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PRANITH KUMAR V WINDOWS XP USEFUL TIPS AND BASICS

How to Remove Windows XP's Messenger Theoretically, you can get rid of it (as well as a few other things). Windows 2000 power users should already be familiar with this tweak. Fire up the Windows Explorer and navigate your way to the %SYSTEMROOT% \ INF folder. What the heck is that thingy with the percentage signs? It's a variable. For most people, %SYSTEMROOT% is C:\Windows. For others, it may be E:\WinXP. Get it? Okay, on with the hack! In the INF folder, open sysoc.inf (but not before making a BACKUP copy first). Before your eyes glaze over, look for the line containing "msmsgs" in it. Near the end of that particular line, you'll notice that the word "hide" is not so hidden. Go ahead and delete "hide" (so that the flanking commas are left sitting next to one another). Save the file and close it. Now, open the Add and Remove Programs applet in the Control Panel. Click the Add / Remove Windows Components icon. You should see "Windows Messenger" in that list. Remove the checkmark from its box, and you should be set. NOTE: there are other hidden system components in that sysoc.inf file, too. Remove "hide" and the subsequent programs at your own risk. Set the Search Screen to the Classic Look When I first saw the default search pane in Windows XP, my instinct was to return it to its classic look; that puppy had to go. Of course, I later discovered that a doggie door is built into the applet. Click "Change preferences" then "Without an animated screen character." If you'd rather give it a bare-bones "Windows 2000" look and feel, fire up your Registry editor and navigate to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Software \ Microsoft \ Windows \ CurrentVersion \ Explorer \ CabinetState. You may need to create a new string value labeled "Use Search Asst" and set it to "no". New Sound Blaster Drivers With the loads of problems reported by users with Soundblaster cards on Windows XP Creative has stepped up and offered drivers for at least some models of their Sound Blaster cards, but check your particular model closely.

I have downloaded the SB128 drivers and my sound problems have been resolved..! So they do work. Upgrading to Windows XP You can upgrade a computer that runs Windows 98, 98SE, or Me to Windows XP Home Edition. Those same versions, along with Windows NT Workstation 4.0 and Windows 2000 Professional, can be upgraded to Windows XP Professional. (1).To ensure a smooth upgrade and avoid networking problems, follow these tips before starting the upgrade: (2)Install all network cards. XP will detect them and automatically install the right drivers. (3)Have your Internet connection available. The XP setup process will connect to a Microsoft server to download the latest setup files, including changes that have been made since XP was released. Some programs are incompatible with XP and can cause networking problems. Un-install these programs. After the upgrade is complete and the network is working, re-install XP-compatible versions of these programs: Internet Connection Sharing, NAT, Proxy Server Anti-Virus Firewall.

How to Upgrade Windows 98 or Windows Millennium Edition Profiles to Windows XP Domain User Profiles This guide describes how to upgrade a Microsoft Microsoft Windows 98based, or Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition-based client that has user profiles to a Microsoft Windows XP-based client. The following steps enable the Windows 98 and Windows Millennium Edition (Me) profiles to be retained throughout the process. Your best method to retain the profiles is to join the domain during the upgrade installation process. Otherwise, you must use a workaround method to transfer the profile information over to the Windows XP profile. During the upgrade installation process, at the networking section, the administrator is offered the choice to join a domain or a workgroup. If you join the domain at this juncture, you ensure that all the existing profiles are migrated successfully to the Windows XP-based installation.

If you did not join the computer to the domain during the upgrade process, you must use the following workaround method: Join the upgraded computer to the target domain. All applicable users must log on and log off (which generates a profile). Copy the appropriate Application Data folder from the Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me profiles to the newly created user profiles.

How to make your Desktop Icons Transparent Go to ontrol Panel > System, > Advanced > Performance area > Settings button Visual Effects tab "Use drop shadows for icon labels on the Desktop"

Speed up your browsing of Windows 2000 & XP machines Here's a great tip to speed up your browsing of Windows XP machines. Its actually a fix to a bug installed as default in Windows 2000 that scans shared files for Scheduled Tasks. And it turns out that you can experience a delay as long as 30 seconds when you try to view shared files across a network because Windows 2000 is using the extra time to search the remote computer for any Scheduled Tasks. Note that though the fix is originally intended for only those affected, Windows 2000 users will experience that the actual browsing speed of both the Internet & Windows Explorers improve significantly after applying it since it doesn't search for Scheduled Tasks anymore. Here's how : Open up the Registry and go to : HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/Microsoft/Windows/Current Version/Explorer/RemoteComputer/NameSpace Under that branch, select the key : {D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF} and delete it. This is key that instructs Windows to search for Scheduled Tasks. If you like you may want to export the exact branch so that you can restore the key if necessary.

This fix is so effective that it doesn't require a reboot and you can almost immediately determine yourself how much it speeds up your browsing processes Set up and Use Internet Connection Sharing With Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) in Windows XP, you can connect one computer to the Internet, then share the Internet service with several computers on your home or small office network. The Network Setup Wizard in Windows XP Professional will automatically provide all of the network settings you need to share one Internet connection with all the computers in your network. Each computer can use programs such as Internet Explorer and Outlook Express as if they were directly connected to the Internet. You should not use this feature in an existing network with Windows 2000 Server domain controllers, DNS servers, gateways, DHCP servers, or systems configured for static IP addresses. Enabling ICS The ICS host computer needs two network connections. The local area network connection, automatically created by installing a network adapter, connects to the computers on your home or small office network. The other connection, using a 56k modem, ISDN, DSL, or cable modem, connects the home or small office network to the Internet. You need to ensure that ICS is enabled on the connection that has the Internet connection. By doing this, the shared connection can connect your home or small office network to the Internet, and users outside your network are not at risk of receiving inappropriate addresses from your network. When you enable ICS, the local area network connection to the home or small office network is given a new static IP address and configuration. Consequently, TCP/IP connections established between any home or small office computer and the ICS host computer at the time of enabling ICS are lost and need to be reestablished. For example, if Internet Explorer is connecting to a Web site when Internet Connection Sharing is enabled, refresh the browser to reestablish the connection. You must configure client machines on your home or small office network so TCP/IP on the local area connection obtains an IP address automatically. Home or small office network users must also configure Internet options for Internet Connection Sharing. To enable Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) Discovery and Control on Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows Millennium Edition computers, run the Network Setup Wizard from the CD or floppy disk on these computers. For ICS Discovery and Control to work on Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows Millennium Edition computers, Internet Explorer version 5.0 or later must be installed. To enable Internet Connection Sharing on a network connection

You must be logged on to your computer with an owner account in order to complete this procedure. Open Network Connections. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double–click Network Connections.) Click the dial–up, local area network, PPPoE, or VPN connection you want to share, and then, under Network Tasks, click Change settings of this connection. On the Advanced tab, select the Allow other network users to connect through this computer's Internet connection check box. If you want this connection to dial automatically when another computer on your home or small office network attempts to access external resources, select the Establish a dial–up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the Internet check box. If you want other network users to enable or disable the shared Internet connection, select the Allow other network users to control or disable the shared Internet connection check box. Under Internet Connection Sharing, in Home networking connection, select any adapter that connects the computer sharing its Internet connection to the other computers on your network. The Home networking connection is only present when two or more network adapters are installed on the computer. To configure Internet options on your client computers for Internet Connection Sharing Open Internet Explorer. Click Start, point to All Programs, and then click Internet Explorer.) On the Tools menu, click Internet Options. On the Connections tab, click Never dial a connection, and then click LAN Settings. In Automatic configuration, clear the Automatically detect settings and Use automatic configuration script check boxes. In Proxy Server, clear the Use a proxy server check box. Set Processes Priority Follow this tip to increase the priority of active processes, this will result in prioritisation of processes using the CPU.

