Publishen, 1975), p. 8 1.
ward Avding (1887 ; rpt. New York: International Publishers, 1967), p. 76. 3. Charles Fourier, 1"hiorie Iks quaJTt m"utJt'11le1lu et des desh'lIies ginira1es (1808.); in
14. Giacomo Leopardi, "Dialogo della moda e della morte" (1827); in English in Lcop­ English in Fourier, 1"he 1"heory rfthe Nur MotJt'11le1ltJ, tranS. Ian Pattcnon (Cambndge:
ardi, &says aM Dialogues, trans. Giovanni Cttchetti (Bttkeley: Univcnity ofCalifor­ Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 22. . .
nia Press, 1982), p. 67. 4. Tony Moilin, Paris t1Il'an 2000(Paris in the Year 2000] (Paris, 1869). Sa CSa,3 m the
15. Charles Baudelaire, "A Martyr," in Baudelaire, R owers rfEvil, trans. Wallace FowIic Convolutes.
(1964; rpt. New York: Dover, 1992), p. 85. 5. Marx and Engels, WtTU (Bttlin: Dietz, 1969-), vol. 3, p. 502: "die kol053alische
16. Baudelaire, "The Swan," ibid., p. 75. Anschauung der Mcnschcn.
17. Vu-gil, "I'M Aentid, trans. Allen Mandelbaum (New York: Bantam, 1971), p. 137 6. Actually, it was Ernest Rolan; see G4,5 and G13a,3 in ~e CoO\'~lu~es.
(book 6, line 126). Benjamin citeS the Latin. 7. Sigmund Englander, Geschidtte tkr jrantruisdten Arkitn'-ASJ(}CUlhont1l (Hamburg,
18. "Thc Voyage," in Baudelaire, Les Ram du 1M1, trans. Richard Howard (Bosttm: 1864), vol. 4, p. 52. [R.T.]
Godine, 1982), pp. 156-157. 8. Marx, lJaJ Kapital, vol. I (1867); in English, CaPitai, trans. Samuel Moore and
19. Baudelaire, Oeuvres «mIPlites, cd. Oaude Pichois (Paris, 1976), vol. 2, p. 27. [R.T.] Edward Avding (1887 ; rpt. New \brk: International Publishers, 1967), p. 76. .
Idem, "Picm: Dupont," in Baulklaire as a Likrary Critic, trans. Lois Boe Hyslop and 9. Alphonse Tousscncl, Le Mrmtk des Ornithol"gie passilmnelk, vol. I (Paris,
Francis E. Hyslop,Jr. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964), 1853), p. 20. See W8a,2 in the Convolutes. . ' .
p.53. 10. Giacomo Lcopardi, "Dialogo della moda e della ~ne" (1827); ~ En~h m ~
20. GmjtJSUm d'ull lilm tkvt1Iu WuX (Confession of a Lion Grown Old] (Paris, 1888), 4 ardi, Essays aM Dialogues, trans. Giovanni Cecchcttl (Bttkdey: UruvetSlty ofCalifor­
pp., was published anonymously, without year or place, by Baron Haussmann. [R.T.) \ nia Press, 1982), p. 67.
21. For Lafargue's comparison, sec 04,1 in the ConvoluteS. [R.T.] 1 L Guillaume Apollinaire, Le Poite aSJtJJJirr.l (191 6); in English ~ Apollinaire, ~ 1M Poet
22. Maximc Du Camp, Parn: &J org-tvIts, Jes./Muh"()1IJ et .sa uie dans fa ~ moilit du Assassinated" aM Other Stories, tranS. Ron Padgett (San Franasco: Nonh Pomt Press,
XIX' siicle, 6 vols. (Paris, 1869- 1875). [R.T.] Sec Walter Benjamin, Charles &ude­ 1984), p. 46. . .
faire: Eill Lyrikr illl Zeitaikr Iks HocMapitalism us, in GS, vol. I, pp. 589-590; in 12. Charles Baudelaire, .. A Manyr," in Baudelaire, Rowers rf £Vii, tranS . Wallace Fowlie
English, ClwuJ &wde/Qire: A Lyric Poet in the Era rf High Capitalism, trans. Harry (1964 ; rpt. New \brk: Dover, 1992), p. 85. . '
Zohn {London: Verso, 1976}, pp. 85- 86. 13. Friedrich Nietzsche, 'thw Sp"k.e Zaratilustra (189 1), crans. R. J I-Io UingdaJe (BaIt!.
23. Anonymous, Pam diJtrt: Lamenlati()1lJ d'un Jirimie MUJJ1fI(lnllisi [Descned Paris: , more: Penguin, 196 1), p. 286. "AfRiction" transl~tes Hei1flJuclru7l? . '
Jeremiads or a Man] (Paris, 1868). [R.T.] 14. Marcel Proust, Du (Ati tU cMr. Swann (Swanns Way; 1913); ill English ill Proust,
24. Engels' critique of barricade tactics is excerpted in Ela,5 in the Convolutes. [R.T.] Remnnbranu rf 'thingJ Past, vol. 1, trans. C. K. ScOtt ~o~cridr (New Yor~: RandOl~
25. The \'USC derives from Picm: Dupont; sec a7,3 in the Convolutes. [R.T.) House, 1925), p. 179. The cxprcssionfoire catleya ( domg a caltleya l lS Swanns
26. Frederic Le Play, LeJ OuurierJ europit1lJ: Etudn sur us trawl/X, la vie dcmiJtique ella euphemism for making love. . , ' .
condih'tm morale &s populati()1lJ ouunereJ de ['Europe, priddies d'u71 exprui de /Q lIIithode 15 Reference is to the conclusion of Henrik Ibsen s play meMast" Budder (1892).
d'ofJJtrwtion (Paris, 1855). [R.T.) . Throughout this section, in the original French, Be.njamin uses lhe standard tcnn
27. See p. 24 and note 22 orthe Expost of 1939. modern style (in quotation marlu) to refer 10 Jugendstil. . .
28. See (;2a,8 in the Convolutes. 16. Baudelaire, "The Swan," in 'the Complete VerSt', trans. FrallclS Searfe {London: Anvil
Press, (986), p. 176.
17. '11l.e Seven Old Men," in Baudelaire, Flowers ~Evil (New lbrk: HaJpcr and Broth_ 2. The Passage du Caire was tile first glass-rovcred arcade in Paris outSide the PalaU·
ers, 1936), p. 185 (trans. Edna St. Ymcent Millay). Royal. It opened in 1799, o ne year before the more luxurious Passage des Panoramas.
18. '11l.~ Voyage," in Baudelaire, u s Fleurs du mal, trans. Richard Howard (Boston: 3. Space in a stock exchange set apan for unofficial business.
Godme, 1982), pp. 156- 157. 4. 1k Utopian Vuion ~ Charles FOuner. ed. and trans. J onathan Beecher and Richard
19. Ibid., p. 156. Bienvenu (1971; rpt. Columbia: U niversity of Missouri Press, 1983), pp. 242-244.
20. Splern came into French in 1745, from English; idialin 1578, from Latin (itkalis). 5. Friedrich Engels, 1k Condition ~ the Work ing Class in England, trans . Florence
2 1. Confession d'un lion tkvrnu IJieux [Confession of a Lion Grown Old) (Pa.rU, 1888) 4 WlSchnc.....e uky (1886; rpt. New lbrk: Penguin. 1987), p. 74 ("The G~t Towns").
pp., was published anonymously, without year or place, by Baron Haussmann. [R. 1:1 6. 1k Utopian VISion r!fCluults FOurier, p. 245.
22. Apparently, a correction of the earlier expose (see p. 13). 7. Ibid., pp. 242-245 (translation of sentences 2-4 added).
23. louis-Auguste B1anqui, lrutructimu ~ur Un/! Prist: d:At7nI!j: L'Ekrnill par les mtns_ 8. The Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonapane took place: in 1798-1799.
HJPotMJe aJtronomUjue (Pa.rU; SocihC EncydopCdique F~e, 1972), pp. 167-169. 9. Heinrich Heine, Jewish Stories and Helmw Melodin (New lbrk: Markw Wiener,
See 07; 07a. Benjamin lint came upon this text by Blanqui at the end of 1937. 1987), p. 122 (trans. Hal Draper)_ "Her" refers to the poet's wife.
10. fbssibly a pun on ipian; "grocer." The 6na1 e in both ipit: and sciit: has been sawed
Convolute8 off; the sign is thus a typographical joke.
11 . One ofdutt main divisions of Balzac's writings.
The central portion of the manuscript of '"f'M AraukJ Proiect (GS, vol. 5, pp. 79-989) 12. From "Lutetia," Roman name for Pam. Sec C l ,6.
consists of 426100sc sheets of yellowish paper, each folded in half to fonn a 14 X 22 em. 13. G. K. Chestenon, Clwrles Dickens (1906; rpt. New lbrk; Schockcn, 1965), pp. 119­
folio, of which sides 1 and 3 are inscribed in Benjamin's tiny handwriting, with sides 2 and 120. Corresponding to the sixth sentence quoted here, the translation used by Ben­
4 left blank. These fotios are gathered into thirty-six sheafs (the German word KonIlOlIlI jamin has: "Chaque boutique, en fait, Cvcillait en lui l'id~e d 'une nouvelle."
means "sheaf" or "bundle") in accordance with a set of themes keyed to the letters of the 14. Dt faiustia dilns IiJ Rioolution et dil1lJ l'lglise {OnJustice during the Revolution and in
alphabet. The titles of the convolutes, as well as the numbering of the individual entries, the Church} 3 volumes (1858).
derive from Benjamin. In regard to the ordering, the use of lowercase a (as in "Ala,1 ") 15. Charles Baudelaire, &urUliJire as a Literary Cdtic, trans. Lois Bee Hyslop and Francis
denotes the third page of a fotio. The letters without corresponding titles in the Overview E. Hyslop,J r. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964), p. 52.
may indicate that Benjamin planned further convolutes. The reference is to Hugo's book ofpocm.!l us Orient4ks (1829).
In addition to Benjamin's cross-refCTalCa (signaled with small squares) to rubria of 16. Balzac, GaudiJJart the Great, trans . James Waring, in BalZIU S WorL (Philadelphia:
different convolutes, or to rubrics without convolutes, many of the citations and refiec.
tions in the manwcript are marked with a system of thirty-cwo assoned symboLs (squara,
triangles, circles, vertical and horizontal crosses-in varlow; inks and colors), which do
­ Gebbie Publishing, 1899), vol. 1, p. 343.
17. Baudelaire, PariJ Splun, trans. Louise Varesc (New lbrk: New Directions, 1947),
p. 60 ("The Generous Gambler").
not appear in the published text. The symboLs arc linked to papers that ~ en­ 18. Baudelaire, .... M)' Hearl Laid Bare " and OIAd !+OM l#itings, trans. Norman Cameron
ttusted to Gw~ Bataille and that were discovered in the Bataille archive of the Bib­ (1950; rpt. New 'lbrk: H askell House, 1975), p. 156 ("Fusees; no. 2).
tiotheque Nationale in 1981. These papcn contain a detailed plan for the Bauddairt: book ,
on which Benjamin wa5 l"iorking in 1937- 1938; the encoded itans from the convolutcl
(moTt than 60 percent from Convolute J) are grouped there under a set of beadings
represmting themes of the Baudelaire book as a whole. About half of the material wu B [Fashion]
then further organized for the composition of the 1938 essay ~ Das Paris des Second
Empire bei Baudelaire" (The Paris of the Second Empire in Baudelaire). 1. Giacomo Leopardi, "Dialogo della moda et della mon e" (1827); in English in Leap­
The convolutes ~re composed concurrently (rather than conscUltively) in twO Stages: ardi, Essays and Dialogues, trans . Giovanni Cecchc:tti (Berkeley: University ofCalifor­
from the fall or winter of 1928 to the end of 1929, and from the beginning of 1934 until nia Press, 1962), p. 67.
May 1940. The Gennan editor of the Passagrn- Werk, Rolf Tiedemann, provides a more 2. Rainer Maria Rilke, Duino Elegits, tram.]. B. Leishman and Stephen Spender (New
specific dating of the entries on the basi! of photocopies of manuscript pages made by , lbrk: Non o n, 1939), p. 53 (fifth elegy).
Benjamin inJune 1935 and December 1937 (GS, vol. 5, p. 1262). Within a particular 3. Marginal annotation by Theodor W. Adomo; "I would think: counterrevolutions."
convolute, tile entries follow a roughly chronological order (some having been written [R.TJ
earlier, then revised and tnuL'lferred to the manuscript of the convolutes). 4. Fan of lriJ and 1M M(}(m (a $tV-Portrait) appear in Grandville's Un Autre MOllrU
On tile typogra phic dilferentiation between Benjamin's reflections and Benjamin's (1844); "the Milky Way ... as all aven ue illuminated by gas candelabra" is doubtless
citatiolL'l in tile "Convohlles" section, see the Translators' Foreword. an allusion to the plate entitled An Intnplanetary Bridge. [R.T.I
5. See Walter Benjamin, Ursprurlg rUs ckulJennl 7rauerspitls, GS, vol. 1, p. 294. [R·T.I In
English, 'The Origin 0/ German 7ragic Drama, trans. J ohn Osbome (London: Verso,
A [Arcade8. Maga,i,.. d e NOllveautes, Sale8 Cleru]
1977), p. li S.
I . Anhur Rimbaud, Complete WorL and Selected Letteo, trans. Wallace rowlie (C hicago: 6. Guillaume Apollinaire, "'The Poet AssassilUlled " and Other Stories, tranS· Ron Padgett
University of Chicago Press, 1966), p. 254 (ll/umilUltions, ~SaJe") . (San Francisco: North I\)int Press, 1984), pp. 45-47 (section 13).
7. Andre Breton, Nadja, U'aru. Richard Howard (New ~rk : Grove ~enfdd, 1960). ing; Friederike Kempner (1836-1904), GcmWl poet and soci~[~. _A comparison
p. 152. v,rith the twO other "catalogues of muses" (see P,4 and P,IO ill h~t ~ketches ")
8. See N3,2. [R.T.] reveals that Dulcinea is a variant of Ibscn's Hedda Gabler, and that BcnJlUilUl thought
Apollinaire, "1M &1 AJS(Winated" and Other StorieJ, p. 46.
Lo. Muttte ck?mici (The Mute Girl of E\:)rtici), opera by D. F. E. AubCT. A duet &om
of adding the painter Angclika KauffmlUm (1741 - 1807), a friend 0: Goethe's. An·
other lisl, presumably the earliest, is found in '"T1~e Arcades of ~ ~ (hO,I ). p.L.]
this work, "Amour sam de la patrie,n is said to have been used as a signal for the Countess Ccschwitz, a lesbian anist, is a character ill FrlUU:. Wi:dekilld s Erdgeut and
Revolution of 1830 in Bruucls. lM Biidut de- Pandora, pla}'s which inspired Alban 8crg's unfinished opera Lulu. The
11. A. E. Brehm (1829-1884). German, was the autho r of 'f'lnleiMn (lift; of identity oflipse rtrnains a mystery. When Benjamin writes that the .mother ofSurre­
Animals), 6 vols. (1864-1869). On Hden Gnmd, a friend of Franz Hessd , sec the alism was tine Passage, he plays on the feminine gell~er of the nou n . ~ Gcnnan.
preface by J -M . Palmier to the French traruilatio n of H es.scl's Spaueren in &rIm 4. The passage is cited in Benjamin's German traruilauon_ For the onginal French, sec
entitled Prrnnnuuks dmu Berlin (Grenoble: Presses UnivcrsitaiTcs de Grenoble, 1989)' GS, \'01. 5, p. 1326. . ' .• ..
pp. 17fT. IJ,L] , 5. The reference is to Goethe's FaUJt, Pan 2, Act I (lines 62641T.), ill which Faust W its
12. Paul Valery, "On Italian Art,n in Dtgas, Mane!, Monsot, trarl.'I. David Paul (1960; rpt. "the Mothcnn-vagudy defined mythological 6gures- in search of the secret that
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), pp. 220, 224-225. will enable hlm [Q discover Helen ofTroy.
13. This passage docs not appear in the Engti!lh edition of von ]hering (also spelled 6. See Hl a,3.
"lheringn), Law as a Me(J1lJ to an End, U'aru. Isaac H usik (New ~rlc Macmillan, 7. Louis Aragon, PariJ ita.sanl, traru. Sinlon WatsOn Taylor (1971; rpt. Bosto n: Exact
1921). ~ge, 1994), p. 14.
14. Allwion to l...ouis Napoleon's coup d 'etat ofDcccmber 2, 1851. 80th the Second of S. "Know thyself."
December and the crinoline represent the triumph of reaaiorusm. 9. Victor Hugo, l.tJ MisirahkJ, traru. Charlcs E. Wdbour (1862; rpt. New ~rk. : Mod­
15. Georg Simmd, "Fashion,n a-ans. anonymow, InternatirmaJ Qyartc-Iy, 10. no. 1 (Octo­ em Library, 1992), p. 103.
"" 1904), p. 136. 10. PariJ vim (Paris, 1930). See C9a,l .
16. Ibid., p . 143. 11. Hugo. l.tJ MisirahlrJ, p. 737.
17. This passage docs not appear in the 1904 English translation of "Die Mode." 12. Ibid., pp. 859-860. . ..
18. Simmel. "Fashion," p. 133. 13. Charlcs Baudelaire, Seluted utterJ, traru. Rosemary Uoyd (Chicago: Umverslty of
19. Ibid., p. 151. Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 14 1- 142. .
20. Va16-y, "About Corot," in Dtgas, Mane!, MrJriJot, p. 150.
2 1. Julcs Michdet, 1M Propk, a-ans.John P. McKay (Urbana: Univcrs ityofDlinois Press.
1973), p. 44.
­ 14. Baudelaire, l.tJ Fltlm du mal, tranS. Richard H oward (Boston: Codine, 1882). p. 90
("The Swan").
15. Marcel Raymond, From Baucklairt to Surrealism, trarui. G. M. (1950; rpt. London:
22. An echo of Mcphistophdcs' speech at lines 2038-2039, in Cocthc's rowJ, Part 1. Methuen, 1970), p. 170.
23. Henri Focillon, 1M Lifo of Rmn.s in Art, a-ans. Charlcs Beecher Hogan and George 16. Julcs Romains, Men of Good Will, vol. I , traIlS. Warn: B. "*lls (New 'ibrk: Alfred A.
Kubler (194S; rpt. New ~rk: Zone Books, 1989), pp. 85, 87. Knopf, 1946), p. 146. . .
24. The essay, originally published in ,(',titsd!rififor SoUaJ.forschung, 6 (1937), is in GS, 17. Oswald Spengier, 1M DediM of the WeJt, vol. 2, trarui. Charlcs Franas Atkinson
vol. 2; sec p. 497, note 50. [R.T.] In English : "Eduard Fuchs: Collector and His~ (New'IDrk.: Knopr, 1928), p. 107.
rian," trarui. Knut Tarnowski, Ntw German Critique,S (Spring 1975); see p. 51 , note
25. Hermann Lotze, Mia-oamnus, tranS . Elizabeth H amilton and E. E. ConstanttJones D [Boredom, Eternal Return}
(New ~rk: Scribner and ~lford, 1888), vol. 1, pp. 486-487. I. Jakob van H oddis (HlU15 Davidsohn), Wtltnuu (19 11), in ~JamtMlte Di'htungen
(ZUri<h, 1958), p. 466 ("Klage"). [R·T.I
2. J ohann Peter Hebel, WtrA:e (Frankfun an} M ain, 1968), vol. 1, p. 393. [R.T.]
C LAncient Pam, Catacombs, Demolitioru, Decline of Pam]
3. In th e collection I:Autographe (Paris, IS63). [J.L.J
1. Virgil, The Aeneid, trans. Allen Manddbaum (New 'IDrk: Bantam, 1971), p. 137 4. Atrt perenniUJ: "more lasting than brass." 'fardium uit;u: tedium of life. .
(Book 6, line 126). Benjamin cites the Latin. 5. The Rue des Colonncs-fomlerly the Passage: des Colomlcs, tranSfonned UltO a
2. Guillaume Apollinairc, (kuum jHJihquts (Paris: Gallimard, 1956), p. 39 (Alcools, street in 1798-is located near the Stock. Exchange·IJL.]
~ Zone ") . [R.T.J In English : Alcools: Potms, J898- J9J3, trans. William MereditJ.1 (Gar­ 6. Cited in Frenc h without rerertnces. Reading "bien des avcnturcs" (p,IS in "FlTSt
den City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964), p. 3. Sk.etchcs,,) for ~ Iieu des aventurcs."
3. Certain of these muses of Sl1r'realism can be identified more precisely: Luna, the 7. Louis Aragon, Paris ~a.sant, trans. Simon \ VatsOll Taylor (1971 ; rpt. Boston: Exact
moon; Kate Greenaway (1846-190 1). English painter known for her illustrations of Change, 1994), p. 71.
children's books; Mon, death; CUo de Merode (1875-1966), French dancer who 8. Sec nOte for BO,4 (MrlTSt Sketches").
cpitomiud the demimonde; Dulcinea, the beloved of Don QlixOte and the image of 9. Sec Ferdinand Hardekopf, Grsammt/te Di,ntungrn (Zurich, 1963), pp. 50fT. [R.T] See
idealized woman ; Libido, an allusion to Freud; Baby Cadum, publicity and advertis­ also S°,5 ("First Sketchcs").
10. "Time" and "wcather."
11 . Karl Marx. Capital, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Avcling (1887; rpt. New 3. Benjamin is quoting from an open letter by the economist Flidenc Bastiat to La­
York.: International Publishers, 1967). p. 398. martine, according to which the latte.r is actually citing Fourier. [R.T .)
12. AndJi Gide, "Upon Rereading Les l'taiJirs tI ks jours after the Death of MarttI. 4. Le Corbwier, 7k Cil] of1"omorrow and ltJ PI(lJIning, Ctans. Frederick Etchells (1929;
Proust," trans. Blanche A. Price, in Gide, PrtlextJ: &..flectifJ1lJ on Literatuu and Ml1ral_ rpt. New "'IOrk: Dover, 1987), p. 156.
ity, ed.Justin O 'Brien (New lbrk.: Meridian. 1959), p. 279. 5. Ibid., p. 155. Sec E5a,6.
13. Dokefar niente: Italian for "sweet idleness." lmagtJ d'EpiruJwerc sentimental religious 6. Ibid., p. 261.
posters produced in the town ofEpinal in southeastern France.J ean Lacoste suggcata 7. Andn!: Breto n, Nadja, trans. Richard Howard (New York: Grove, 1960), p. 152.
that Mogreby may be Maghdbin, the magician in "Aladdin and the Marvelous 8. Gisek Freund, Pnotograpn;, und burgerfiche Gm llsdUlj l: Ei1lt' brutJoliologiscne Studie
g Lamp," in the Man:Iru.s translation of Les Milk tI Unt NuitJ (1925). Compare (Munich, 1968), p. 67. [R.T.)
"Naples," in Sw, vol. 1. p. 419. 9. Le Corbusier, The Cil] ojT071IommJ, p. 156. Next sentence: "And in destroying chaos,
14. This passage involves some wordplay in the Gcnnan: sicn die <eit IXrlrriben / aus­ he built up th~ emperor's finances!"
trtihen, as oppc»cd to die <eit laden / l U sid! tiniIZdtTI. 10. In chapter 14 ofhU popular utOpian novel of 1888, Looking Badward: 2000- 1887,
15. Jules Michcl~t, 1M Ptopk, trans.jolm P. McKay (Urbana: Uni~rsiryofIllinois Press, Edward BeUamy describes a continuous \\Ia.terproof covering let down in inclement
1973), p. 46. weather to e nclos~ sidewalks and streetcomers.
16. Si~gfri~d Kracau~r, Orplreu.s in Paris: Offenhad! and tM Paris oj His T'mr.e, trans. 11 . After the government, inJuly 1833, had bowed to public TCSistance and abandoned
Gv.-cnd.a David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf, 1938), p. 268. Described is a its plan to build fortifications around the city ofParU. it took its revenge by arresting
scen~ from Offenbach's operetta La Vat' parisimne (1866). a number of individuals [mcluding four srudent3 from the Ecole Polytcchnique)
17. CharlC!l Bauddaire, "The Painter of Modem life," in "1M Painter ojMotkm Lifo" thought to be illegally manufacturing gunpowder and ann8 . The group was acquiaed
and Other Lsays, trans. J onathan Mayne (1964; rpt. New York: Da Capo Press. in December. G. Pinet, Hrstoiu de I'£..mlepolyttcJlnique (Paru: Baudry, 1887), pp. 214­
1986), p . 26. 219.
18. Ibid., pp. 28-29. 12. This pasugc docs not appear in th~ English·language edition: Gustav Mayer, Frit ­
19. Ibid., p. 29. dn'" , Engels, trans. Gilben Highet and Hd~n Highet (1936; rpt. New York: Howard
20. Ibid., p. 10. Fertig, 1969).
21. Baudelaire, 1M Complete Verse, traru. Francis Scarfe (London: Anvil Press, 1986), 13. Siegfried. Kracauer, Orplreu.s in Puris: Offtnlxult and Inc Rlris oj His T'rnIt', trans.
p.232. Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf, 1938) p. 190.
22. An earlier version of this passage appears in 7?It' CorreJporuima oj Walter /JrnjatMc, 14. Sec bdow, ElOa,3.
trans. Manfred R. Jacobson and Evelyn M. Jacobson (Chicago: University of au· 15. Honori de, Perc Coriot, trans. Henry Reed (N~w York : New American Li­
cago Press, 1994), p. 549 (where Benjamin announces hU "rare find ")., 1962), p. 275.
23. Friedrich Niewche, 7?It' Will to Power, trans. Walt~r Kaufmann and R.J. HollingdaJe 16. 'fAt EJsential RouJJtau, trans. LoweU Bair (New lbrk: New American Library, 1974),
(New York.: Vmtagt, 1968), pp. 35, 36. p.17.
24. Ibid., p. 38. 17. Friedrich Engels, 7?It' H(lUJtnr; Qya tioll, trans. anonymous in Marx and Engels, Col­
25. Ibid., pp. 546-547. kcted WorL, vol. 23 (New lbrk: International Publishers, 1988), p. 365.
26. Ibid.• p. 548. \ .
27. Ibid.• p. 550.
28. Ibid., p. 549.
F [Iron COnfJtruction]
29. Griitukrjahre; years of reckless financial speculation, in this case foUowing the FranCO"
Prussian War of 1810-1871. I. Emended to n:ad "glass" in the Gennan edition.
30. Niewche, Eta Hrrmo, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vmtage. 1969), p. 219: 2. From niihkur, "boastful chatterbox." A character in Grandville's book of illustrations
MHere. no 'propha ' is speaking, none of those gruesome hybrids of sickness and will Un autre monde. Stt Fantastic lllUJtraJio/'lS ojGranduille (New York: Dover, 1974), p. 49.
to power whom people call fOWlders of religions." 3. The tenn for "railroad" in ~nnan, EisenbaJ/TI, meanli lit~rally "iron track." TIle tenn
31. J ean:Jacques Rousseau, The Coo/tJJioru, trans. J. M. Cohen (Baltimore: Penguin. came into use around 1820 and, unlike Eisen balmnof(which became si.mply Bannnoj),
1954), p. 4 15. continued to be used aft~r steel rails had replaced the iron.
32. 1M Portablt Nietucl!e, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Viking, 1954), pp. 10 1­ 4. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. I , trans. Sa.muel Moore and Edward Avding (1887; rpt. New
102 (17It' Gay Science). York: International Publishers, 1967), p. 362n. "'Fo nn of the tool," at the end, tran!'
!ates /Grptrfonn des Werku ugs (literally, ~bodily foml "), and tills is the tenn taken up
by Benjamin in parenthesis.
E LH8U88manniz8tio n , Barricade F ighting] 5. "M,nr Liclit!": Goe~'s last words.
1. Friedrich Engels, introduction to Karl Marx, The Class StruggltJ in France, 1848 to 6. The ~nnan Hall~ and the English "hall" d~rive from a ~mllmic noun meaning
1850, trans . anonymous (New York: International Publishers, 1964), pp. 22- 23. "covered place," which in rum is traced baek to an Indo·European root signifying ~ to
2. Marx, 1M CllW Struggles in Fratlct, p. 44 . cover, conceal." "Hall" is cognate with "heU." hl earlier lim es, the hall- in COlltrast to
the room-was a spacious, half-open structure (with a roof supponed by pillan or in GIO,1 is on p. 239. Benjamin cites dIe text in Gennan (with an EnglUh title);
colulluu) designed to provide shelter from rain or sun. tranSlator unknown.
7. Actually known as the Palai5 des Machinc:s, it was built for the world exhibition of 14. A. Tousscnel, PauioruJ <00/00 ; Or, Spirit r!I tlte &aJtJ r!IFrana, trans. M. Edgeworth
1889 by the engineers Contamin. Pierron, and Chartron. [J.L J1be quotation, given La.tarus (New ~rk: Fowlers and ,*lls, 1852), pp. 140, 142.
without references, is in Gemlan. 15. Ibid., p. 355.
8. Onjuly 28, 1835, during a parade by the Garde NationaJe down the Boulevard du 16. Ibid., pp. 337-339.
Temple, the Corsican conspirator Giuseppe fieschi made an un.'lucccssful attempt on 17. Ibid., p. 340.
the life of Louis Philippe. His "infana.l machine"-a device made of sevuaJ guru 18. Ibid., pp. 135, 136.
rigged to fire simultaneously-killed eighteen people. 19. Ibid., p. 346.
9. Victor Hugo, NolTe-Dame ojParn, trans. j ohn Sturrock (New York: Penguin, 1978), 20. Ibid., pp. 9 1-92.
p.2Z 21. Ibid., pp. 346, 34Z
10. Corutructed by Vie! and Barrault for the exhibition of 1855 on the Champs-Elys6:s. 22. Marx, Capital, ....01. 1, pp. 293-294.
[J.L·I 23. Victor Hugo, LeJ MiJlrahieJ, trans. Charles F.. Wllbour (1862; rpt. New York: Mod­
11. Hugo, NolTe-Dame ojParir, pp. ISO-l S I. em Library, 1992), p. 767. .
12. The cast·iron bridge of CoaIbrookdale, in Shropshire, was built by T. F. Pritchard 24. 1be International "'brloog Mc:n'5 Association (the FlJ'St international). the General
1].1..1 Counci1 of which had iu seat in London, was founded in September 1864.
13. jules Michelet, 1M !tople, trans.john P. McKay (Urbana: University ofDlinois Press, 25. Marx, Capital, ".01. I. p. 76. "Material immaterial" translates ;innlida iihersinnlidl..
1973). pp. 45, 43n. 26. For another English version, translated &om the Russian, see Nikolai GogoI, Ara­
besqu(J, trans. Alexander TuUoch (Ann Arbor. Mich.: Ardis. 1982). p. 130.
27. J W. Goethe, "Nachtgedanken," Gedenkausga&, vol. I, Slimtliche Gedichte (Zurich,
196 1), p. 339. [R.T.lln English in &kcted Veru, trans. David Luke (London: Pen·
G [Exhibitiol18, Adverti8ing, Grandville]
guin, 1964), p. 75. Scej22a, 1.
1. Alexander von H wnboldt's last and greatest work, Komuu (5 vois., 1845-1862), was 28. Charles Baudelaire, 1M Mirror oj Art, trans. jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon,
translated intO nearly aU European languages. The .Jdtwindnukn Doppeuten/e (disap­ 1955), p. 84.
pearing twin Stan) all! disrussed in volwnes 1 and 3. 29. &utkWire IlJ a Literary Critic, tranS. Lois Bee Hyslop and Francis F.. Hyslop, j r.
2. Vittorio! A .HaJJ WOf'/dl Joyous Proclamatirm ojtk Fad 17raJ rm Our l'tanet, E.JjJ«iaJJy ill
tM N&rthern HemiJPhn-e Hi Oa:uPJ, a 7'0141 Alteratirm in Temperature HaJ &gun, 7lan.L
to tM /tlcrtaJe in Atmospheric Warmth.
- (University Park: Fbmsyivania State University Press. 1964), pp. 79--80.
30. Sec SlY, vol. 2, pp. 85-90 ("Main Features of My Second Impression of Hasbi.5hj .
Also below, 12,6, Mla,l . and Mla,3.
3. 1867 was the year ofOOenbach's biggest hox-office success, iA Grande-DucMsse de
Geroutein, with libretto by Herui Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy. H [The CoUeclor]
4. After Paxton's designs were initially rejected by the London Building Committee in
1850, he published diem in the LAndon Nnus, and public response to lili unusual 1. Letter of December 30, 1857, to his mother. In Baudelaire: A &!fPortrait, ed. and
concept was so m-erwhelmingly favorable that the committee capitulated. trans. Lois Bee Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop,Jr. (Londo n: Oxford University Press,
5. The advertisement appear:s in Benjamin's Gennan translation. Original French in
\ . 1957), p. 135.
GS, ,,01. 5, pp. 1327-1 328. 2. Dr. Miracle and Olympia. the automated puppet, appear in Le; Conus d'Hiffinann
6. Karl Marx, Capil6l, \'oJ. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Avding (1887; rpt. New (188 1), an opera by j acques Offenbach. Dr. Miracle has been interpreted as geniw of
York : International Publishers, 1967), pp. 76-77. death; 5C'C Siegfried Kracauer. Orpltew in Paris: OjJt1Iixuh and 1M Paris oj his r rme,
7. Ibid., p. 76. trans. Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf, 1938) p. 355.
8. The Crystal Palace was destroyed by a spectacular fire at Sydenham in south London 3. 'The Passage du Pont·NeW. Sec 7?rirt;e RtuJuin, aaru. Leonard Tancock (New York:
in 1936. , Penguin, 1962), pp. 31-35. Flf5t published in 186Z
9. At the end of the sccond Opium War (1856-1860), allied English and French forces 4. 1lUs reference remains obscure.
captured Peking and burned the Chinese emperor's summer palace. 5. PluudruJ, 247c.
10. TIle royal ordinance ofjanuary 13, 1819, provided for the public exhibition of the 6. August Strindberg, "lne Pilot's Trials," in Strindberg, Tale;, tranS. L.J. Potts (lon­
products of French industry "in the rooms and galleries of the Louvre," at intervals don: Chatto and Windw, 1930), pp. 45, 46, 50.
not exceeding every four years; a jury was to decide which exhibitors deserved 7. Baudelaire, Artificial Par-adm, tranS. Ellen Fox (New York: Herder and Herder, 1971),
rewanls from the gtn'Cnunem. p.68.
II . lbat is, 1801 , according to the French revolutionary calendar. 8. But see below, H2,7; H2a, l , on the singuJar "gaze" (Blick) of the collector.
12. '1M MjJtm'eJ r!lParis (1842- 1843), enonnowly popular novel by Eugble Sue. 9. Charles Dickens, 'T'Iu Old Curiosity Shop (London: Heron Boou, 1970), p. 16 (ch. 1).
13. Hugh Walpole, 'J"M &-bus (1932; rpt. Phoenix Mill, England : Alan Sutton Publish­ 10. Theodor W. Adorno, "On Dickens' 'T'Iu Old Curiosity Shop: A Lecture," in Notts to
ing, 1995). pp. 248, 247. The description of the "monster lodging-housc" mentioned Literature, vol. 2, trans. Shierry ~bc:r Nicholsen {New York: Colwnbia University
Press , 1992), p. 177. Adorno's essay was first publisbed in the Franltforter Z~jtu~ deavor to maintain ajUJtt! milieu." Cited in Daumier: 120 Great Lilhograplu, ed.
(April 18, 193 1), pp. 1- 2. The passages from Dickem are in du. 12 and 44, respec­ Charles F. Ramus (New YOrk: Dover, 1978), p. xi.
tivdy. 14. Marx, 17u Economic and PhilwtJjJhic ManUJcripls 0/18 44, U"anS. Martin Milligan (New
I I. Karl Marx, "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts [of 1844)," in Karl Marx: 'Lbrk: International Publishers, 1964), pp. 155- 156.
&l~cted WritingJ, ed. David McLc:llan (New YOrk: Oxford University Press, 1977), 15. Paul Valery, "The Place of Baudelaire," in UOIUlrdo, Poe, Ma//armi, trans . Malcolm
p.9 1. Cowley and J ames R. Lawler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), p. 203.
12. '!"he Portabl~ Karl Marx, trans. Eugene Kamc:nka (New YOrk: Viking Penguin, 1983), 16. A rather fantastic house near Versailles whicb Balzac built in 1838 and left in 1840.
~~l . 17. Baudelaire, Paris Sp/~(1I, trans. Louise Vartse (New YOrk: New Directions, 1947),
13 . Marx, &kcttd mlh'ng, p. 92. p.33.
14. Ibid., pp. 91-92. 18. Honore de Balzac, Mrxkj/~ Mignon, trans. anon. (New YOrk: Fred de Fau, 1900),
15. 1bis passage is not found in the English-language edition ofJohan H uizinga's book p.68.
'!"he W,ming rftk MiddJ~ Ag~s (New YOrk: Doubleday Anchor, 1954). 19. Georg Simmel, -rn~ PlulwtJjJhy 0/ Mrmty, 2nd ed., trans. Tom Bottomore and David
16_ In this passage, "dispersion" translates Zm trnlung, "profundity" translates 7itjiinn, Frisby (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 459-462.
and "patchwork" translates StiidCwerR. 20. J osepb Conrad, "'!"he SluuJow·LiM" o:nd Two Other Taks (New YOrk: Anchor, 1959),
17. Marcc:1 ProUSt, '!"he Past R~mpturrd, trans. Frederick A. Blossom, in &mnnbra na 0/ pp. 189, 193.
ThingJ Past, vol. 2 (N~ YOrk : Random H ouse, 1932), p. 1070. On the colltttor's 2 1. J ean:Jacques Rousseau, '!"he Omftssi()nJ, trans. J. M. Coben (Baltimore: Penguin,
relation to memory and the world of things, compare: Q O,7 in "Frrst Sketches." 1953), p. 280.

I [The Interior, The Trace] J [Baudelaire]

I. "Know thysdf:" 1. Pierre: de Ronsard, Orouru comp&ttJ, ....01. 2 (Paris: Pl8ade, 1976), p. 282. [R.T.]
2. Lc Corbusic:r, 1"he City ojTfJmQtT()w and ItJ Pfanning, trans. Frederick Etchclls (1929; 2. Paul Valery, "1be Ptace of Baudelairc:," in uOIUlrdo, Poe, Ma//armi, trans. Malcolm
rpc New YOrk: Dover, 1987), p. 259. Cowley andJames R. Lawler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), pp. 195,
3. See 14a,2. In Sue's novel 1"he M}steries 0/ Paris, the archvillain Ferrand, whose accom­ 197-198.
plice: is a perfidious priest, is done in by the wiles of the Creole Cecily. 3. U Irma/: the banal, the trite; a conventional piece: of writing, a cliche. Baudelaire
4. J acques-Emile Blanche, Mes modiks (Paris, 1929), p. 117. Banis' phrase, which Ben­ writes in his notebook: "To create a n~ commonplace: [punaf J- that's genius. I
jamin misquotes in French, is : "U n conteur arabe dans la loge de Ia portiere!" [R.T.) must create a commonplace." "My H~art Laid Bart" and Other Prrut fJtiting;s, trans.
5. TIlls whole passage is adapted from the protocol to Benjamin's second experic:ncc: Nonnan Cameron (1950; rpt. New York: Haskell House, 1975), p. 168 ("Fusees," no.
with hashis b inJ anuary 1928. See Sw, vol. 2, pp. 85-90. 20). See also Baudelaire's "Salon of 1846," section 10.
6. See GS, vol. 6, p. 567 (where the passage is attributed to Ernst Bloch). 4. Baudc:lairc:'s article "Richard Wagner and TallllMuJer in Paris" appeared on April I,
7. Mated Proust, "About Bauddaire," in Proust, A Stkctirm}rom H is Misu/~UJ Ktit­ 186 1.
ings, trans. Gerard Hopkins (London: Allan Wmgate, 1948), p . 199. Citing, respec­ 5. Baudelaire, "My H~art Laid Bart," p. 198: "Praise the cult of images (my great, my
tivdy, from Baudelaire, Pleas Omdomni~j, "Une martyrc:," N us amdamnies. unique, my primitive passion)" ("My Hean Laid Bare"). Primitiue passjrm can be
8. $Oren Kierkegaard, SliJgu rm Lifo~ Ita}, trans. Walter Lowrie (1940; rpc N~ York: \ . translated as "earliest passion." Baudd airc:'s note could refer to the importance that
Schocken, 1967), p. 30. pictures (imagts) had for him when he was a child; his father was an an lover and
9. Theodor W Adorno, Kierlugaard: Con.struction rflk AeJtkh'c, trans. Roben Hullot­ amateur painter. (He died wben Baudelaire was six.)
Kentor (Minneapolis: U niversity of Minnesota Press, 1989), p. 60. "Primordial" 6. BaUlhlairt as a Literary Crih'c, trans. Lois Hoc: Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, J r.
translates urgtJchichtlich. See pp. 48-49, on Kierkegaard as rentier. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964), pp. 53, 52. Pierre: Du·
10. Ibid., pp. 43-44 (the tenn intkieur has been translated after the first sentence). The pont'S Chants ~t chansons appeared in 1851 . Baudelaire writes to his guardian Ancc:lle,
passage from Kic:rkegaard is in EilkrlOr, vol. I, trans. David F. Swenson and Lillian o n March 5, 1852, that Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat of the previous December had
M. Swenson, with revisions by H oward A. J obnson (1944; rpt. New York: Anchor, "pbysically depoliticizc:d" him (Baufklilir~ as a Literary Crih'c, p. 50).
1959), pp. 384-386. , 7. Baudc:laire had appeared on the barricades during the thrc:e-day revolution of Febru·
11 . In Ibsen's The Master Builtkr (1892), Mrs. Solness had kept nine doUs hidden from ary 1848.
ber husband until a fire: destroyed ber family estate, catalyzing Somess's career of 8. In order to save Baudelaire: from "the sewers of Paris,n and to punish him for his
building bomes for happy families . See Four Major Plays, trans.James Mcfarlane and monetary extravagance, his stepfather, General Aupick, sent him on a sea voyage to
J ens Arup (N~ YOrk: Oxford University Press, 1981 ), pp. 314-3 15, 335. C alcutta. Mter departing in J une 1841 , and surviving a hurricane off the Cape of
12. "%hnen aIs Transitivum-im Begriff des 'gc:wohnten Lcbc:ns' l.B." Good Hope, Baudelaire disembarked in Reunion and returned to France: in February
13. The reign of Louis Philippe became known as the Middle-of-the·Road Regime (juste 1842.
Milieu). In a spc:c:ch of 183 1, he stated: ",* must not only cherish peace; we must 9. &/t!Ctt!d utlm o/Clwr/u Bau<klilirt!, trans. Rosemary Uoyd (Chicago: University of
avoid everything that might provoke war. As regards domestic policy, we will en· C hicago Press, 1986), p. 142.
10. '1M Mirror ofArt: Cn·tiwl StudirJ by ClwrkJ &uddairr, tram. J onathan Mayne (Lon.. 42. Baudelaire, "'J7rr Painkr rf Mrxkrn Life;' p. 2 1 ("ibe Painter of Modem Life,,).
don: Phaidoo, 1955), pp. 282-283. 1bc phrase "those spires 'whose fin~rs point to 43. Ibid., p. 24.
heaven'" (montranl du doigt lr rid), translates a line from \\Ordsworth's poem 'lbc 44. Ibid., p. 32.
Excursion" (book 6, line 19), itsdf a citation from Colerid~. See '1M A!iTTOr ofArt 45. Ibid., p. 40.
p.282n2. ' 46. Baudelaire, Selected H+itin{l on Art and Litaaturt, trans. P. E. Char..."et (1972 ; rpt.
11 . Baudelaire, Paris Spltrn, trans. Louise Varese (New 'brk : New Directioos, 1947), p. 8 New "\brk: Penguin, 1992), p. 435.
("To Every Man His Chimera"). 47. &udrlaire tU a Lilaary Cn'tic, pp. 296-297 ("TIle Painter of Modem Life," seaion 4,
12. Albert TItibaudet, Frmcllliteraturr.fonn 1795 to Our .ETa, trans. Charles Lam Mark. "Modernity"). here anticipates N iewcbe's critique of the antiquarian in
• mann (New \brk: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967), p. 289.
13. G. K. Chesterton, Cllark.1 DidmJ (1906; rpt. New "\brk: Schoc.keo, 1965), p. 47.
the second of the &trachtungm: POm Nu/un und Nachtdl tin- Hutorirfor
diu u!Jen <On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Life). In the sentence
Reference is to the period of Dickeos' youth when he worked in a factory pasting that follows this quotation from Baudelaire, Benjamin delineates a dialectical process
labels on blacking-bottles. In Benjamin's French edition, "1bat wild word" is trans. that is somewhat blU!1""ed in translation: the stamp of time that, literally, "impresses
lated as "Cc mot baroque." itself into" antiquity (sid! in sie dndnlckl) bring! out of it (trdht ... aUj ilrr krvor)­
14. Ibid., p. 60. that is, brings into relief- the allegorical configuration.
15. Val~ry, Leonardo, Poe, Malklrml, p. 207. 48. &udrlairr tU a Lituary Cn·tie, p. 296; and "'"I7u Painla of Modern Life," pp. 14, 16.
16. In August 1857, after the publication of w Flnm du mal, Baude.laitt and hi5 publUh­ "Spleen et ideal" is the first book ofw Rnm du mal.
ers were tried and found guilty of offending public morality; they were fined and six 49. Baudelaire, ~'"I7u Painta of Modern Life," pp. 29, 12.
poems in the collection were suppressed. The verdict cites the "indecent realism" of 50. Ibid., pp. 8, 66.
the ima~. 5 1. Ibid., pp. 10, 11.
17. Valery, Lronarrio, Poe, Malklrml, p. 195. 52. Ibid., p. 48.
18. &udrklirt tU a Litaary CritU, pp. 3 18-3 19 ("Advice to \bung M en ofLctters"). EArl 53. Ibid., p. 3.
romantique was originall y published in 1869 a.s volwne 3 of the fin! collected edition 54. Baudelaire, U .1 Flnm du mal, trans. Richard Howard (Boston: Godine, 1982), p. n.
of the poet's works; the title was evidently supplied by the editors. 55. Baudelaire, ""{"M Painter of Mrxkrn Life," p. 32.
19. &udrklirr tU a Litaary Cn·tic, p. 69 ("The Respectable Drama and Novd"). 56. Ibid., p. 14. SeeJ6a,2.
20. Ibid., p. 73 ("The Pagan School"). 57. &kcted uttas of Cllarle.1 &udrlairr, pp. 79-80. Baudelaire had received a copy of
2 1. Ibid., p. n. Alphonse Thu.ssend.'s book L'Esprit deJ Me;.
22. Ibid. 58. Baude.laitt's unsuccessful effon to gain membership in the Acadbnie F~ at the
23. Ibid., p. 76. The passage conveys Baudelaire's disgust with certain cla.uical notions of end of 1861 entailed mandatory visits to each of the forty Academicians. He was
beauty, suggested by la pltUtique, "sculpted fonn" or "fine shaping." received by about half of them before he withdrew hi5 application.
24. Ibid., pp. 24 1- 242. 59. Selnted utters ofCltark.1 Bautkklirr, p. 2 10 (NO\'Cl1lbcr 13, 1864, to Ancdle).
25. Ibid., p. 251­ 60. Victor Hugo, Poerru, trans. anonymous (Boston : H arcourt Bindery, 189?), pp. 190,
26. Ibid., p. 263. 192. "Lcs du vampire" (Metamorphoses of the Vampire) and "Lcs
27. Ibid., p. 262. Pctiles Vieilles" (1be Little Old \\Omen) an: poems in LeJ Reurs du mal. For Athalie's
28. Ibid., pp. 265-266 (""Ihlodore de Banville"). dream of her dead mother,J~zabd, see scene 5 of Aa 2 of Racine's AtllaJie (1691 ).
29. Ibid., p. 278. 61. Jules Lafargue, Selnted H+iting.1, trans. WilliamJay Smith (New "\brk: Grove Press,
30. Ibid., pp. 285- 286. 1956), p. 2 12. References an: to Baudelaire's poems Ute Balcon" and "LeScrpentqui
31. Ibid., p. 289. danse," in w R nm du mill.
32. Ibid., p. 147. 62. Laforgue, Stinted J.f+iting.1, p. 2 13.
33. Ibid., pp. 144, 146. 63 . Ibid.
34. Ibid., p. 146. 64. Ibid., pp. 2 15-2 17. C itatioru from U .1 Fleur; du mal (tra ns. H oward), p. 113 ("Medita­
35. Ibid., p. 56. tion"), p. 14 (~ E1evation"), p. 82 ("The Oock"), p. 87 ("Parisian Landscape").
36. Ibid., pp. 51-52, 52-53. 65. &udelaire: A Self-Portrail, ed. and trans. Lois Boc Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop,Jr.
37. Ibid., p. 58 ("Pierre Dupont"). (London : Oxfo rd Univenity Press, 1957), p. 5 1 ("Pauvre Belgique").
38. Ibid., p. 205. 66. Baudelaire, ~.Ml H(arl [.Qid furl," p. In ("'My Heart Laid Bare").
39. Ibid., p. 222 ("Richard Wagner and 1"annMuJa' in Paris"). 67. Baudelaire, "1'M Complde Vast', trans. Francis Scarfe (Londo n: Anvil, 1986), pp. 326­
40. Baudelaire, "'The Painla of Modn-n Life " and Olher Essap, trans. J onathan Mayne 327.
(1964; rpt. New \brk: Da Capo, 1986}, p. 206. The reference that foUows is to Jules 68. Laforgue, Stkcted Writings, p. 2 11.
MichdCl's HiJloir~ dr Franee au mlibru sit<k (1855). 69. Ibid., p. 213.
41. Baudelaire, "'Painters and Etchers," in Art in Pam, 1845-1862, trans. J o nathan 70. Baudelaire, Intimale ]ournal.J, trans. C hristopher Isherv.-ood (1930; rpt. W6tpon,
Mayne (Loudon: PhaidOIl, 1965), pp. 220-22 1. CompareJ2,1. Coml.: Hyperioll, 1978), pp. 113-114.
71. See me MitTOr 0/ Art, p. 51. Baudelaire q uOtes from E. T. A. Hoffmann's H"rxlJJt 96. Baudelaire, 'f},e Complete Vm e, p. 362.
tn'streute Gedtmlun, part of the ~ Kreisler papers" Oil music, named after the author' 97. Baudelaire, Paris Sp/un, p. 69.
popular momhpiece,Johalules Kreisler. I 98. Baudelaire; A Self-Portrait, p. 135: "I haven't forgotten, near the city," and "The
72. Baudel~e delivered the first of 6ve public lectures in Brusseh on May 2, 1864. It WllJ grcatheaned servant of whom you were jealow." After his father's death in 1827,
well reeeived, but the other four we~ dismal failures. Baudelain:: lived for a time, along with his mother and nursemaid Mariette, in a
73. TIlls is a play ~ the famow "~rds of Henri of NaVllrTe. When he a.5sumcd tilt: house at Neuilly, jwt outside Paris.
French throne m 1593, :u Henn Iv, he convened to Catholicism with the words 99. Baudelaire, 1'he M itTOr 0/Art, p. 123 ("The Salon of 1846").
"Paris vaut bien une mene." , 100. Se/ected uttm o/Clwrks &uthlaire, p. 2 18.
74. 1M LeUm o/GusttWt F/oubtri, 1830-1857, rraru. Francis Steegmuller (~brid 10 1. je ne pouvais aimer ... que si la mort melait son soufBe acelui de Ia lkaut~! " Cited
M:us.: Harvard University Pros, 1980), pp. 232- 233 OetterofJ uly 13, 1857). ~, in Seillicre without references. fbssibly an adaptation of a passage in "The Philoso­
75. &utkfaiTe aJ alitatlT} Critic, p. 7 (letter of February 18, 1860, to Armand Fraisse), phy of Composition": "Of all melancholy topics, what ... is the most melancholy?
76. or
"E1.scwhe~! Too far, t~ late, or never at all! I me you know nothing, 1 nothing of Death.... And when .. . is this most melancholy of topics most poetical? ... When
you-you I whom I lrught have loved and who knew that too!" "In Passing," u s it most closely allies itself to Beauty: the death ... of a beautiful woman is ... the
RtllrS du mal (rraru. Howard), p. 98. most poetical topic in the world-and ... the lips best suited for such a topic are
n. Se/uted Leum oj'Clrarles &uddaire, p. 175 (circa December 16, 1861 , in ~fcrencc to those of a bereaved lover." Poe, "'17!e Fall 0/ the House of UsAtr" and Otller ff.fitingJ
u s R eurs du mal), (Hannondswonh: Penguin, 1986) p. 486. (Thanks to William v.mcc for this refer­
78. Gide, "Preface to us Reurs du mal," in Pretexts (New York: Meridian, 1959), p. 257 ence.)
(rraru. Bla nche A. Price). 102. Baudelain::, Correspontionce (Paris: Gallimard, 1973), vol. 1, p. 410 Uuly 9, 1857, to
79. Ibid., pp. 257-258. Gide quotes at the beginning from Baudelaire's first draft of a Caroline Aupick). [R.T.] In English in $elated uttm ofCharles &utklaire, p. r::tl.
preface to u s Reurs du mal. For the passages from Baude1airc's joumab, see "MJ 103. BaudeJain::, OtuIlTtS (qmplitts (Paris: P16ade, 1976), vol. 1, p. 102 ("Rave parisien,,),
Heart Laid &re," p. 166 ( "Fus~es," no. 17). (R. T.] In English in u s Reurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 107 : "Architect of such
80. Gide, Pretexts, p. 257. conceits I I sent submissive seall! into the jewelled conduits I my will erected there."
8 1. Ibid., p. 256. 104. Bautkla£re: A Self-Portrait, pp. 26-27.
82. Ibid., p. 258. 105. Jules Romains, Men of Good Wz1f, vol. 1, tranS. Warn: B. ~ (New '1brk: Knopf,
83. Citatio ns from us Reurs du mal (trans. Howard), pp. 170 ("Madrigal t:ri5 te"), 37 ("IL 1946), p. 396. Citation from Baudelaire's "Eltvation," us Ekurs du mal (rrans.
Vampire"), 129 ("Femmes damnees"). Howard), p. 14.
84. Baudelaire, ".MJ Heart Laid Bare," p. 200 ("My Heart Laid Bare"). Lemattre's tat "­ 106. BaudeJain::, us Fkurs du mal (rrans. Howard), pp. 88, 45.
has digout instead of /lOrrtllr. 107. Baudelaire, OtuIlTtJ (qmplites, vol. I , p. 203 ("Je n'ai pas pour maiuusc"). [R.T.]
85. Baudelain::, R oWtrs ofEvil, trans. Wallace Fowlie (1964; rpt. New '«Irk: Dover, 1992), Sarah wa5 Baudelain::'s first mistress.
p.85. 108. See "The Bad Glazier," in Paris Spken, pp. 12-14 ; and Gide's novel of 1914, Les
86. Citations from Les RtllrS du mal (trans. Howard) pp. 20 ("VEnnemi"), 22 (":8& Owt.s du Va&an, translated by Dorothy Bwsy all LofouJwi Aduenturn (Garden City,
h6niens en \byage"), 62 ("Chant d'automne,,). N.Y.: Doubleday, 1953), p. 183, where one finds the theory of the acte grahliJ put
87. $eleded UtltrJ ofOarks &udelaire, p. 130. The passage continues: "This idea came into praaict by Lafcadio's wanton murder of a pious old fool.
to me when I w.u leafing through Hyacinthe Langiois' history of the 'Dance ofDeatl\' 109. Baudelain::, us Fkurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 141.
theme" OCHer to Nadar, 1859). SeeJ 26,2. 110. R O'UJt:rs ofEvil (trans. Fowlie), p. 107.
88. Gide, Prdexts, p. 259. The reference is to a sentence in Baudelaire's private joumab; Ill. Citatioru from u s Reurs du mal (trans. Howard), pp. n, 164, 107, 156. "Delphine et
see ~.MJ Heart Laid &re," p. 155 ("Fusees," no. 1). Hippolyte" is the subtitle of the longer of the cwo poems entitled "Fenunes dam·
89. Edgar Allan Poe, "The Imp of the Perverse," in Poe, 1M Complete rales and Poems nees."
(New York: Modem Library, 1938), p. 28 1. 112. Baudelaire, us F7eurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 73.
90. Rene: Lafo rgue, 1'IIe Defeat 0/ &udelaire, trans. Herbert Agar (London : Hogarth, 113. Ibid., p. 72 ("A l'heure ou les chastes e:toiles I Ferment leurs yeux appesantis").
1932), pp. 163, 165. 114. Ibid., p. 97 (~crispe coffilne un extravagant,,).
91. Ibid., pp. 141 , 143. Lafo rgue writes:" . the passive role, that of the woman, of the 11 5. Baudelaire, me Complete ~&se, p. 159.
prisoner." 116. Baudelaire, us Reurs du mal (traru. Howard), p. 156.
92. Ibid., p. 71. 11 7. lbid., p. 41.
93. Baudelaire; A Self-Portrait, p. 8. The editors date the letter August 13. 118. The WoriJ o/Ste.fon George, traru. Olga Marx and Emst MolWiu (1949; rpt. New
94. "New Notes on Edgar lbe," actually Baudelaire's third essay on Poe, served all a York: AM S Press, 1966), p. 6 (Odes, 1890).
preface to his second vol ume of rrallsiations, published in 1857. The anicle on Gau· 119. Baudelaire, us Rturs du mal (tranS. Howard), p. 11 6 ("The Solitary's Wine").
tier a ppea~d in 1859. For the passages 0 11 passion, sec &urklaire as a Litnrl'l Cn'h'c, Compare the passage on Baudelaire and Berg in Theodor W. Adomo, 1/ban &rg:
Pl'. 133, 162- 166. MaJta of the Sma/kst Link., tranS . Juliane Brand and Christopher Hailey (Cam·
95. Ovid, M(/(I1norplr~~, book I, lines 84-85. [J.L.] Sec Baudelaire, "A~ Heart LAid bridge: Cambridge University Preu, 199 1), p. 120. .
Bare," p. 151 ("Fusees"). 120. J. W Goethe, Seketed Verse, trans. David Luke (New '1brk: Penguin. 1964), p. 75.
121 . Bauddaire, The Mirror 0/Art, p. 120. 14S. Baudelaire, Correspo'I(Ja'l1(:~ (Paris: Gallimard, 1973), vol. 1, p. 30 (to his mother,
122. Bauddairc, The Prtm Ponru and ~La Fanforlo/' trans. Rosemary Uoyd (New ¥:Irk: probably written Ul Paris, 1845). [RT.] In English in &udtlairt: A St!fPortrait,
Oxford U n.iversity Press, 199 1), p. 44 ("TIle CfOl\.-ds"). p.32.
123. "C'est un g~nie sam fronuhes ." TIle last word is translated a'I "limits" in &utkklirt 146. Baudelaire had written, on March 4, 1863, "So you really do want to compromise
as a Littmry Critic, p. 241 ("ReBections on Some of My Contemporaries"). my dignity UI a social set in which you've compromised your ownr Selected LeU(rs
124. Hugo, Poems, pp. 190, 192, 193 (in the sequence tided us OrirotaltJ). o/CJwrltJ Baudelairt, p. 193. For his letter of March 6, see pp. 193-194. The female
12S. The Poems of VICtor Hugo (New 'lbrk: Litde, Brown, 1909), pp. 175, In (trans. admirer was Frid~rique O'CoJUlell, a painter whom Baudc1aiJ-e mentions in the
Henry Carrington). "Salons" of 1846 and 1859.
126. Bauddairt: A St!fPortrait, p. 96. 147. &udtlo.irt: A St!l-Portrai/, p. 133. The fine was reduced from 300 franC! to 50
127. Bourdin's article appeared in his father·in·law's paper o n Jul y 5, 1857, nine days &ana all a result of this letter.
before Thierry's fa\'orable notice. It has been suggested that the conservati~ paper 148. Baudelaire, "'The Paint(r 0/ MrHkrn Li/t," p. 156 ("On the Essence of Laughter"}.
u Figaro was at least partly responsible for the charges brought against Baude~. 149. Ibid., p. 150.
SeeJ27a,3. 150. Ibid., p. 157.
128. Probably a reference to the warning rut into stone abo-.-e the Gate ofHcll: "Lasciate lS I . &udtlo.irt as a Literary Critic, p. 43.
ogne speranza \roi ch'intrate" ("Abandon all hope, ye who enter here"). Sec: Dante 152. fue, 1M Complete Tales and Pocru, p. 478 ("The Man of the Crowd").
Alighieri, The Inftrno, tranS.John Ciardi (New ¥:Irk: New American Library, 1954), 153. &udelo.irt as a Lit(rary Critic, p. 127. Compare the classic distinction between imagi·
p. 42 (Cauto 3). nation and fancy in Chapters 4 and 13 of Coleridge's Biograpnia Literaria (1817).
129. "Re~ parisien" is dedicated to Guys. 154. &udtlaire as a Lit(rary Crih'c, p. 131 . The sentence is a virtual quomtion from !\x's
130. See the end of Bauddaire's third draft for a preface to us Rturs du mal, in 'TAt "The Poetic Principle."
Complete Verst, p. 389. Re: "the whole piece about Andromache." 155. Baudelaire, 1M Mirror oj Art, p. 25 1.
131. Baudelaire, ()r;uum completes, \'01. 2, p. 68. [R.T.] From "Notes sur Les LiaiJoru 156. Ibid., p. 268. The journal in question was Le Sieclr;.
dang(rtuses" (ca. 1864). "Sand est inf~rieure;\ Sade." CompareJ49a,L 157. Ibid., p. 273. Pro domfJ: for his own cause.
132. Baudelaire, Dtullm completes, "'01. I, p. S ("Au Lecteur") . [R.T.] In Engfulh in 'TAt 158. Ibid., p. 274 ("Cc ... je ne sail! quoi de malicicux").
Compltle Verse, p. 53. 159. Alfred de Vigoy, Otuum cqmplltts, vol. 1 (Paris, 1883), pp. 251-252. [R.T.]
133. Baudelaire, "TIle Exposition Uni\rerselle, 1855," in The Mirror 0/Art, pp. 213-214. 160. Baudelaire, 1M Complete VtrJe, p. 297 ("au plus noir de I'abime, IJ e \lOis distincte­
134. Baudelaire, Otuum cqmpletts, vol. 2, p. 132. [R.T.] In English in Baudtlaire as /I ment des mondes singuliers").
Lit(rary Cn·tic, p. 238 ("ReBections on Some of My Contemporaries"). 161. Baudelaire, The Mirror 0/ Art, p. 286. SursulII, ad sidera: upward, to the stan. Pitai
135. Baudelaire, UMy Heart LAid &rt," p. 178. larnpada: torch of life.
136. Sainte·Beu\'e's article "Sur les prochaines ~lections de l'Acadbnie" (On the F0rth­ 162. Ibid., p. 283.
coming Academy Eleaioru) contained a rather condescending section on Baude­
lail-e as an "exemplary candidate, a nice YOWlS man." , 163. Ibid., p . 233.
164. Ibid., p. 224.
137. 1M Apocrypha, Revised Standard Venion (New York: Oxford University Press, 165. Baudelaire, Intimate Joumals, pp. 29, 3 1. Baudc1aiJ-e's word for both "ecstaSy" and
19n), p. lSI (40.S). "intoxication" is iflfeJJ(.
138. The dates are erroneous. QytJh'ollJ dt crih'que (2nd «I.) appeared in 1889; Es.saiJ sin" 166. Ibid., p. 33.
laliltbaturt lOntt'ffljHwaine, in 1892; Nouveaux emu sur Io.liltbalurt amtemporaint, in 167. Ibid., p. 32.
1895; and Evolution dt la pobie lyrique ro Frana, in 1894. [RT] 168. Ibid., pp. 73-74.
139. Baudelaire, "My Heart LAid Bart," p. 177 e My Hean Laid Bare"). Benjamin" 169. Baudelaire, "My Heart LAid &rt,"pp. 155, 19Z
phrase at dIe end of this entry is "Das Histor1sche ins Intime projiziert." 170. &udtlaire: A StlfPortrait, p. 87.
140. Baudelaire, OeuUrtS completes, vol. 1, p. 194. [R.T.] The notes in question were 171. &le(ted Lettm oJCnaries Baudclo.irt, p. 159 (October 11 , 1860).
prepared by Baudelaire for the trial against u s Rturs du ma/. 172. The uUm 0/ Victor Hugo, vol. 2, ed. Paul Meurice (Boston : Houghto n, MifIlin,
141. Baudelaire, "My Heart Laid Bare," p. 195 ("My Heart Laid Bare") . 1898), p. 152.
142. Baudelaire, Flowers oJEvil (trans. FOlVlic), p. 85 ("Destruction"). 173. &u(lelairr; (JJ a Lit(rary Cn·tic, p. 3 15.
143. See Eugene C r~pct , CnarltJ Baudelaire (Paris: Leon Van.ier, 1906), pp. 288-289. 174. Baudelaire, i'l1timate J ournals, p.39.
\Vhcn Baudelaire, out walking with Asselineau on the boulevard, wanl.\ to have 175. &udtlairr; (JJ a Littrary Critic, p. 307. Baudelaire's :lnicle first appeared November
dUUler at die early hour of 5 I'.M., Asselineau, who has a head cold, assents on 24, 1845, in u Corsaire·$alon and was republished a year later in r&no.
condition they go to his place first to get another handkerchief. Baudelaire, prottll t · 176. Baudelaire, The Mirror 0/Art, p. 124. MfulitiC! of an" translates Ku'l1.StPfJlitilt.
ing that t\ssdineau Illllst still have rn'O or dm:e places left on his present handker­ 177. Anribuu::d to fuulc:t·Malassis by Marcel Ruffin his edition of Baudelaire, Otuurr;s
chief sufficielU to blow his nose during dinner, holds out hill hand and cries, "Show Cqmplltes (Paris: Scuil, 1968), p. 50 (where the entire sheet is reproduced).
met" 178. Baudelaire, RlriJ Splero, p. 8.
144. Th~ophile Gautier, A HiJtfJ? 0/ RfJmanticism, trans. anonymous (1909; rpt. New 179. Baudelaire, The Mirror ojArt, p. 118.
York: Howard Fcnig, 1988), pp. 30 1, 300. 180. "A Strange Man's Drcam"-~ in Lts FIeurs du mal.
181. Sec Selected LLltm ofCluJdes &udtlairt, pp. 114- I1S. ice.... [He) thinks he has been \'ery good 10 Baudelaire ... in the complele dearth
182. 1itle of the volume of Baudclaire's criticism published posthumously in 1868 by of encouragement."
Assdineau and Banville. 2 17. Marcel ProUSt, "AboUI Baudelaire," in Marcel ProuJt: A &kctionftom His Miscellane·
183. Bauddaire. 1'At Mirror ofArt, p. 191. ous Ufitings, trans. Gerard Hopkins (London : Allan Wmgale, 19(8), p. 192. Proust
184 . &urklajrt (U a Literary Crih'c, p. 80. cites the founecnth stanl.3 of "The Liltle Old \\bmen;" UJ Flt urJ du mal (trans.
18S. Ibid., p. 81. Howard), pp. 95-96.
186. Ibid., pp. 83-84. 218. MaruI ProUJt: A Stlutil)tl, p. 204.
187. Ibid., p. 83. 219. Ibid., p. 194.
188. Baudelaire, 1'At Mirror 0/"Art, pp. 19S-196. 220. Etienne Piven de Senancour, Obermann, trans. anonymous (London: Philip '*1lby,
189. Ibid., p. 38. 1903), p. 231 Oeller 52)_ Senancour actually wrote "narurelle a),homme ~
190. &urklairt (U a Literary Critic, pp. 43-4S. 22 1. ""Ibi5 passage does nOl appear in the English translation ofJoseph de Maisttt, "The
191. Baudelaire, 1'At Mirror ofArt, p. 246. Saint-Petersburg Dialogues," in 1M 1Vcw..u of JDMP" rk Maistrt, tram. Jack Li\-ely
192. Ibid., pp. 46, 68. (New York: Maonillan, 1965).
193. Ibid., p. 12. 222. Stltcttd ultm ofClaariu Bourklaire, p. 123.
194. Baudelaire, Intittwk ]ounuzls, p. 97. Gauloi.strie: liccntiow or improper remark, 223. Ibid., p. 15 1 (ca. March 1860).
coarse jest. 224. Baudelaire, 17u Prose Potms and "l..lJ Rmfarlo," p. 115.
195. Baudelaire, "My Heart Uu'd Bare," p. 189. "In unison" here translales m sociill. 22S. MaruI Proust: A Stkch'l)tI, pp. 191 , 190.
196. Ibid., p. 166. 226. Ibid., p. 199. Proust's phrase, several times ciled in succeeding entries of Convolule
197. Baudelaire, Intimatt ]ounuzls, p. 45. J , is "un t!trange sectionnemenl du lemps."
198. Baudelaire, 1'At Mirror 0/" Art, pp. 222-223 ("The Salon of 1859"); Flowm of Evil 227. Ibid., p.199. Pauagu by Baudelaire are from 1'At Compltte Verst, pp. 236, 71.
(trans. Fowlie), p. 97 ("The \byage"). 228. MantI ProUJt: A Stltch'on, p. 202.
199. Baudelaire, 1M Mirror 0/"Art, p. 99. On gauloistrie, see note 194 above. Vaudtvi/ks 229. Ibid., pp. 203- 204 (passages from Vigny trarulated inlO English).
were lighl theatrical enlenainments with song and danu. 230. Thomas a Kcmpis, De imitationt Cltroti, in Thomas a IWnpis, Opera Omnill, vol. 7
200. Ibid., p. 103 ("13 loi fatale du travail attrayanl"). (Freiburg, 1904), p. 38. [R.T.] In English in 1M Imitation 0/" Cltrot, trans. anony­
201 . Ibid., p. 68. Rolf1iedemann points OUI that the emphasis o n "fathomles5" (instmdls) mous (1504; rpt. London :]. M . Dent, 1910), pp. 38-39 ("On Love ofSilenu and
is lknjamin's. Solitude"): "What canslthou see elsewhere that thou cansl nOl see here? Lo here
202. Ibid., p. 13. heaven eanh and all elements and of these all things are made."
203. Edmo nd and Jules de Goncourt, 1'At Goncourt Jounuzls, 1851-1870, trans. Lewis 231. &udelaire: A Stif-Prwtrait, p. 43.
Galantiere (Garden City, N.¥.: Doubleday, Doran, 1937), p. 35. 232. Ibid., p. 54.
204. Baudelaire, Otwrts compliks, vol. I , p. IS2 ("Femmes damnees: Delphine et Hip­ 233. Ibid., p. 65 ("hastily written in o rder 10 earn some money").
polytc:"). [R.T.l ln Engfuh in 1M FWwm o/"EviJ, ed. Marthiel andJadsonMathews 234. Ibid., p. 68.
(New York: New Oirectioru, 1963), p. 152 (trans. AlcIow Huxley). 23S. Ibid., p. 9S.
205. Baudelaire, Paro Spkm, p. 3 ("Anist's Confiteor"). 236. Ibid., p. 102.
206. TIm article is nOI found in u Temps ofJune 4, 1917. [R.T.] "\ 237. Stlected LLltm o/"Charlu Bourklaire, p. 97.
207. Baudelaire, ".M] Htart l..lJid Bart," p. 160 ("Fusees"). 238. &udeklire: A St!f-Prwtrait, p. 172.
208. Baudelaire, u s Fleurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 136 ("A \byage 10 Cytheraj. 239. Ibid., p. 174.
209. Baudelaire, Intimatt ]ounuzls, p. 84 ("My Heart Laid Bare"). 240. Stlecttd ultm ofCharltJ Bourklaire, p. 190.
210. Gide, "Baudelaire and M . Faguet," Prt ttxtJ, p. 168. 241. Ibid., p. 195.
211. Thid., pp. 168, 170. Baudelaire's phrase is from "The Salon of 1859" (1'At Mirror of 242. The anicle, by Arthur Arnould, "Edgar fbe: l.:homme, J'artisle el l'oeuvre," appear­
Art, p. 232). Gide emphasizes the importanu of the critical facullY 10 Baudelaire's ing in the April,June, andJuly issues, refem:d 10 Baudelaire's translatioll5.
poetic production. 243. Baudelaire: A Self-Portrait, p. 234.
212. Gide, Prt ttxtJ, p.·167. 244. Seltcted ullm o/"CharleJ Bourklairt, p. 237.
21 3. Ibid., p. 159. 245. Baudelairt aJ a Literary Critic, pp. 62, 63 (wrillen in an album for Mme. Francine
2 14. Ibid., p. 163n. Baudelaire's phrase, je hais Ie mouvement," is from ~ La Beaule." In Ledoux in 1851 , jusl before tlle appearance of"I.1Ecote p.uelme").
English in FloWtrs 0/"Evil (traru .•Fowlie), p. 37. 246. Thid., p. 74.
215. Proust. preface to Paul Morand, Fancy CoodJ, trans. Ezra fuund (New \brk: New 247. "1M Painter of ModtTJI Lifo," p. 36.
Directions, 1984), pp. 5-6. For the line from Baudelaire's "Femmes danmees," see 248. Sec CS, ,"'01. 1, p. 647n. [R.T.] In English in Benjamin, "On Some Motifs in Baude­
J41 a,2. laire," Illuminations, p. 200n 17.
2 16. Sec ProUSI, preface 10 Mo rand, Fang GoodJ, pp. 6-8: "Saime-Beu\'e, whose stupid­ 249. Baudelaire, 'Tht Complete f-&ost, p. 258.
ity displays iuclf 10 the poinl where one asks whether il isn'l a feint or a coward­ 250. Baudelaire, "My Hiarl Laid Bart," pp. 171, 173- 174.
251. Ibid., pp. 17l , 172, 173. Nietzsche's doctrine of "the last man" is in section 5 of 287. Ibid.
~Zaralhustra's Prologue," in Also Jpracll Zaratllustra (Ibus Spoke Zarathustra). 288. Ibid., p. 230. "illusion" in this citation translates &Min.
252. Baudelaire, "My H~art Laid &r~:' p. 190. 289. Ibid., p. 232.
253 . Ibid., p. 179. TIle note continues: uNevenheless, a mOSt vivid liking for life and 290. Baudelaire, Tk Compld~ Vers~, p. 144.
pleasure." 291. Baudelaire, u s R(lm du mal (trans. Howard), p. 170. "Experiencc:s," in this entry,
254. Baudelaire, 7"h~ Mirror of Art, p. 42 (" La v6i.ttl:, pour ~tre multiple, n'est pas dou­ cranslates Erkbnwe, whereas, inJ55,13 below, it translates ErjaJrruTlgen.
ble") . 292. Baudelaire, Th~ 1'7owers ofEvil, pp. 197- 198 (trans. SirJohn Squire).
255. Ibid., p. 18. 293. Ibid., p. 192 (trans. Doreen Bcll).
256. &udelaire as a Literary Crihc, p. 82. 294. Baudelaire, UJ 1'7eurJ du mal (trans. Howard), pp. 165 ; 164.
257. Baudelaire, bltimal~ Journals, p. 114 (missing sentence supplied). 295. Ibid., p. 80.
258. Ibid., p. 11 8. 296. Fbem in us Fkurs du mal.
259. &lIdelaire as a Literary Critic, p. 75. uGist" is intended to translate GeMit, a term 297. Baudelaire, u s Fku n du mal (trans. Howard), p. 33.
derived from Goethe. See Ikl~amin, CS, vol. 2, p. 105 (Geludt as mnere lWm), and 298. Ibid., p. 3l.
vol. 4, p. 107 (Cehait as uni ty of Form and 171M/f). In English in Benjamin, Sw, vol. 299. Ibid., p. 155.
1, pp. 18, 459. 300. Baudc:laire, Tk Compldt Verse, pp. 231- 232.
260. &udelaire as a Literary Critic, pp. 75, 7Z 301. Baudelaire, U J 1'7(1JrS du rrml (trans. Howard), p. 136.
261. SeeJ44a,2. us Epaf)(J (Flotsam) was published in 1866; uTableaux parisiens" is the 302. Baudelaire, The 1'7owers ofEvil, p. 111 (trans. Roy Campbell).
second section of us 1'7ellrJ dll rrml.
262. Baudelaire, us 1'7nJrJ du mal (trans. Howard), p. 76.
j 303.
Baudelaire, Tk Complet~ Verse, p. 144.
Baudelairc:, UJ FleurJ du mal (crans. Howard), p. 164.
263. See Baudelaire, ?oro Spleen, pp. 50-51. 305. Ibid., p. 165.
264. Ibid., p. 7. On being roused from an opium trance. 306. 5«J15,!.
265. Baudelaire, 1M Mirror 0/"Art, pp. 3-4. 307. Baudc:laire, Tk 1'7owers o/"Evil, p. xxx (trans. Jackson Mathews).
266. He says tltis in his "Notes sur us Liaisons da7lger(UJes" (ca. 1864); see 0eu/)f"(J 308. Ibid., p. xxix.
complet(J, cd. Ruff, p. 644, and note toJ27,3 (note 131 in Convolute]). 309. Baudelaire, The Complde Verse, p. 115 (versified).
267. "A man o(good will." 310. Baudc:laire, us Fkurs du rrml (trans. Howard), p. 45 (je te donne cc:s vcrs").
268. &udelaire as a Literary Cn·tic, p. 134. 3 1L Ibid., p. 17 ("Lcs Phares").
269. Baudelaire, us 1'7eurJ du mal (crans. Howard), p. 136; "My Heart Laid Bau,"p. 177. 3 12. Baudelaire, Flowers ofEvil (trans. Fowlie), p. 3 1.
270. Baudelaire, Tk Cemplete Verse, p. 18l. 3 13. Baudelaire, Les Relm du mal (trans. Howard), pp. 18-19.
271. SeeJ44,5. 314. An allusion to the later philosophy of Edmund Husserl.
272. A play on words is lost here: Uding-fest gemacht ... gegen die vc:rdinglichte W1t." 315. Baudc:laire, Inti11Ulte Jounuzls, p. 65.
273. Selected utters ofCMrks Baudelaire, p. 244 (to Sainte·Beuve). 3 16. Benjamin indicates in "umralpark" (no. 23) that these thoughts, as well as the
274. Ibid., p. 245. Followed by: "In truth, forgive mel I'M WANDERING. I've nc:vc:r dared words quoted in J 57a,2, come from his friend Adrienne Monnier, publisher and
say so much to you." bookseller, with whom he evidently had several conversations about Baudelaire.
275. Ibid., p. 148. Sec: Benjamin, CS, vol. 1, p. 673. In English in "Central Park," trans. Uoyd Spencer,
276. Baudelaire, "Tk Pai7lfer of Modern Lifo," p. 195. On Ie ponci.t.5CC note toJl ,1 (note 3 Nro; German Critique, no. 34 (Wmter 1985), pp. 43-44.
in Convolute]). 3 17 . For the source: of the quotations, see note 3 16 above:.u Rogne: temper, choler, bad
277. Ibid., p. 188. humor.
278. Ibid., p. 182. 3 18. Baudc:laire, T"he Complde Vers~, p. 206. Bel~amin indicates in "untralpark" (no. 25)
279. Ibid., pp. 176-177. that the remarks in this passage, and in the following one on Gemutlichkeit ("cozi­
280. Baudelaire, us FleurJ du mal (trans. Howard), p. 75 ("Spleen II"). For the citation ness"), stem from Benoit Brecht.
from C laudel, which appears in Gennan here, sceJ 33,8. On ~souvenirs ," see 0',76 3 19. Sec note toJI ,L
in "First Skctdles." 320. "Tendenz seiner Lyrik zur Scheinlosigkeit."
281. Sec Hcnnann Usener, COtternamen: Versucll e/71r1" uhre von der religi6stn /k. 32 1. In the Cennan text, the numbering of the entries goes directly fromJ 58a,6 toJ59,2;
griJfibildlmg (BaIUl, 1896). (R.T.] there is noJ59,L
282. In u s Fl~urs liu mal. 322. SeeJI ,6.
283. Benjamin, 7"h~ Origin of C~171Ia71 Tragic Drama, trans. J ohn Osborne (London: 323. TItle of prose poem 46 in Spl~en de Paro (in English in Paris Spl~en, p. 94). ("Pene
Verso, 197n, p. 226. "Experience," ill this entry, translates Erfohrung. d'aurtole" ea.n also be cranslated as "loss of aura.")
284. Baudelaire, '''rhe Painter ,!!Modern Lifo," pp. 152-153 . 324. Baudelaire, i7ltinwir JournalJ, p. 45. It is actually the sentenee before: tills one in
285. Benjamin, The Origi71 of German Tragic Drama, p. 227. uExpcrienee," in this entry, "Fusees" ("TItis book is nOt for my wives, my daughters, or my sisters") tllat
translates Edeb7lu. Baudelaire used in the first and second drafts of a preface to u s FieurJ du mal.
286. Ibid., p. 183.
325. Baudelaire, Oeuvre.s complete.s, vol. I, p. 89 ("Les I'I:t.ites Vieilles"). (R.T.] In English tion between the jack. of hearu and the queen of spades is at the end of "Spleen I."
ill TIlt Compldt VtrSt, p. 180. ComparcJ 69,2.
326. Baudelaire, 1M Complttt VtrH, p. 197. 356. Baudelaire, IA R(Urs du mal (b"anS. Howard), p. 121.
327. Or, alternatively: The figure of impotence is the key to Baudelaire's solirude. 357. Baudelaire,, vol. 2, p. 584. (R.T.]
328. Mayeux and the ragpicker (dliIfonnit!T philtJSophe) lU"l! charaaers created by the artist 358. Baudel:li«:, Artfficial Paradise, trans. Ellen Fox (New lbrlc.: Herder and Herder,
Charles Travies de Villers (1804-1859), discussed by Baudelaire in "Qyelques cari­ 1971). pp. 7-8. u s R(Urs du mal (trans. Howard). p. 114 ("Ragpickers' Wme").
caruristes fran~" (Some French Caricarurisu). Thomas VrreJoque is a creation of 359. Baudelaire, 1""he C6mplttr Vmr, p. 205.
Gavami, and the Bonaparti5t Ratapoil is a creation of Daumier. See bl ,9. The 360. Ibid., p. 2 11. On the "sectioning of time," .KCJ44,5.
Parisian urchin Gavroche is a character in H ugo's u s Muirablts. 36 1. Baudelaire, "Lovers' Wme," IA Rnm du mal (trans. Howard), p. 117 (" tourbillon
329. Baudelaire, us Rturs du mal (ttam. Howard), p. 62. intelligent") .
330. "Girls" is ill English in the o riginal. 5<:eJ66,8. 362. "Leshos," u s Flrurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 124 .
33 1. Friedrich Nietzsche, Ditfiiihlicht WwtnJchajf (book 4, no. 295). [R.T.] l'n English in 363. Ibid., p. 132.
Jqzfol Wudom, trans. Thoma!! Common (New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960), p. 229. 364. Ibid., p. 60.
332. SOrm Kierkegaard, EithtrlOr, vol. 1, trans. D. F. So.I."elUOn and L. M. Swenson, rev. 365. Baudelaire, 1""he Complrtr VtrH, p. 162.
H . A.Johnson (1944 ; rpt. New York : Anchor, 1959), p. 36. Baudelaire, u s Rnm du 366. I\:tc:, 1M Compktt raks and Pontu, p. 449. The phrase "mental pendulous puha_
mal (trans. Howard), p. 75. tion" appears in the Baudelaire b"anSlation used by Benjamin as "vibration du
333. K.icrkegaard, EithtrlOr, vol. 1, p. 41. pendule mental" ("vibration of the mental pendulumj.
334. Ibid., p. 281. 367. Baudelaire, us Fleurs du nuJl (trans. H oward), p. 150.
335. Ibid., p. 287. 368. Ibid., p. 31 ; "My Hrart Laid Bart,"p. 157.
336. Ibid. 369. Baudelaire, 1""he Complrtr Vtrst, p. 160.
337. Ibid., pp. 22 1-222. 370. Ibid., p. 162.
338. Kierkegaard, EithtrlOr, vol. 2, trans. Wal!C:r Lowrie, rev. Howard A. Joluuon 371. Baudelaire, us Rturs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 77.
(1944; rpt. New lbrk: Anchor, 1959), p. 164. 372. Ibid., pp. 166 ("other, brighter worlds" translates "mondes !!inguliersj; 174.
339. Ibid., p. 234. On the "strange $Cctioning of riIrn=; .KCJ44,5. 373. Baudelaire, VtrS rrfroul)[s: Juutnilw, Sonntts, introduction and notes by Jules
340. Baudelaire, 1M MimJr 0/ Art, p. 267. Mouquet (PaN, 1929). pp. 57-59. [R.T) In English in 7'ht Compku Vtrst, p. 378;
341. Goufried Keller, "1ixI und Dichter,", voL 1 (ZUrich, 1971), p. 385. [RT ] IA F'kurs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 8 1.
342. Engels, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific" (excerpt from Anti-Diihringfirst publish­ 374. Baudelaire, Otuvre.s (()tnPliks, vol. 1: us Fkurs du mal. IA Epaws, ed. Jacques
ed in French in 1880), in Marx and Engels, Basu nfitings on Politics and Phi/ruoplr], ~ 2nd <d. (Paru, 1930), p. 449. [RT]
ed. Lewis Feuer (New lbrk: Anchor, 1959), p. n (trans. E. Avding). See W15a,1. 375. Baudclairc. 7'ht Complrtr Vmr, p. 250.
343. Immanuel Kant, Critiqut 0/ Pr(l(.tical Rtason, trans. I...ewis White Beck. (Chicago: 376. Baudelaire. us Ram du mal (trans. Howard), pp. 11 , 12 .
University of Chicago Press, 19(9), p. 258. '­ 377. Ibid., p. 175.
344. Baudelaire, (kuvrrs completrs, cd. Pichois, vol. 1, p. 76 ("Le Coat du nt!ant"). [RT] 378. Allusion to the "fanUliar eyes" of the poem "Correspondenc::e5," in Bauddaire, 17at
In English in 1M Completr VtrSr, p. 160. , Flowrrs o/Evil, p. 12 (trans. Richard Wilbur).
345. "TIle Saint'- Petersburg Dialogues," in '!"hr WorL oj JtJStph de MaiJtrr, trans. Jack 379. Baudelaire, us F7turs du mal (trans. Howard), p. 168.
Lh 'ely (New lbrk: Maonillan, 1965), pp. 203-204. . 380. Bauddaire, "Boh6niem en voyage," Oeuvrrs complitts, vol. 1, p. 18. [R.T ]
346. Ibid., p. 253. 38 1. Baudelaire, TAt Complttt Vmt, p. 152 ("Le MonJoyeux").
347. Ibid., pp. 268-269. 382. Baudclairc, us Reurs du mal (trans. H oward), p. 32.
348. Ibid., p. 276. 383. Bauddaire, 71at o""plrtr Vt!T.U', p. 197.
349. "A dire mystery." 384. Ibid .• p. 193 ("TIle Danc::eofDeathj; us F'kurs du mal (trans. Howard). p. 116; TAt
350. 1""he WorL ofJOStfJh dt MaiJtrr, p. 254. Compktt Vtrst, p. 86.
35 1. Baudelaire, 1""he Rowm 0/ Evil, p. 145 (~ Destruction," trans. C. F. MacIntyre). 385. 1M f70wtrS o/Evil, p. 91 (trans. Anthony Hechl).
352. A tenn populariu:d by the National Socialists beginning in the early 19205. 386. Ibid.
353. Benoit Brecht, Gesammrlte Wrrkr, 8 vols. (Frankfun am Main : 1967), vol. 4, 387. us F7turs du mal (trailS. Howard), pp. 36-37 ( ~De Profundis C lamavi").
pp. 27 1- 273 (W Idl bin ein Dreck."). [R.T.] hI English in Brecht, Porou: 1913- 1956, 388. Goethe, Faust, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Anchor, 1963). p. 469 (line
c::d.Jo lm Willen and Ral ph Manheim (New '!brk: Methuen, 1987), pp. 135-136 ("A 11 ,582).
Reader for TIIOSC Who Live in Cities j. 389. SeeJ43a,3 (" verselll quelque heroisme au coeur des citadins").
354. UrtlltJ was a tenn originattd by the journalist NestOr Roqucplan in 1840 for ladies 390. Baudelaire, Oeuvrrs complttrs, vol. 1, p. 9 1 (w Et qui, dans ces sain d 'or oil l'on st st711
of easy virtue, many of who m lived in the recollstruaed quarter surrounding the rrvivrr"-Benjamin'!! emphasis. [RT] In E.Ilglish in 17It o""plttr, p. 183 (~The
church ofNorre-Dame de Lorene. Little Old \"\bmen," section 3).
355. Jules Rc:nard, ]oumaJ inidit, i887-1895 (Paris, 1925), p. II. (R.T J Citation aboVC 391. Baudelaire, Oeuvrrs complttts, vol. 1, p. 90. (R.T.] hi English in 1M Compltlt Vtrst,
from Baudelaire'!! "TIle lrTemcdiable," in 1M Complttt VtrJr, p. 166. TIle conversa­ p. 182 ("The Liu.le Old \o\bmcn," section 2).
392. Baudelaire, us Fleur; du mal (trans. Howard), p. 94. In English in The Cnnpltte VerH, p. 228. Double meaning of the word WirtJcJuYl.