CTRL-SHIFT-ESC 1.Go to the second tab called Processes, right click on one of the active processes, you will see the Set Priority option 2.For example, your Run your CDwriter program , set the priority higher, and guess what, no crashed CD’s Set Permissions for Shared Files and Folders Sharing of files and folders can be managed in two ways. If you chose simplified file sharing, your folders can be shared with everyone on your network or workgroup, or you can make your folders private. (This is how folders are shared in Windows 2000.) However, in Windows XP Professional, you can also set folder permissions for specific users or groups. To do this, you must first change the default setting, which is simple file sharing. To change this setting, follow these steps: •Open Control Panel, click Tools, and then click Folder Options. •Click the View tab, and scroll to the bottom of the Advanced Settings list. •Clear the Use simple file sharing (Recommended) check box. •To manage folder permissions, browse to the folder in Windows Explorer, right–click the folder, and then click Properties. Click the Security tab, and assign permissions, such as Full Control, Modify, Read, and/or Write, to specific users. You can set file and folder permissions only on drives formatted to use NTFS, and you must be the owner or have been granted permission to do so by the owner. Search For Hidden Or System Files In Windows XP The Search companion in Windows XP searches for hidden and system files differently than in earlier versions of Windows. This guide describes how to search for hidden or system files in Windows XP. Search for Hidden or System Files By default, the Search companion does not search for hidden or system files. Because of this, you may be unable to find files, even though they exist on the drive. To search for hidden or system files in Windows XP: Click Start, click Search, click All files and folders, and then click More advanced options. Click to select the Search system folders and Search hidden files and folders check boxes.

NOTE: You do not need to configure your computer to show hidden files in the Folder Options dialog box in Windows Explorer to find files with either the hidden or system attributes, but you need to configure your computer not to hide protected operating system files to find files with both the hidden and system attributes. Search Companion shares the Hide protected operating system files option (which hides files with both the system and hidden attributes) with the Folder Options dialog box Windows Explorer.

Restricting Logon Access If you work in a multiuser computing environment, and you have full (administrator level) access to your computer, you might want to restrict unauthorized access to your "sensitive" files under Windows 95/98. One way is to disable the Cancel button in the Logon dialog box. Just run Regedit and go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Network/Logon Create the "Logon" subkey if it is not present on your machine: highlight the Network key -> right-click in the left hand Regedit pane -> select New -> Key -> name it "Logon" (no quotes) -> press Enter. Then add/modify a DWORD value and call it "MustBeValidated" (don't type the quotes). Doubleclick it, check the Decimal box and type 1 for value. Now click the Start button -> Shut Down (Log off UserName) -> Log on as a different user, and you'll notice that the Logon Cancel button has been disabled. Remove the Recycle Bin from the Desktop If you don't use the Recycle Bin to store deleted files , you can get rid of its desktop icon all together. Run Regedit and go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/explo rer/Desktop/NameSpace Click on the "Recycle Bin" string in the right hand pane. Hit Del, click OK.

How to Rename the Recycle Bin To change the name of the Recycle Bin desktop icon, open Regedit and go to:

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT/CLSID/{645FF040-5081-101B-9F08-00AA002F954E} and change the name "Recycle Bin" to whatever you want (don't type any quotes). Provide Remote Assistance When Using a NAT Device You can provide Remote Assistance to a friend who uses a Network Address Translation (NAT) device by modifying the Remote Assistance invitation using XML. Network Address Translation is used to allow multiple computers to share the same outbound Internet connection. To open a Remote Assistance session with a friend who uses a NAT device: 1. Ask your friend to send you a Remote Assistance invitation by e–mail. 2. Save the invitation file to your desktop. 3. Right–click the file, and then click Open With Notepad. You'll see that the file is a simple XML file. 4.Under the RCTICKET attribute is a private IP address, such as 192.168.1.100. 5. Over–write this IP address with your friend's public IP address. Your friend must send you his or her public IP address: they can find out what it is by going to a Web site that will return the public IP address, such as http://www.dslreports.com/ip. 6. Save the file, and then double–click it to open the Remote Assistance session. Now, you'll be able to connect and provide them with the help they need. So that your inbound IP connection is routed to the correct computer, the NAT must be configured to route that inbound traffic. To do so, make sure your friend forwards port 3389 to the computer they want help from.

Ports That Are Used by Windows Product Activation Windows Product Activation uses the following ports: 80 - HTTP 443 - HTTPS NTFS vs. FAT To NTFS or not to NTFS—that is the question. But unlike the deeper questions of life, this one isn't really all that hard to answer. For most users running Windows XP, NTFS is the obvious choice. It's more powerful and offers security advantages not found in the other file systems. But let's go

over the differences among the files systems so we're all clear about the choice. There are essentially three different file systems available in Windows XP: FAT16, short for File Allocation Table, FAT32, and NTFS, short for NT File System. FAT16 The FAT16 file system was introduced way back with MS–DOS in 1981, and it's showing its age. It was designed originally to handle files on a floppy drive, and has had minor modifications over the years so it can handle hard disks, and even file names longer than the original limitation of 8.3 characters, but it's still the lowest common denominator. The biggest advantage of FAT16 is that it is compatible across a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows 95/98/Me, OS/2, Linux, and some versions of UNIX. The biggest problem of FAT16 is that it has a fixed maximum number of clusters per partition, so as hard disks get bigger and bigger, the size of each cluster has to get larger. In a 2–GB partition, each cluster is 32 kilobytes, meaning that even the smallest file on the partition will take up 32 KB of space. FAT16 also doesn't support compression, encryption, or advanced security using access control lists. FAT32 The FAT32 file system, originally introduced in Windows 95 Service Pack 2, is really just an extension of the original FAT16 file system that provides for a much larger number of clusters per partition. As such, it greatly improves the overall disk utilization when compared to a FAT16 file system. However, FAT32 shares all of the other limitations of FAT16, and adds an important additional limitation—many operating systems that can recognize FAT16 will not work with FAT32—most notably Windows NT, but also Linux and UNIX as well. Now this isn't a problem if you're running FAT32 on a Windows XP computer and sharing your drive out to other computers on your network— they don't need to know (and generally don't really care) what your underlying file system is. The Advantages of NTFS The NTFS file system, introduced with first version of Windows NT, is a completely different file system from FAT. It provides for greatly increased security, file–by–file compression, quotas, and even encryption. It is the default file system for new installations of Windows XP, and if you're doing an upgrade from a previous version of Windows, you'll be asked if you want to convert your existing file systems to NTFS. Don't worry. If you've already upgraded to Windows XP and didn't do the conversion then, it's not a problem. You can convert FAT16 or FAT32 volumes to NTFS at any point. Just remember that you can't easily go back to FAT or FAT32 (without reformatting the drive or partition), not that I think you'll want to. The NTFS file system is generally not compatible with other operating systems installed on the same computer, nor is it available when you've