- 393. Baudelaire, The Complelt Verst, p. 196 ("I have: not rorgotten ... ," and "TIle great­
hearted servant . .. , .. as numbered in the edition of 1861).
394. Ibid" p. 169 ("Parisian Landscape"),
"husbandry" and "lodging"; "fann" and "public inn." Bauddaire refers to life as ar
aulHrgt ("innj at the conclusion of UJ Paradil artifiritls.
424. Goethe, &lected VerJe, p. 240.
395. Baudc:laire, lHuurtS ,ompfittJ, vol. 1, p. 93 ("l,e Squdette labourcur"). [R.T.1In 425. Auguste Blanqui, L'Etmljl! par Its aJtrtJ (Paris, 1872), p. 74. [R.T]
English in The Complete VerJe, p. 187. 426. Blanqui, L'Ettnliti par les astres, p. 74. [R.T] Baudelaire, UJ FTeurJ du mal (trans
396. Baudelaire, TM FlOUJn"J 0/Euil, p. 128 (trans. Edna St. Vmcent Millay). Howard), p. 93 ; and 17ae Ccmpltte Verse, p. 179.
397. Baudelaire, CorrtJjxmdan«, vol. 2, p. 585. [RT.] 427. Baudelaire, OnillrtJ comPfittJ, vol. 1, p. 87 (" Sept Vieillartb"). [R.T.) In Engii5t
• 398. Baudelaire, "A~ Heart Laid Bart," p. 170. Benjamin intaprets Baudelaire's "grands
joun" as "Tage der WittJerkehr."
in The Complett VerH, p. In.
428. Emile Verhacrcn, us Vi/k; ttntaculaim (Paris, 1904), p. 119 ("CAme de la ville j
399. Baudelaire, (kuI/r?J (om/UkJ, vol. 1, p. 94 ("Lc Crepuscule du soir"). [R. T] In [RT.]
English in us &urs du nwJ (trans. Howard), p. 99. 429. Allusio n to the Gospels. Sec Mark, 4:21.
400. Baudelaire, 1M Cmnpltle Verst, p. 85. 430. Baudelaire, The FlowerJ ofEvil, p. III (trans. Roy Campbell).
401. "Selige Setuuucht," from ~thes West·OJ/lidier Divan; in English in Sekcud Vme, 431. Baudelaire, "'My Htart LAid Bart," p. 110 ("The Fbem of Hashish," section 4).
trans. David Luke (New '\brk: Penguin, 1964), p. 240. 432. Ibid., p. Ill .
402. Baudelaire, The CArnpkk Verst, p. 144. Goethe, ~*st-Ea.sten/ Diua rl, tram.]. Whaley 433. Marx, Capital, vol. I, trans. Samud Moore and Edward Avding (1887 ; rpt. NC\'o
(London: Oswald WOlff, 1974), p. 213 ("Resonances"). The emplwi5, as Rolf )brk: International Publishers, 1967), pp. 359-360.
Tiedemann points out, is Benjamin's. 434. Baudelaire, The RflWtrJ ofElI,,'/, trans.James McGowan (New )brk: Oxford Univer­
403. Marx, 1M Eiglltunth Bru1Mire of Louil lkrwparte, trans. anonymous (New 'Jbrk: sity Press, 1993), p. 25.
International Publishers, 1963), pp. 43-44. 435. See Friedrich von Bezold, Das Fortltbtn tier antilm COtter im mittelaiterlickn Human·
404. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Cormporuknct, 1846- 1895, trans. Dona TOrT umus (Bonn and Leipzig, 1922). [R.T.]
(London: Martin Lawrence, 1934), p. 50. The "ass" in question is Louis Bonaparte, 436. Reference ha5 not been traced.
who had just dissolved the National Assembly and the Counci.l of State and, a year 437. Baudelaire, Oeuvres comPfittJ, vol. 1, p. 104 ("Lc Cdpusru1e du matin"). [R.T] b
later, was to be proclaimed Emperor Napoleon III. The Eighteenth Brumaire (No­ English in The Ccmplete VerSt, p. 203: "The debauched made their way homeward.
vember 9, 1799) is the date of Napoleon I's coup d '~tat, in which he overthrew the racked by their labors."
Directory and dissolved the Council offjve Hundred. 438. Baudelaire, The Rowers ofEvil, p. 12, "Correspondences" (trans. Richard Wdbur).
405. Marx and Engels, OJ/leeted Woril, vol. 38, trans. ~er and Betty Ross (New)bd: ..... 439. Marx, The Eighteenth Bru1Mirt ofLouu &noparte, p. 106.
International Publishers, 1982), p. 511. 440. Baudelaire, l..t; Flam du mal (trans. Howard), p. 5 ("Th the Reader").
406. Marx, The E~Munlh Bru1Mire ofLouil &naparle, p. 23. 441. jerky gait" f.paJ saaadt) iJ £rom Nadar's description of Baudclaire: sec Benjamin.
407. Ibid., p. 25. CS, vol. I , p. 583 n.35. [R.T.] In English in Cluuln Bauikloire: A Lpic Poet in tlk
408. Ibid., pp. 69-70.
409. Ibid., p. 83. , , Era '!fH;,;h c.piI4lUm, <nru. Harry z"hn (London' \me, I973), p. 80. Thcpluu<
of Baudclaire's is from "The Salon of 1846" (The MimJr ofArt, p. 128).
410. Ibid., pp. 111 - 112. 442. Marx, Capital, vol. 1. p. 76.
411. Ibid., p. 120. ~ . 443. Benjamin, The Origin ofGemum Tr~ Dramo., p. 155. Audia: sloth.
412. Ibid., p. 129. 444. Nicwche, Philosophy in the Tragic Age ofthe GrteL, trans. Marianne Cowan (Wash.
413. Ftchltn: " to fence " and "to go begging." ington, D .C.: R.r:gnery Gateway, 1962), p. 67.
414. Marx, The EigMetnth Bru1Mire, p. 134. 445. Niewche, The Will to Power, trans. Walter Kaufmann and RJ. Hollingdale (Ne",
415. Ibid., p. 130. )brk: Ymtage, 1968), p. 21 (no. 3 1).
416. Ibid., p.131. 446. Ibid., p. 143 (no. 247).
417. Ibid., p. 134. Marx's note at this point: "In his ....,ork. OJusine &lIe, Balzac ddineateS 447. Baudelairc:, us ReurJ du mal (trans. Howard), p. 174 ("The Abyssj. Nietzsche.
the thoroughly di.u olute Parisian philistine in Crevel, a character whidl he draws nus Spou Zarathustra, trans. R.J. Hollingda1e (Baltimore: Penguin, 1961), p. 167
after the mood of Dr. veron, the proprietor of C01lJh'tuh'onnel." ("The Stillcst Hour").
418. Baudelaire, Oeuvres compliteJ, vol. 1, p. 192 ("Proje~ d'un G>ilogue pour J'«I.ition de 448. Baudelaire, Les FTeurJ du 1M1 (trans. Howard), p. 164.
1861 "). [R.T ] In English in The Ccmplete VerJe, p. 250. 449. Bauikloirt aJ a Literary Cn'tic, pp. 338-339.
419. &uikloire aJ a Literary Cn'h'e, p. 43. 450. Arthur Rimbaud, Complete Woril, &Itcttd utters, trans. Wallace fowlie (Chicago:
420. Ibid., p. 44. . University of Chicago Press, 1966), p. 239.
421. Friedrich NietzSche, Ecct Homo, tranS. Walter KaufmalUl (New York : Vmtage, 451. Ibid., p. 175.
1969), pp. 297- 298. On t.he Fan du Taureau, see the Conclusion to the Expose of 452. Baudelairc:, "My Htart LAid Bart," p. 168 ("Fusecs"). See nOte toJI ,1.
1939. 453. A paperbound documentary literature popular in Paris during the: 18405. Sec: Ben
422. In English in the o riginal. jamin's CharleJ &udeloirt: A Lyric Poet in tile Era cffHigh Capitalism, pp. 35-36.
423. Baudelaire, OnlUPl'J complileJ, vol. I, p. 122 ("Lc Rcniement de Saint Pierre j. [RTJ
454. "Die M odcmc hat die: Antike wie: c:inen Alb, def im SchIaf iiber sic gekommen ist." wruI a site in Paris occupied by workers from the national workshops in 1848, and

- Alb can also mean "incubus."

455. BauddaiTc, "To a \"\bman Pauing By," ~ R f1Wn'J of Evil (trans. McGowan),
p. 189.
graduall y transfonned intO a sink of cOfTllption. [JL.)
485. ~ Marx, Capital, vol. 1, pp. 435-437 ("Modem Manufacture").
486. Marcel Proust, Rtmnnbranu oj'fAingJ Past, vol. 1, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff (New
456. Baudc:laire, "The \byagc," 1M Complete VlTU, p. 241. 1M and Hfiting.s ofTu,.. York: Random House, 1925), p. 126. Proust goes on, in this paragraph, to define
got, ed. W. Walker Stephc:ru (London : Longmaru, Green 1895), p. 3 10. evil in ten ns of indifference to the suffering one causes. On the note by Anatole
457. Hennarul Lotu, Microcosmru, trans. Elizabeth Hamilton and E. E. Cons tanCCJones France mentioned by Benjamin at thisjuncrure, 5eeJl7a,l .
(New '\brk: Saibner and W:lford, 1888), vol. 2, p. 387. The excerpt quotcd in 487. Proust, Rtmmlbranu of'fAingJ P(JJt, "'-01. 1, p. 62 .
J 83a,2 is found on p. 388. . 488. Benjamin, 1M Origin ofGnman Tragic Drama, p. 227. SeeJ 53a,4.
458. Sec the story ofJacob and Esau in Genesis 25, vases 29-34. 489. Benjamin later wrote Sptkulant (speculator) over MiiJJiggiingn' (idlCT) without salk­
459. Benjamin, "Surrealism," trans. EdmundJt:phcott, in SlY, vol. 2, p. 2 13. ing the latter. [R.T]
460. Baudelaitt, "My Hearl Laid Bare," p. 107 ("The: Poem ofHashish j. 490. Baudelaire, Stktttd uttm, p. 151.
461. See Brecht, GtJammeltt WeT4-t, vol. 8. pp. 408-410 ("Die Sch6nheit in den Cedi­ 491 . ProUSt, Rtmtmbranu of'fAing P(JJt, vol. 1, p. 819.
chten des Baudelairc") for the: derivation ofJ84a,2, 3, and 4. [RT.] 492. Ibid., p. 490. For the passage on Meryon, 5ec:J 2, 1.
462. Baudelaire, OeUlIrtS ,omplttts, vol. 2, p. 709. (R.T] In English in ~nt Painter rf" 493. Baudelaire, U J Ram du mal (trans. Howard), p. 5. Prowl. &membrana of'fAings
MrNkrn Ljt,Q p.26. Past, "-01. 2, 1M Caph'ue, trans. C. K. Scott Moncneff (New ibrk: Random H ouse,
4 63. Baudelairc, 1M Rowm 0/ Evil, p. 201 (trans. Robert Lowdl). 1929), pp. 645-646.
464. Bauddairc:, "My Htart lAid Bart," p. 160. 494. Proust, &mcmlJl'lmu of'fAin€l Past, vol. 2, p. 449.
465. Ibid., pp. 200-201. 495. Written by Benjamin in French.
466. Ibid., pp. 190, 199 ("My Heart Laid Bare"). "Qy'est-cc que I'amour? I.e besom de 496. Jean:Jacques Rou.sseau, 1M OmfiJJi07lJ, trans.]. M . Cohen (Ba1timore: Penguin,
$Ortir de $Oi ... et I'artiste ne SOrt jamais de lui·m&ne.n , 1954), p. 593.
467. Baudelaire, Inh'matt Journals, p. 85. 497. &utklairt (JJ a Litaary Crih'c, p. 116 (preface to "Berenice").
468. Ibid., p. 67. 498. Oswald Spengler, 1M Dtclint oj tilt Hh /, ,"-01. 2, trans. Charles Franci! Atkinson
469. J oban Huizinga, 1M I#Jnm, of tAt Middk A{tJ, trans. F. Hopman (New \bd: (New ibrk: Knopf, 1928), pp. 10 1- 102.
Anchor, 1954), pp. 145-146. 499. Ibid., p. 104.
470. Ibid., p. 2 10. ..... 500. ~Les Sept Vieillards" wruI wriuen and pubJi.!lhed in 1859, as part of the series
471. TItle of a book published in Paris in 1844 lampooning various actresses, such u Fant6mts pariJims.
Radlel, and playwrights, such as Fran9)is funsard.J acques Cripet repubJi.!lhed the SOL Max H orkheimer, "Materialism and Morality; in Bttwttn Phi/o.sophy and Sodal
work in 1938, claiming Baudelaire as one of the authors. Scitnu, trans. G. Frederick Hunter, Matthew S. Kramer, and J ohn Torpey (Cam­
472. J oseph de Maistl'e, (hurtJ C()mple ftJ (Lyons, 1884), vol. 5, pp. 102fT. (R.T.] 'This bridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993), p. 40.
passage is not found in the translation of de Mwtl'e cited above (note 345). ,
473. Goethe, Torquato Tas.Jo, Aa V, scene 5 (lines 3432fT.). [R.T.] 1n English in Torquato
Tas.Jo, trans. Alan and Sandy Brownjohn (London: Angel Books, 1985), p. 136.
474. Baudelaire, 1M fAmplttt VtrJt, p. 169 ("Townscapen). Ruff's emphasis. Compate
the discussion in M. A. Ruff, &udtlain, trans. Agnes Kertesz (New ibrk: New ibrk.
K [Dream City and Dream House, . .. Jung]
University Press, 1966), pp. 120- 121 , where comparauons crutl is rendered as "fresh­ 1. Benjamin quotes here from Regis Messac, U "Dettch'ue Nouel" tt I'i'!ftutnu dt liz
hewn comparisons." ptruit Jcitntffiqut (Paris, 1929), p. 420. [R.T]
475. Trans. Arthur Symons, TM SymbolUI Mourmtnf in Lit"aiurt (1919 ; rpt. New ibrk: 2. Einr;ededtn: Benjamin's coinage &om the prq>OSition tingtdmA ("mindful of") and
Dutton, 1958), p. 6Z the verb ("bear in mind," "remember"). This ...-erbal noun has a more
476. &udtlizirt: A StlfPortmit, p. 41. aai"e sense than Erinnerun, ("memory;. .
477. Ibid., p. 195 (letter to his mother of Dccember 31 , 1863). 3. For the relevant passage from ProUSt, see KSa,2. On "the darkness of the li...-ed
478. Text written in French by Benjamin. moment," see Ernst Bloch, 1'ht Principlt of Hopt, trans. Neville Plaice, Stephen
479. Friedrich Schlegel, "Ludndt" and tM FragmentJ, trans. Peter Frrchow (MllUleapow: Plaice, and Paul Knight (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986), p. 290.
University of Mirulesota Press, 1971), pp. 67--68. 4. Fiirdtrung, which, in mining. has the sense of "drawing up,~ "hauling to the sur­
480. Ibid., pp. 63--64. face." Benjamin, like Heide~r, plays on the archaic ve rb wtJt71 ("to be") embedded
48 1. Ibid., pp. 65--66. . in the CdwiJtntn ("what has been"); he cites the being in what has been. Com·
482. Baudelaire, tkuurtS complifts, vol. 1, p. 94 ("Lc Cripuscule du $Oir"). [R.T] 1n pare DO,6, on the power of "distilling" the present as inmost essence of what has
English in 1M RowtrJ ofEuil, p. 120 (trans. David Paul). been.
483. The election of Louis Napoleon as president in 1848, with more than twice as many 5. Sigfried Giedion, &Utn in Pmnl.nicll (Leipzig and Berlin, 1928), p. 3. {R.T.]
VOtes as all other candidates combined. 6. The reference is to Ambrose Bierce's short story ~An Occurrence at Owl Creek
484. TIle dte Doret ("gilded city" from the n.lIlle of M. Doli, one·time ownCT of the land) Brid gc:,~ published in 1891 (part of Bierce's collection In tilt MidJt of ufo)· Ben­
jamin's phrase, in the 5CCOnd sentence of this entry, i.s "magnetopathischc Experi_ Frederick A. 8105S0m). The lines by Baudelaire an! from us Fkurs du mal, trans.