booted a computer from a floppy disk. For this reason, many system administrators, myself included, used to recommend that users format at least a small partition at the beginning of their main hard disk as FAT. This partition provided a place to store emergency recovery tools or special drivers needed for reinstallation, and was a mechanism for digging yourself out of the hole you'd just dug into. But with the enhanced recovery abilities built into Windows XP (more on that in a future column), I don't think it's necessary or desirable to create that initial FAT partition. When to Use FAT or FAT32 If you're running more than one operating system on a single computer (see Dual booting in Guides), you will definitely need to format some of your volumes as FAT. Any programs or data that need to be accessed by more than one operating system on that computer should be stored on a FAT16 or possibly FAT32 volume. But keep in mind that you have no security for data on a FAT16 or FAT32 volume—any one with access to the computer can read, change, or even delete any file that is stored on a FAT16 or FAT32 partition. In many cases, this is even possible over a network. So do not store sensitive files on drives or partitions formatted with FAT file systems. Make your Folders Private •Open My Computer •Double-click the drive where Windows is installed (usually drive (C:), unless you have more than one drive on your computer). •If the contents of the drive are hidden, under System Tasks, click Show the contents of this drive. •Double-click the Documents and Settings folder. •Double-click your user folder. •Right-click any folder in your user profile, and then click Properties. •On the Sharing tab, select the Make this folder private so that only I have access to it check box. Note •To open My Computer, click Start, and then click My Computer. •This option is only available for folders included in your user profile. Folders in your user profile include My Documents and its subfolders, Desktop, Start Menu, Cookies, and Favorites. If you do not make these folders private, they are available to everyone who uses your computer. •When you make a folder private, all of its subfolders are private as well. For example, when you make My Documents private, you also make My Music and My Pictures private. When you share a folder, you also share all of its subfolders unless you make them private. •You cannot make your folders private if your drive is not formatted as NTFS For information about converting your drive to NTFS

IP address of your connection Go to start/run type 'cmd' then type 'ipconfig' Add the '/all' switch for more info. How to use Windows Update Properly If you want to save your files to your hard drive, so after a format you dont have to download them all again, here's How: - Logon to Windows Update - Choose Windows Update Catalogue (left hand pane) - Choose Find updates for Microsoft Windows operating systems (right hand pane) - Choose your version and language then Search - Choose one the following: - Critical Updates and Service Packs - Service Packs and Recommended Downloads - Multi-Language Features (0) - Once chosen simply click on what you want to download and then back at the top click Review Download Basket - You are taken to the next page where at the top you can specify where the downloads are to be saved. - Click Download now. Each patch will make a directory under the root of the folder you saved them to. Once finished you need to go to where you saved the file (s) to and then simply install all your patches. Install/Enable NetBEUI Under WinXP If for some reason you need to install NetBEUI then follow these instructions. **Note - You will need the WinXP CD in order to to this!

Support for the NetBIOS Extended User Interface protocols (also called NetBEUI or NBF) in Windows XP has been discontinued. If your configuration requires temporary use of NetBEUI for Windows XP, follow these steps: To install the NETBEUI protocol: - Locate the Valueadd/msft/net/netbeui directory on your Windows XP CD.Copy nbf.sys into the %SYSTEMROOT%SYSTEM32DRIVERS directory. - Copy netnbf.inf into the %SYSTEMROOT%INF directory. - In Control Panel, click Network and Internet Connections and then click Network Connections. - Right-click the connection you want to configure, and then click Properties. - On the General tab, click the INSTALL button to add the NetBEUI protocol How to remove the Default Picture and Fax Preview Action Go To Start > Run and type `Regedit` and press `ok` Navigate to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/Classes/CLSID/{e84fda7c1d6a-45f6-b725-cb260c236066}/shellex Deleted the MayChangeDefaultMenu key. How to Convert FAT to NTFS file system To convert a FAT partition to NTFS, perform the following steps. Click Start, click Programs, and then click Command Prompt. In Windows XP, click Start, click Run, type cmd and then click OK. At the command prompt, type CONVERT [driveletter]: /FS:NTFS. Convert.exe will attempt to convert the partition to NTFS. NOTE: Although the chance of corruption or data loss during the conversion from FAT to NTFS is minimal, it is best to perform a full backup of the data on the drive that it is to be converted prior to executing the convert command. It is also recommended to verify the integrity of the backup before proceeding, as well as to run RDISK and update the emergency repair disk (ERD).

AVI File Fix in Windows XP If you have any AVI files that you saved in Windows 9x, which have interference when opened in Windows XP, there is an easy fix to get rid of the interference: Open Windows Movie Maker. Click View and then click Options. Click in the box to remove the check mark beside Automatically create clips. Now, import the movie file that has interference and drag it onto the timeline. Then save the movie, and during the re-rendering, the interference will be removed.

Mustek 600 CP scanner or other software unable to install on XP If you have a piece of software that refuses to install because it says that you are not running Windows 2000 (such as the Win2K drivers for a Mustek scanner!!) you can simply edit HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/Microsoft/Windows NT/CurrentVersion/ProductName to say Microsoft Windows 2000 instead of XP and it will install. You may also have to edit the version number or build number, depending on how hard the program tries to verify that you are installing on the correct OS. I had to do this for my Mustek 600 CP scanner (compatibility mode didn't help!!!) and it worked great, so I now have my scanner working with XP (and a tech at Mustek can now eat his words). BTW, don't forget to restore any changes you make after you get your software installed How do I enable advanced security settings like found in Windows 2000 Open windows explorer then click on Tools->Folder Options Click on the View Tab. Scroll to the bottom and deselect (uncheck) the option that reads 'use simple file sharing' This will allow you to see the security tab when viewing the properties of a file/folder.

Hide 'User Accounts' from users Go to Start/Run, and type:

GPEDIT.MSC Open the path User Config > Admin Templates > Control Panel doubleclick "Hide specified Control Panel applets" put a dot in 'enabled', then click 'Show" click Add button, type "nusrmgt.cpl" into the add box Force users to press Ctrl-Alt-Delete to Logon (XPPro only) Go to start/run, and type control userpasswords2 Fix your Slow XP and 98 Network You can run "wmiprvse.exe" as a process for quick shared network access to Win98/ME machines. Stick it in Startup or make it a service. "On the PC running XP, log in as you normally would, go to users, manage network passwords. Here is where the problem lies. In this dialog box remove any win98 passwords or computer-assigned names for the win98 PCs. In my case , I had two computer-assigned win98 pc names in this box (example G4k8e6). I deleted these names (you may have passwords instead). Then go to My Network Places and -- there you go! -- no more delay! Now, after I did this and went to My Network Places to browse the first Win98 PC, I was presented with a password/logon box that looked like this: logon: G4k8e6/guest (lightly grayed out) and a place to enter a password. I entered the password that I had previously used to share drives on the Win98 PCs long before I installed XP. I have the guest account enabled in XP. This solves the problem for Win98 & XP machines on a LAN; I can't guarantee it will work for Win2K/ME machines as well, but the whole secret lies in the passwords. If this doesn't solve your slow WinXP>Win98 access problems, then you probably have other things wrong. Don't forget to uncheck 'simple file sharing,' turn off your ICS firewall, enable NetBIOS over TCP/IP and install proper protocols, services & permissions."