- ence."
7. Benjamin conuau.1 Proust's ErfdmiJ with our &fahrullg ("was Proust ... erlcbtc, das
haben wiT ... zu erfahren"). The fonner is, for Benjamin, an experience of the
Ridtard Howard (Boston : Godine, 1982), pp. 31 ("The H ead of Hair"), 30 ("By

moment; the latter is IOllg experience over time, the fruit of work and tradition.
L [Dreamllouse. Museum, Spa ]
&foArungis fonned outof mwtiple Erldmwro (GS, vol. 1, p. 1183). Compare mla,3,
and m2a,4. 1. Sec Lc CorbusiCT, The City of TomOTTOW and Its Planning, trans. Frederick Etchclls
8. Ernst Bloch, Hm'/age 0/ Our 1i~, tram. Nrnue Plaice: and Stephen PIaicc: (1929; rpt. New York: l)o..'Cr, 1987), pp. 163-178. In this entry and elsewhere,
9 (lkrkelcy: University ofCalifomia Press, 1991), p. 313. "gfance" translates Blid, which in earlier usage meant "a Bashing," "a lighting up," "a
9. Karl Marx. A Contribution to tlu Cn'h'que of Political Economy, trans. S. W Ryazanskaya shining."
(New York: International Publishers, 1970), p. 217. 2. Andri Breton, Nadja, trans. Richard Howard (New York: Grove, 1960), p. 112.
to. Marx, Capital, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Avding (1887 ; rpt. New 3. fussible allusion to the rite of incubation practiced in the temples of Aesculapius in
York: International Pubfuhen, 1967), p. 354. ancient Greece. (Sec L3,l.) lbe incubant would sleep within the precincu of the
11. Ibid., pp. 359-60. temple for the purpose of receiving a dream vision of the healing god. Often these
12. It is not: certain whether Benjamin wrote AUJUlicA:/ung here or Auswirkung. sanctuaries were equipped with theaters, gymnasia, and baths. On the Otha hand,
13. Maru I Proust: A &kChtJn.from His Misallarlto!lS WritingJ, tTans . Gerard Hopkins Benjamin might be alluding here to the hospitals of Paris, such as the H&e1.Dicu
(London: Allan Wmgate, 1948), p. 233. (ncar Notre Dame), a I~ classical·style building with an inner courtyard, ornamen.
14. That "doleful50methlng." tal gardens, frescoes, and long arcaded galleries around the courtyard and in the
15. TIlls letta from Thcodor Adorno to Benjamin has not been praerved. But sec interior. "Corridors," in this entry, trarulates Wandelhallm. "Tum intO their teCO\ler)'­
Adorno's Minima M qralw, section 29. [R.T.] In English in M inima Mora/w, trans. translates jAr" Gesundung mtgrgrnwanddn. And "watering place," here, translates
E. F. N.Jephcott (London: Verso, 1974), p. 49. Brunnennalk (literally, "hall of fountains"), elsewhere translated as "spa" and "medici­
16. The obelisk was o riginally erected in the Egyptian city of Luxor by 11 In nal spring."
1831 , it was transplanted to the Place de Ie Concorde in Paris. Under the name of the 4. Castan's panopticon was located inside the so-called Linden Arcade or Kaisergalerie
Place de la Revolution, this square had sen.·ed all the ! ite of guillotining from 1793 to in Berlin, before moving across the street in 1888.
1795. 5. Viaor Hugo, U J Misirai1ltJ, trans. Charles E. Wdbour (1862 ; rpt. New York: Mod­
17. Victor H ugo, 1M Man Who Lauglu, trans.Joseph L. Blamire (1889; rpt. Milpiw, ..... ero Library, 1992), p. 1089.
Calif.: Atlantean Preu, 1991), p. 15 1. The sleeping town in question i.s actually 6. Ibid., p. 1090.
Melcombe Regis, next to WCymouth, o n the coast of England. 7. lbid., pp. 1098-1099.
18. C . G . J ung, "Ana1ytic Psychology and \\Htanschauung," trans. R. F. C . Hull, <:01­ 8. Ibid., pp. 1093, 1099.
luted WorL, vol. 8 (Princeton: Princeton University Preu, 1960), p. 376. 9. Ibid., pp. 1094, 1095, 1096.
19. J ung, MOlkrn Man in Searclt. ofa Soul, trans. W. S. Dell and Cary F. Baynes (New ", 10. Sec 14a,l , and R2,2. [R.T.]
\brk: Harroun, Brace, 1934), pp. 110 ; 228. 11. Charles Baudelaire, Paris Spkm, trans. Louise Varese (New \brk: New Directions,
20. Ibid., p. 241. ~ . 1947), p. 60. ("The Generous Gambia ").
21. Aldous HuXley, lkJond tlu Mexique Bay (London: Chatco and \ Vmdus, 1934), pp. 56, 12. "That is, he travels back into the ghost world. (Compare L2,7.) "Gate-way," here,
60. translates Tor- fftg: thrahold all passage, o r passage as threshold.
22. TIlls pallsage does not appear in the English·language edition of H uizinga, 'I?IL Wan­ 13. Hugo, Les Misirah/rJ, p. 644.
ingo/tlu Middle Agn (1949; rpc. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor, 1954).
23. Theodor Reik, Surprist and tlu Psydlo-AtuJiyst: On llu Con.future and Comprtlunsi01l f!! !\1 (The Fliineur 1
Unam.u:loUJ ProaJJeJ, trans. Margaret M. Green (New York : Dutto n, 1931), pp. 129­
13 1. "Memory" here trarulates (ddiidJtnu; "reminiscence" translates Erinneru'W. 1. Hugo von Hofmarul.'ithaJ, "Ocr Tor und der Tod" (1894), GeJllm~lle Wrru , ed.
24. Ibid., p. 130. "Experience" here tranSlates ErlebnU. Herben Steiner (1952), p. 220. [R.T.]
25. Marcel Proust, Remembrance of17aings Past, vol. 2 (New York: Random House, 1932), 2. Victor Hugo, iLs MiJirahln, trans. C harles E. Wubour (1862; rpt. New York: Mod­
p. 619 (17ae CaptilJ(, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff). em Library, 1992), p. 513 .
26. Proust, Rem(11lDrance of Tnings ltul, vol. I, trans. C. K. Scott Monoieff (New York: 3. "Urn sich lU denken" ill what appears in tile manuscri pt; tknl.en is arguably a slip of
Random House, 1925), pp. 33- 34 (Swann~ l%y). Moncrieff translates la mimoire ~e pen fo r dnAen ("in order 10 coinatU witll one another"), which would accord with
w/Ofltairt here all "an exercise of the will." tihmkdung ( ~CO\"C:ring," ~o\."erlap") in the firsl sentence. {R.T.]
21. Ibid., p. 5. 4. S« "Hashish in Marseilles," in S~¥, vol. 2, p. 6n. "Intoxicated," in this elltry and
28. Ibid., p. 779 (The Guermanlrs I%y). elsewhere in the Arcatin, tr.uulates rausclllltifl.
29. ProUSt, Rnnnnbranu of17lings PaJl, vol. 2, pp. 1030-103 1 ('"J"M PaJl Ruaptured, traruI . 5. Last three sentences adapted from the protocol to Benja.min's second experience with
h.ashish (CS• ...-01.. 6, p. 564; in English in S~y, vol. 2, p. 88). Sec also 12,6; l2a,l ; 29. Ibid., pp. 45-46. "Drifting" is translated in Benjamin's text 'MjI4Mr.

- R2a,3 ;and C °,5.

6. "Far-off times and places" translates Lihu:kr- und <'~jtt1lfernt71, which could be ren­
dc:rcd more litcralJ.y as "geographic and rcmporal distances." A1 issue is a spatiotem­
Ibid., p. 46.
Ibid., pp. 178- 179 (citing letter of August 30, 1846, toJohn FOrster).
Siegfried Kracauer, Orpkvs ill Pam: Olfrnbad!. and tM Paris of H is 1imt, tTans.
poral"supc:rposition" (Mla,l). Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New YOrk: Knopf, 1938), p. 213 (describing an
7. Marcel Proust, RememfmUiu oj"17Iings Past, vol. 1, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff (New operetta by Offenbach).
'brk : ~donlrIoU5C , 1925), p. 137. 33. Ibid., pp. 75, 76-77. FOr the remark by Alfred de Musset, see "Lc Boulevard de
8. Voyage autour de rna duunbrt (\byage around My Room): title of a v.rork published in Gand," in Mussel, OeuIlTtS compUteJ (Paris: Scui1, 1964), p. 896. [J.L.J
g 1794 by Xavier de Maism, brother ofJ oseph. The work describes experiences under­ 34. Kracauer, Orpkvs in Paris, p. 79 (second scrnence added).
goJl(: during a period of imprisonment when, as a soldier in the Piedmontcsc army, 35. Paul Valery, "The Place of Baudelaire," in l..ffluudo, ~, MalUJrmi, tnlnS. Malcolm
the: author wa.t being held in Turin and had to 6nd compensation in mental oavding. Cowley andJamcs R. Lawler (Princeton: Princeton Univusity Press, 1972), p. 203.
9. This ciration could not be verified. [R.T.] 36. C. G.Jung, Collected WorAs, vol. 10, aans. R. F. C. Hull (Princeton: Princeton Univer­
10. Hugo, u s MiJlrahks, p. 374. sity Press, 1978), p. 48.
11. The DireCtory: executive body in charge of the French government from 1795 to 37. 1his p'M5age does not appear in the anonymous English rrarularion: Eugene Sue, 1M
1799. Les Incroyables (the Incrc:dibles): name given to a group of young men at this MYJtmts ofPam (Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus, [1989?]).
time who affected a studied elegance in their dress and speech. 38. In Balzac., Splendeun t! tkJ CO/.l~, part 2, in <kuvra compllta, vol. 15
12. "Des Schmettcrlings zweife1nder Flugel." Sec J. C. F. Schiller, Sam/lick WtrAt- (Mu­ (pw, 1913), pp. 31Off. (R.T.l ln ~h, A H~/'I High and lDw, """. Rayntt
nich, 1965), vol. 1, p. 229: "mit zweife1ndem Fliigel I Wqt der Schmettcrling sich Hq>p<ruWl (Ihnnon&wonh, ~gWn, 1970), p. 270.
fiber dem nStlichen KIee." Sec also Benjamin's notes on his first and s«ond lwhish 39. &utkklirt Q.J a IiJmlry Critic, traru. Lois Roe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, J r.
experiences, in GS, vol. 6, pp. 560, 562. [R.T.] (University Park: Fbmsyivania State University Press, 1964), pp. 338-339.
13. Volumes 11 - 15 of HofImann', AUJgtwiihlten Sdiriflen appeared in 1839, published by ... 40. Ibid., p. 294.
Brodhag Verlag in Stuttgart. The fonowing citation fromJulius Eduard Hitz.ig appean 41. Baudelaire, "My Htart Laid &rt" and Other !+rue Ufih'ngs, aans. Nonnan Cameron
in vol. 15, pp. 32-34. [R.T.]
14. 1M utkrJ ofCluules DidtTU, ed. Kathleen Tillotson, vol. 4 (Oxford: Oxford Univer­
sity Press, 1977), pp. 612-6 13 (August 30, 1846, toJohn Forster).
42. BauddaU<, "TM _In'
(1950; rpt. New YOrk: Haskell House, 1975), p. 169 ("Fusics,n 00. 21). Stt MI5a,3.
'if Modern Lifo" and 01.... w." , """.Jonathan Mayn<
(1964; rpt. New York: DaCapo, 1986), p. 9.
15. Friedrich Engeb, 1M Omdition of the Wor.hng Ckw in England, tnlnS. Florence ..... 43. Jules Romains, M t'II of Good Will, vol I, rraru. Warre B. W1l.5 (New YOrk: Knopf,
WLSChncwetzky (1886; rpt., with revisions by V. G. Kierran, London: Penguin, 1946), p. 151.
1987) , pp. 68-69. 44. Ibid., p. 136 ("A Little Boy's LongJoumcy").
16. More exactly, 1857. Stt M7,9. [R.T.] 45. Ibid., pp. 399--400.
17. Prior to 1859, in the yeat, when Paris comprised only twelve municipal wards, "the 46. Hugo, UJ Misbah/es, p. 884 ("Enchantments and Dcsolarioru," section 5). For the
thirteenth ammdi=enf' was a name for illicit am()UJ"S. [J.L.J passage in Genticker, sec 1,4301 , and R2,2.
18. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engds, 1M German Irkolog, in Colkcttd WorAs, vol. 5 (New 41. Baudelaire, -My HtaTt lAid Bart," p. 188.
York: International Publishers, 1976), p. 64 (rraru. Qemcns Dull). . 48. Baudelaire, &lecttd utkrJ, trans. Rosemary U oyd {Chicago: University of Chicago
19. Original title: "Exkun fiber die Soziologie der Sinnc:." Translated by Robert E: Part Pru., 1986], pp. 59-<Xl.
and Ernest W. Burgess, in Introduction to the Scienu of Sociology, 2nd ed. (Chicago: 49. fue , Complett 7'akJ and Ponru (New YOrk: Modern Library, 1938), p. 476 ("'The Man
University of Chicago Press, 1970); sec p. 150. of the Crowd").
20. Hugo, U J MisirahleJ, p. 514. Sec also 04,3. 50. Baudelain:, "My Htarl lAid Bart,"p. 169.
21. Baudelaire, Paris Spleen, traruI. Louise Varese (New York: New I)ircctions, 1947), 51. Balzac., Gaudissart the Grtat, trans. James Waring (Philadelphia: Gcbbie, 1899),
p.45. p.346.
22. Baudelaire, ArtifoiaJ Paratiist, rraru. F1i0l FOx (New York: Herder and Herder, 1971), 52. Baudelaire, 1M Compleu VtrJt, rraru. Francis Scarl'e (London: Anvil, 1986), p. 3n.
pp.101- 102. 53. Bcrtolt Brecht, Potms, 1913-1956, tranS . Ralph Manheim et aI. (New York:
23 . Balzac, Straphita, tranS. Clara Ben (New York: Hippocrcne, 1989), p. 6. Methuen, 1987), p. 131 ("A Reader for Those Who Live in Cities") .
24. Balzac, CouJin PoTU, traruI. Herben]. Hunt (London: Penguin, 1968), p. 132. 54. Mane, eo.pital, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward A\'eling (1887; rpt. New
25. Baudelain:, 1M Prost Ponru and "La Rlifarlo," tranS. Rosemary Uoyq (New York: York: International Publishers, 1967), p. 181 .
Oxford Univenity Press, 199 1). p. 44 ("The Crowds"). 55. See MSa,!. On the "physiologies," a papcrbowtd documentary literature popular in
26. Baudelaire, Paris Spltt'll, pp. ix-x. Paris during the 18405, sec Benjamin, Charles &utklairt: A Lyric Pot! in the Era rf
27. Ibid., p. 77. High Capitalism, rraru. Harry 20hn (London: Verso, 1973), pp. 35-36. Stt also
28. G. K. Chesterton, CharkJ DicJ,iru (1906: rpt. New York: Schocken, 1965), pp. 44-4-5. J 82a,3.
we have taken the liberty of altering the phrase Chesterton cites from PidwicA 56. Georg Sinunel, 1M PhI1OJophy of Monq, 2nd cd., tralU. Tom Bottomore and David
PaperJ, "the key of the street," to accord with culTCnt usage.
Frisby (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 471. The Ian phra5e can be rendered more 2. Reference i5 to Louis Aragon, Le Paysan de Paris (Paris, 1926). [R.T.1 On the: not-yet­
literally as "the aU tOO pressing nearness." conscious knowledge of what has been, sec Kl ,2.
57. "\bila ce qui fait de I'observation arristique unc chose bien differente de I'observation 3. "Restoration of aU things." Derived from J ewish apocalyptic, Stoic, and Neoplatonic­
scientifique: cUe doit 5unout etrc instinctive et proceder par l'imagination, d'abord .~ Gnostic traditions, the concept originally rtfem:d to the re:CUfl'ence of a specific
Gustave Flauben, CorrtJjJontUJnu (Paris: Conard, 1926-1954) vol. 4, p. 230 (letter of pLanetary consteUation.
June: 6-7, 1853, to l..ooisc Colct). 4. Adorno, Kier~tg(uml: CofIJtruction of flu Aesthetic, tranS. Roben Hullot-Kentor (Min­
58. 17tt Lettm of GUJtave FWuhert, 1830-1857, tram. Francis Stccgmuller (Cambridge, neapolis: Uni ....ersity of Minnesota Press, 1989), p. 54. The: Kierkegaard passage is
Man.: Harvard University Press, 1980), p. 203 (letter of December 23, 1853, to from 1'Ju: Concept of Iron]. For the passage from Benjamin cited by Adorno, S«
Louise Colet; see Madame &wary, part 2, chap. 9). Benjamin, 1'Ju: Origin ofGmrwn 1fagK Drama, aans.John Osborne (london: ~rso,
59. ~ Lettm ofGwtave FWubert, 1857-1880, tram. Francis Stttgmuller (Cambridge, 1977), p. 166. The/acies lIippoaah'ca is a death mask.
Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1982), p. 89 {September 29, 1866, to George 5. GeorgSimmel, Goetlu (Leipzig, 1913), esp. pp. 56-61; s« also Benjamin, GS, vol. 1,
Smdl· pp. 953-954. [R.T.] "Origin" hert aarulates UrJfmmg.
60. ShclIey, l'oeh'«ll WOI"!s, ed. Thomas Hutchinson and G. M. Matthews (1905; rpt:. 6. Stt Martin Hd dcggcr, Bting and Time, tram.John Macquarrie and Edward Robin­
London: Oxford University Press, 1970), pp. 350-351. Benjamin cites a tramlation son (New York: HaJper and Row, 1962), Division 2, Chapter 5. On truth as "the
by Brtcht, from the latter's manuscript. death of the infentio" (parenthesis below), see Benjamin, 17tt Origin of German TragK
61. 71te Colketed Tales and l'tayJ ofN'l1olai Gogol, tranS. Constance Gamc:tt, rev. Leonard Drama, p. 36. On time in the dialectical image, see <;e,21 in "First Sketches."
J. Kent (New York: Pantheon, 1964), p. 78. Sec E. T. A. Hoflinann, "My Cousin's 7. 1his sentence could not be found among Kdler's epigrams. [RT ]
Comer Wmdow," in "1'Ite Golden Pot" and Other Tales, tram. Ritchie Robtttson 8. The passage ocrurs in the Introduction to the KritiA der Politischen ()~01Iomie, in Karl
(New York : Oxford University Press, 1992), pp. 379-380. Marx and Friedrich Engels, Wer~e (Berlin, 1964), vol. 13, pp. 640fr. [R.T.] In Engiish,
62. Hoffmann, "The Golden Pot," pp.399-400. "Introduction to a Critique of R:>litical Economy," in Marx and Engels, 1'Ju: Gmnan
63. Ibid., p. 380. Ideology, trail!. anonymow (New York: International Publishers, 1970), pp. 149- 150.
64. Hegel: 1'Ite Letter;, tranS. Clark Butler and Christiane Seiler (Bloomington: Indiana 9. Friedrich Engels, Socialism, Utopian and Scientjfo, tram. Edward Avding (1935 ; rpt.
University Press, 1984), p. 650. \Nestpon, ColUl.: Greenwood, 1977), p. 68. Rolfliedc:mann infOIlll5 us that Ben­
65. Nlusion to Vugil's Aeneid, book 6, lines 296£[.: "Here starts the pathway to the jamin wrote in his manuscript, instead of "aus dimonischen Herrschern," the truly
waters of I Tartarc:an Acheron. A whirlpool thick I with sludge, its giant eddy seeth­ "strange" words "und dimoni5chen Herrscher." The sentence would then read:
ing, vomits I aU of its swirling sand into Cocytw." Trans. Nlen Mandc:lbaum (New __ "they can, in the hand.! of associated producers and master demons, be aans£ormed
York: Bantam, 1971), p. 142. intO v.rilling servants."
66. Baudelaire, 1'Ae Mirror of Art, trans. J onathan Mayne (London: Phaidon, 1955), 10. Marx, Capital, vol. I, tram. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887; rpt. New
p. 283 ("1'bc Salon of 1859," .section 8). York: International Publi5hers, 1967), p. 28. Marx distinguishes between Rmd!ung
67. J ean:Jacques Rousseau, Reveries of tire &litary Walker, tram. Ptter France (New York: (research) and Dantellung (presentation, application)_
Penguin, 1979), p. 35. 11 . Jules Micbdet, 1M n opk, aans.John P. McKay (Urbana: University ofIllinois Press,
68. Valery, Pomu in tlu Rougll, tranS. Hi1ary Corke (Princeton: PrincetOn University 1973), pp. 18- 19.
"'=, 19691, p. 155. 12. Marx, &kcted ~1+iti1l[,l, p. 37.
69. Balzac, 17tt Wild AJJ~ S~in, tranS. HerbertJ Hunt (london: Penguin, 1m), p. 108. . 13. Marx and Engels, 17tt German Ideologr, vol. 1, D'aIlS. Clcmem Out!, in Marx and
70. Prowl, &membrana of 'f},ingJ Past, ....01. 1, tranS . C. K. Scott MonaiefT (New bk: Engels, Colkcted Wor!s, vol. 5 (New York: International Publishers, 1976), p. 91.
Random House, 1925), p. 596 (Witllin a Budding Grove). 14. Marx, &kcted HfitingJ, p. 38.
71. Proust, Remembranu ojThingJ Past, vol. 2 (New York: Random House, 1932), p. 1084 15. Ibid., p. 66 (italics added).
(1'Ite P(lJt Rewptured, trans. Frederick A. Blossom). 16. Marx and Engels, Colkcttd Wor!s, vol. 5, p. 92 (1'Ju: Genmm ldeologr).
17. Marx and Engels, 1'Ju: Holy rumi!J, in Collecltd WOI"!s, vol. 4 (New York: International
Publishers, 1975), p. 128 (aans. Richard Dixon and Clemens Dun).
N [On the Theory of Knowledge, Theory of Progress] 18. Paul Valery, "The Place of Bauddairt," in Leonardo, Pot, Mallarmi, tranS. Malcolm
Cowley and J ames R. Lawler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), p. 203.
In tranSlating Convolute N, we have greatly benefited from the previous traiulation of
See 15a,5.
this convolute, "Re the Theory of Knowledge, Theory of Progress," by Leigh Hafrey and 19. Manr; and Engels, Selected Correspondence, trans. I. Lasker (Moscow: Progress Publish·
Richard Sieburth, originally published in PhilrutJjJhiwl RJrum (FaU-Wmter, 1 983 - 1 984~ , ers, 1975), pp. 434-435.
and rtprinted in &njamin: Philruoplly, History, AeJtluh'cs, cd. Gary Sm.itll (Chicago: UIlI­ 20. Benjanlin's introduction to J oclunruUl's "Die Rlickschritte der Poesie" (!be Regres·
versity of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 38-83. sions of fuerry) appears in GS, vol. 2, pp. 572-585.
I. Karl Manr;, Seluttd lftitingJ, ed. David McLellan (New York : Oxford University 2 1. Benjanun's refere:nce to die "apoll<i)nischen Schnitt" remains obscure:. The Fre:nch
Press, 1977), p. 38. translator of dlC Passagen-WerA rtnders this as ".section d'or" ("golden section; , while
the Italian translators offer the emendation "taglio di ApeUe" ("ApeUes' seCtiOIl;,
with reference to the fourth-cennuy B.C. Greek. painter who, in a contest. divided a 50. This passage is not found in the English-language edition of 7'"hL Waning oflhe Middle
narrow line by one yet narrower and of a different color. AgeJ (New YOrk: Anchor, 1954).
22. TIlls phrase (literally, "to go to the many,,) means "to die." It occurs, for example, in 51. Karl Korsch, Karl Marx, U"aJU. anonymous (1938; rpt. New YOrk: Russell and
Pc:tronius: "And now he's gone, joined the great majority" {ramen abiit ad plum}. 1le Russell, 1963), p. 106.
Satyn'um, trans. William Arrowsmith (New YOrk: New American Library, 1959), 52. Ibid., pp. 190-191. Korsch cites Hegel's Vorlesullgnt iibtr die Philosophie dtr GtJdaichu
p. 50 (ro. 42). (l"bank! to William Wyatt for this reference.) <Lectures o n the Philosophy of History) (General Introduction, 2, i, a).
23. Valery, u()TI(1Tdo, Poe, Ma/lanni, p. 197. 53. Korsch, Karl Marx, p. 182.
24. C. G.Jung, "On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to R:>etry," inJung, Complete 54. Ibid., p. 234.
Woril (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970-1992), vol. 15, pp. 82-83 (trans. 55. Ibid., p. 196. Konch quotes from Marx and Engels, Gsamtawgaht (Berlin, 1927­
R. F. C. Hull). 1930), vol.. 1, pan v, p. 403. (Die dtutsdlt Itkologit).
25. C . G.Jung, "'The Spiritual Problem of Modem Man," inJung, Mrxkrn Man in &arcA 5 6. Korsch, Karl Marx, pp. 227-229. Korsch refers to the preface [0 Marx's Zur KriM dtr
ofa Soul, trans. W. S. Dell and Cary F. Baynes (New YOrk: Harcoun, Brace, 1934), politischen OAonomie (1859).
p.237. 57. Korsch, Karl Marx, pp. 168-169. Korsch cites phrases from Dr.·e dtutsdlt Idtologit and
26. Blanqui's last work is L'Ettrniti par les aslm,. see D5a,l , and the enD"ies following. from Georgi Plekhanov, Futulmnmtal Probkms ofMarxism (1908).
Heidegger's outline of a ProblemgtJdtidtle ("history of problems") in Being and Time, 58. Korsch, Karl Marx, p. 83. ~otation from Bacon is from the Novum i'hx"llI'Ium, book 1:
paragraph 3, may stand behind Benjamin's reference to the philosopher here. "ror it is rightly said that truth is the daughter of time and not of authority."
27. See Benjamin, GS, vol. 2, p. 578. [R.T.] 59. Korsch, Karl Marx, pp. 78-80.
28. See August Suindberg, 70 Dama.JCw Ill, in Plays of Conftuion and TMraPJ, trans. 60. The citation is from Guez de Balzac.leuer of March 7, 1634: "And because I am not
Wal!erJohnson (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979), p. 196. avaricious either in eye or in soul, I consider the emeralds ofyour peaeodts lUI great a
29. Marx and Engels, &I«ted CorresJx1ruknu, p. 434 (Engels to Mehring,July 14, 1893). prize lUI those of me lapidary." In Proust. Correspondana, vol. 2: 1896-1901, ed.
30. Turgot, "Second Discoune on the Successive Advances of the Human Mind," in On Philip Kolb (Paris: Pion, 1976), pp. 52-53. Prous!'s leuer is dated by the editor
Progrtu, Sociolof) and EamomiCJ, trans. Ronald L. Meek (London: Cambridge Uni­ mid-April 1896. The book in question is us PiaiJirs tlltJ jours.
versity Preu, 1973), p. 46. 61. Honore de Balzac. 1?rt Wild Au's Skm, trans. Herbert]. Hum. (London: Penguin,
31. Ibid., pp. 44, 46. 1977), pp. 35, 37, 38, 40.
32. Ibid., p. 58. Benjamin has "perfection" for "reflection." LiI1lLS is Latin for "boundary," 62. Henri Focillon, 1M Lifo of&mu ill Art, trans. Charles Beecher Hogan and George
"limit." Kubler (1948; rpt. New YOrk: Zone, 1989), pp. 153-154, 148-149.
33. Ibid., p. 52. 63. Ibid., pp. 102-103.
34. Ibid., p. 105. 64. Ibid., p. 47.
35. 1le Lifo and r#itings of1"urgot, ed. W. Walker Stephens (London: Longmaru, Green,
1895), p. 320.
36. Hennann Lotze, Microcosmus, trans. Elizabeth Hami1ton and E. E. ConstanceJones...... /
o [Prostitution, Gambling]
(New YOrk: Scribner and \\Word, 1888), vol. 2, p. 144. 1. TIlls passage is drawn from 1M R.emmi.JcmaJ and Raofkch"1JfU of CAptain Grrnww:
37. Ibid., p. 146. Being Anetdotes ofthe Camp, Court, Clubs, and Society, 1810-1860, vol. 1 (New )brk:
38. Friedrich Holderlin, Siimtlidlt Werkt (Sruttgan, 1954), vol. 6, p. 92 (letter?f Septem- Scribner and ~lford , 1889), pp. 122- 123 ("The Salon des Etrangers in Paris,,), a
ber 1793, to his brother). [R.T.] !eXt originally written in English. (Tbank.!I to SusanJaduon for this reference.) ~
39. Lout, Microcosmus, ....01. 2, p. 172. ttanslate here the infonnative German trarulation used by Benjamin. On the Salon
40. Ibid., p. 171. (Cercle) des Etrangers, see the Guide [Q Names and Temu, and "Erst Sketches,"
41. Ibid., pp. 173-174. . . LO,19; Benjamin's "Marquis de Stvry" seems to be a mistake ror the Marquis de
42. SinUlIel, 1M Phi/OJophy of MOllty, 2nd ed., trans. Tom Bottomore and Daid Fnsby Livry mentioned by Gronow (pp. 120-12 1).
(New YOrk: Routledge, 1990), p. 447. 2. Louis Aragon, Paro Jtasant, trans. Simon Wauon Taylor (1971 ; rpt. Boston: Exact
43. Loue, Microcosmus, "1101. 2, p. 147. Change, 1994), p. 14.
44. Ibid., p. 148. 3. Ibid., p. 60.
45. Ibid., pp. 15 1- 152. 4. Schwelie, cognate with the English word "sill," has the root sense of "board," "SD"UC­
46. Ibid., p. 154. rural suppon," "foundation beam." According [Q curren[ infonnation, it is etymOlogi·
47. Ibid., p. 157. . cally unrelated to schwellen.
48. Baudelaire, "'The f'oco:m of Hashish," in "My Heart Laid &1"( " alld Other Prost ~*? 5. Friedrich Schiller, Wallt1lSttin~ Death (aa 1, scene 4), in " 1M Robbers" and "Wa/len­
illgs, trans. Nonnan Cameron (1950; rpt. H as kell House, 1975), p. 102. Baudeloure Jttin,o; trans. EJ. Lampon (London : ~nguin, 1979), p. 328. ror the citation from La
claims here [Q be citing ve rbatim the letter of an U1Ulamed ....,oman. Bruyere, seeJ87,4 (?).
49. 7'"hL Letters ofGustaw F1au~/, 1857- 1880, U"aJU . Francis Steegmuller (Cambridge, 6. Langue verte, the Parisian slang catalogued by Alfred Dclvau in his DieliomUl;" de La
Mass.: Harvard Umvenity PreU, 1982), p. 24. langue verte, first published in Paris in 1865. See P3a,4.
7. Anatole France, 1M Gankn 0/ Epirorus, tr.ln.$. Alfm:I. Allinson (New York: Dodd, different parts of the world. But the: decisive invention remains the: diorama of Da­
~ead , 1923), pp. 22-25. guc:rre and Bouton, which Wa.! opened in 1822 on the Rue Sanson, ncar the Boule­
8. TIle first passage uses the familiar fonn of the second·penon dati\'C, Dir. 1bc: other vard Saint-Martin, and then in.nalled on the Boulevard de &nne-Nouvelle. The
passage. within the single quotation maru, uses the fonnal fonn , Suo picrures were painted on cloth tranSparencies, which by 1831 were being used with
9. N distinct from the official stockbrokers {agents ih duJ"gt}, these: "outside broken" varlOW lighting effects. The installation bumed down in 1839, together with the
{courtim rk la toulisM} ....' Cft; unauthori.ted. They took their name "from their habit of laboratory where Daguerre and Niq,cc conducted their first experimenu in photog­
c-ading on ~e ~utskirt.s o~ the Bourse aowd--:-the wings of a theater, in French. being mphy·IJ.L.I
named coulu«. Sec William Parker, 1M Paris Bourse and Frerlch Fi"a"te (New York: 2. Sec Honon': de Balzac, Itre Coriof, tranS . Henry Reed (New York: New American
Columbia University Press, 1920), p. 26. Compare g3,2. Library, 1962), pp. 7-8, 15.
10. That is, of Napoleon, 1798-1799. 3. Andre Breton, Nadja, trans. Richard Howard (New York: Grove Press, 1960), p. 148.
11 . Marx and Engels, Collettcd Wor.ll, vol. 3.8, tr.ln.$. Peter Ross and Betty Ross (New 4. The: gcorama was a large hollow globe or spherical chamber that was lined with a
York : International Publishers, 1982), p. 91 Ower of November-December 1846). cloth depicting the geography of the earth's surface, to be viewed by a spectator from
12. Compare a4,1. Neither this nor the preceding passage appears in the English transla­ inside.
tion of Mayer's biography of Engels (see note to E9a,6). . 5. MarccJ Proust, Rtnll:mbrana o/Tnings Past, vol. I, trans. C . K. Scott MonaidJ (New
13. Siegfried Knauer, Orphau i" Paris: O.lfonbadl and tM Paris 0/ His 1iru, trans. 'lbrk: Random House, 1925), p. 709 (Within a Budding Grout).
G~ David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf. 1938), p. 254. 6. Charles Dickens, 7lt Old wriOJity SIwp (London: Heron Boob, 1970), p. 267 (ch.
14 . Marx, 1M &momic and PhilOJophic ManllStTipts 0/1844, trans. Martin Milligan (New 27).
York: International Publishen, 1964), p. 151 ~ 7. Presumably, the picturesque and mechaniz.ed theater constructed by M. Pierre on the:
15. Marx, Co.pikJ, vol. I , trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887; rpt. New Carrefour Gaillon. IJ.L]
York: International Publishers, 1967), pp. 450-451. 8. G. K. Chestenon, Cluuks Didms (1906; rpt. New York: Schockcn, 1965), pp. 117­
16. Kncauer, OrpkuJ i" Paris, pp. 298, 133. us Fillts rk marbrr was produced in 1853; .... 118.
Frof!ftou, in 1869. 9. Siegfried Kncauer, OrpMuJ in Paris: OJferlbatA and tilt Paris 0/ His 1Iru, trans.
17. Charles rouricr, 1M 7'Ittory o/tlu /Vur Moutmnlts, trans. Ian Patterson (New bk: Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf, 1938), p. 42.
Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 148. 10. \-\brd coined in 1789 by patentee Robert Barker (1739- 1806), Scottish portrait
18. "Events," in this entry. translates Enignis.u; "contexts of experience" trarulateS Er­ painter and reputed invau.or of panoramas. The patent mentioned in the passage
JaJrrungnUJQ11/~ (which suggests "continuity of experience"). following dates £rom 1800. (Aorial was the eighth month in the Revolutionary
19. Joban Huizinga, TJ.e Waning o/tM Middlt AgtJ, trans. F. Hopman (1949; rpt. New calendar established in 1793.)
York: Anchor, 1954), p. 149. 11 . Charles Bauddaire, 1'Itt Mirror ofArt, trans. Jonathan Mayne (London: Pbaidon,
20. Honon': de Balzac, 1M Wild AJS ~ Skin, trans. Herbert]. Hunt (London: Penguin, 1955), p. 284.
1977), p. 23.

P [The Streets of Paris]

1. "So wei3s man weder ein noch aus vor zweifelhafter Helle." The idiom "jdit aus II6(/!
I. Cited by Benjamin in Latin without source. tin wWerI ("nOt know which way to turn") is here taken literally ("know neither 'out'
2. Street of Bad Boys, Sausage-Maker Street, Sattt of Diny \-\brcb, Street of the Head­ nor 'in''').
Iw \-\bman, Street of the Fl5hing Cat, Street of the 'Thickset Villain. 2. Louis Aragon, PariJ Jt4fa1lt, trans. Simon Wat50n Taylor (1971 ; rpt. Boston: Exact
3. Victor Hugo, Us Miskahks, trans. Charles E. Wllbour (1862 ; rpt. New 'lbrk: Mod­ Change, 1994), p. 14.
ern Library, 1992), p. 1100. 3. Sec nOte to Mla,3. "AmbiguitY.' in the present passage, translatc:5 ZwtUkutigttit
(tw~i.Jeutig; capable of two interpretations). "The whispering of gazes" is Engfuh for
Blidwispmr. Compare e°,3, in "The Arcades of Paris."
Q (Panorama J
4. Theodor W. Adorno, Kinlttgaard: Construttio" oftht Ats flutit, trans. Robert HollOt­
I. Panoramas ""-ere inrroduced in France in 1799 by the Ame:rican engineer Robert Kentor (Minneapolis : University of MiJUle50ta Pres!, 1989), pp. 41-42. The
Fulton. But it was a certainJames Thayer who, after acquiring the patent, developed Kierkegaard citation is from vOl. 1 of EithtrlOr, trans . David F. Swenson and Lillian
the two rotundas on the Boulevard Monuna.nre which were separate:d by th"c arcade: M. Swenson, rev. Howard A.J ohruon (1944 ; rpt. New York: Anchor, 1959), pp. 349­
known as the: Passage des Panoramas. These large circular tableaux, painted in 350.
trompe-l'oc:il and designed to be vic....'Cd from the center of the: rotUnda, displayed
scenes of battles and cities: "View of Paris," "Evacuation of Toulo n by the English,"
S [Painting, Jugend8tiJ, Novelty]
"Encampment at Boulogne:," "Ro me:," "Athens," "Jenuule:m." N the: nwnber of
panoramas increased and their popularity grew, new fornu made their appearance: 1. Gocthc:, Fausl, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York : Anchor, 1963), p. 36 (lines
the cosmorama at the: Palaill·RoyaI, later trans fe:rRd to Rue Vivienne; the nc:orama of 6838-6839).
M. Allaux, with iu interior seenes; the gc:orama, with its general and detailed views of
2. Anatole France, 1'IIr Gankn of F..picmIJ, trans. Alfred Allinson (New \brlt: Dodd, 26. Paul Valery, HiJtory and Politics, tranS . Denise: rouet andJaclt.son Mathews (Prince­
Mead, 1923), p. 129. IOn: Princeton University Preu, 1962), pp. 271-272.
3. SecJulien Benda, 1'IIr &trayal of the Intelkctua/s, trans. Richard Aldington (1928; rpt. 27. Paul Valery, Analects, trans . SlUan Gilbert (PrincelOn: Princeton Univt:rsity Press,
l\o.!ton: Beacon, 1955), p. 166 Qettcr of August 13, 1789, from an Englishman, Ar­ 1970), p. 11.
thur \bung); and Anatole France, "The: Procurator ofJudaea," in Motlu:r of /tar!, 28. Marcel Proust, Remnnbranu of1'hings Past, vol. 1, traru. C. K. Scott MonaicfJ (New
trans . Frederic Chapman (New \brlt: Dodd. Mead. 1922), p. 26. York: Random House, 1925), pp. 489-490.
4. Franz Kafka, 1'IIr ,{,rial, trans. Willa and Edwin Muir, rev. E. M. Butler (1935; rpt. 29. Ibid., p. 490.
New \brk: Schwen, 1968), p. 163.
5. &in und Zat (Halle, 1927). [R.T]
T [Mode. of ~.tingl
6. Hugo von Ho£manruthal, &kckd Prosl, trans. MDy Hottinger, Tania Stem, and
James Stem (New \brlt: Pantheon, 1952), p. 364. 1bc: Budl dt:r FrnJntU (Book of 1. "illuminated by nocturnal torches."
Friends) wu compiled from Ho£manruthal's noteboolu of 1917-1922 and from 2. Apparent reference to a coUcetion of fairy tales and humor, Die hlaue Bih/iothek des
qUotatiOllll, and was first published in 1922. FeenreidlJ, der !VJhoIde, Zwerge und Gnomtn; ode- Deutsdllandl Zau~, Her.
7. Skc:tch for a play; now in Ho£manruthal, GesanttMlu WerAe, vol. 3, Dramm (Fran1tfun rengrJdlichlen, und &hwanAt Ul ergiihlic1ter und hildcukr UnterNz/tungfor die Jugmd
am Main, 1951), pp. 49 1-493. (R.T ] Aside: from the: refc:rc:nce to Freud. the urudc:n­ und.EruxuAJen.t (published in the: 18405).
tified citati005 at the: end ofS2,3 are in French. 3. The HOtd de Ville (City Hall) was the: mttting place: of radical republican leaders in
8. Thc:odor W. Adorno, ~Arabc:sken tur Opc:rettc:,~ in Die Rampe: BUll!er ikJ Dtutsdlm 1848; at the end of February, inunc:d.iatdy after the abdication of Louis Philippe:,
SdlauspiLlilau.u:; (Hamburg, 1931-1932), p. 5. Adorno spc:aU of the: ~negative eter­ mc:mbc:rs of the: Chamber of Deputies proceeded thc:rc to join with these: leaders and,
nity of the: operttta." [R.T ] under heavy pl'CS!Utc: from the: crowd outside, to proclaim a provisional republic.
9. Benjamin refers to the: great Catalan architc:ct Antonio Gaud! (1852- 1926). 4. Sc:c: "Blind Men," in Baudelaire, Lu Rnm du mm, trans. Richard Howard (Boston:
10. Adorno, Kierlugaard: Onutruction of 1M Aesthetic, trans. Robert HuUot·Kentor (Min­ Godine, 1982), p. 97 ; and "My Cousin's Comer Window" in E. T A. Hoffmann,
neapolis: Univc:nity of Minnesota Press, 1989), pp. 45-46. The: passage from &peti­ "1'he c,,/tkn Pot" and Ollu:r Tale;, traru. Ritchie Robc:ruon (New bit: Oxford Uni·
tion describes the: apartment Kierkegaard occupied during his residence in Berlin in versity Press, 1992), p. 394.
1843. 5. Edgar Allan fuc:, 1'he Cumpkk '{'aIt; and Poems (New bit: Modem Library, 1938),
11. Ovid, Metamtnphrues, trans. Rolfe Humphries (Bloomington: Indiana Univc:nity p. 464. fuc: goes on to recommend the Argand lamp.
Press, 1955), p. 73 (the: reference is to Narcissw). -....
12...... denJugendJti1bis in seine: Awwirkung in dieJugend.bewepeg verfolgc:nd~
U [Sainl-Simon, Railroa d a}
13. Charles Baudc:laire, Pari; Spken, trans. Louise Vadsc: (New \brlt: New Directions.
1947), p. 5 ("The: Double Room;. . 1. Atelier; nationaux: an emcrgc:ncy relief agency, sct up during the February Rt:volution
14. Paul Valery, DtgaJ, Manel, MoriJot, trans. David Paul (Princeton: Princeton Uruver­ of 1848, that attracted thousands of unemployed work.ers from all aver France; it
sity Press, 1960), p. 152 ("About Corot"). . . c:vmtually satisfied neither radicals nor moderates and was abolished by the: newly
15. Karl Marx, &kckd Uf iling;, ed. David McLellan (New \brk: Oxford Uruven:lty elc:aed conservative majority in May, without any program ofpublic works to rc:plact:
Press, 1971), p. 338. ~ it.
16. Baudelilire aJ a Literary CritK, traru. Lois Bee Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. '\ 2. On Bourdin, sc:c:J27a,3.
(University Parlt: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964), p. 143. 3. Friedrich Engds, "Ludwig Feuerbach and the: End of Classical German Philosophy,"
17. Ibid., pp. 44, 45. . . in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engds, &.sic Ufitings on Politics and PhiioJoph" cd. Lewis
18 . '{'agtbudl riner Verforenen (Diary of a Lost V\bman), anonymous memOIr of a pl'05U­ S. Feuer (New 'Wrk: Anchor, 1949), p. 205.
tute, ed. Margarete Bolune (Berlin, 1905). The reference: to Alfrc:d Capw that roUews 4. Henri Saint-5imon, &lecttd Writing; on Sa'tnct, Industry and Social Organiwh·on, trans.
remains obscure. [R. T ] Keith Taylor (New \brlc: Holmes and Meier, 1975), p. 210 (from L'OrganiJaJnJr.
19. Baudc:laire, 1'IIr Cumpku Ver$t', trans. Francis Scarfe (London: Anvil, 1986), p. 55. 1820). On the replacement of "the: govcmmcnt of perso05 .. . by the administration
20. "Loss of a Halo," section 46 of pariJ $pken. ' of things," see Friedrich Engels, "Socialism: Utopian and Scientific," in Marx and
21. Baudelaire, "Rowers of Evil" and Other Worts, tranS. Wallace Fowlie (1964; rpt. New Engels, CAlkcud WorL, vol. 24 (New \brk: International Publishers, 1989), p. 321
York: Oovc:r, 1992), p. 27. (trans. Edward Aveling).
22. Baudelaire, "'The: Sun" ("Le SoIei1 ~), in 1'IIr Cumpkte Ver$t', p. 171. . . 5. Henri Saim·Simon, &kded 11titings on &icue, Industry and Social OrganUia/ion,
23. Friedrich Niewchc:, 'thus SpoAe Zamthustra, trans . R.J . Hollingdale (1961 ; rpt. Balu­ p. 237 (rrom Du S,;tbnt industml, 1821 ).
more:: Penguin, 1968), p. 286 ("The ShadOW!. 6. Henri Saim-Simon, Social Organitah'on, the &:ienct of Man, and Otlu:r Hfitings, tranS.
24. Ibid., p. 315 ("Among the Daughters of the Oc:sert"). Felix Markham (1952; rpt. New \brk: Harper, 1964), p. 18 ("Introduction to the
25. Sec Hrnrik Ibsc:n. 1k Wild Dud, in "Hedda Gahler" and Ollu:r PlayJ, ~. ~na Scientific SlUdics or the Nineteenth Century," 1808).
Fllis-Fcrmor (1950; rpt. Hannondsworth: Penguin, 1982), pp. 243-244 ( the savmg 7. The passage quoted by Chc:valicr is evidently a free rendering of one or the maxims
lie .. . is the stimulating principle or life, .. . w kc:c:p life going"). . on industry from Benjamin Franklin's preface: to the 1758 edition of his Pwr RicAard
aid of two other young republicans. It utiliud chusical conspiratorial techniques to
lmprovtd. The preface was extensively reprinted (and frequently revised) under such
form a tightly .di!ciplincd and hierarchical organization. Three years earlier, Blanqui
titles as TM Way to Wealtlt.
had founded Its predecessor, the secret revolutionary Societe des Families, and in
8. Reference to the quarrel, at the end of 183 1, between Enfantin (who soon with~w
1832 he had been a member of die republican Societe des Amis du Peuple, which
~o his ~tate at Menilmo.mant, with forty disciples) and other leading Saint,Simoniaru,
espoused a Saint-5irnoluan doctrine.
utduding Bazard, Rodrigues, and Leroux, over the question of relations between the
6. In the aftennath of theJuly Revolution, the ministers ofCharles X were a.rrested and
..xu. in December, put on trial. TIuoughout the trial, aoops of the Garde Nationale, led ~
9. Saint-5imon married the young writer and musician Sophie de Champgrnnd in Au­
the marquis de Lafayette, were required to control the crowds who gathered in the
gust 1801 ; havingjwt assumed the role of patron of the sciences, he was in need of a streets to demand the. death KntcnCe for the ministers. The latter were sentenced to
hostCS5. The maniage was dissolved, by mutual consent, in June 1802. "I used
life imprisonment on December 24, 1830, but they were all granted amnesty in 1836.
maniage as a means of studying scientists" (&kcud I#-ih'ngJ on &icrce, IndUJtry and 7. Victor Hugo, U J MiJirahkJ, trans. Charles E. Wdbour (1862; rpt. New '\brk: Mod­
Social OrganiUJiion, p. 19). em Library, 1992), p. 732 {"Facts from which History Springs, and which History
to. Auguste Comte became: Saint-5imon's assistant in 1817, following his expulsion Iiom Ignores").
the Ecole fulytcchnique for insubordination. It was in 1824-after Jt'tIrII years of
8. Ibid., p. 730.
collaboration-that a long-standing dispute between the two men finally led Comtc
9. ~1fth month Uanuary 20-February 18) of the French revolutionary calendar, adopted
to withdraw his suppon. m October 1793 by the First Republic.
II . See a15,2-4, and pl,3. Evadamism: Eve + Adam + ism. Lc. Mapah (mater + pater) 10. TIris question from the catechism of neophyte revolutionaries of the Societe des
was the name taken by a sculptor named Ganneau, around 1835, in fonning a cult Families-a question that was presented in evidence at the trial of Blanqui and other
that advocated the complete equality-and ultimate fusion---of men and women. members of the organization in 1836-was answered: "One must make a MJCia/ revo­
12. See p2,5, and entries following. lution." See Alan B. Spitzer, TM /l.ewJutirmary TheornJ ofuuu Augusu Bl4nqui (1957;
13. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, &lected Dm-espondence, 3rd cd., trans. I. Lasker rpt. New York: AMS Press, 1970), pp. 90, 92. Marx, too, calls for a social revolution.
(Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975), p. 82. 11. Compagnrm actually derives from the Old French word Cqmpaignon, which in tum
14. Siefried Kracauer, Orplteus in PariJ: OJlen.baclI and tlte Pari; ofHi; 'J'ime, trans. Gwenda comes Iiom the Vulgar Latin companio (com, "with" + panu, "bread"). The word,
David and Eric Mosbacher (New York: Knopf, 1938), p. 95. meaning originally "one: who eats bread with another," is unrelated to compm, "com­
15. One of two cemeteries in the old Constantinople district ofPua (now called Beyoglu)
in htanbul, on the north side of the Golden Hom. There was a grand and a ~tit 12. Related to the English word "vent," an obsolete term for "sale," "hostelry." The
Champ des Moru, both destI'O}d by fire and renovations in the course of the French word IJt7Ite may have originally referred co a stand of timber.
nineteenth century. 13. Bauihlaire aJ a Literary Critic, crans. Lois Boc Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, J r.
16. Honore de Balzac, Co.udissart tlte Greal, trans.James Waring (Philadelphia: Gebbie, (UniVCl!ity Park: Pennsylvania State Univusity Prcs5, 1964), p. 356.
1899), pp. 351-352. 14. Marx, ne EigltteentA Bnlr1laire of Louu &mopam, crans. anonymous (New )brk.:
17. Plan conceived. by Napoleon I for blocking English merchandise Iiom ent.ering the. International Publi5hers, 1963), p. 75. The Society of the Thtth of December was
Continent. ....... founded by Louis Napoleon in 1849 (as Marx writeS in the souc:ncc immediately
18. Honon! de Balzac. 17Ie Wild A;ss SAin, trans. Herbert]. Hunt (London: Penguin.
1977), p. 6{). ,., prcccding), on the pretext of establi5hing a charitable association (see V6,3). Napo­
leon was elected president of the republic on Dettmber 10, 1848.

v [Corupiraciet. Compagnonnage] W [Fourier]