How to Convert a FAT Partition to NTFS To convert a FAT partition to NTFS, perform the following steps. Click Start, click Programs, and then click Command Prompt. In Windows XP, click Start, and then click Run. At the command prompt, type CONVERT [driveletter]: /FS:NTFS. Convert.exe will attempt to convert the partition to NTFS. NOTE: Although the chance of corruption or data loss during the conversion from FAT to NTFS is minimal, it is best to perform a full backup of the data on the drive that it is to be converted prior to executing the convert command. It is also recommended to verify the integrity of the backup before proceeding, as well as to run RDISK and update the emergency repair disk (ERD). Convert.exe will attempt to convert the partition to NTFS. Copy Files and Folders to CD To copy files and folders to a CD •Insert a blank, writable CD into the CD recorder. •Open My Computer. •Click the files or folders you want to copy to the CD. To select more than one file, hold down the CTRL key while you click the files you want. Then, under File and Folder Tasks, click Copy this file, Copy this folder, or Copy the selected items. •If the files are located in My Pictures, under Picture Tasks, click Copy to CD or Copy all items to CD, and then skip to step 5. •In the Copy Items dialog box, click the CD recording drive, and then click Copy.

•In My Computer, double–click the CD recording drive. Windows displays a temporary area where the files are held before they are copied to the CD. Verify that the files and folders that you intend to copy to the CD appear under Files Ready to be Written to the CD. •Under CD Writing Tasks, click Write these files to CD. Windows displays the CD Writing Wizard. Follow the instructions in the wizard. Notes: •Do not copy more files to the CD than it will hold. Standard CDs hold up to 650 megabytes (MB). High–capacity CDs hold up to 850 MB. •Be sure that you have enough disk space on your hard disk to store the temporary files that are created during the CD writing process. For a standard CD, Windows reserves up to 700 MB of the available free space. For a high–capacity CD, Windows reserves up to 1 gigabyte (GB) of the available free space. •After you copy files or folders to the CD, it is useful to view the CD to confirm that the files are copied. For more information, click Related Topics. To stop the CD recorder from automatically ejecting the CD •Open My Computer. •Right–click the CD recording drive, and then click Properties. •On the Recording tab, clear the Automatically eject the CD after writing check box. Create a Password Reset Disk If you’re running Windows XP Professional as a local user in a workgroup environment, you can create a password reset disk to log onto your computer when you forget your password. To create the disk: 1.Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click User Accounts. 2.Click your account name. 3.Under Related Tasks, click Prevent a forgotten password. 4.Follow the directions in the Forgotten Password Wizard to create a password reset disk. 5.Store the disk in a secure location, because anyone using it can access your local user account. Disable CD Autorun

1) Click Start, Run and enter GPEDIT.MSC 2) Go to Computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, System. 3) Locate the entry for Turn autoplay off and modify it as you desire 20 things you didn't know about Windows XP You've read the reviews and digested the key feature enhancements and operational changes. Now it's time to delve a bit deeper and uncover some of Windows XP's secrets. 1. It boasts how long it can stay up. Whereas previous versions of Windows were coy about how long they went between boots, XP is positively proud of its stamina. Go to the Command Prompt in the Accessories menu from the All Programs start button option, and then type 'systeminfo'. The computer will produce a lot of useful info, including the uptime. If you want to keep these, type 'systeminfo > info.txt'. This creates a file called info.txt you can look at later with Notepad. (Professional Edition only). 2. You can delete files immediately, without having them move to the Recycle Bin first. Go to the Start menu, select Run... and type 'gpedit.msc'; then select User Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Windows Explorer and find the Do not move deleted files to the Recycle Bin setting. Set it. Poking around in gpedit will reveal a great many interface and system options, but take care -- some may stop your computer behaving as you wish. (Professional Edition only). 3. You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe user32.dll,LockWorkStation' in the location field. Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just double click on it and your computer will be locked. And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L will do the same. 4. XP hides some system software you might want to remove, such as Windows Messenger, but you can tickle it and make it disgorge everything. Using Notepad or Edit, edit the text file /windows/inf/sysoc.inf, search for the word 'hide' and remove it. You can then go to the Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel, select Add/Remove Windows Components and there will be your prey, exposed and vulnerable. 5. For those skilled in the art of DOS batch files, XP has a number of interesting new commands. These include 'eventcreate' and 'eventtriggers' for creating and watching system events, 'typeperf' for monitoring performance of various subsystems, and 'schtasks' for handling scheduled tasks. As usual, typing the command name followed by /? will give a list of options -- they're all far too baroque to go into here.

6. XP has IP version 6 support -- the next generation of IP. Unfortunately this is more than your ISP has, so you can only experiment with this on your LAN. Type 'ipv6 install' into Run... (it's OK, it won't ruin your existing network setup) and then 'ipv6 /?' at the command line to find out more. If you don't know what IPv6 is, don't worry and don't bother. 7. You can at last get rid of tasks on the computer from the command line by using 'taskkill /pid' and the task number, or just 'tskill' and the process number. Find that out by typing 'tasklist', which will also tell you a lot about what's going on in your system. 8. XP will treat Zip files like folders, which is nice if you've got a fast machine. On slower machines, you can make XP leave zip files well alone by typing 'regsvr32 /u zipfldr.dll' at the command line. If you change your mind later, you can put things back as they were by typing 'regsvr32 zipfldr.dll'. 9. XP has ClearType -- Microsoft's anti-aliasing font display technology -- but doesn't have it enabled by default. It's well worth trying, especially if you were there for DOS and all those years of staring at a screen have given you the eyes of an astigmatic bat. To enable ClearType, right click on the desktop, select Properties, Appearance, Effects, select ClearType from the second drop-down menu and enable the selection. Expect best results on laptop displays. If you want to use ClearType on the Welcome login screen as well, set the registry entry HKEY_USERS/.DEFAULT/Control Panel/Desktop/FontSmoothingType to 2. 10. You can use Remote Assistance to help a friend who's using network address translation (NAT) on a home network, but not automatically. Get your pal to email you a Remote Assistance invitation and edit the file. Under the RCTICKET attribute will be a NAT IP address, like 192.168.1.10. Replace this with your chum's real IP address -- they can find this out by going to www.whatismyip.com -- and get them to make sure that they've got port 3389 open on their firewall and forwarded to the errant computer. 11. You can run a program as a different user without logging out and back in again. Right click the icon, select Run As... and enter the user name and password you want to use. This only applies for that run. The trick is particularly useful if you need to have administrative permissions to install a program, which many require. Note that you can have some fun by running programs multiple times on the same system as different users, but this can have unforeseen effects. 12. Windows XP can be very insistent about you checking for auto updates, registering a Passport, using Windows Messenger and so on. After a while, the nagging goes away, but if you feel you might slip the bonds of sanity before that point, run Regedit, go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Software/Microsoft/Windows/Current