Compagnonnage refers to trade guilds, solidarity associations among workers. The word I . Charles Fourier, Hamlrmwn Man : &kcud I#-itingj ojCltarieJ Mm,., ed. Mark Fbster
comes Iiom cqmpagmm: ~companion," ~workman ," "journeyman." A central fearurc of (New York: Anchor, 1971), p. l S I (trans. Susan Hanson).
cqmpognon'lliJ{e, up through the middle of the nineteenth century, was the tour ih France, in 2. Alphonse Toussenci, Ptwitmal Zoology; or, Spirit of tlte &aJu, tram. M. Edgeworth
which journeymen artisans traveled to various towns of France seeking employment in Lazarus (New York: Fowlers and ~lb , 1852), pp. 293, 289-290, 347-348.
order to complete their professional training. The tour generally lasted three to four years 3. Friedrich Engels, "Socialism : Utopian and Scientific," in Karl Marx and Friedrich
and culminaled in the production of a masterwork. Engels, Basic ~#-irinKs Dn Politia and Pltilruophy, cd. Lewis S. Feuer (New York: An­
chor, 1959), p. 76 (traw. Edward Aveling).
I. The army was persuaded lO disarm by the passive conduct of the Garde Nationale. 4. Heinrich Heine, Frenclt AJlairj: ulterJ from PariJ, trans. Charles Godfrey Leland
2. TIle trial of Etienne Cabet for sedition. (New York: Dutton, 1906), p. 460.
3. Karl Marx and r"riedrich Engels, Collected WorL, vol. 10 (New York: Lltemational 5. Karl-Marx and Friedrich Engel!, DHlected Wor.ll, vol. 5 (New York: International
Publishers, 1978), pp. 3 16-3 19, 312-3 13, 3 12 (trans. Christopher Upward). Publishers, 1976), pp. 5 12-5 14 (TM Gmnan lrkologr, vol. 2, crans. C. P. Magill).
4. Marx and Engel!, Collected WorL, vol. 17, trans. Rodney Livingstone (New York: 6. "Sullied also an: those who buy from merchants in o rder inunediatdy to sell; for they
International Publi5hers, 198 1)1 pp. 79-80 (Hmo Mlgt [1860). gain nothing unless they employ many deceptio ns. And, in ttuth, nothing is more
5. Societe des Saisoru : name of a secret society established by Blanqui, in 1837, wi~ the
shameful than fraud." Cicero, De OJficiiJ (Treatise on Duty), trans. Walter Miller 36. As a child, Fourier would fill his room with elaborately arranged Dowers. See his
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UniVttSity Press, 1921), p. 153. Utopian Vuion, p. 406, on the "language of Dowers."
7. This passage is not found in the English·language edition of C harles Fourier, 'J"M 37. Fourier, Designfor Utopia, p. 207n.
'J"Mory of the Four Morxmnlts, trans. Ian Patterson (Cambridge, England: Cambridge 38. Marx and Engels, Basic Writings ()11 Politic.s and P/ri/ruoph." p. n. ComparcJ 64,2.
University Press, 1996). 39. Fourier, Utopian V'ui()1l, p. 217.
8. "Mesh" tranSlates Fourier's engrtnOgt. "Machinal" translates Benjamin's maJellind/, 40. A Step to Pornassus-the title of a dictionary of prosody and poetic phrases once used
which is distinguished from medumiJti.Jdl, "mechanistic" (W4,4). in English schools as an aid in Latin versification. In general, the term refers to any
9. In the swnmerofl835, the.New r()1'.t Sun reponed that Herschel, by means ofa giant dictionary of this type.
9 telescope, had obscn.·ed paradisal woods and meadows, hills and valleys, even living 41. rourier, Utopian VISion, p. 232.
organisms on the surface of the moon. News of these "discoveries" spread through. 42. There arc references to Fourier scattered throughout /)i( heilige Familie. CompaR:
out Europe. W 7,8.
10. Jules Michdet, '!"he I+ople, DanS.John P. McKay (Urbana: Uni\'ersity oflllinois Press, 43. Charles Baudelaire, 1M Min'()1' 0/ Art, trans. Jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon,
1973), p. 171n. 1955), pp. 170-171 ("Some French Caricaturists").
11. Marx and Engels, Colleckd W()1'..u, vol. 4 (New York: International Publishers, 1975),
p. 81 ('J"M Holy Family, DanS. Rkhard Dixon and Clemens Dutt).
12. Toussenel, PaJsirmal Zoolo!), pp. 35 1-352. x [Ma.x]
13. Ibid., pp. 334-335. l. Karl Marx, 1M Ec()1l()fflu and Philruophic Manuscripts 0/ 1844, trans. Martin Milligan
14. lbid.,p.341. (New York: lnternational Publishers, 1964), pp. 142-143.
15. Ibid., pp. 23 1-232. 2. Ibid., p. 144.
16. Karl Marx, 1M Eton()fflU and Philruophu Manu.saipts 0/ 1844, trans. Martin Milligan 3. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Collected W()1'L, vol. 5 (New 'rbrk.: lntanational
(New York : International Publi5hcrs, 1964), p. 132. Publishers, 1976), pp. 44-4-5 (1M Gmntm Idtolot:/, vol. 1, DanS. Clemens Dutt).
17. Charles Gide, Introduction to Dtsignfor Utopia: Stluted utitings o/"ClwleJ RJurUr. 4. Ibid., p. 53n. The authors refer to three revolutionary songs of the period of the
trans.Julia Franldin (1901; rpt. New York: Schocken, 1971), p. 15. French Revolution; the refrain of the last was: "Ah! \3 ira, \3 ira, \3 ira! Les aristo­
18. Ibid., p. 16. crates i la lanteme!" ("Ah, it will certainly happen! Hang the aristocrats from the
19. Ibid., p. 21. lamppost!"}.
20. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Stlected CornsjHmdma, 3rd cd., trans. I. Lasker 5. M3JX, Eam()fflU and Philo.sqphu Manuscripts of 1844, pp. 120-121.
(Moscow: Progress Publishen, 1975), p. 351 (Engels to Karl Kautsky, April 26, -... 6. Ibid., pp. 139-140.
1884); Marx and Engels, Collected Wor..u, vol. 26 (New York: International Publish- 7. Ibid., p. 143.
ers, 1990), p. 204 (Engels, 1M Origin o/the Family, trans. anonymous). 8. Ibid., p. 136.
21. Marx and Engels, Stfeckd CorreJjxmlknu, p. In. 9. Ibid., p. 183. "Annulling of objectivity" translates AtifMbung tier (;(grnstandlidWiJ.
22. Marx and Engels, Collected WorL, vol. 38, DanS. Ptter Ross and Betty Ross (New 10. Ibid., pp. 132-134.
'ibrk: International Publi5hen, 1982), p. 13. Engels alludes to Galatians 3.24, and to 11. Marx, CApital, vol. I, DanS. Samuel Moore and Edward Ave1ing (1887; rpt. New
Revelation 2 1.1- 2, in the Newmtament. 'rbrk: International Publishers, 1967), p. 292.
23. See below, W14,1 and entries following. ~ 12. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 3, trans. Emcst Untcnnann (1909 ; rpt. New 'rbrk: interna­
24. Fourier, 1Aeory 0/the RJur MOlXmblts, p. 38n. tional Publi5hers, 1967), p. 545. Marx cites G. M . Bell, 1Ae Philosophy o/]oiflt-Stod
25. Fourier, 1M Utopimt Vui07l 0/ C!wles Fourin-, trans. Jonathan &ccher and Richard BanAing (London, 1840), p. 47.
Bienvenu (1971 ; rpt. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1983), pp. 308-309. 13. Marx, Capital, vol. I, p. 3 13.
26. Ibid., p. 3 19 (first clause only). 14. Karl Marx, Capital, \'01. 2, trans. anonymow (New bk: International Publishers,
27. Fourier, 1Mory 0/the Four Movnn.t1lts, p. 22. 1967), pp. 390, 234. The first passage cited by FJJCher is not found in this text.
28. Hannlosiglteit, meaning also "ingenuousness." 15. See Gtsammtlt( &hriflm von KMI Marx und Friedrich Engels: V()1l Mart 1841 hiJ Miin
29. Fourier, Hann07lian Man, p. 182. 1844 (Stuttgan, 1902), p. 259 Qead article in the KiilniscM Ztitung, no. 179). [R.T.]
30. Fourier, Utopiall VISion, p. 319. 16. Marx, Capital, \'01. I , pp. 505-5 06.
31 . Ibid., pp.320-321 , 318-320. 17. Ibid., p. 166.
32. The ~h't(s hordes arc made up of rwo-thirds boys ; the jNtites bandes, of twO·thirds 18. Ibid., pp. 168, 90.
gUl>. 19. Ibid., pp. 93-94 ("Exchange"}. Hcge/'J Philosoph, of Right, trans . T. M . Knox (Lon·
33. Fourier, Hant/onian Man, p. 332. don: Oxford Univenity Press, 1952), p. 240. "Symbol," in these passages, tranSlates
34. Fourier, Utopiiln VlSi()1l, p. 316. Zeichen.
35. lbid., p.316n. 20. Marx, Capital, vol. 1, p. 91. "Primitive" translates tulturwiiduig.
2 1. Ibid., p. 88.
22. Ibid., p. 86 ("Fetishism of Commodities"). 56. Ibid., pp. 198-199.
23. lbid.,pp.51, 83.
- 24. Ibid., p. 64 ("'The Fonn of Value or Exchange: Value").
25. Ibid., p. 79 \The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof").
57. Ibid., pp. 20 1- 202.
58. [bid., p. sOn. The passage from Marx ill in Marx and Engels, OJlkcud WorL, vol. 1
(New YOrk: International Publishers, 1975), p. 203 (wrhe Philosophical Manifesto of
26. Ibid., p. 72. the Historical School of Law," trans. C lemeru Outt).
27. Ibid., p. 64. The note cited by Benjamin below does not appear in the English transla­ 59. From G. w. F. Hegel, Encyclopedia rftM PJn1()Jophical &ienas, trans. William Wallace,
tion of the text, in Hetel: Selections, ed. J acob Loewcnberg (New YOrk: Charles Scribner's Sons
28. Ibid., p. 80. 1929), pp. 237-238. '
29. Ibid., p. 84-85. 60. Marx, "On theJewish Qyestion," Selecud ~ffitings, pp. 54-56.
30. Marx, "Critique of the Gotha Program," in Marx and Engels, &sit Iffitmgs 071 6 1. Now in CS, vol. 2, pp. 476-478. In English in Walter Benjamin, ~One- Way Strut" aJUi
Politia and PlliJruqphy, ed. Lewis S. Feuer (New hie Anchor, 1959), pp. 112- 113. Otller t#itings (London :~, 1979), pp. 359-361.
31. Ibid., pp. 117, 115. 62. Theodor Adorno, In Seanh rf Wagner, trans. Rodney Livinptone (London : VCrso,
32. Ibid., p. 119. 1981), pp. 82-83. It might be said that the method of citation in 1M Arouks Projed,
33. Ibid., p. 121. the polyphony of the text, works precisely to counter the phantasmagoria Adorno
34. Benjamin quotes from memory. See Friedrich von Schiller, Slimtlick WerAt:, vol. 1 speW of.
(MWlich, 1965), p. 303. [R.T.] In English in The Ponns and BaJJods of &Jai/ler, trans.
Ed~ Bulwu-Lyuon (New 'brk: Oark and Maynard, 1864), p. 266: "By deeds
their tItles common men create- I The loftier order are by birthright great" ("\btive Y [Photography]
35. Marx, Capital, vol. 1, pp. 184-185 ("'The: Production of Surplw Value"). 1. Fttnstiiw (a translation of the French flnUs) are theatrical spectacles involving often
36. Georg Simmd, 17u: Philruopky of Money, 2nd ed., D'aJU. Tom Bottomore and David pantomime, the appearance of supernatural characters like fairies and enchanters,
Froby (London: Routledge, 1990), pp. 424-425, 425-426, 426, 426-427. "Cogniz­ and the use of Stage machinery to create elaborate scenic effects.
ability" translates Er~Mit. 2. Anicet Bourgeois and Adolphe Dennery, Gaspard Hawn; drama in four acts (Paris,
37. Ibid., pp. 393-394. 1838). (R.T.]
38. Karl Konch, Karl Marx, trans. anonymow. (1938; !pt. New YOrk: Rw.sel1 and 3. Nadar's account, ~Paris souterrain,n was first published in 1867, in connection with
Russell, 1963), p. 127. the Exposition Universelle. His photographs of the catacombs (fonner quarries refit­
39. Simmd, PIIilMop", rfMoney, pp. 482-483. ....... ted to house skeletOns from overfull cemeteries) in 1861-1862, and of the Paris
40. Kersch, Karl Marx, p. 122. sewus in 1864-1865, in which he employed his patented new pr0c.es5 of photogra­
41. Ibid., p. 128. Marx wrote the irucription in Engtish. With regard to Benjamin's phy by electric light, followed on his experiments with aerial photography. See the
comparison that follows, Rolf Tiedemann points to the concluding section of One­ catalogue of the exhibition NadM (New YOrk: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995),
Way Strut, "To the Planetarium," but it seems more likely that Benjamin it thinking pp. 98- 100, 248 (plate 93 shows one ofNadar's mannequins in the sewer).
here of the SD'eCt sign. Dante's insaiption is found at the beginning ofCanto 3 of TIle "­ 4. Nadar actually interviewed the famow chemist on the latter's hundredth binhday.
Inferno (line 9): "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate" ("Abandon all hope, ye who Eight of the series of twmty~n instantaneous photos are reproduced in Hadar,
enter here"). Trans. John Ciardi (New YOrk.: Signet, 1954), p. 42. ~ .
pp. 102-103.
42. Korsch, Karl Marx, p. 132n. 5. Honore de Balzac, OJUJin POTIJ, trans. Herbert]. Hunt (London: Penguin, 1968),
43. Ibid., pp.131- 136. pp. 131 , 133.
44. Ibid., pp. 140-142. 6. Nadar helped organize an exhibition of the work ofConstanrin Guys in 1895.
45. Ibid., p. 134. 7. Charles Baudelaire, "1M Painter rf Modnn Lift" and Otlaer Essays, trans.Jonathan
46. Ibid., pp. 151-153. Mayne (1964 ; rpt. New YOrk: Da Capo, 1986), p. 201.
47. Ibid., pp. 90-91. 1ht written by Marx in French.ln English in Marx, Sekcted nfit­ 8. Charles Baudelaire, Sekcud l#itingl 071 Art aJUi Literaiu.rt, trans. P. E. Charvet (1972;
ingl, ed. David McLellan (New YOrk: Oxford University Press, 1977), p. 198 ('I'M rpt. London: Ptnguin, 1992), pp. 295-296.
9. Ibid., p. 225.
P,""iJ ofPhil"op.,).
48. Korsch, Karl Marx, pp. 134, 137. 10. Baudelaire, 1'ht Mirror rf Art, trans. Jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon, 1955),
49. Ibid., pp. 123- 124. pp. 230- 23 1; "factual exactituden translates eXlUtituck matmelle.
50. Ibid., pp. 124-126.
11. us Manis de fa tour Eiffil (Marriage and the EifTeJ Tower), ballet scenario of 1921.
"Experience." in this entry, translates &klmis.
51. Ibid., pp. 154-155. It is Benjamin who underlines the third sentence from the end.
52. Ibid., p. 154 .
53. Ibid., pp. 233-234. Compare U5,3.
54. Ibid., p. 232. Z [The DoD, TIle Automaton]
55. Ibid., p. 117. 1. Puppe, in German, can mean "puppet" as well al ~doll."
2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, &lntt!d Cormpondma, 3rd cd., traru. I. Lasker 15. Honori de, Eugin~ Grandt!l, trans. Mario n Ayton Crawford (New "rork:
(Moscow: Publishers, 1975), pp. 129- 130. Penguin, 1955), p. 126.
3. ']"M Poems ofHt!Jiod, uan.s. R. M . Frazer (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 16. Karl Marx, The Eiglttuntlt Brumairt! ofLAuis &napartt!, trans. anonymous (New "rork:
1983), p. 98. International Publishers, 1963). p. 24. The sentence continues: "and hence necessar­
4. Charles Baudelaire, ~']"M Paintt!1" ofModern L!fo" and Otlln- &Jays, traru.Jonathan ily suffers shipWTCck."
Mayne (1964; rpt. New York: Da Capo, 1986), pp. 36- 37 (citing La Bruyere, us 17. Henrich Heine, Frenclt Affairs, in Tht! of Hmricll Ht!ine, vol. 8, trans. Charles
Caractirt!s, ~Des Femmes," section 2, andJuvenal, Satire VI). Benjamin refers here to Godfrey Leland (New York: Dutton, 1906), p. 515.
Baudelaire's poon ~ I..!Amour du mensonge," in U J Rt!UrJ du mal. lB . G. W F. Hegel, ']"M Pllilonplty ojHistory, trans.]' Sibree (1899; rpt. New York: Dover,
5. The epigram quoted here is aaually by AntipalTOS of Sidon, a Greek poet who 1956), pp. 86-87.
Bourished around 120 B.C., and whose work is represented (together with that of 19. HonoTi de Bahac, ']"M OJuntry Panon, trans. anonymous (New 'ibrk.: Fred Dc Fau,
Antiphilos) in the PaWi~ AntltolOfJ, the tenth-century Byzantine compilation of 1923), p. 182.
Greek poetic epigrams, of which the only manusaipt was found in Count PaJatinc's 20. Michelet, ']"M l+opk, pp. 111 - 112, 60.
library in Heidelberg. It is AntipatrOS whom Marx cites in volume 1 of Vas Kapital; 21. Gustav Mayer, Frit!drich Engt!is, trans. Gilbert Highet and Helen Highet (1936; rpt.
see Capital, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Avcling (1887 ; rpt. New York: Interna. New York: Howard Fertig, 1969), p. B7. A1 issue is the drafting of the UJmmunist
tional Publishers, 1967), p. 385. Aristotle's discussion of the slave as "living ins·tru· Man!fosto.
ment" is in book 1, chapter 3 of his Politia, trans. BenjaminJowett, in ']"M &sic 22. Ibid., p. 76.
ofAm/otu, cd. Richard McKeon (New York: Random House, 1941). p. 1131. 23. Ibid., p. 78.
24. Ibid., p. 86. Engcb' second visit to Paris took place in October and November 1847.
25. Karl Marx., 1M Rt!Wiunons oj 1848: Political n+itings, vol. 1, ed. David Fembach
(London: ftnguin, 1973), pp. 13 1- 132 (trans. anonymous). The essay actually ap­
a [Social Movement]
peared onJWle 29, 1848.
1. In France, in the nineteenth century, state engineers, in charge of public works, were \26. [bid., p. 134.
distinguished from civil engineers, who were employed not by the state but by mu· 27. Mayer, FtWin'clt EnVis, p. 102. On May 15, 1848, after a demonstration in favor of
nicipalities or private individuals. IJ.L.) IUland, a mob invaded the precincts of the newly elected, conservative Constituent
2. lbat is, "1be People's Hive." &scmbly; order was restored by the Garde Nationale.Junc 25 was the last full day of
3. EcriutJins publics: persons who, for a fcc, wouJd write out letters and document! for ...... the insurrection; General Brb., General Negner, and Deputy Charbonncl were killed
those who could not write. by rebels. General Cavaignac rejected the rebels' proposals in ncgociations the next
4. OnJWle 25, the archbishop of Paris, Monsignor Affre, was killed by a stray bullet in morning and laWlched an attack on the last rebel stronghold, in the Faubourg Saint­
the Faubourg Saint-Antoine while trying to arrange a cease fire. Antoine.
5. Fifteen thousand workers confronted the Garde Nationale in the street.! ofLyons. and 28. Karl Marx, &lnted Urilings, ed. David McLeUan (New York: Oxford Univusity
suffered some 600 casualties before capitulating. , F'rcss, 1977), p. 339 (the original text is in English; the translation cited by Benjamin
6. In 1830, students ofthe Ecole IUlytechnique led an attack. on the Swiss Guan:b at the begins: "wuen:n guten Freund, WlSCrcn Robin Hood .. .j.
Babylone barracks and the Louvre ; one student was killed. ~ 29. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engcb, &uded CarrtsJxmdt'nu, 3rd ed., trans. J.
7. Jules Michclet, ']"M Rropu, traIlS.John P. McKay (Urbana : University oflllinois Press, (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975), p. 146.
1973), p. 86. 30. [bid., pp. 146- 147.
8. In La Cluutrt!UJi! dt! Panru: (chapter 3). For F1aubert's descriptions, sec part 3, chapter 31. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Colltdt d WorL, vol. 38, trans. ftter Ross and Betty
I, of L'Education smntnnllak. Compare the passage by Nescio with Benjamin's idea of Ross (New \brk: International Publishers, 19B2), pp. 66-67 (Engels to the Commu­
"interpretation in detail" (Ausdeutung in rim Einulheitm) in N2,1. nist Correspondcncc Committee).
9. Sec "Mutualists," in the "Guide to Names and Tenns.n In response to a new law 32. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engcb, &ucted Corrnpotukna, 1846-1895, tranS . Dona
limiting free assembly, a republican insurrection broke out, on April 13, 1834, in the Torr (New "rork: International Publishers, 1942), p. 256.
Marais district ofParu. During the quick suppression, all the occupants of a house on 33. Siegfried Kncauer, Orphros in Pam: QffenhadJ and tile Pam of His Time, tranS.
the Rue Tra:n.monain were killed by General Bugeaud's troops, an incident depicted Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New lbrk: Knopf, 1938), pp. 251-252.
by Daumier in his lithograph of 1834, Rut! T,,-ansnonain . See Baudelaire's essay 34. Ibid. , p. 196.
u~elques caricaturistcs fran~ ," and Figure 29 in this volume. . 35. [bid., p. 100.
10. Victor Hugo, U J Mish-abuJ, traIlS. Charles E. Wlihour (1862; rpt. New York: Mod­ 36. TIlls system had been established by the law of February 8, 1817, and was designed to
ern Library, 1992), p. 11 07 (re 1832). put the new moneyed elite into power.
II. [bid., pp. 970-971 (reJune 5, 1832); pp. 730-73 1 and 734-735 (re April 1832). 37. Blanqui appeared "at the height of the July Revolution in Mlle. de Mo ntgol6er's
~ ~ : "riot," "disturbance." salon. Blackened with gunpowder and blood, the young militant crashed his riBe butt
12. [bid., pp. 924-925. against the Boor and cried triumphantly: 'EnfOllees, Ics Romantiqucs!'" Alan B.
13. LanVi, perhaps a misprint for langueJ, "languages." Spitzer, ']"M Rt!tIOluHonary 1'MoritJ oj Louis Augustt! B1anqui (1957 ; rpt. New York:
14. Benjamin writeS in Engiish: "sdfmadc-man." AMS, 1970), p. 49, cicin.g GclJroy, L'Etifermi.
38. Baudelairt: as a Literary Crihc, trans. Lois Hoe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. "workshop" and "gn.ver" or "burin" (the tool used by a cobbler to engrave on
(University Parlo:.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964), pp. 252-253. leather). In an engraving that accompanies the poem, Lapoi.nte is shown working
39. July 28, 1830, the second day of the: three days of rioting in Paris known as les trois leathcr in his shop and, in a caption, lauding Sue as "an eminent surgeon v.riclding the
glorieum ("the three glorious days"). See july Revolution," in the MGuide to Names scalpel" that will remove France's social ills-"scalpcl" deriving from the Yme Latin
and Tenns." root as idloppe. lbe work is thus a poem in praise of Sue's scalpel rrom the icAoppe or
40. See al ,3, which concerns the: February Revolution. Lapointe in both senses.
10. Pan 5 (jean Valjean"), book 3.
b [DaumierJ 11. Grandet the miser, Nucingcn the German banker, and Bridau the amorous artist
9 6gure mainly in the novels Eugblie Grandtl, Splrodeurs d mU(rt:j des courtiJaneJ, and
1. The pear (poirt: also means ~ fool") was Philipon's emblem for Louis Philippe; it Illus;(f1IJ pmiues, respectivcly. Balzac's Albert SalJaruJ (1842) is about a man who
became famous as an illustration in history books for generations afterward. The labors for years to marry an Italian duchess.
career of Roben Macaire was traced by Daumier in cwo series of lithographs, from 12. Victor Hugo, UJ MisirahkJ, trans. Charles E. Walbour (1862; rpt. New 'lbrk: Mod­
1836 to 1838 and from 1841 to 1843. The character was first created on the stage by em Library, 1992), p. 864.
the aaor Frederick Lemaitn: in a mdodrama of 1823, and later in his own play Robert 13. Honon! de Balzac, 1M Country Doctor, trans. G . Burnham 1\"es (Philadelphia: George
MOOlUe, suppressed in 1834. TIll.! archetype of the adroit swindler, who gaw: the Barrie, 1898), p. 202.
name "Macairism" to all corruption and speculation, was based on Emile de Gi. 14. H onan! de Balzac, Tk PtQJ(ltltry, trans. Ellen Marriage and CJara Bell (New 'lbrk:
=lin. A. 1.. Bun, 1899), p. 113.
2. Charla Baudelaire, "Tk Painter of Modern Lift" and Other Ewys, trans.Jonathan 15. Characters in Henri Murger's &inn de la uie bohime. Marcd is a painter and Rodol­
Mayne (1964; rpt.. New 'lbrk: Da Capo, 1986), p. In ("Some French Caricarurists"). phe a journalist, poet, and playwright.
3. Ibid., p. 179. 16. Otaraaers, respectivcly, in Hugo's plays Ruy Bias and Marirm de Lonne, and in his
4. Siegfried Kracauer, OrpkuJ in Paris: Ojfrnbach and tile Paris of His 1ime, trans. novels U Roi J amuse, Notre-lJanu de Paris, and us Misirables.
Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New 'lbrk: Knopf, 1938), pp. 176-1n. 17. H onon! de Balzac, Cousin Pons, trans. HerbenJ. Hunt (London: Penguin, 1968),
5. Baudelairt: as a Literary Cn'tic, trans. Lois Boe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. pp.132-133.
(University Park: lbmsylvaffia State University Press, 1964), p. 75. 18. G. K. Chesterton, Cluulu DiWnJ (1906; rpt. New 'lbrk: Schocken, 1965), p 247.
19. Ibid., pp. 106, 237.
20. Siegfried Kracauer, OrpIreuJ in Pam: Offrobadl and tile Pam of HIS r nne, tranS.
d [Literary History, Hugo)
Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher (New 'lbrk: Knopf, 1938), p. 18B.
1. Baudelaire as a Literary en·tic, trans. Lou Boe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr. 21. Paul Valery, "1be Place of Baudelaire," in Val~ry, Le01UJ1"cW, Poe, Mallarml, tranS.
(Univenity Park: Ptnnsyivania State University Press, 1964), pp. 267 (1861) and 53 Malcolm Cowley and James R. Lawler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972),
(1851). p.199.
2. Novel by Thwphile Gautier, published 1835. " 22. Les Mbnoires du diahle and La CI(JJerU des Gnatts arc serial novels by Fn!d~ric Souli~.
3. According to Alfred Dc:lvau's Djctiontwire de la langue wrte, 2nd ed. (Pam: Emil
au mbtent les maulJau chemiru and La Derniere Incarnation de Vautrin arc titles of
Oentu, 1867), an ange gardien ("guardian angeln) is "a man whose trade ... consists in , sections in Balzac's Spknderm tf miU-rts deJ (Ourtilanes.
J 23. Baudelaire as a Literary Crim, pp. 257, 256-257. Borel was utile leader or a group of
leading drunks back to their domiciles, to spare them the disagreeable experience of
being run over or robbed." . stonny young Romantic writers called bousingos, presumably because of the wide­
4. L'Esprit deJ lois (The Spirit of Laws; 1748) was a book by Montesquieu which pro­ brimmed sailor-like hat which they affected n (Hyslops' introduaion, p. 256).
foundJy infiuenced politica.l thought in Europe and America. 24. Charles Baudelaire, "1M Painter of Motkrn Lfe" tutd Other Essa,J, tranS.Jonathan
5. "Idols of rortune." Mayne (1964 ; rpt.. New 'lbrk: Da Capo, 1986), p. 119.
6. Baudelo.ue as a Literary CriiK, p. 152 Oetter of August 30, 1857, from Hugo to Baude­ 25. Charles Baudelaire, Tk Prose Poems and "La Rmforlo," tranS. Rosemary Uoyd (New
laire). The poems referred to arc, in English, "The Seven O ld Men" and "The Little 'lbrk: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 106.
Old W:lmen." See Baudclaire's letter or September 23(?), 1859, to Hugo, in Selected 26. Chestenon, Cltarles Didcu, p. 232.
Leiters ofCharles Baudelaire, tranS. Rosemary Uoyd (Chicago: Unive rsity of Chicago 27. "I ask myselr-"What arc they seeking in the heavens, all those blind men?" In
Press, 1986), p. 135: "['Les Petites Vieilles'] was written v.rith the aim ofimitaHngyou." Baudelaire, 77ze Complete Vme, tranS. Francis Scarfe (London: Anvil, 1986), p. 185
7. Baudelaire as a Literary en·tic, pp. 56-57, 56. "we who light the lamp early while the ("Blind Men; 1860). TIle poem cited, "Cc que dit la Bouche d 'ombre" (What the
cock crows, we whom an uncertain wage recalls, berore dawn, to the anvil." Mouth of Darkness Says), is rrom Hugo's volume Les Cont~plationJ (1856). [R.T.]
8. The last passage is translated in Baudelaire as a Literary Critic, p. 233. The other 28. This passage does not appear in Karl Marx, Capita!, vol. ), trans. Samud Moore and
passage by Baudclaire is rrom the letter to the editor that was published in Le Figaro Edward Aveling (1887; rpt.. New York: lnternationa.l Publishers, 1967). It can be
of April 14, 1864. found in the second German edition or Kapita! (1872), in a note at the end of the first
9. 1l1e title of this poe.m, which apPears in a colleaion signed by ~ Savinien Lapointe, paragraph of the ramous section on commodity fetishism (part 1, chapter I, sec­
W:lrlunan Cobbler," and introduced by Sue, plays all. the double meaning of 'choppe, tion 4).
29. Marx, C4pital, vol. 1, p. 552n. The siege lasted until the end ofJanuary, when an anniuice was signed, ending the
30. "Da Urspnmg der Zcirung am dem Geiste der Rhetorik," playing on the title of Franco-PruS5ian War.
Niettsche's first book, ~ Geburt der Iragodie aus dem Grote der Musil.. 11. In the course of "Bloody \-\b::k" (May 21-28, 1871), dlC CommunaJ"d.s resisted
Thers's forces SUttt by strcc:t, retreating toward the bean of Paris. In their despera·
tion, they c:xcruted a number of hostages, including the archbishop of Paris.
g [The Stock Exchange, Economic Hi!lory J 12. At issue is Thers's an cotlcaion.
1. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Tne Holy rumily, trans. Richard Dixon and Clemcru
Dutt, in Marx and Engels, Cclkcted Work.s, vol. 4 (New York: International Publish. I (The Seine, The Oldest Pari!]
9 ers, 1975), pp. 123- 124.
2. Colomha (1840) is a novel by Prosper MerunCe. lbc Commenclatore appears in the l. Originally added to the temple at Luxor by Ram.scs II, the obelisk was irutalled on
final scene of Mozart's opera Don Gi(W41lni. the Place de la Concorde in 1831. The prince de Joinville was F~iJ Ferdinand
Philippe d'Orlc!ans, .son of Louis Philippe.
3. Date of Napoleon's abdication before the Allied armies at Fontainebleau. The letttt
that follows uses the lu fonn of address as a sign of the writer's contempt. 2. Victor Hugo, us
MisirahkJ, trans. Charles E. Wlibour (1862 ; rpt. New York: Mod·
em Library, 1992), pp. 1100- 1101.
4. The author goes on (pp. 57-58) to describe the "debacle" in which he was "taken,"
by a speculator dealing in rabbit fur, to the rune of 12 francs, 15 centimes-a 10M that
proves ruinous for his finances. m [Idleness]
5. Honore de Balzac, 17ae MaTatI4J, trans. C. Burnham lves (Philadelphia: George Bar­
rie, 1899), p. 126. l. Plato, 17ae Colkcted DioJogutJ, ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns (New
6. 17ae Utopion Vision of Cluula Nuner, trans.Jonathan Beecher and Richard Bienvenu York: Pantheon, 1963), pp. 1397-1398 (LawJ, 832a, trans. A.E. Taylor).
(1971; rpt. Columbia: University of Mi$souri Press, 1983) pp. 253-254. 2. "leisure" translates MUIJt; "idleness" translates MibJiggang; and "world at large"
7. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. I, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887; rpt. New translates uhewtlt. On idleness, compareJ87a,2-3.
York: International Publishers, 1967), p. 24. 3. Karl MiIIJ[., Tne RtIJ()iutions of 1848: Poiiliad JffilingJ, vol. 1, ed. David Fcmbach
(London: Penguin, 1973), p. 192 (from the .Neue rheiniJe/ae <eihmg, Dec. 15, 1848).
"Indolence" translates Faulhtit.
k [The Commune] 4. "Experience" here translates die ErJalmmg; "inuncdiatc cxpcricncc," da.s ErkbniJ. In
the passages that follow in this convolute, the fonner is also translated by "long
1. Agna tk Mtranie (1846), a drama by Fran~ Ponsard, is about a twelfth--ccntury experience" and "conneacd experience," and the latter by "individual experience"
qua:n of France who was dethroned on orders from fupc Innocent III. Calas (1819), and "experience" preceded by the definite or indefinite article. (Exceptions are indi­
a play by Victor Ducangc, concerns an eighteenth-ccntury Huguenot excrutcd on cated in angle bracketS and notes.) ErfaArung (etymologically rooted in the notion of
false charges by an intolerant Toulouse parliament. CharkJ IX, ou L'Ecok dtJ rois "going through") presupposes tradition and continuity; ErkbniJ, something more
(1788) is a verse tragedy by Marie-J05Cph Chenier about a cowardly sixtecnth-ccn- ...... spontaneous, entail.s shock and discontinuity. In notes connec.tcd with the composi­
tury king; it was a favorite with revolutionary audiences. tion of "Ober einige Motive bci Bauddaire" <Some Moti& in Baudelaire>, Benjamin
2. CarleJ de ciuiJme \\~ identity cards which the Commune's Committee on Public writes that experiences in the sense of Erkbniut are "by nature unsuitable for literary
Safety made compulsory for all citizens in May 1871 , in response to heightened fears composition," and "work is distinguished by the faa that it begets Erfahrungen out of
~~ . ErkbniJJen" (CS, vol. 1, p. 1183). See also, in the text below, "First Sketches," Q:',24,
3. Rimbaud: Ccmpltfe WorkJ, Selected LtUm, trans. Wallace Fowlie (Chicago: University and Sw, vol. 2, pp. 553 (on ErJaArunt) and 582 (on (rkbte ErfaAruntJ.
of Chicago Press, 1966), p. 89 ("The Hands ofJ eanne-Marie"). 5. Which ill to say, tradition translated into the language of shock.
4. It appears to have escaped Benjamin's notice that Courbet, in the caricature, iJ not 6. Max H orkheimer, "Traditional and Critical1beory," in Horkhcimer, CritiaU 1Mory,
standing on JUSt any broken column but on the remains of the Place Vend6me trans. MatthewJ. O 'ConncU (New York: Continuum, 1995), pp. 234-236; and idem,
colunm, which was tom down during the Commune-an aa of dc:struaibn for "Remarks on Philosophical Anthropology," in H orkheimer, &~en Philosophy and
which the painter was later conviaed. (R.T.) See Figure 36 in this volume. Social &ienu, trans. G. Frederick Hunter, Matthew S. Kramer, and John Torpey
5. A reference to the dismembennem of fuland in 1815, after the Congress of Vienna. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993), p. 664.
6. Gustav Mayer, Friedrich EngeiJ, trans. Gilbert Highet and Helen Highet (1936; rpt. 7. "... der gcHiu6gen Erfahrong den Erlebnischarakter abzumerken." In the sentence
New York: Howard Fertig, 1969), p. 220. fotlowing, "the experience" translates die ErfaArung.
7. Ibid., pp. 220-221. 8. Marx, Capital, vol. I, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887; rpt. New
8. Karl MiIIJ[. and Friedrich Engels, Selected Om-apotukna, 3rd ed., trans. J. La5ker York: International Publishcn, 1967), pp. 333-334.
(Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1975), pp. 82-83. 9. Reprinted in CS, "'01. 2, p. 447, lines 13-20, and p. 448, lines 16-33. [R.T.J In Eng­
9. Henrik Ibsen, uUm (J1Id SpeecheJ, ed. Even Sprinchom (New York: Hill and Wang, lish, "The Storyteller," in lllummations, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Schock.en,
1964), p. 106 (trans. Nilsen Laurvik and Mary Morison). 1969), pp. 91 - 92, 92- 93 (section 9).
10. Mter the victory at Sedan lUld thi:: captun: of Napoleon III, on September 1, 1870, 10. Literally, "gilded youth," fashionable and wealthy young people; specifically, in
Prussian forces advanced 0 11 Paris and, by September 23, had surrounded the city. France, the fashionable set of the reactionary party in 1794.
II . ClejduduUtung (~aliglUnent"-term used by the Nazis iU a euphemism for the dimi.
MUon of undCSlrable persons from public and profcssionallife) chiming he 'th (destI'OyCd in 19 19) took in a number of neighboring townships, such as Montmarm
Umsclw!tung ("gearing" or Wswitchingj in the preceding sCnlen~. uEmpathy;e~U_ and Belleville, which were nOt administratively attached to the capital until 1859.
lates EI,yuJUung. IJ.L.)
12. Jean:Jacques ROI..LS.5eau, 'I'M Con;e.uiMS~ trans. J M. Cohen (Baltimore: Penguin, 5. Karl Marx, 1'I!t Rrooluh'o1lJ of 1848: PoIitiwl &#ih'ngJ, vol. I, ed. David Fembach
. p. 591. The passage contmues:
. !be idleness I I........ :~.L 'dlcness 0 f a
~ ......... u.e I
(Londo n: Penguin, 1973), pp. 129- 130.
child.... I love ... to follow nothing but the whim of the moment,"
13. 1k Lettm ojGustavr Flau"",, 1857-1880, trans. Francis StcNnnuller (Camb ·d First Sketche8
g M . Harvard U ' . Il..... _ _ - " - '- n get
. us.. . ruVCrslty .-. ~, 1982), p. 24. "Mon ime est triue etj'ai lu tous les
UVI'CS" IS Benjamin's exquisite misquotation of the opening of Mallanne's L Le lfril bleu (The Blue Peril) was published in Paris in 1911. [R.T.]
...... ~. Lou'-
"BrUc marine" (sceJ87,5). The line from Goethe is from lintsl,......... ~
.." MaenelC(; 2. Benjamin knew Carl Gustav Carw' Paris joumai through acerpts in Rudolf Bor­
(New 'lbrk: Oxford Univusity Press, 1952), p. 19 (pan 1, line 354). chardt's anthology Va IHut.scM in dtr LandscJuifi (Munich, 1927), and through the
14. Oswald Spengler, 1M lkdw of tM ~~st, vol. 2, trans. Charles Francis Atkinson texts selected by Eckart von Sydow (Leipzig, 1926); see his review of these two boob
(New York: Knopf, 1928), p. 100. in CS, vol. 3, pp. 9 1-94 and 56-57. (R.T.]
15. Ibid., p. 90. 3. Sec note 9 in Convolute O.
4. Allusion to the stabiliz.ation of the rranc by Raymond fbincari inJune 1928. UL]
5. 1be l'hCitre de: Comte was located in the Passage des Panoramas before being
p [Anthropologicall\laterialism, History of Sects]
moved to the Passage Choisc:ul in 1826. It combined demonstrations of physical
1. ~tian Dietrich Grabbe, Wer.u und Briefi, vol. 1 (Danrutadt, 1960), pp. 142ff. agility, prestidigitation, and ventriloquy with playlets performed by child aaors.
U.1..] On the shop names, see below, E",5.
2. Daumier'$ series of forty lithographs on ~er women was published WIder the title 6. Jacques de LacreteUe, "Le Reveur parisien," Nouuelle RevueftaTlf(list, 166 Uuly 1,
LtJ BaJ-hlnu in Lt Cluzn'uari in 1844. It was followed by series on socialist women and 1927), pp. 23-39. IR.T.I
divorced women. 7. Benjamin this time may have in mind not the charaaer in E. T. A. H offmann (soc
3. 1M New Oiford Annotaltd Bible (New lbrk: Oxford University Press, 1977), p. 1202 HI ,I) but a large music hall built in 1893 on the Boulevard des Capucines. U.1..]
(Matthew 23.9). On the woman caught in adultery, sceJohn 8.1-1 1. 8. The Petit·Coblenu i.! the name which, during the Directory (1795-1799), was given
4. J ohn2.1 - 11. to a part of the Boulevard des ltaliens that was frequented mainly by 6Wgrts. U-L.]
5. Hon.on! de, 1M Girl with tlte Goldm EytJ, trans. G . B. lves, with Walter -­ 9. The Passage du Pont·Neuf was situated between the Rue Maz.arine and the Rue de:
Robms and E. P. Robins (Philadelphia: George Barrie, 1896), p. 3 10. Curtius is Seme, in the sixth arrrmd~t. 1be old Passage Henri IV was located near the Rue
concerned here. with the opening paragraph of Balzac's novel, in which Paris is des Boru-EnfanLS, in the fint tl1'tOI'Idi.unnt. U.L .] On 2ola's 1'1ItrtJe Raqum, soc
presented as a aty of masb. Hl~ .
6. See GUStaV Mayer, Friedn·dJ. Engel.J, trans. Gilbert Highet and Helen Highet (1936; 10. The Passage: du Boi.!-de-Boulogne became the Passage du Prado in 1929. U.L.]
rpt. New lbrk: Howard fertig, 1969), pp. 14- 16. The passages quoted by Benjamin
, 11. Le Fant6mt de 1'0000o., a novel by Gaston I...erou.x. was published in Paris in 1910.
art not found in this English edition. After EO,30, a page was cut out of the manusaipt. [R.T ]
7. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Seutted CorreJjJMrdmu, 3rd ed., trans. I. Lasker\ 12. L'Hermite de fa Cluw.uie d'Antin, 0101 OiJJnVo.titmJ Jur ItS mMm et kJ wages pariJjnu au
(M""""" Prog=. Pub"'''''"', 1975), pp. IS-19. commmctmt'llt du XI}{t Jihie, by Viaor:JosephJouy (1764-1846}, was fint published
8. Bau~fair: 4J a Literary Cn·ti~, trans. Lois Boe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, J r. as a newspaper serial and later collected in various book fonnaLS. The frontispiece of
(Uruverslty Park: Peruuylvarua State University Press, 1964), p. 336. the 1813 editio n i5 a drawing of the author sitting, quill in hand, at his writing desk in
his library. Projected on the wall above him i.! an illuminated scene of Parisian street
life; WIder this drawing is the following in.scription in longhand: "My cell is like a
r [Ecole Polytechnique] CAMERA OBSCURA in which atcrnal objects art recalled."

1. Sec "Ecole fblytechnique " in the "Guide to Names and Tenus." 13. A piia Ii tiroirJ is an episodic play in which the scenes unfold, one after another, like a
2. Jules Michelet, 1'I!t Itople, trans.John P. McKay (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, row of drawers opening and closing in a chest. Gutl.kow's tenn is &hublmkrutiidr.
1973), pp. 195-196. Reference is to the atremely severe winter of 1794- 1795 (Year 14. "Street lamp"; in argot, "policeman." [J,L]
III, according to the Revolutionary calendar), after the guillotining of ~obesp ierre, 15. It was Bordier-Marcet who invented the ring·shaped, hanging l(U1Ipt 4JfTaie, whose
onJuly 28, 1794, had ended the Reign ofTenor. light filtered down from above. (JL.]
3. Honor~ de Baltac, 1he Country ParJOI'I, trans. anonymous (New 'lbrk : Fred De Fau, 16. The E1ICJdopo.dia Bn'tannifA of 1875 (vol. 3, p. 36) indicates that a "Mr. Valla nce of
1923), p. 187. Brighton" first had the idea or utilizing the pneumatic principle-that is, a vacuum·
4. In 1833, Then had presented to the Chamber of Deputies a project for erecting rube system- to tranSpon pam:ngeN. Experimen15 were ron in the 18405. [J.L.)
detached fons oU15ide the city. The proposal was abando ned ; hUt in 1840, on ac­ 17. See Rene Crc:vcl, "I.1Esprit contre la raison," CaJzitrs du Sud (December 1927). [J.L.)
count of new lhrea15 of war, a royal ordinance directed that Paris be encircled by 18. Sec T2a,3, and the entry on Nodier in the: "Guide to Names and Tenru."
fonifications . 'Tbi.! project Wall implemented in February 1841. The resulting t'II«in~ 19. A cheval glass, or swing·mirror.
20. Compare Cl,3, induding note 3, and P ,IO.
21. Benjamin wrote thU sketch in French. 49. Proust, Ala RtdtdtM du tnnps perdu, vol. I (Paris, 1954), pp. 644ff. [R.T.J In Engiilh
22. Qyoted in French without indication or source. in &mtmbranu rf'17Iin{;J PaJt, vol. I , p. 490 (Witllin a Budding Grout). Sec 511 ,1.
23. See Marcel Proust, Rnnnnbrana rf'771ingJ Past, \'01. I, trans. C. K. Soon Moncrieff 50. See note 12 in Convolute M .
(New 'brk: Random House, 1925), pp. 1023 and 995, respectively. 5 1. On the ronner plan, sec note 7 in Convolute S; and on the latter, see the fragment& in
24. Louis Aragon, RuU lttuallt, trans. Simon Watson Taylor (1971 ; rpt. Boston: Exaa Hugo VOO HormalUlSthal, Siimtlick Walt, vol. 29 (Frankfun, 1978), pp. 202- 206.
Change, 1994), p. 71. {R.T.]
25. Charles Baudelaire, Artificial Paradise, trans. Ellen rox (New 'brk: Herder and 52. A.ndd Breton, Nrufja, trans. Richard Howard (New 'brk: Grove \\bdenfeld, 1960),
Herder, 1971), p. 68. p. 152.
B 26. Ibid. Stt H2,1. 53. Proust, Rtmmlbrallce riming; Past, vol. I , p. 323. (Rtn/trmi: stuffy, close. 9a St7It It
27. Anatole France, 771t Garrkn 0/ Epicurus, trans. Alfred Allinson (New York: Dodd, rtnJtrmi: "It smeJ.l.!; musty in here.")
Mead, 1923), p. 129. 54. Benjamin had plann«l to write o n Ludwig licck's novcUa ~ Blondt EeJ.btrt, pub­
28. See BI,5. lish«l in 1812. [RT.J
29. Or "dream face " (7i-aumgtJi'ht). 55. Perhaps Aragon, Pam ltasonl, pp. 8 1-84.
30. See Walter Benjamin, '!'he Origin 0/ German Tragi' Drama, trans. John Osborne 56. This passage appears also in Benjamin's review "K.risil des Danvinismus?"«l
(London: Verso, 1977), pp. 44-48, clearly a ccntr.Li passage for the logic of Ikn­ in Die /ittrari.Jdu Welt, April 12, 1929 (GS, vol. 4, p. 534). [R.T.]
jamin's theory of reading. "Myriorama~ : a landscape picture made of a number or 57. "Agnoszicrung des Jew' in den Dingcn." 1bc tenn agnosUtrt, "acknowl«lgcd,"
&epar.lte sections that can be put together in various ways to fonn distinct scenes. shows up inJ5Ia,6.
31. Rainer Maria Rilke, "Puppen: Zu den Wacbspuppcn \'On Lotte Pritzci," in SiimJ/ick 58. Marx, Capital, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887; rpt. New
Wtrkt, vol. 6 (Frankfun am Main, 1966), pp. 1063-1074. [R.T.] York: International Publishers, 1967), pp. 83-84; vol. 3, trans. Ernest U ntcrmann
32. Benjamin's work on the poet Christoph Friedrich Heinle disappeared in 1933, to­ (1909; rpt. New 'brk: International Publishers, 1967), pp. 25-210, esp. 173ff. Stt, in
gether with H einle's literary remains. [R.T.] The nod {numen} of the gods is intennit­ this volume, Rolfliedemann, "Dialectics at a Standstill," note 15.
tem. \ 59. Louis Schneider, u s Maftm ~ l'opirtttt ftan¥list: Offtnbach (Paris, 1923). [R.T.]
33. RefctalCC is to the thirteenth of Giacomo Lcopardi's /buim, in the «Iition prized by 60. Le Guide histMique tI anudohqut dt Paris: L'Histoire tie Paris, dt $iJ monumeTllJ, ~ $iJ
Benjamin, Gttknktn (Leipzig, 1922), pp. I6ff. [R.T.J In Engfulh: ibuim, trans. W. S. riuoluh'onJ, ~ ItS dli/:n1tis, dt sa vie artiJtique, Kientjfique, mondJJine, publish«l under
Oi Piero (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 198 1), pp. 46-47, on the the direction of E. Cuervo-Marquez (Paris, 1929). [RT.J
subject ofanniversaries. "Actuatiz.ation" here, as in K2,3, translates Vtrgtgtnwtirligung. 61. The memoirs ofPrincc Mettcmich, published in two volwllCS. [R.T.)
"Making things present," here as in H2,3, translates sidr ~gtnwiirhg 1IIOdtm. '"The 62. fA Mutftt de Portiti (The Mute G irl orPortici), by Daniel Auber, was regarded as the
bodily life" translates daJ IeiblicM LelHn. archetype of gnnd opera. Stt note 10 in Convolute B.
34. Stt note 3 in Convolute S. 63. "Eager ror new thin~ ."
35. Preswnably the writer Lothar Brieger-Wasscrvogel, who at o ne time wa5 a friend of 64. Henri see, Franliisisdlt WirtscAqft.sgeschichtt (French Economic History), vol. I Ucna,
Benjamin's wife, Dora_ [R.T.] 1'30]. {R.T.]
36. Sec, in particular, Goethe's VtrJu,h antr Wittmmpkhre of 1825. [R.T.]
37. Stt note 4 in Convolute O.
38. That il, "time" and "weather."
... . "The Arcades of Pam"
39. Reading !Mtttn here (as in PI ,IO) for leiltn. I . Sec note 2 in Convolute H.
40. Moth und .{rnismUj (Fashion and Cynicism), by Friedrich Thcodor Vl.5Cher; sec 1°,1 2. Seiltnhimmeln, possibly an error in m.nscription; in ~,2 , Benjamin has Seidcrllim­
",dJ',I.{R.T.] me/n, "silken skies." And in the third sentence of thU passage, instead of Land, ~,2
41. 1be object of thU rererence to the Bouddam-Bud! has not been identi6«1. (Benjamin reads Band, "ribbon." Stt "Moonlit Nighu on the Rue la Boetie," in SW; vol. 2,
had been coUeering materiah on Baudelaire for '!"he ArauUJ Project since the end of pp. 107- 108.
the 1920s, though his plan ror making a book on Baudelaire out of these materials 3. In Gennan, List, which originally meant "knowledge" and Il:ferrcd to teclmiques of
evidently did not take shape until 1938; sec GS, \'01. 1, p. 1160, 6.1 .) hunting and war, to magical abilities and artistic skill.
42. Stt Proust, Rtmmlbrana o/771ings Palt, vol. 2 (New 'brk: Random House, 1932), 4. Greek name for Castor and Pollux, twin sons ofuda who well: transfonned by Zeus
p. 385 (771e CaPhlJt, trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff). (Thank! toJulia Prewitt Brown for into the consteUatioil Gemini. They had a cult in Laccdaemon, where they were
tllil re rerence.) symbolized by the doAana, twO upright pieces o r \\!ood connected by two crossbeams.
43... . mrmdt-und die Moth. Pre.,umably an allusion to Batiamin's coUaboration with FraJu Hessel.
44. "Know thyself."
45. I\»sibly refcn to the description or the Strect.5 of Paris at the beginningof "Fcrragus,"
the first episode: or Bahac's Histoire ~J treiu. [J.L.]
~"l'he Ring of Salurn"
46. Heinrich Mann, Eugrnie, rxkr Die BiirgtFuit (Berlin, Vienna, Leipzig, 1928). [R.T.] 1. See GS, vol. 7, pp. 232-237. In English in S~v, vol. 2, pp. 563-567.
47. Sigfried Gicdion, BaUtn in FranAreidl (Leipzig and Berlin, 1928), p. 3. ~ .T.] 2. Charles-Fl"afl\Ois Viel, Dt I'lmpuissana dn malAhMtiqutJ pour (USurer /tJ solidi(i ria
48. Sec note 6 in Convolute K. b61imms, tl rtd!erWJ Jur /tJ 'mytrlJ'h'on dn pqnts (Paris, 1805). [R_T.]
3. Alfred Gouhold Meyer, EiMnbautrn: I!m! wsr:hidrte rmd A'.s fhlltik (Ess lill~n , 1907),
p. 93. [R.T.) Compare F4a,2.
trans. Manfred R. Jacobson and Evelyn M . Jacobson (Chicago: University of Chi­
cago Press, 1994). Subsequent references to the Om-t;jJQmknce will appear in the text
as "Leuers." For a complete cOlllpilation of Benjamin's statements in letters about the
!\Interim for tile EXI)()Se of 1935 Passagrn- WlT'J: (within the limits of available correspondence), sec Benjamin, Gesam­
md/~ &hriftrn, vol. 5 (Frankfurt: SuhrkallJp, 1982), pp. 1081-1183 (annotatiOIU by
1. In EciCIU1C Cabet'! no....eI Voyagr m l am'lI (1839), the narrator learns that in leana RoIfTiedanann). Subsequent references to the Ge;mn~lte &nrifim will appear in the
~ fashion never changes; that therc are only a ccnain number of diffttent shapes for text in parentheses, volume number followed by page number---c.g., "5:1063."
hat.1-toques, turbans, and botlllets; and that the: model for each of these shapes had 3. Sec 1k Ccrm!M1uunce of Waite- Bmjamin atul Gmh.ttm &nob, 1932-1940, trans.
9 hem. ... decided upon by a conunittec." OeuurtS d 'Elinl1u ~t, 3rd cd. (Paris: Gary Smith and Andri Lefevere (New York: Schocken, 1989), p. 121. SubsequCllt
Bureau du fupulaire, 1845), p. 137. Sec: 84,2. references to this work will appear in the text as "Scholem Letters."
2. .xc 82,5. Sec: also section 3 of the "Expose of 1935, Early ~rsion." 4. Adorno, Prisms, p. 239.
3. Presumably a reference to rouner. 5. Sec Rolf Tiedemann, Dialti:1iJ. im Stillsland (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1983), pp. 190­
4. See Franz Kalka, "The Care! of a Family Man," in Kafka, 1M Compltlt St~tS (New 191 , n. 183, on the current legend of a "rearrangement" of the "Aufzeidmungen und
York: Schock.en, 1971), pp. 427-429 (I:r.lru. Willa Muir and Edwin Muir). Odradek is Materialien" in the Rwagrn-WlT'J:.
a diminutive creature, resembling a Bat Star-shapcd spool for thread, who can stand 6. According to Adomo, Benjamin's intention was "to eliminate all overt commentary
upright and roU around, but can n~ be laid hold of, and has no fixed abode. You and to have the meanings emer~ soldy through a shock-like montage of the mate­
might think he was a broken-down remnant, but in his own way he is perftttly rial.... His magnum opw, the crowning oflili antisubjectivism, was to consist soldy
finished. He can talk, but often remains mute. of citatioru" (Adorno, Pri.Jnu, 239). Though this thought may seem typical of Ben­
S. Could also be construed as "the knocking that startles us out of sleep." jamin, I am convinced that Benjamin did not intend to work in that fashion. There is
6. "Fateful date": possibly an allusion to the dramatic Socialist gains, that year, in the no remark in the letters atte!ting to this. Adorno supportS lili position with two
Chamber of Deputies. enrries from the Rwagrn-WlT'J: itself (see NI, 10 and Nla,8), which can hanIly be
7. "Traumkitsch" (first published in 1927) is in CS, vol. 2, pp. 620-622; in English in interpreted in that way. One ofthese already turned up in the "FIrst Sketches" of 1928
Sw, vol. 2, pp. 3-5. Benjamin is concerned hen: with "distilling" the "sentimentality or 1929 (sec ()O ,36), at a time when Benjamin stated that he was still considering an
of our pan:nts." essay, which he had begun in the "Early Drafts"-by no mc:ans, however, in the form
8. Thesccond 5lageofwork on 7'Ae Arcades Proftdbegan in early 1934, when Benjamin of a montage of quotatiolU.
was commi.uioned to write an article in French on Haussmann for I.e Mmuk, a ...... 7. "One-Way Street," in Benjamin, Stkcted l#ili1!&'. MIl. 1: 1913-1926 (Cambridge,
periodical edited at that time by Alfred Kurella. The article was never written, hut Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 466. Subsequent references to the Stluted
Benjamin's prefuninary studies remain. in the fonn of the drafts and outline printed Hfili1!&' will appear in the text as S W.
here: as No. 19. The first draft is in French; the scrond and third drafts are in German. 8. 1bis had been preceded by the plan-which probably did not last long-to coUabo­
The o utline begins in French and switcha to German after the second "embcllisse­ rate with Fram H es5d on an article about arcade!. Sec 5:1341.
ment strat~que." 9. "Surrealism," in Benjamin, Stkdd J#iti1!&', MIl. 2: 1927-1934 (Cambridge, Mass.:
9. The schemes printed as No.5. 20 and 21 \.,.ere prepannory to the drafting of the Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 210.
cxposC of 1935. The first is dated by Benjamin him.sdf; the scrond mo.5t likdy date! 10. Hen: and in what follows, references to the first and scrond sketch arc in the same
from the beginning of May 1935. The reflections contained in No. 22 appear to manner that Benjamin referred to them in lili letter to Gretd Adorno of August 16,
belong to a more extended scheme, which has not been preserved. 1935: merely in quotation marls, so to speak. No single text is meant by "sketch"; the
10. No.5. 23, 24, and 25 appan:ntly date from after the drafting of the cxposC of 1935. No. "second sketch," especially, does not denote the 1935 cxposC. Benjamin had in mind
25 was written by Benjamin on the back of a letter ofDccember 22, 1938, addreued the concept of the work, such as it can be inferred from an interpretation of the
to him; while clearly connected to cenual conccrns of the Arcades complex, it could totality of tlle notes from both Stages of lili project.
relate as well to the project of a book on Bauddaire or to the "Ober den Bcgriff II . Sec Hennarul Schweppenhauser, "PropaedeutiC!l of Profane illumination," in On Wai­
der Geschiclne n (On the Concept of History). 1lT' Bmjamin: Cn·tiClll Esmys atul RecolltcliOl1S, ed. Gary Smith (Cambridge, Mass.:
MIT Press, 1988), pp. 33-50.
12. See mainly "On the Program of the Coining Philosophy," Ph.I1OJophical Forum 15, 1- 2
"Dialectics at a Standstill" (Fall-WulIer 1983- 1984), pp. 41 - 51 , now in SlY, I : 100-110; this citation originates
The following nOtes an: by Rolfliedemann. Citations from the "Convolut~," the "FlflIt from an early fragment "Ober die Wahmehmung," 6:33-38 (SW, I :93-96).
Sketclles," and the "Early Drafts" are referenced by tags for the individual entries. 13. Sec "Doctrine of the Similar," in Sw, 2:694-698; and "On the Mimetic Faculty," SlY,
2:720-722. One of the late!t texts in the "first Sketches n to the Rmagrn-WlT'J: 5CC1ll-'I
I. Translated as "A I\}rtrait of Walter Benjamin," in T. W Adorno, Prisms, tranlI. Samud to be a genninating cell ofBcnjamin's theory or mimesis (see 5:1038; Q',24).
V\~ber and Shieny W:bc:r (Ca.nbridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981 ), pp. 221 - 241. 14. Sec Rolf Tiedemann, SluJim wr Ph.ilOJOPhit WaillT' &njamins, 21>11 ed. (Frankfurt:
2. Sec Walter Benjamin, Btiefi, ed. Gersbom Scholem and Theodor W Adorno (Frank­ Suhrkamp, 1973), pp. 76- n , 98-99.
fun: Suhrkarnp, 1966), passim. In English in 1k Om-tspondena gf WaillT' Bmjamif? 15. In the ~ FlTSt Ske!ches," in which economic categories arc used either metaphysically
or in a desultory fashion, we: find unCOlronemed references to two passages in the first Benjamin's in more than mere nuances. In his Kierkegaard book., Adorno equated
and third volumes of Capital, and these references are to the ~originaI edition" (see the dialectical image with allegory, and later he seell1S to liken it to phantasmago­
5:1036; Q,:',4). 'This could be especially insuuctive in the case of the first volume ria (sec N5,2, and 5: 1136). Benj3Inin dlaTacterited Adorno's definition of the "antin­
whose first edition of 1867-the original edition referred to-is very raJ"f: and ~ omy of appearance and meaning" as "fundamental " for both allegory and
almost never cited. \Ak may surmise that Horkheimer or Adorno referred Benjamin phantasmagoria, but he found it "confusing" in il5 application to the "dialectical
to the pages in question during the "historical conversations" in the fall of 1929. 'The image" (1:1174). 1be difference might be found in the connection Benjamin made
lib~ of the lnstitut rur So.z.ialforschung owned, at that time, a copy of the original betv.ttn the dialectical image and elements of messianism-a connection to which
e(bo~n, and at least Horkheuner \'I3.S WOnt to quote from scarce editions. 11tis conjec­ Adorno, the more scrupulow Mancist, could not accede. One may try to put it this
ture III corroborated when one dlew the relevant passage in the first edition of way: the phantasmagorias of the arcade or the collector as such are not dialectical
Capital: it deals with the definitive formulations of commodity fetishism-that is, the images in Benjamin's sense; both the arcades and the coUector become dialectical
very concept whose "unfolding" would be "the central core" of the second ~ . images only when the historical materialist deciphm them aJ phantasmagorias. But in
Wer..t s~etch. S~a: the man~pt of the ~Fi~t, Sketches" \'I3.S abandoned shortly Benjamin's opinion, the key Utat allows the historical materialist to unlock the code
after this enay, It 15 \ny posSible that BenJanun S abandoning the manuscript may remains connected to the duCO\-e:ry of a messi3Iuc force in history (sec 1:1232).
have been cawed by the obstacles created by the suggestion that it \'I3.S necessary for 24. Marx, Capital, p. 20.
him to read Capital. Fmally, a letter from Adorno to Horkheimer ofJune 8,1935­ 25. Adorno, Primu, p. 233.
which is absent from the fifth volume because it \'I3.S made available only after ~ 26. Marx, Capital, p. 763.
editio n's publication, may well turn speculation into cenainty. Adorno characterizes 27. See Gershom Scholem, Major 7rends in Jewish MyJliciJm, 3rd ed. (London: TIwnes
the first expos~ as "an attempt to unlock the nineteenth century as 'style' by mearu of and Hudson, 1955), pp. 283-287; and idem, On the KahbaJah and It; Symhotiml, trans.
the category of 'commodity as dialectical image.'" He adds: "TIlls concept owes as Ralph Manheim (New York: Schocken, 1965), pp. 126ff. See also TIedemann,
much to you as it is close to me (and as I have been beholden to it for many years). In·k im Stitutand, pp. 1021T.
that memorable conversation in the Hold Carlton [in Frankfurt] which you, Ben­ 28. Karl Marx, Brnje aUj den "Ikut;,h-Framiisi;,/ten Jahrhiidiem," in Karl Marx and
jamin, and I had about dialectical images, together with Asja Lacis and Gretel, it was , Friedrich Engels, WerM, vol. I , 2nd ed. (Berlin: Dietz, 1957), p. 346.
you who claimed that feature of a historical image as central for the commodity; since 29. Walter Benjantin, "Theologico-fulitical Fragment," in Benjamin, Rejkdi01l.J, trans.
that conversation, both Benjamin's and my thoughts on this matter have been reor­ EdmundJephcott (New York: Schocken, 1978), p. 3 12.
ganized in a decisive way. The Kierkegaard book [by Adorno] contains their rudi­
ments, the 'Arcades' sketch embraces them quite explicitly." "T h e St ory of O ld B e njamin"
16. Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 1, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (1887 ; rpt. New
"\brk: International Publishen, 1967), p. 72. 1. Walter Benjamin, Brieje, vol. 1, ed. Gershom Scholem and 1beodor W. Adorno
17. Ibid., p. 73. (Frnnkfun' Sultrkamp, 1966), p. 298. In EngjUh, -n.
c;"".,pmuima of W.u"
18. See Jurgen Habcnnas, "Walter Benjamin: Consciousness·Rai5ing or RescWng Cri­ jamm, 1910-1940, trans. Manfred R.Jacobson and Evdyn M .Jacobson (Chicago:
tique," in Smith, ed., On Walter Benjamin: Critical EuayJ and RecoJkcti01l.J, pp. 90-128. , University of Chicago Press, 1994), p. 206 (letter of February 24, 1923, to Florew
19. See TIedemann, Studirn, pp. 79-89. Chruti>n lUng).
20. Walter Benjamin, 'fIae Origin ofGn-mwi Tragi! [)r(l11lQ, trans.John Osborne (London: 2. In Agesilaus Santander. The tranSlation here is by Lisa Fittko. See GS, vol. 6, p . 521
~rso, 19n), p. 48. Subsequent references to this work will appear in the text as (August 12, 1933). In English in Walter Benjamin, Selected nn·tings, vol. 2 (Cam­
Traumpiel. bridge, Mass. : Harvard Uni\-e:rsity Press, 1999), p. 713.
21. See Walter Benjamin, "'Theses on the Philosophy of History," in Benjamin, IllumiM­ 3. Hannah Arendt, Mt'I'I in Dar..t 1imeJ (New York: Harcoun, Brace and \\brld, 1968),
tionJ, trans. Harry 20hn (New York: Schocken, 1969), pp. 260-261. Subsequent p. 161.
references to this work will appear in the text as I1lumino.ti01l.J.
22. See TIedemann, "Historical Materialism or fulitical Messianism?" PhilOJophical Rr
rum 15, nos. 1- 2 (Fall-WUller 1983- 1984), pp. 71 - 104.
23. Benjamin never brought himself to define these categories at length, ~t tlley are the
basis of all his thoughts on the Pa.uagen-Wer..t, which he identified with the "world of
dialectical images" and for which dialectic at a standstill was to be "the quintessence
of the method" (1"',4). He apparently developed the theory of dialectical images
mainly in conversations with Adorno. Although both concepts are absent from Ben­
j3Inin's publications during his lifetime, the "dialectical image" appears- with refer­
ence to its Benjaminian origins-in Adorno's Habilitati()1lJJd!rifi on Kierkegaard,
which \'I3.S published in 1933 (Adorno, Kier..tegOl:Ud: U,1Ulruch'on I!fthe Aejlheh'c, tranS.
Roben HullOl-Kentor [Minneapolis: Univenity of Minnesota Pren, 1988]). I shall
here o nly allude to the fact that Adorno's interpretacion of the ~ differs from
cion and was minister of war in the Provisional Government (1848). Opponent of
Napoleon III.
Arago, jacques (1790-1855). Brouler of Franljois Arago; tra"'eler, novelist, and play­
Aragon, Louis (1897-1982). Novelist, poet, essayist; a leader of !he Dadaists and later of
Guide to Names and Terms the Surrealists. AuulOr of m tkjoie (1920), Unt Vague tk mxJ (1924), Ie Pt9,san tk
Pam (1926), IeJ n,ogrJ tk 1'lmpb'Ulk (1940).
AJgand, Aim! (1755- 1803). Swiss physicist; inventor of a highly effective oil lamp.
Artois, cornU: d '. Title granted (1757) by XV of France to his grandson, later
Auassiru. Islamic sect of !he e1even!h to thinttn!h centuries that considered !he murder
of its enemies a religious duty.
Assdinc:au. Charlet (1820-1874). French critic and bibliophile. Close: friend and later
editor and biographer of Baudelaire, wllO reviC:Wl!d his coUection of shon storia, LA
Abdd Krim (I885-1963). Leader of the Moors in the Rif region of Morocco. Ultimately Douhle VIt, in 1859.
defeated by French and Spanish forces in 1926, and exiled to Reunion. AWa (1860). Fragmentary epic by Chateaubriand. Set in Louisiana in the cigtucc:n!h
About, Edmond (1828- 1885). French novelist, playwright, and journalist. century and dealing wi!h !he lives of American Indians, it is said to mark the beginning
Absalom. Son of King David in the Old Testament. H e revolts against his father and it of the Romantic mo....e ment in French literature.
killed. See 2 Samud 18. £Aldin: A monthly of French artisans and workers, influenced by Christian socialism,
Acadbnic Fran~. Body founded in 1634 to promote the advancement of French and committed to a moderate line. Published in Paris 1840 to 1850. It was subtitled
literature. Orgarn: JpiciaJ tk /0 d4Sse laoorituJe redige par MJ ()uurim exdusilJt!11lnl t.
Adler, Max (1873-1937). Austrian lawyer, student ofNeo-Kantian and positivist philoso­ Auber, Danic:l·Fran~is-Esprit (1782- 1871). Regarded as the fOWlder of French grand
phy. H e was active in the Austrian SociaJ Democratic Party, and cofounder of M an­ opera, he collaborated with Eu!¢ne Scribe on thirty-eight stage works between 1823
SJudim (1904). Author of SotiologU tks Manismus (1930- 1932). and 1864. Chapcl master to Napoleon III.
Aime Martin, Antoine-LoW. (1786-1841). Man ofletters, professor, and librarian at the Aubert, Gabric:l (1787- 1841). Fonner notary who, for many dc:cades, operated a very
Bibliotheque Saillle-Ccnevih1! in Paris. , successful print shop at 15 Galerie vero·Dodat. Published the greater part of Dau­
Alberti. Leon Battista (1404-1472). Italian architect, paulta", writer; fint to investigate mier's work!!.
the laws of perspecti"'C. Author of Ik rt (UdificaJoria (1452). Aubc:rt,j8aJCwt (d. 1753). French violinist and composer ofoperas, sonatas, ballets.
Albcrtw Magnw. Pseudonym of Albert von Bollstadt (11 93?-1280), Coman theolo­ Aupick.Jacques (1789- 1857). Soldier, ambas5ador, senator; stamped out the insUl'Ttt+
gian, scienwt, and philosopher. He was reputed to be a magician of his scim· tion organiz.ed by Blanqui in Paris in 1839. H e was stepfather to Baudclaire, who
Me pursuits. Canonized in 1932. turned against him.
Alhambra. Fortress and palace uected by the Moors near Granada, Spain, in the thir­ Awterl.itt. Town in southern Cz.echoslovakia where, on Dc:cc:mber 2, 1805, Napoleon
tttnth and early founttn!h cenruries. decisively defeated the Russian and Austrian annies of Czar AJexander I and Emperor
Ambigu. Parisian !heater built in 1827; a central venue for popular melodramas. It WIU~ Francis II.
demolished in 1966. Azais, Pierre-Hyacinthe (1766- 1845). French philowphe:r. ln his SyJttme unWerstl(1800­
Amid.. Henri (182 1- 188 1). Swiss poet and philosopher; author of !he introSpective 1818), he dc:vdopcd a theory of forces and of "universal c:quilibriwn."
]ouTTUlI intime (1883-1884). Babeuf, Fran~is (1760-1797). Agitator and journalist during the French Rewlution,
Anardtanis. Scythian sage who, according to Herodotus, traveled widely to learn the advocating equal distribution of land and income. He organized a conspiracy to OVCI'
CUStoms of lIlany natiolU. throw !he Directory and return to ule collstitution of 1793 ; stabbed himself befon:
Ancdle, Narciue-Deaire (1801-1888). French lawyer. In 1844 Baudelaire's mother ap­ being summo ned to Ule guillotine. Author of a manifesto o n social equality (1796).
pointed him as her son's legal guardian. Babou. Hippolyte (1824- 1878). Critic and n()\'C;list, friend of Baudelaire.
Annenkov, Pavel (181 2- 1882). Russian man of letters, personally acquainted with Marx Baby Cadurn. Publicity. From Ule rosy·faced unage ofBebe Cadulll, symbol launched in
in !he 18405. France in 19 12 for the popular Cadulll soap.
Anschutz, OttomlU' (1846- 1907). fulish·bom Gennan phowgrapher whq conducted Babylone. Neighborhood of Paris (today $tvrc·Babylone).
experiments in high·speed photography; invented a tachyscope that was a forerunner Bachofen, Johann (1815-J881). Swiss anulfOpologist and jurist. Author of work!! 011
of the motion·picture apparatus. Roman civiJ law and of Das MUllermllt (186 1), ule first scientific history of the family
Antony. Play by AJexandre Dumas (1831). Its melancholy, star-crosscd hero influenced a as a social ulStitution.
generation of young Frenclunen. Bailly, jean (1736-1793). French scholar and politician. As mayor of Paris (1789), ~
Arago, Frafl90U (1786-1853). Scientist who investigated the !heory of light and eleClrO' imposed maniallaw and called up the Garde Nationale to keep order (1791 ); losl
lllagnewlll; director of the Paris observatory (1830). He tOok pan in the]uly Re,'Oiu­ popularity and was guillotined.
Rairam. Either of two M us lim religious festivals following the fast o f Ramadan. Belleville. W:1rking-class neigh borhood in Paris.
Ballhom,Johann (1528- 1603). Printer famous for his d isastrous emendations (identity Benda, Jullen (1867- 1956). Frend} plulosophical critic. Amo ng his works are 1.0.
\";th figure !Iallled in h",l is speculative). ikrgsoni.mU!, ou U~ Pllilosopllie sur/a mobilili (19 12) and La Fin ch l'ittrTU!1 (1929).
Ballard, Louis (l764-1846). French archiu::ct and engraver ; p rofessor at the Ecole des Bttaldi. Perhaps a mistake for Btrardi, Leon (18 17-?), journalist and director of
Beaux-Arts and the Ecole Polytcduuque. L'Indipcuiance beige.
banqueu . During the last months of Louis Philippe's reign, in 1847, the o pposition Berangtt, Pierre (1180-1851). Immensely pop ular lyric poet o f liberal political sympa·
organized a series of so-caI.led Reform banquets, at which spcakcn called for electoral thies.
rt:fonns. 8Craud, Henri (1885-1958). NO\'Clist and essayist who promoted nationalism and anti.
Banville, Theodore de (1823-189 1). Ebet, playwright, critic. Close friend of Baudelaire Semitism. Author of Lt Vitriol lk kllune (192 1; Goncoun prize).
9 and, with Charles Asscli.ncau, edilor of his works. Bcrgttct, Madame. Character in Anatole France's series L'HistoiTe cMtemjloraiM (1896­
Barbara, Charle. (1822-1886). Satirical writer acti\'C in the 1840s; a.uociated with Lt 1901).
CM;aire and the group o f bohemiaru! around H enri Murgcr. Bcd, Emmanuel (1892-1976). French writer and journalist, associated with the circle of
~, Armand. Republican leader. Co-conspirator with, and later archenemy o f, Surrealists around Brt:ton and Aragon.
LouIS·Auguste Blanqui, with whom he was imprisoned in the 1S50s. Berlioz, Hector (1803- 1869). French compo.scr, a pio neer of modem orchestration.
Barbey d 'AUftVilly, Jules (1808-1889). French critic and novelist; long·time friend of Bernard., Claude (18 13-1878). Noted physiologist. Investigated the sympathetic nerv­
Baudelaire. ous syston and the chemical phenomena of digestion.
Barbier, AUgusk (1805- 1882). Ebet whom Baudelaire admired but criticized for moral. de Saint-Picne,Jacques (1737- 1814). W riter who anticipated French roman.
istie tendencies. His lamlxs (1831) satirized the mo narchy of Louis Philippe. ticism. Autho r o f Paul et Virginie (1188).
Barnum, Phineas (18 10- 1891). American showman, connected with the circus bwiness. Bcrnouard, F~is. Frt:nch publisher. Friend o f Benjamin during the 1920s and 19305.
Opened "TIle Grt:ateS!. Show o n Earth" in Brooklyn in 1871. Bernstein, Eduard (1850- 1932). Gcnnan wri ter and politician. Co-cditor of /JeT SoUaJ­
Barrautt, Emile (1799- 1869). Saint-5imoluan writer and politician who publis hed in Lt dnnoArat (1881 - 1890). Associate o f Engels.
Globe and wrote many works on Saint-Simonianism. ' Berry, Charles Ferdinand (1118-1820). Last duke of Berry, a nephew ofLouis XVIII; in
Ban-es, Maurice (1862- 1923). W riter and politician. Called for the res toration o f "na. exile 1789-18 14. His assassination in Paris by a fanatical Bonaparrist led to a rt:action·
tio nal energy" to France. ary swing, countered by conspiracies.
Barrot, Odilon (179 1- 1873). Leader o f the liberal o pposition in France prior to February Benytt, Pierrc-Antoine (1790-1868). French lawyer and political figure ; legitimist.
1848. From December 1848 to October 1849, he headed the ministry supported by Bertin. Family famous for its association with Lt Journal chs dibats, which Louis-FranliOis
monarchists. Bertin (1766-184 1) purchased in 1799 and ran with his b rother, Louis-FraDt;Ois Bertin
Barthelemy, Auguste (1796-1861). Frt:nch poet and satirist. He edited the j0ur­ de Vaux (I n l - 1842). The sons o f the former, Annand (1801 - 1854) and Frant;Ois­
nal NimiJis, which attacked the government of Louis Philippe in 183 1- 1832. CoUabo­ Edouard (1791-1811) took over a5 editors from their father.
rated withJ oscph M6y from 1824 to 1834. BWIiographie de Ia.fhma. Official list of published books dclivued by law to the
Basilidiaw:. Follov.'Crs of Basilides, an Alexandrian G nostic of the early second ccnrury, Bibliotheque Nationa1e.
who preadlCd a radical dualism and transcendence of the Creator-God o f theJ ews. Bicdcrmcicr. Style of fumirurt: in Gcnnany (ca. 1815-1848), by forms that
BatignoUes. Vtlla~ that became part of Paris in 1860; a meeting place of artisu and att simpler and mort: sober than those o f the Empire style, and by Dora! motifs. Also a
politicians in the nineteenth century. \ . style of landscape and genre painting.
Bazard. Saint-Amand (1791-1832). Socialist, follower ofSaint-5imon, and o~ of Bicroc, Ambt'05C (1842-?19 14). American journalist and short-story writer_ Served in
the French Caroonari (Charoonniers). H e gave a lon g series o f lectures in Pari! (1828­ the Civil War. H e established his reputation with witty and caustic writings; hi! later
1830), wluch won many adhert:n ts to Saint-Simonianism. work is often bitter and gruesome.
Beaumo nt, Charlca (1821 - 1888). Frt:nch graphic artist, conoibu tor to Lt CluJrilJaTi. Biot,Jcan Baptiste (1114-1862). French mathelnatician, physicist, and astronomer.
Illustrated wor ks by H ugo and Sue. Bisson, Louis-Augwk. Pioneer photographer and early friend o f Nadar, who ovrocd a
Bdgrand, Eugene (18 10- 1878). Engineer who modernized sewer service for the City of copy of Bisson's portrait o f (1842).
Paris. Ar ranged official suppon for Nadar's photography o f the sewers. Au thor of Lts Blanc, Louis (18 11- 1882). Socialist leader and jou rnalist. Sponsored a guarantee of
'frmxl/Ix sout(1'Tains de Paris (1875). employment to workers d uring d le Provisional Government of 1848. Author of H istoir(
Bellamy, Edward (1850-1898). American author o f & dtward (1888), a utopian ch la Rivolutionftan{aise (1847- 1862).
romance based on socialist principles. . Blanqui,Jerome (I798- 1854). French economist; brother o f Louis-Augus te Blanqui.
BeUange. Pseudonym ofFran /ioisJoscph Belanger (1144-18 18), French architect famou! Blanqui, Louis-Auguste (1805-188 1). Radical acti vist and writer committed to pem a­
for his ilUlOvative usc of iron in the construction of the cupola of the old grain market nent revolu tion. After a classical lyceum educatio n in Paris, he studied law and medi­
in Pans. cine, but deVoted himself to conspiracy in d le Carbonari and other secret societies,
!klle Isle. Island in the Bay o f Biscay. From 1849 to 1857, it was a place of detention for becoming a leading socialist agitator. H e was often wounded in street fighting and spent
Frcnd l political prisoners : in particular, workers involved in the Paris uprising ofJwlC a tou1 of forty rears in prison, yet maintained a fiery patriotism. Author o f L'Et~iti
1848 \\'Crt: imprisoned there. paT les astm (1812) and Q,tique social (1885 ).
Blondel, Jacquea F~ (1705-1n4). Architect whose ideas gready influenced his Buchcz, Philippe (1796-1865). French Saint-Simonian; politi~ ~ historian. He was
contemporaries. He opened in Paris the fint an school to teach archit~ (1743), and a fOW\dcr of Christian 5Oci.a.Ii!m and president of the Coll5urutKmai AMcmbly (May
taught at the Acad6:nie Royale d'Architecture from 1756. 1848). Editor of I.:Attlitr (1840- 1850).
Blucher. Gebhard (1742- 1819). l'nwian 6dd marshal. Defeated Napoleon at Laon Buchner, Georg (1813-1837). Gemlan poet. Author of the dranlatic poem DantOrIJ Tod
(1814) and aided in the victory at Waterloo (1815), after which his army occupied (1835), the satire uonct und Will (1836), and the fragment~ tragedy Woyud (1836).
Paris. Bugeaud de la Pioonncrie. Thomas (1784-1849). French soldier. Was made marshal of
Boetticher, Karl Heinrich von (1833-1907). German archiltttural theorist; adviror to France in 1843.
Bismarck. Author of 1tkt01lik ikr Hdlmm (1844-1852). Bulwcr-Lytton, E. G . (1803- 1873). English novelist and dramatist. Author o r 1M lAst
BOhme, Margarete. Editor o r 7'aubucA nner Verlomtm (Diary of a Lost \\Oman; 1905). Days 0/ Pompeii (1834). . . .
Boileau, Nioow (1636-1711). Critic and poet in the classical tradition. Author of a BuonarTOti, Filippo (1761-1837). Italian·bom cider statesman of French radicalism m
highly influential didactic treatise in verse, EArt poitiqut (1674). the 18205 and 1830s. He was a member, with Louis-Auguste Blanqui. of the Society of
Boiuy-d'Anglu, comte F~is de (1756-1826). French statesman. Aided in the over­ Friends of the People in 1832, and leader of the Babeuvistcs (after Babcuf), who
lhrow of Robespiem:. He was a senator under Napoleon and a peer of France under advocated the revolutionary political role of education.
Louis XVIII. Buret, Antoine (1810-1842). French journalist who wrote on the p:weny of the working
Bonald, LoW. (1754-1840), Philosopher and publicist; minister of instruction under clM=.
Napoleon (1808). He was an extreme conservative in his policies. Cabet, Etienne (1788-1856). Frencll political radical, involved in the revolution of 1830.
Bonaparte, LoW. Napoleon. Set Napoleon III. Exiled 1834-1839 for radical writings. Influenced by Roben Owen, he fOW\ded a
Boom, Fran~ (1817-1887). Genre and still-life painter. The vitality orhis portraits is utopian community called k aria at Nauvoo, lllinois, in 1849: but withdrew in 1856
noted by Baudelaire. after dissension. Author of the socialist romance ~au tn leant (1839).
Bordeaux, Henry (1870-1963). Novelist and citic; known for his tales ofFrc:nch family Cacw. Fire-breathing monster, a son of Vulcan. He lives in a cave o n the Aventine hill,
life. where he is killed by Hercules (Atntid, book 8). .
Borel d 'Hauterive. Joaeph fttrua (1809-1859). French writer of extreme romantic ICagliostro, Count Alessandro di. Real name G.i uscp~ &bamo (17~3-1795); I~
tendencies. Published a coUection ofverse, RIw./JJ(xiieJ (1831 ), and two workl of fiction. impostor. Born of poor parents, he traveled Wldely m Europe, posmg as phYSIaan,
Bomstedt, Adalbert voo (1808-1851). Fonner officer of the Pnwian Guard who edited alchemist, freemason. . ..
Die DtutJd.t-B~kr Zntung. Active in the Communist League until expelled by Caillois, Roger (1913-1978). French writer ~ho f~ed ~e <:-OUege ~ SociolDglc III
M=. 1937, together with Georges Bataille and Michel Lciris. BenJamul occasionally attended
Boasuet,Jacquei (1627-1704). Catholic prelate and tutor to the dauphin. A theoretician events there.
of political absolutism and the divine right of kings. Calonne, Charlel (1734-1802). Minister of finance under Loui5 XVI; in .exile 1787­
Boucher, F~ (l703- lnO). French painter. Designer of sta~ sets for the Open. and 1802. He was a builder of roads and canals in the years before the Revolution. . .
book illustrator noted for his ornate style. Campanella, 1Ommaso (1568-1639). Italian philosopher. Author or. Civitas &,/u
BouUee, Etienne-LoW. (1728-1799). Architect active in Paris in the restoration and of the Sun; 1623), written during a long imprisonment and dCSOlbmg a UtOpUD state
construction ofbuildinV during the eightccnth century. similar to the one in Plato'S Republic.
Bourget, Paul (1852-1935). Novelist and citic. Molder of opinion among conservative CandoUe. Augustin (1778- 1841). Swiss botanist; moved to Paris ~ 1796. Established a
intcUeccuab in the pre-\\Orld War I period. sauctural system of plant classification that replaced that of Linnaew. Professor of
Boyer, PhiJoJ:me (1827-1867). Ibet and aitic who, coming into a large inheri~ in natural science at Geneva (1816-1834).
1850, for tWO years held dinners at the best restaurants in Paris for a circle ofwriten Canning, George (1770-1827). British statesman. Pursued vigorous war policy (1807­
that included Baudelaire. 1810).
Bracquemond, FeIiJ: (1833-1914). Painter and etcher. A friend of Baudelaire. Canova, Antonio (1757- 1822). Italian neoclassical sculptor.
Brandes, Georg (1842-1927). Danish literary citic, with a reputation for radicafu:rn. Capua. Strategically inlportam ancient Roman ciry on the AP.pian Wa~,.ncar ~aples.
Professor of aesthetics at the University o r Copenhagen, and author of studies on Capus, Alfred (1858- 1922). French journalist and playwnght; political editor of u
Shakespeare, 'bltaire, Goethe, Kicrkcgaard. Figaro 19 14-1922.1fu plays include La VtiJ'U' (1901) and u s /Xux Htttn~~ (1908) . .
BrUeis. Concubine of Achilles, in the ilUuJ. Carbonari. Italian revolutionarv group organized arowld 18 11 to establish a uruted
., . _-' ' 1(50£
Brummell, George. Called Beau BrulluneU (1778- 1840), he Wall an English dandy and republican Italy; named in honor o r old Wl.lO uscu to. mcct ill lU n
gambler, a friend of the Prince of Wales. He died in an insane asylum in France. charcoal burners. French Carbonarism (Clurbolulene), dl1Ceted agamst the Bourbo
Bruncseau. Character in Hugo's u s Misirahlts who supervises the cleaning and survey­ Restoration, was initiated in 1820 by several young republican militants, and spread
ing of the Paris sewers under Napoleon I. with great secrecy through the schools of Paris into other towns. . the
Brunet, Charles-Loub-Fortune (1801 -1862). French engineer and architect; student of Cared, Bertrand (1750-1812). French c1ockmaker. who, ~d 1800, ul\'eJlted
Vandoye r. Carccl lamp, in which oil is pUlllped by clock\\lOrk I~~O the W1~. rube.
Bruneticre, Vincent (1849- 1906). Critic and professor or literature at the Ecole Nor­ Cardanus Girolamo (1501- 1576). Italian mathemauclan, phySlctan, and astrologer.
male. Editor o r La RftlUt dtJ deux numMS (1893), and author of £tucks crih'quts (8 \'OIs. ; CIUjat, Etienne (1828- 1906). One of the greatest of dlC early photographers. Photo-­
1880-1907). graphed Baudclaire.
Carnot, Lazare (1753-1823). Statesman and military engineer. Member of the Conunit­ in French, no confwionai, and married priests. In 1848, he was an advocate of
~ee of.Public Saf~~ (1793) and the Directory (1795- 1797); aftenvard SCTVl:d Napoleon women's rights and quick divorce.
to vanous capaotlcs. Author of works on mathemauCII and m.ilitary strategy. See Ecole Chaux. Su Ledoux, Claude·Nicolas.
fulytechnique . Cherott, AndrC (1762-1794). Frcnch poet; guillotined in Paris,july 25, 1794. CoIl.'lidcrcd
Cupocratians. Foll~ ~f the sccond-cemury Alenndrian Gnostic Carpocrates, who by some to be the foremost practitioner of classical poetry in France after Racine and
preached the transnugratlon of the soul and the superlative humanity of Christ. Boileau.
Can-d, Nimlas Annaod (1800-1 836).joumalist and liberal politicallcader' co-fowKltt. Chcnncviera, Philippe de (1820- 1899). Writer, and director of the Ecole des Beaux­
with TIUCTS and Mignet, and editor (1830-1836) of Le NaJional. Killed byEmile d~ Am. Friend of Baudelaire, who uvicv.'ed his coUcction of shon stories, Conies nor­
Girardin in a duel. monds, in 1845.
9 C-;;~;-t Gwtav (1789- 1869). Gcnnan physician and philosopher; foll()\.\.ocr of Cheret,jules (1836-1932). French painter and litllographer, noted for his poster designs.
Chcvalitt, Michel (1806-1879). Economist, advocate of free trade, and foUower ofSaint­
Casanova, Giovanni (1725- 1798). Italian adventurer and writer; author of MimoirtJ Simon. Co-cditor of Le Globe (1830-1832), he was imprisoned with Enfamin in 1832­
icrits par lui-mime (12 vols., 1826-1838). 1833. Professor at the CoUege de France and councillor of state under Napoleon IU.
Cutdl~, VICtor Boniface (1788-1862). Funch politician who participated in military ChC"VCt. W1l·known mordwnd rk comtsh'hles in the Palais·RoyaJ. Mentioned by Balzac.
campaigns under Napoleon 1. Was made a peer in 1837, and scnator and rnart!chaJ in Chevrcul, Michel Eugene (1786-1889). Chemist; director of the natural history mu·
1852. scum,j ardin des Plantes (1864-1879). Developed margarine and stcarinc.
Cutlcrcagb, Robert Stewart (1769-1822). English statesman. Fought a duel with his Chintreuil, Antoine (1816-1873). Landscape painter whose technical exccUcncc is noted
rival George Canning in 1809. by Baudelaire.
Castles. An English government spy. Chirim, Giorgio de (1888- 1978). Italian painter. One of the founders of Surrealism.
Catllinc. Full name Luciw Scrgius Catalina (108-62 B.c.), Roman aristocrat who con­ ChodnJc.Dud08 (d. 1842). Called by Dumas a ~modcm Di~ncs," he shows up as an
spim:l ~nsuccessfully to overthrow Cicero's govemment in 63-62 B.C. He was sup­ usociatc of Socrates in a fragmentary drama by Baudelairc (ldlolus).
ported to Rome by debtors and discontented young patricians. Killed in battle. Chrysostom, SaintJohn (345?-407). A Father of the Greek church, born in Antioch. H e
Cauuidim, Marc (1808-1861). Organizer of SCOtt revolutionary societies WKler Louis was appointed bishop of CoIl.'ltantinoplc (398), later deposed and exiled to Armenia.
Philippe. Prefect of Paris police after February Revolution (1848). He emigrated to Author or influential homilies, commentaries, lcuCTS.
England inJune 1848. Citroen, Andre (1878-1935). Frcnch automobile manufacturer; made munitions during
Cavaignac. Louis (1802- 1857). French anny commander. As minister of war, he sup­ VW>r1d War I. Mter the war, he devoted his plant to the production of low-priced
pressed the Paris uprising in 1848. Unsuccessful candidate for president of France in automobiles. 1&nt bankrupt in 1934.
December 1848. Cladel, Uon (1835-1892). Funch Symbolist writer, disciple ofBaudclairc. Author of Les
Cazotte,Jacqua (1719-1792). Author of Le DitUJle amoureux (1772) and of a continuation MtutyrJ ridiwles (1862 ; coUaboration with Baudelaire), Les Va-nu-pitds (1873), and
of the 77tou.smu/ and One J(j"'ts. Guillotined u a Royalist in 1792. other flO\.-c1.5 and tales.
C~:linc, Louis-Ferdinand. Pseudonym of Louis Destouches (1894-1961), Frcnch physi­ Ctaes, Balthazar. Hero of Balzac's La Rulurcht tk l'ahJolu (1834).
cian and flO\.oclist ; fanatical anti-Semite. Author of the highly influential V~ au hout CIairville, Louis (1811-1879). Playwright. Wrote or co-authoud more than 600 stage
tk nuil (1932) and Mort Ii (ridit (1936). productions.
Cham. Pseudonym of comte Amedee de Nne (18 19-1879), French caricaturist. ~ . Ciaretic, julcs (1840-1913).J oumalist and author of novels, plays, and literary studies.
Champfleury. Pseudonym of jules Husson (182 1-1889), novelist, mtic' friend of Dircaor of the Fran~ (1885).
Baudelaire. Author of Le Rlalisme (1857). ' ... Oaudcl, Paul (1868-1955). fuet, dramatist, and diplomat. Associated with the Symbol­
La Chanb rk MtJdorrw. HallucinatOry prose work by LaurreaIUOnt, written 1867-1870. ist movement.
Chaptal,jcan-Antoinc, mmtc de (1756-1832). French physicist and chenUst. Mini5ter Oaudin, Gwtave (1823-?). Writer for several Parisian newspapers, beginning in the
of the interior (1800-1804). Founder of the first icok tks arts tI tks miliers. 18405.
u Chmiuari. Daily joumai founded by Charles Philipon (183 1), to which Daumler was La Clos~ tks GeniU. Play by Frederic Soulie, ftrst perfonned at the 1lleatrc Ambigu in
a constant contributor. lbc name signifies a jangling mock. screnade meant to hanus. 1846.
Charlet, Nimlas (1792-1845). French painter who glorified the soldiers of Napoleon's Cobbett, William (1763-1835). English political journalist. Shifted from attacking to
anny, alld whose works wcu extremely popular during tile first decades of the nine· defending political radicalism.
teenth century. Coacau,Jean (1889- 1963). Author alld filmmaker. Best kuoWll for his film La &lIe tlltl
Charrns,jean (1810-1865). French soldier and historian; un<icrsccutary of stat~ for war hilt (1946) and his play La Mad!i~ i'!!ernak (1934 ).
(1848). He opposed the policies of Napoleon III, and was banished after the coup Collins, (1824-1889). English novelist ; friend of Dickens. Author of 'f"ht Woman
d'etat (1851). in White (1860), The Moonstone (1868), The New Magdalrn (1873).
Chasles, Philattte (1798-1873). Scholar and writer. On the editorial staff of Le J ournal m lportage. System of distriboting books by traveling peddlers in the eiglueentll and
des &bat.s. Author of EludeJ de littiralure comparie (11 vob). ninetccnth centuries in France. From col, ~ neck," alld porter, ~ to carry," reflecting the
Ch i td, Ferd.i.nand-FI"IlDQI>is, abbe (1795-1857). Forbidden to puach because of his fact tllat colporteurs carried their wares on trays suspended from straps around their
unorthodox views, be founded the Egiisc Catholique F~ in 1830, witll scrvices necks. They disseminated religious alxi dcvotionalliteratuu, manuals, almanacs, col­
I«ci~ ~f folklo~ and popular tales, chivalric romances, political and philosophical Crepet,Jau:qucs (1874-1 952). Son of Eugene Crepet, he: continued the latter's work. in
worb Ul Ul~peruil"e, and, after 1840, suiaI nOlow. In decline by the mid-nine­ editing Baudclaire and revising the £tulk Inographiqu( (1906).
teellth century, due to competition from the popular press. Crevel, Ikne (1900- 1935). Novdisl, poet, es.sayist: anlOng the first Surrealist.!. Hc com­
~mmune ofParls. Revolutionary government established in Paris on March 18, 1871, nutted suicide in Ilaris. Author of Paul Klet (1930) and Dalt~ ou L'Anti-obs(Urantisme
III the aftermath of the Franco-Prussi3J) War. It wall suppressed by Adolphe Then's (1935).
govenunem in bloody strcet·6ghting that endro May 28, 1871 , leaving 20,000 Conunu­ Curtius, Ernst Robert (1814-1896). German classical philologist and archaeologist. A3
nards dead. director of antiquities in Berlin, he o\'crsaw the Gennan excavation ofOlympia, GrttCC
Comte de Saint-Leu. litle ass umed by Louis Bonapane (1778- 1846), brother of Napo­ (1875-1881 ).
leon Bonaparte and father of Napoleon III. Cuvier, Georges (1769- 1832). Naturalist and statesman; foundcr of comparative anat­
ConcU:, Le Grand (1621 - 1686). Louis II, prince de Condt':, a member of the Bourbon omy. He classified animals in temu of four distinct types.
family who wall a military leader under Louis XIv. d'Aurevilly. See Barber d'Aurevilly,Jules.
Conde, LouU HenriJoseph (1756-1830). Last prince of the Condt family, a branch of d 'Eichthals, Gwtave (1804-1886). Saint-5imonian follower of Enfantin and collabora·
the house of Bourbon. \\bunded at Gibraltar (1782). It is thought that he committro tor on the ncwspaper u Globe.
suicide. Da.cque, Edgar (1878-1945). French. paleontologist.
Condorcet, marquU de (1743-1794). Philosopher, mathematician, and In'Olutioniry. Daguern!, LouisJa.cquet (1787- 185 1). French. painter and inventor. Helped devdop the
Advocate of economic fittdom, religious toleration, legal and roucational reform. diorama in Paris (1822), and collaboratro with]. N. Nitpcc (1829-1833) on work
Outlawc~ as. a Girondist by Rohespierre, he died in prison. Author of Esquim d'un leading to the discovery of the daguerreotype proces.s, collununicatcd to the Academy
tabltau IlIslonqut deJ progriJ delbpril (1795). ofScienccs in 1839.
Congress of.lOurs. Socialist pany con~, at the end of 1920, marking a schism be­ Danae. In Greek mythology, the daughter of Eurydice and AaUiw, and mothe:r of
[Ween partu3Jlll of the Second Intcmanonal and those of the Third International. Perseus. She wall imprisoned by her fathc:r in a chamber of bronze.
CoruicU:rant, Victor (1809-1893). Disciple of Fourier and a leader of the Fourierisu after Dartou. TIlree brothers-FranCjois-Victor-Armand (1788-1867), Louis·Annand-lhlo­
1837. Author of Desh'nie SocUUt (1834). He triro to establish a phal3Jlllterian community dore (I786-1845), and Achille (1791-1868)-all active and occasionally working to­
ncar Dallas, Texas (1855-1857). gether in theater and vaudeville during the nineteenth century.
Constant, Benjamin (1767-1830). Franco-Swiss novelist and liberal politician; auoci.atc Daubrun, Marie (1827-1901). Noted French actress, bdlJ\!ed of Baudelaire. Inspired a
of the Schlegels and Madame de Stael. Author of Adolpht (1816). IWmber of poems in us !wm du mal.
I.e Cotutituliontul Daily newspaper published in Paris 1815-1870. During the 1840" it Daudet, Alphonse (1840-1897). Novelist who published a series of successful book.!
was the organ of moderate Orleanists. from 1866 to 1898. Father ofUon Daudct.
Coppec, F~u (1842-1908). Poet, playwright, flO\."CIist. A leading member of the Daudet, Uon (1867-1942). Son of Alphonse Daudct; joumalist and writer. Founded,
Pamassiaru. with Charles Maurras, the: royalist journal L'Actirm fitl1lf4Ut (1907). Author of novels,
fA ~aire-Salan. Satirical ~lewspaper issued in Paris 1844- 1849. It.! editor, Lepoitevin books on psychology and medicine, political woru, literary criticism.
Samt-Alme, had bee:n a friend of Balzac. It published the work of Baudelaire Nadar. David, (1810-1876). French. composer of popular and influential sym'
Banville, Murger, and others of their circle. ' , phonic odes--e.g., I.e Diserl (1844), H(mIlWlum (1859). Preached Saint-Simonian doc­
Courbct, Gustave (1819- 1877). Leading French realist painter. Presidro over the Com­ aine in the Middle East.
mittee of rille Arts during the Commune (1871). H e wall irnprisoned six months for David,Ja.cqucs-Louis (1748-1825). French painter sympathetic to the Revolution or
destroying the column in tI)e Place VendOme, and was condemned (1875) to pay for 1789; an admirer of Robespierre and, later, Napoleon. His neoclassical portraits of
restoration of the column. revolutionary heroes influenced the: development of academic painting in France.
Courier, Paul (lm-1825). French writcr and political pamphleteer who was mu!-dered. Deburau, Baptiste (1796-1846). Acrobat's son who tranSformed the character Gilles of
Opponent of tile clergy 3J)d the Restoration. commedia dell'arte into the wily cltameleon Pierrot. His son Charles (1829-1873), a
Cournot, Antoinc (1801 - 1877). Economist and mathematician, who sought to apply the star during the Second Empire although without his father's genius, was photographed
calcullili of probabilities to the solution of economic problcnu. by Nadar.
Court of Cassation. Established in 1790 as the highest coon of appeals in the French Dec.embrisu. Participants in the uruucces.sful plot to OIo'erthrow Czar Nidlolas I, in
legal system. During the &cond Empire, it tended to serve the interest.! of the bou.... Dcamber 1825.
geoisie, who had come to power under Louis Philippe, and thus representro a ch.cck on Delaroch.e, Paul (1797- 1856). Frencll ponnil and historical painter. Founder of the
the powcrofNapolcon III and Baron HalilismaJUl. . Ecl«tic school, whicll united clauicalline with romantic color and subject matter.
Cowin }\)ns. Main charactcr in Balzac's nlJ\!el U Cousin PofU (1847). Delatouche, Hyacinthe (1785-185 1). Author of a novel about a hennaphrodite,
Cowin, VICtor (1792- 1867). French. philosopher and statesman; leader of the Eclectic Fragoletta (1829).
school. Author of Philruophie de Kant (1842), and Hisloir( ginbalt de la philOJophie Delescluze, Louu Charles (1809-187 1). Politician 3Jld joumalist, active in the 1830 and
(1863). 1848 revolutions. A leader of the Paris Commun~ , he was killed on tllC barricades in
Crepet, Eugene (1827- 1892). French. man of lettcrs. Edited Baudelaire's CkuIlrtS prut­ May 1871.
humtJ, PrldJitJ d'unt ntJtice biographiqu( (1887). Delessert, Gabriel (1786- 1858). Prefect of Paris police, 1836-1 848.
Ddonl., Tuilc (1815-1877). French joumali.!t. Editor of Le CAariuari 1848- 1~51:1. and Du Camp, Maxime (1822- 1894). Writu; friend of Haubert. W>rked with Baudelaire
author of Plr.ysiologic de 10 Porisicu'll! (1841 ). on La RelJue de Paris. Decorated by Cavaignac for service in the Garde: Nationale
DdoJ'Dlc..Joaeph. Main character in VU', poisiu ct pmsia de Joseph IXlornu, by Sainte­ during theJune Days. Author of Lu CllantJ moderneJ (1855) and a six-volume account
Bcuve (1829). of ninetccnth-century Paris (1869- 1875).
Ddvau, Alfred (l825-1867).J ournalUt and friend of Baudclairc. Author of Les HlUrrJ Ducange, Victor Henri (1783- 1833). Author of novels and drama:! during the Restora­
parisinlMS(1866). tion. Imprisoned several times for his liberalism.
de Maistre.Joseph (1753- 182 1). Diplomat and writer admired by Bauddaire. Author of Ducu:Ie, u idor. See Lauuiamont, comte de.
Les &lates de Saint-lftmhl1urg (182 1), which argued for the absolute rule of sovueign Dulamon, Frederic (1825- 1880). Literary bohemian, an associate of Baudclaire.
and pope. . rs ' C" •• ho . Dulaure, J aoques (1755-1835). Deputy during the Convention and active defender of
Demar, Claire (1800-1833). Enthusiasuc follov.-er 0 amt~unoruarusm w corruruttcd the revolutionary cause during the Restoration. Author of an influential Histoire de
9 suicide. Author of the manifato Ma fAi d'alX1lir (1834).
u Paris (1821 - 1827).