Version/Explorer/Advanced and create a DWORD value called EnableBalloonTips with a value of 0. 13. You can start up without needing to enter a user name or password. Select Run... from the start menu and type 'control userpasswords2', which will open the user accounts application. On the Users tab, clear the box for Users Must Enter A User Name And Password To Use This Computer, and click on OK. An Automatically Log On dialog box will appear; enter the user name and password for the account you want to use. 14. Internet Explorer 6 will automatically delete temporary files, but only if you tell it to. Start the browser, select Tools / Internet Options... and Advanced, go down to the Security area and check the box to Empty Temporary Internet Files folder when browser is closed. 15. XP comes with a free Network Activity Light, just in case you can't see the LEDs twinkle on your network card. Right click on My Network Places on the desktop, then select Properties. Right click on the description for your LAN or dial-up connection, select Properties, then check the Show icon in notification area when connected box. You'll now see a tiny network icon on the right of your task bar that glimmers nicely during network traffic. 16. The Start Menu can be leisurely when it decides to appear, but you can speed things along by changing the registry entry HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Control Panel/Desktop/MenuShowDelay from the default 400 to something a little snappier. Like 0. 17. You can rename loads of files at once in Windows Explorer. Highlight a set of files in a window, then right click on one and rename it. All the other files will be renamed to that name, with individual numbers in brackets to distinguish them. Also, in a folder you can arrange icons in alphabetised groups by View, Arrange Icon By... Show In Groups. 18. Windows Media Player will display the cover art for albums as it plays the tracks -- if it found the picture on the Internet when you copied the tracks from the CD. If it didn't, or if you have lots of pre-WMP music files, you can put your own copy of the cover art in the same directory as the tracks. Just call it folder.jpg and Windows Media Player will pick it up and display it. 19. Windows key + Break brings up the System Properties dialogue box; Windows key + D brings up the desktop; Windows key + Tab moves through the taskbar buttons. 20. The next release of Windows XP, codenamed Longhorn, is due out late next year or early 2003 and won't be much to write home about. The next big release is codenamed Blackcomb and will be out in 2003/2004.

Adding Programs To Stay On The Start Menu Right click on any .exe file in Explorer, My Computer, Desktop and select 'Pin to Start Menu', the program is then displayed on the start menu, above the separator line. To remove it, click the file on the start menu and select 'Unpin from Start Menu'. Below you can check the before and after shots. Boot Defragment A very important new feature in Microsoft Windows XP is the ability to do a boot defragment. This basically means that all boot files are placed next to each other on the disk drive to allow for faster booting. By default this option is enabled but some upgrade users have reported that it isn't on their setup. 1. Start Regedit. 2. Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Dfrg\BootOptimizeFunction 3. Select Enable from the list on the right. 4. Right on it and select Modify. 5. Change the value to Y to enable and N to disable. 6. Reboot your computer. Getting an Older Program to Run on Windows XP 1.Right–click the executable or the program shortcut to the executable, and then click Properties. 2.Select the Run this program in compatibility mode check box. 3.From the list, select an operating system that the program runs in comfortably. If necessary, also change the display settings and/or resolution, or disable the Windows XP visual themes. Run the program again when you’re finished changing the settings. Adjust the compatibility settings again if the program is still not running smoothly: a program that’s unhappy on Windows 2000 may flourish on Windows 98. User Accounts and Fast User Switching Introduction Windows XP represents Microsoft's big push to get the largely Windows 9Xbased user community to an operating system family based on the Windows NT-kernel. In Windows XP, new client services not only blend the ease of use of familiar Windows 9X profiles with the robustness of Windows NT (and Windows 2000) user management, but significantly improve on the combination. While the majority of these advancements will be appreciated

most by home users, enterprise customers that share assets-for instance, with shift workers and telecommuters or with users who access e-mail from multiple machines while roaming-will also see improvements. Many computers are shared between multiple users, particularly in the home environment where studies have shown that 80% of computers are used routinely by multiple people. In previous versions of Windows NT, user account management-which could be strictly enforced across the enterprise by administrators-was a somewhat tricky process that was beyond the abilities of most non-computing professionals. Simple-to-use Windows 9X profiles, however, were not enabled by default and were largely ignored: The cost of actually using the profiles, which required that users log off before allowing other users to access the system, meant that the vast majority of machines made do with a single shared profile, with all of the corresponding security, configuration, and data-loss risks. In Windows XP, user profiles are always enabled and even non-enterprise users are encouraged to create accounts during the Setup process. These accounts are based on Windows NT profiles and allow Windows XP to provide strong isolation and protection of users' data and settings. If multiple user accounts are configured on a machine, then users are presented with a Welcome screen that appears featuring separate-and customizable-graphics for each user. Users of Windows XP machines that are members of an NTstyle domain do not see this screen, since presenting a list of machine users could be considered a security violation. A new control panel applet replaces the familiar Windows NT User Manager and Windows 2000 Computers and Users snap-in, providing a simple interface that allows almost anyone to set up a new user and give them appropriate rights and privileges. Fast User Switching Windows XP introduces fast user switching. Undoubtedly, fast user switching is the single most important feature that makes sharing Windows-based computers workable. Using fast user switching, it is not necessary for a user to log off the computer before allowing a second user to access their own account. Instead, the first user's account is "disconnected," which leaves all the programs running; the second user can then log on, and then the users can switch quickly between logged-on accounts. Many accounts can be open simultaneously on one computer, though only one account at a time will be able to interact with the keyboard, screen, and input devices. In the home environment, for instance, fast user switching allows a parent working on a personal finance program to yield the computer to a child to work on homework by browsing the Internet, without requiring the parent to shut down and restart the finance program and without exposing the child to the parent's financial information. In the business environment, fast user switching can allow multiple users in a common environment, such as a research lab, to share a single machine. Fast user switching is just one of two mechanisms that allow multiple users

to work with a single system. Remote desktop, another built-in Windows XP feature, allows users to interact with machines remotely across a network and to access data and applications on those remote machines. While fast user switching is aimed principally at the home market, remote desktop enables business users to access their corporate desktops from remote computers-and vice versa, enabling them to operate home machines while at work. Programming Issues Both fast user switching and remote desktop use Windows XP's updated terminal services technology. Improvements have been made to both the server and client components of terminal services. Windows XP now features support for both local and remote sound, 24-bit video, performance optimizations, and the mapping of the local drives and printers. Fortunately, most applications don't have to be rewritten to work with terminal services and, thus, fast user switching and remote desktop. Rather, they need to respect basic user settings management guidelines. These guidelines are not new: Most are covered in the Windows 2000 Certified for Windows Application Specification, which has been available on Microsoft's Web site for some time. The Data and Settings Management section of this specification includes several topics that are particularly important when supporting multiple users on a single machine: · Default to the My Documents folder for storage of user-created data; · Classify and store application data correctly; · Degrade gracefully on "Access denied" messages. Mostly, this means isolating data and settings for each user. And an important step in this direction is to ensure that you are using the HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry key rather than HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE for storing settings in the system registry. You should also be careful to install programs correctly and to classify and store data correctly. You can use the ShGetFolderPath API to obtain the path of a specific named folder-such as "My Documents" or even "Program Files"-as well as the appropriate directories for storing Roaming, Non-Roaming, and Shared application data. The following are some general guidelines for locating data: · Profiles\username\Application Data\appname - Roaming, auto-created user files (e-mail DB, custom dictionaries…) · Profiles\username\Application Data\Local Settings\appname - Discardable/local-only user data files (e.g., offline stores) · Profiles\All Users\Application Data\appname - Last-resort for local-only, common dynamic data (e.g., log files) A notable exception to the isolation rule is that you should support "All Users" installations: It is extremely frustrating for users to install the same application repeatedly for multiple user accounts. By carefully locating user data, user settings, and computer settings, applications can make it easier for users to backup individual documents and

settings, share a computer among multiple users, and even to work with the same documents and settings on multiple computers. By handling data and settings properly, you can enable your application to run in both the home (fast user switching) and business enterprise (remote desktop) marketplaces. Controlling Running Instances It is common for applications to control their startup so that only a single instance may be running on a machine at any given time. There are many valid reasons for doing this: licensing restrictions, required dedicated access to specific hardware resources, and perhaps even enforcing data integrity. However, with multiple users on the same machine, it might be desirable to allow multiple users-each with their own instance-to work with (for example) a personal finance program as long as their data remains isolated. At this point, the commonly used mechanisms for controlling running instances may exhibit some unwanted side effects when operating under Windows XP's fast user switching or remote desktop. The most common method for discovering whether another instance is running is to use the FindWindow or FindWindowEx APIs to search for a window that, if your application is running, you know to be open. Somewhat unexpectedly, both of these APIs work in a single user session only. So using this method won't prevent another instance of your application from being started by another user. A more robust method for controlling multiple instances is to use one of the NT kernel objects: events, semaphores, mutexes, waitable timers, filemapping objects, and job objects can all be used with Global\ or Local\ prefixes on Windows 2000 and Windows XP. By default, each user (terminal service) session will have its own namespace for kernel objects. By creating a Global\ object-for instance, a mutex or semaphore-when your application is started (and closing it upon exit), your application can detect running instances across multiple user (terminal service) sessions. Of course, you can't just switch to the previous instance: It may be in another session! What typically happens in that case is the user clicks on an icon and then nothing appears to happen (since the app thinks it's located another running instance). At a minimum, you should warn the user that there's another instance running. What about sound? Well, the terminal services in Windows XP have been designed to configure sound to both the interactive and disconnected sessions. While it may be difficult to imagine at first, there may be valid scenarios where it would desirable to output multiple audio streams. For instance, what if you used a sound card in one user session to output audio to the home stereo system and at the same time the active user wanted to hold an interactive meeting with sound? In this case, you certainly would not want to blend the two streams. And neither would you want to suspend the audio stream in the disconnected session. Getting this right can be particularly important when working with shared media devices like DVD players.

One general guideline is to do "as little as possible, as much as necessary" when you are the disconnected session. To do this, it can be helpful to know when a session switch occurs. While most applications won't need to be notified, if your application accesses a shared resource-such as a serial port or other hardware device-you may want to know when the machine switches between user sessions. To be notified when a session switch occurs, you must register to receive the WM_WTSSESSION_CHANGE message by calling the WTSRegisterConsoleNotification API. Using this function, you can choose to be notified for a single session or for all sessions, and when either local or remote sessions connect or disconnect. When you no longer require notification, you should unregister using the WTSUnRegisterConsoleNotification API. Summary If you isolate access to your application's data and settings and take care not to tie up shared resources, your application should work well with Windows XP's terminal services. By developing your application to assume it's not the only thing running on the machine, your users are likely to have a much better experience when they start using it with Windows XP's new fast user switching and remote desktop features.

Rename a Series of Files When you download photos from your digital camera, they often have unrecognizable names. You can rename several similar files at once with the following procedure. This also works for renaming other types of files. 1.Open the My Pictures folder. (Click Start, and then click My Pictures.) Or open another folder containing files that you want to rename. 2.Select the files you want to rename. If the files you want are not adjacent in the file list, press and hold CTRL, and then click each item to select it. 3.On the File menu, click Rename. 4.Type the new name, and then press ENTER. All of the files in the series will be named in sequence using the new name you type. For example, if you type Birthday, the first will be named Birthday and subsequent files in the series will be named Birthday (1), Birthday (2), and so on. To specify the starting number for the series, type the starting number in parentheses after the new file name. The files in the series will be numbered in sequence starting with the number you type. For example, if you type Birthday (10), the other files will be named Birthday (11), Birthday (12), and so on.

Licensing Issues Here you can find a Description of the things which are done by the Program or you can manually change the following settings to have the same effect:

- MediaPlayer: Don't Acquire licenses automatically - Open the MediaPlayer-Extras - Options... Click the tab 'Player', look at the groupbox 'Internetsettings' and uncheck 'Acquire licenses automatically'. - MediaPlayer: No identification by internetsites - Open the MediaPlayer-Extras-Options... Click the tab ‘Player’, look at the groupbox 'Internet settings' and uncheck 'Allow identification by internet sites' - MediaPlayer: don't download codecs automatically - Open the MediaPlayer-Extras-Options... Click the tab 'Player', look at the groupbox 'Automatic Updates' and uncheck 'Download Codecs Automatically' - Error report: Don't report errors - Open the Explorer, right-click on 'My Computer' and select 'Properties', click on the Tab 'Advanced' and click the button 'Errorreports', in the upcoming dialog uncheck all 3 items and select 'Disable Errorreports'

Never Re-Activate After Installation If you have to reinstall Windows XP you normally will have to reactivate too. Well not anymore. Just copy wpa.dbl after you activated the first time. It is located in the WINDOWS\system32 folder. Now if you reinstall Windows XP just copy the file back and you're up and running again How to make My Computer' open in Explore mode with folder list In My Computer click Tools menu, and then click Options. Click the File Types tab.In the list of file types, highlight "(NONE) Folders" Click Advanced button, In the Actions box, highlight "Explore" Click "Set Default"

XP to directly access WebDAV "internet disks" Windows XP can directly access WebDAV "internet disks" such as Apple's iDisk.

In Internet Explorer, use the "Open..." command, type the name of the WebDAV server you want to access (e.g., http://idisk.mac.com/username) and select the "Open as Web Folder" checkbox. Enter the password when prompted and you're in! This trick also works on Windows Me and Windows 2000. Interestingly, Windows XP doesn't seem to support iDisk via the "Add a Network Place" command, possible with these other operating systems. Once set up using the "Open" command, however, the idisk can be accessed by simply double-clicking its icon in the Network Places folder.

Win XP Won’t Completely Shutdown - Goto Control Panel, then goto Power Options. - Click on the APM Tab, then check the "Enable Advanced Power Management support." - Shut down your PC. It should now successfully complete the Shut Down process.

Adjust various visual effects 1. Open up the control panel 2. Go under system and click on the advanced tab 3. Click settings under Performance options 4. You can now change various graphical effects (mainly animations and shadows) Disable Error Reporting 1. Open Control Panel 2. Click on Performance and Maintenance. 3. Click on System. 4. Then click on the Advanced tab 5. Click on the error-reporting button on the bottom of the windows. 6. Select Disable error reporting. 7. Click OK 8. Click OK Remove shortcut arrow from desktop icons Here's how you can remove those shortcut arrows from your desktop icons in Windows XP.