J La ~ ~. FourieriJt daily edited by VICtor Corulidtrant; published in

Paris 1843- 1851.
Dumu, Alexandre (pttc:) (1802- 1870). Enormously popular French llO\'efut and
dramatist who, thanks to his fine handwriting, became secretary to the future Louis
Dcmocl'itw. Greek atomist philosopher of the late fifth century B.c. He thought that Philippe and embarked on a succcssfulliterary career in the popular press.
images (eidola) of a body an! given off when this body is perceived, and that these DumlU, J ean (1800-1884). Chemist who founded the Ecole Centrale des Arts et
images enter the pores of the viewer. Manufactures in Paris (1829). Studied vapor dcosity and the composition of the atmo­
Denner, Balthasar (1685-1749). Gcnnan portrait painter. sphere.
Dcnoery, Adolphe (1811-1899). French playwright and librettist. Dupont, Piene (182 1- 1870). fupular lyric poet and songwriter. Author of La Deux
des F.sacintu. Hypersensitive: hero of Huysmam' novel, If. Rtbtnm (1884). Anges (1842) and it CIum, des oUl/rim (1846). Subject of twO essays by Bauddaire.
[)c:snoyen, Femand (1828-1869). Bohemian writer and friend of Baudelaire. Co-cdi.ted Duquesnay,Jean (1800-1849). Architect for the original building of the Ecole des Mines
the FtstJdiri/l which published the twO "CdpuscuJe" poem5. and for the Care de l'Est in Paris.
Deubel, Leon (1879- 1913). Frenchpotte maudit. Duval,Jeanne. French mulatto, a prostitute and actreSS, who was Bauddaite's mUtres5
DevCria, Eugene (1805-1865). French historical painter; brother of Achille Devtria for many yean and the inspiration for several ofhis poems.
(1800-1851). Both were praised by Baudelaire. Du~-eyrier, Anne Honore (1787- 1865). Playwright who collaborated with Eugene
Diogeoa (412?-323 a c.). Greek cynic philosopher who, in purswt of an a5Cdic ideal, Scribe and others, including his own brother Charles Du~-eyrier.
lived in a rub. Supposed to have wandered the streets once holding up a lantern, ....... Duvcyricr, Charles (I803- 1866). French lawyer and writer; disciple of Saint-Simon.
"looking for an honest man." Foundcd the journal it Cridit.
Diorama. See panoramas. Ecole des Beaux·Arts. School of fine arts founded (as the Academie Royale d%clUtec·
Directory. In France, the period immediatdy following ~e Convention-that. il, October ture) in 1671 in Paris, undu Louis XN. Merged with the Academie Royale de Peinture
27, 1795, to November 9, 1799. It was a period of prolligacy, of nouveaux nches, of the et de Sculpture (founded 1648) in 1793. Particularly influential in the field of architcc­
retum of nobles from exile, and it ended with France on the vugt of bankruptcy. tura] design during the Second Empire.
Diaderi, Adolphe-Eugene (18 18-1889). French entrepreneur. He introduced mass­ Ecole Normandc. Croup of young poets with a taSte for technical virruosity; flourished
manufacturing principles into portrait photography in 1859 and amass~ .a fortune in the early 1840:! at the Pension Bailly in the heart of bohemian Paris. It centered
before the collapse of the Second Empire. Inventor of the popular carte de Ul.Slte (pocke~ around Gustave Le Vavasseur, Ernest Prarond, and Philippe de Chennevieres, and
portrait). . . . included Bauddaire. Most members were devout monarchists who, in 1848, became
DOblin, Alfred (1878-1957). Gennan physician and wnter; m exile from 193~. Author fierce opponents of the new republic.
of &rlin Af~antkrpiah. (1929). . . . , Ecole I\>lytedtnique. Engineering school established in 1794 by the National Conven­
Dore Gwtaft (1833-1883). French artist belt known for his illustrations of Balzae s tion as the Ecole Centrale des Travaux Publics, undu the direction of I...azare Camot
u,;tes droiahqutJ (1856 edition) and Cervantes' Don Qyixote (1863 edi~on). and Gaspard Monge; took its present name in 1795. It was tnmsfonned into a military
Doumergue, Guton (1863-1937). Left-wing statesman. Twclfth president of France school by Napoleon in 1804.
(1924-1931). Edison, Thomu Alva (1847- 1931). AnJ(~.rican inventor. Invented the Kinetograph, the
Dozon, Auguste (1822- 1891). French diplomat and scholar of the Balkans who a-ans. frrst mle motion picture camera, in 1889, as an accompaniment to his vastly successful
lated poetry from Bulgarian and Albanian. .. . phonograph.
Drouet,Julktte (1806-1883). Actress with whom Hugo began a liaison ?1l833. She L'EductJlioli smti~k. Novel by F1auben of 1870, presenting a vast panorama of
renounced the Stage to devote herself to 1Um, disaeetly, until her death.. . French daily life under theJuly Monarchy.
Dnunont, Edouard (1844-1917). Anti-Semitic and anti·Dreyfusard JOumalist who Eilfd, Alo:and.f'e.Gwtaft (1832- 1923). French engineer, a foundu of aerod ynamics.
founded and edited La Libre Parole. Author of the influential La FrancejuiVt: (1886). Built severa] arched bridges of iron and, for the Paris Exhibition of 1867, the arched
Du BartaI, Guillaume (1544- 1590). French poet. Author of an epic of creation, La GaIeric de.. Mach.i.lles. He was known ruI "the magician of iron" artu his construction
Semaine (1578). of the Eiffellower (1887- 1889).
Enfantin, Barth8em y-Prospcr (1796- 1864). Saint-Simonian leader, known as Perc: En­ Floue, Etienne-Guton, baron de (1805- 1S82). Catholic royalist poet and writer from
fanUn. The modd community he established at M~nilmonlaIlL in 1832 was charac­ Marseilles who was the author of an eSlay on the literature ofhis city.
terized by famastic sacerdotaii.nn and freedom betwecn the sexes. After serving o n the Flourem, PitrTe (1794-IS67). French physiologist ; professor at the College de Frana:.
ScientiSc Conunission on Algeria, he became the first din::ctor of the Lyons Railroad Author of De "11lJh"nct tI tk I'intelligtntt des animau:c (1841 ).
Company (1845). Fontaine, Piern: (1762- 1853). Chief architect for Napoleon. Retained the favor of Louis
Engelmann, Codd"roi (1788- 1839). French lithographer responsible for the introduc­ XVIII and Louis Philippe.
tion of the &nefclder process in France. Fontanara. Hero of Balzac's play LeJ ReJJouras M Qyinola (IS42), SCt in the sixteenth
Enniw, Qyintw (239-169 s.c.). Roman poet, a founder of Latin literature. Author of century.
tragedies, comedies, and the epic poem Amuun Only fragments of his wo rk remain. Fontanes, Louis de (1757-IS2 1). Writer and statesman. President of the Corps Ugislatif
Epinal. Town in northeastern France famous for its production of scntimental rcligiolLS (1804); senator (1810); member of the privy council under Louis XVI I I.
paintings. Ford, Heruy (1863- 1947). American automobile manufacturer. Introduced profit sharing
Erler, Fritz (1868- 1940). German graphic artist prominent inJugcndstil; set designer for in the Ford Motor Company (1914).
the Munich Artists' Theater. He was criticized by Kandinsky for his "willful original­ Fonmge,Jeao Camille (1845- 1926). French architect.
ity." Fouque, Friedrich d e La Motte (Im - I843). German romantic writer. Author of the
Esmtnard,Joecph -Alphoruc (1769-1811 ). Frttlch publicist and poet who wrote for fA popular fairy talc Undine (1811), which was ~ to music by E. T. A. Hoffmann.
OEotidimne and other journals. Author of the long poem fA Nauigahfm (1805). Fouquet,Jeao (l4 16?- 1480). French painter at the court of Louis Xl Known especially
Etzd, Karl von (1812- 1865). Engineer responsible for the construction of many central for his illumination of Lium d'heureJ.
train Stations and railroad nern-orks in Germany and Switzerland. Fouraoy, Antoine (1755-1809). Chemist. Co-author, with Antoine Lavoisier, of Methode
Eugerue (1826- 1920). Empress of France (1853-1871) as wife of Napoleon III. tk nomenclature chimique (1787).
Euler, Leonhard (1707-1783). Swiss mathematician and physicist. Fourier, Charles (1772- 1837). Frttlch social theorist and ruonner who advocated a
Evadamism. See Ganeau. cooperative organiz.a.tion of society into communities of produa:rs known as phalan­
Faguet, Emile (1847- 1916). Literary critic and professor at the SorbOlUle. Author of stcries. Author of TMorie MJ quam moutJmlents (1808), Trail! de l'aJJocWtion agriro/e
books on Comeille, La Fontaine, Voltaire, and Flaubert. u
dinneslique (1822), Nouutau Monde induJhitl (1829- 1830), fA lndustrie morufie
Falloux, comte Frbittk (18 11- 1886). French politician; minister of public instruction (1835-1836).
(1848- 1849). He introduced the law known as the Loi FaUoux, mandating freedom of Fournier, Man: (1818- 1879). Swissjoumalist and author; in Paris from 1838. Direaorof
instruction (passed 1850). the l"heatrc de Ja FUrte de Saint-Martin (1851), for which he wrote many popular
FanMmm. Cycle of popular rn't:ntieth-cenlury thrillers by Marccl Allain (1885- 1969). dramas in the IS50s.
Favnu, marqw. d e (1744-1790). Army offia:r who planned the escape of the roya1 Fraisse, Armand (1830-1877) . Critic and joumalis! \\'Orking out of Lyons. Admirer of
family at the outbreak of the Revolution (1789). Captured and hanged. Baudclaire's poems.
Fcbtuary Rtvolution. Refers to the o"llerthrow of Louis Philippe's constitutio nal monar­ Franoe, Anatole. Pseudonym ofJacques Thbaul t (1844--1924), satirical novelist, critic,
chy in February 1848. poet, and playwright. Au!hor of u Crime tk S,/ooirt &mnmd (1881); and of an Histoire
Fcdt'raJ. Diet (BuntkJtag) . Central organ of the German Confederation from ISI5 to u
amtemporaine, including the volumes Mannequin d'Dsi" (IS97) and Afrm.sieu,. &rgtret
1866. Consisting of representatives of the German states, it was used by German aParis (190 1).
govmu:nalu to carry ilirough their policies. ... F~is I (1494-1547). King of France (1515-1547). HU reign was marked by a Renais­
Fern.gus. Main character in BaIzac's novel of the same name (1833). sance of the artS .
Ferry, Ga briel. Pseudonym of Gabriel de Bellemare (1809-1852), Frendl writer and Frederick III (1831 - 1888). Opponent of Bismarck; patron of literature and science.
contributor to La Reuue MS fku:c mrPUUs. J Succeeded his father, Wdhc:lm I, on March 9, 1888, bu! died of cancer after three
Feval, Paul (18 17- 1887). and playwright. Author of Le; Mp lms de Londm months.
(1844) and u Bossu (1858). Frigier, Honore-Antoine (1789- 1860). fblia: officer. Author of Des C/o.sses dangertu.leJ
Fidw. Pseudonym of H ugo H6ppmer (IS6S- 1948), Gennan architect and painter of (1840).
J ugcndstil. Der Fmschii.b.. Opera by Carl Maria von W:ber (182 1).
Fiesch..i, Giuseppe (1790- 1836). Corsican conspirator. Made an unsuccessful attempt 011 Fuller, Loie (l862- 1928). American dancer who achieved international acclaim through
the life of Louis Philippe in 1835 with his "infernal machine,n killing eighteen IX'Ople. her irulOvations in theatrical lighting and her invention of the "scrpcntine n dance
U ~ Conservative paper pu blished in Paris from 1854; a daily from .1866. Con· (1889), invol"lfing lengt.hs of silk. mani pulated under colored lights.
nected with the government of the Second Empire. Fustel de Coulanges, Nwna Denis (1830- 1889). French historian; specialist in ancient
Figuier, Guillaume LoW. (18 19-1894). Writer; popularizer of science. and medieval history.
L4 Fin de $4tan. Unfinished and posthumously published epic poem by Victor Hugo Gambetta, Leon (1838- 1882). Lawyer; leader of the opposition to Napoleon Ill. Es­
(1886: written IS54- 1860). caped Paris by balloon during the Franco-Prussian war. Premier of Frana: (1881 ­
Flacon , Ferdinand (1800- 1866). French politician and publicist : ed itor of the newspaper 1882).
La Rlforme. He was a member of the I'ro\.jsional GO"l'emmelll of 1848. Ganeau (or GillUleau) (1S05- IS51 ). Sculptor and pamphletttr who, around 1835,
founded the religion known as Evadamism (Eve + Adam), which called for the fwion Grand ChAte1ct. Ancient fertress in Paris that sctved as both courthouse and prison.
of the sexes. Took the name It MapaJi (mater + pater), and scm his androgynous Grandville. Pseudonym ofJean-Ignace· Isidore G6ard (1803- 1847), caricaturist and il·
sculprures to politicians. Iuslmtor whose work appeared in the periodical! u Chariuari and Lo. Cmiauurt. Un
Gautier, Judith (1850-1917). fuet and 11O\'Clist; daughter ofTltCophile Gautier. Author Aufrt Mlmde, with illustrations by Grandville and text by Taxile Ddord, editor of u
of Richard Wagntr (1882) and Rturs d'Oritrlt (1893). Clrariuari, appeared in 1844.
Gautier, Theophile (1811-1872). French man of letters. A leader of the Pamassiaru. Granier d e Cauagnac. Adolphe (1808-1880).J oumalist and ardent Bonapanist after
Gavami, Paul Pseudonym of Sulpice Chevalier (1804-1866), French illustrator and 1850. Editor of u Pap; author of Souutnirs du &cond Empirt (1879).
caricaturist, best known for his sketches of Parisian life. GriUparzer, Franz (1791-1872). Ausman playwriglu and poet.
Gavroche. Chanaer in us MiJirahks (part rv, book 6). grisctte. Refers to a [)'pc of proletarian young woman in Paris who was a5sociat«i with
Gay,Jules (1807- 1876). French utOpian communist. such lmdes as .seanlStrcss, chambcnnaid, or milliner, and whose behavior was suppos·
G ay-Lwsac,Josepb (1n8- 1850). French chemist and physicist. edly charaaerizcd by independence, loose morals, and a brash manner. TI'iC tenn
Gdfroy, Gustave (1855-1926). Parisianjoumalist and novdut; art critic for Lo. ]UJtiu. derives from the gray color of the material used for working-class clothing.
Wrote biographies of Charles Meryon and Louis·Auguste 8lanqui. Gronow, Captain Rccs Howell (1794-1865). English military officer. Fought at Water­
Geoffroy Saint·Hilaire, Etienne (1772- 1844). French naturalist who propounded a sin· loo, and went on to become a London dandy and gambler. Resided in Paris from the
gle type of structure throughOut the animal kingdom. Violently opposed by Georges late 18305. Published four volumes of reminiscences (186 1- 1866).
Cuvier. Gropius, Karl Wilhelm (1783-1870). Cennan architect who spcciali.zcd in theater dhor.
Gb-ard, FraJl9)b (1770-1837). French historical and painter. Opened a diorama in Berlin in 1827, with views ofGrcece and Italy.
Gcrsticker, Friedrich (1816-1872). German traveler and author of advmture stories Groa, Baron Antoine (Inl-1835). French lilitorical painter; studied under David,
often set in North America. whose classical theory he adopted.
Gervtt. Henri (1852- 1929). French painter, identified with the Impressionist school. Grim, Karl (18 17-1887). Gennan writer and publicist; follower of Feuerbach. Member
Gervinus, Georg (1805- 1871 ). Gcmlan historian. of the Prussian Natienal Diet. Representative of ~true socialism" in'the 1840s.
Giedion, Sigfried (1888-1 968). Swiss art historian. FlflIt secretary of the Congres lnter­ GriinderjaIrrm. Refers to reckless 6nanciaI speculation; specifically, four yean of such
nationale d'ArchitCctUre Moderne (1928). Professor at Harvard from 1938. Author of spcrulation foUowing the Franco-Pruuian war of 1870-1871.
&wtrl in Frani."ich (1928). Guaita, StanisLu (1861-1897). Ita1ian·bom French poet and mystic, one-time associate
Girardin. Emile de (1806-1881). lnaugurat«i low·priced journalism with his editOrship - of Maurice Barres. Author of us Oiseaux de ~ (1881 ), La Mwe noire (1883).
of La f'rtm (1836-1856, 1862-1866), at an annual subscription rate of forty francs. -.... Gudin, Theodore (1802-1880). French painter of.seascapes and landscapes.
Member of the C hamber of Deputies (1834-1851; 1877- 188 1). Guilbert, Yvette (1868-1944). French singer.
Glrardin, Mme. Delphine (1804-1855). Writing under the pseudonym Charles Guillot, Adolphe (1836-1892). Member of the Acad6ni.e dcs Sciences Morales. Pub­
de Launay, she published novw, comedies, verse, and a serics entitled utlm Pari- lished many works on sociology and on the city of Paris.
Sltnllts. Guizot, F~b (1787-1874). Historian and statesman. Premier of France, 1840-1848;
Gbquet (1792- 1866). PrtJea of Paris police 1831-1836. forced OUt of office by the Revolution of 1848.
u GloM. Important Parisian newspaper founded and edited by Piem: Leroux in 1824; Guttkow, Karl (1811-1878). German journalist, novelist, playwright. A leader, &om
bcame the organ ofSaint-Simonianism in 1830. 1830 to 1850, of \bung Germany's revolt against Romanticism. Author of Die Ritter
Godin,Jean (1817- 1888). French and social refonner, influenced by Fourier; oom Cditt (1850-1852), which initiated the modern Gennan social novel.
established a familist~re among his operativcs. Author of Solution.! socialts (1871 ). Guys, Constantin (1802-1892). Dutch·bom illustrator; won fame for sketches of Pari­
Gorgiu (485?-380 B.C.). Greek Sophist and rhetorician. InUlIOrtalized by Plato in lili sian life duri ng tlle Second Empire. His ink drawings and watercolors are the subject of
dialogue G<J