1. Start regedit. 2. Navigate to HKEY_CLASSES_ROOTlnkfile 3. Delete the IsShortcut registry value. You may need to restart Windows XP. Easy sendto menu modification first open - X:\Documents and Settings\username\SendTo (it is hidden) where X is your drive letter and username is your username make and delete shortcuts to folders and devices at will

Enable Clear Type Easy way- Click on or cut and paste link below: http://www.microsoft.com/typography/cleartype/cleartypeactivate.htm?fnam e=%20&fsize= or - Right click on a blank area of the Desktop and choose Properties - Click on the Appearance Tab; Click effects - Check the box: Use the following method to smooth edges of screen fonts - In the drop down box select: Clear Type Getting MP3 ripping to work in Windows Media Player 8 in XP Enter the following in the registry : [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftMediaPlayerSettingsMP3Encodin g] "LowRate"=dword:0000dac0 "MediumRate"=dword:0000fa00 "MediumHighRate"=dword:0001f400 "HighRate"=dword:0002ee00 This corresponds to 56, 64, 128 and 192 Kbps. You can change this to your liking using the following dword hex values : 320 Kbps = dword:0004e200 256 Kbps = dword:0003e800 224 Kbps = dword:00036b00 192 Kbps = dword:0002ee00 160 Kbps = dword:00027100 128 Kbps = dword:0001f400 112 Kbps = dword:0001b580

64 Kbps = dword:0000fa00 56 Kbps = dword:0000dac0 Internet Broadband this ones simple: this is for broad band connections. I didn’t try it on dial up but might work for dial up. 1.make sure your logged on as actually "Administrator". do not log on with any account that just has administrator privileges. 2. start - run - type gpedit.msc 3. expand the "local computer policy" branch 4. expand the "administrative templates" branch 5. expand the "network branch" 6. Highlight the "QoS Packet Scheduler" in left window 7. in right window double click the "limit reservable bandwidth" setting 8. on setting tab check the "enabled" item 9. where it says "Bandwidth limit %" change it to read 0 reboot if you want to but not necessary on some systems your all done. Effect is immediate on some systems. some need re-boot. I have one machine that needs to reboot first, the others didn't. Don't know why this is. This is more of a "counter what XP does" thing. In other words, XP seems to want to reserve 20% of the bandwidth for its self. Even with QoS disabled, even when this item is disabled. So why not use it to your advantage. To demonstrate the problem with this on stand alone machines start up a big download from a server with an FTP client. Try to find a server that doesn't max out your bandwidth. In this case you want a slow to medium speed server to demonstrate this. Let it run for a couple of minutes to get stable. The start up another download from the same server with another instance of your FTP client. You will notice that the available bandwidth is now being fought over and one of the clients download will be very slow or both will slow down when they should both be using the available bandwidth. Using this "tweak" both clients will have a fair share of the bandwidth and will not fight over the bandwidth. Add Album Art to any Music Folder This is easily my favorite tip! One of the coolest new features in Windows XP is its album thumbnail generator, which automatically places the appropriate album cover art on the folder to which you are copying music (generally in WMA format). But what about those people that have already copied their CDs to the hard drive using MP3 format? You can download album cover art from sites such as cdnow.com or amguide.com, and then use the new Windows XP folder customize feature to display the proper image for each folder. But this takes time--you have to manually edit the folder properties for every single folder--and you will lose customizations if you have to reinstall the OS. There's an excellent fix, however.

When you download the album cover art from the Web, just save the images as folder.jpg each time and place them in the appropriate folder. Then, Windows XP will automatically use that image as the thumbnail for that folder and, best of all, will use that image in Windows Media Player for Windows XP (MPXP) if you choose to display album cover art instead of a visualization. And the folder customization is automatic, so it survives an OS reinstallation as well. Your music folders never looked so good! XP file Sharing File sharing. Is the sharing of a disk or printer between computers . If a disk or folder is shared, everyone on the network can access it. You have the ability to set password and permissions for the shared disk or folder for security therefore Windows XP tries to protect you from some potential security risks. Right click the disk or folder that you want to share and select Sharing and Security. NOTE: The first time you do this the Networking wizard will appear ..CLOSE IT..:-

The Wizard automatically enables the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) to prevent other Internet users from accessing your shared disks and folders. Enabling ICF is a good idea if you connect directly to the Internet through a dial-up, DSL, or cable modem. But it's a terrible idea if you connect to the Internet through your LAN, using a software router (like Internet Connection Sharing) or a hardware router, since it will block File and Printer Sharing. The disk or folder that you share, along with all of the folders that it contains, will be accessible by other network users. If you're sharing an entire disk, Windows XP gives a warning. The implication of the warning is that it's better to share a specific folder, since only that folder (and its subfolders) will be accessible by others, and the rest of the disk will be inaccessible. Click where indicated if you want to go ahead and share the entire disk. This screen doesn't appear if you're sharing a folder.

XP will display a warning. If you want ICF enabled, select Use the wizard to enable file sharing. Otherwise, select Just enable file sharing. Having successfully stopped the Wizard's , you now have to specify a Share name, which users on other networked computers will use to access this disk or folder. For maximum compatibility with all versions of Windows, use 1-12 characters. By default, users on other computers have full access: they can read, write, and delete shared files. If you only want them to be able to read files, uncheck Allow network users to change my files. Warning: If a user has full access, deleting a file doesn't put it in the Recycle Bin. Once it's deleted, it's gone for good. Hiding a Shared Disk or Folder What if you don't want everyone on the network to be able to access a shared disk or folder? The answer is to create a hidden share by adding a dollar sign ('$') to the end of the share name. A hidden share doesn't appear in My Network Places or Network Neighborhood on any of the networked computers. Only people who know the share name can access it. To create a hidden share, right click the disk or folder and select Sharing and Security. Specify a share name that ends with a dollar sign. Once again, use 1-12 characters (1-11 before the dollar sign). If the people on your network are clever enough to guess a name like myfiles$, use a more secure name, like a combination of letters and numbers. Just make sure that you can remember it.

Mapping Hidden Drives Accessing a Hidden Share: A hidden share doesn't appear on any of the networked computers, so how can someone on another computer access it? The answer is to map it as a network drive, which assigns a drive letter to the hidden share. Once it has a drive letter, you access it just like a disk on the same computer. To map a network drive, open My Computer, click Tools, and select Map Network Drive.

Specify an unused drive letter and enter the network path for the hidden share, being sure to include the dollar sign. If you check Reconnect at logon, the mapping will happen automatically every time you start your computer. Otherwise, you'll have to map it manually every time.

Set up and Use Internet Connection Sharing With Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) in Windows XP, you can connect one computer to the Internet, then share the Internet service with several computers on your home or small office network. The Network Setup Wizard in Windows XP Professional will automatically provide all of the network settings you need to share one Internet connection with all the computers in your network. Each computer can use programs such as Internet Explorer and Outlook Express as if they were directly connected to the Internet. You should not use this feature in an existing network with Windows 2000 Server domain controllers, DNS servers, gateways, DHCP servers, or systems configured for static IP addresses.

Enabling ICS The ICS host computer needs two network connections. The local area network connection, automatically created by installing a network adapter, connects to the computers on your home or small office network. The other connection, using a 56k modem, ISDN, DSL, or cable modem, connects the home or small office network to the Internet. You need to ensure that ICS is enabled on the connection that has the Internet connection. By doing this, the shared connection can connect your home or small office network to the Internet, and users outside your network are not at risk of receiving inappropriate addresses from your network. When you enable ICS, the local area network connection to the home or small office network is given a new static IP address and configuration. Consequently, TCP/IP connections established between any home or small office computer and the ICS host computer at the time of enabling ICS are lost and need to be reestablished. For example, if Internet Explorer is connecting to a Web site when Internet Connection Sharing is enabled, refresh the browser to reestablish the connection. You must configure client machines on your home or small office network so TCP/IP on the local area connection obtains an IP address automatically. Home or small office network users must also configure Internet options for Internet Connection Sharing. To enable Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) Discovery and Control on Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows Millennium Edition computers, run the Network Setup Wizard from the CD or floppy disk on these computers. For ICS Discovery and Control to work on Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, and Windows Millennium Edition computers, Internet Explorer version 5.0 or later must be installed. To enable Internet Connection Sharing on a network connection You must be logged on to your computer with an owner account in order to complete this procedure. Open Network Connections. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double–click Network Connections.) Click the dial–up, local area network, PPPoE, or VPN connection you want to share, and then, under Network Tasks, click Change settings of this connection. On the Advanced tab, select the Allow other network users to connect through this computer's Internet connection check box. If you want this connection to dial automatically when another computer on your home or small office network attempts to access external resources, select the Establish a dial–up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the Internet check box. If you want other network users to enable or disable the shared Internet

connection, select the Allow other network users to control or disable the shared Internet connection check box. Under Internet Connection Sharing, in Home networking connection, select any adapter that connects the computer sharing its Internet connection to the other computers on your network. The Home networking connection is only present when two or more network adapters are installed on the computer. To configure Internet options on your client computers for Internet Connection Sharing Open Internet Explorer. Click Start, point to All Programs, and then click Internet Explorer.) On the Tools menu, click Internet Options.

On the Connections tab, click Never dial a connection, and then click LAN Settings. In Automatic configuration, clear the Automatically detect settings and Use automatic configuration script check boxes. In Proxy Server, clear the Use a proxy server check box.

XP Network Protocols Im not going to explain everything about Protocols that is way out of scope of this guide.

There are three main Protocols : TCP/IP, IPX/SPX and NETBEUI TCP/IP : Is automatically installed, can't be un-installed, and is used by default for all networking functions.Windows XP provides one other supported protocol -- IPX/SPX -- and one unsupported protocol, NetBEUI. By default, XP configures TCP/IP to obtain an IP address automatically. If there's a DHCP server on the network, it will assign the IP address and other TCP/IP settings to the connection. Otherwise, Windows XP will use Automatic Private IP Addressing to assign an IP address to the connection.

By default, XP configures TCP/IP to obtain an IP address automatically. If there's a DHCP server on the network, it will assign the IP address and other TCP/IP settings to the connection. Otherwise, Windows XP will use Automatic Private IP Addressing to assign an IP address to the connection. This default configuration should work, unchanged, to connect a Windows XP computer to a network that uses TCP/IP for File and Printer Sharing in these common configurations: Using an Internet sharing program or a hardware router protects the local area network from access by other Internet users, so it's safe to use TCP/IP for File and Printer Sharing on the LAN. The computers have private IP addresses that aren't accessible from the Internet. No other protocol is needed. If your network uses static IP addresses, click Use the following IP address -- 192.168.0.3 and enter the configuration information. For example, here are settings for a network that uses a proxy server at IP address 192.168.0.1 for Internet access.

IPX/SPX If the existing network uses IPX/SPX for File and Printer Sharing, you can add that protocol to the Windows XP computer. IPX/SPX is fully supported in XP. In the connection's Properties, click the Install button to add a network component. XP will ask what type of network component to install.

Click Protocol and Add.

Click NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol and click OK. Two NWLink items are added to the connection's Properties Have your winXP CD handy. NetBEUI NetBEUI was the default protocol in Windows 95, but Microsoft has been moving away from NetBEUI ever since. Starting with Windows 98, TCP/IP has been the default protocol, and NetBEUI has been available for installation as a supported protocol. • Starting with Windows XP, NetBEUI is unsupported. This doesn't mean that NetBEUI won't work! It means that: • Microsoft recommends against using it. • It doesn't appear in the list of protocols that can be installed. • Microsoft's technical support staff won't answer questions about NetBEUI or help solve problems with it. Because it's been around for so long, some people think that NetBEUI is required, and they install it on all Windows networks. Actually, nothing in Windows networking has ever required NetBEUI. You can even un-install

NetBEUI in Windows 95 and use a different protocol. • If your existing network uses NetBEUI for File and Printer Sharing, consider changing to a different protocol. Most networks can safely use TCP/IP. The main exceptions to this rule are when: • All of the networked computers are connected directly to a cable or DSL modem and receive public IP addresses from an Internet service provider. • You've separated your LAN from the Internet, but you've opened ports or have placed a computer outside the firewall to use certain applications or services. • If, after considering all the options, you decide to install NetBEUI on Windows XP, you can do it using files on the Windows XP CD-ROM. Follow the instructions in the article HOW TO: Install NetBEUI on Windows XP in the Microsoft Knowledge Base. These tips will help with the installation process: • If the Welcome to Microsoft Windows XP screen appears when you insert the CD-ROM, click Perform additional tasks followed by Browse this CD. • Where the article refers to %SYSTEMROOT%, substitute the name of the Windows XP installation folder, which is typically C:Windows. • To see the hidden INF directory, go to My Computer | Tools | Folder Options | View. Scroll down the list of Advanced settings, and un-check Hide protected operating system files. If you have a new computer that didn't come with a Windows XP CD-ROM, see if the computer manufacturer will send you the CD-ROM or the necessary NetBEUI files. If that isn't possible, you'll have to use a different protocol on your network.

XP Hibernate Option Whenever you want to logoff, shut down or reboot your Windows XP machine you have only 3 choices (1) Standby ONLY IF the ACPI/APM function is properly enabled BOTH in your motherboard's BIOS AND in WinXP! (2) Restart (3) Shutdown. To properly enable Hibernation in WinXP: Start button -> Control Panel -> Power Options -> Hibernate tab -> check Enable hibernate support box -> Apply/OK -> reboot. NOTE: If the Hibernate tab is unavailable your computer does NOT support it! For some reason Microsoft did NOT enable the 4th option: (4) Hibernate, which should be available on power saving (ACPI) enabled PCs

and laptops. But you CAN bring it back: just hold the Shift key while the Shut down menu is displayed on your screen, and notice the Standby button being replaced by a new, fully functional Hibernate button, which can be clicked with the left button of your mouse. If you release the Shift key, the Hibernate option will disappear once again, to be replaced by Standby. XP Computer management console To quickly access the computer management console, where you can see event logs (to see what's causing a problem, for example), right-click My Computer and choose Manage. Then, select the Event viewer and double-click highlighted events in the Applications or System areas to view detailed explanations of what went wrong.

off window animation ("exploding" windows), displayed when you play around with minimizing/maximizing open windows. This makes navigating Windows 95/98/ME/NT4/2000/XP a lot quicker, especially if you don't have a fast video controller, or if you got tired of seeing it all the time (like I did). :) To do this, run Regedit (or Regedt32) and go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER | Control Panel | Desktop | WindowMetrics or if you are the only user of your Windows computer go to: HKEY_USERS | .Default | Control Panel | Desktop | WindowMetrics Right-click on an empty spot in the right hand pane. Select New -> String [REG_SZ] Value. Name it MinAnimate. Click OK. Double-click on "MinAnimate" and type 0 to turn OFF window animation or 1 to turn it ON. Click OK. Close the Registry Editor and restart Windows. Done. TweakUI, the famous Microsoft Power Toy [110 KB, free, unsupported] can also turn off animated windows. Just remove the check mark from the "Window Animation" box under the General tab. What are XP powerToys PowerToys are additional programs that developers work on after the product has been released to manufacturing, but before the next project has begun. These toys add fun and functionality to the Windows experience.

We've taken great care to ensure that PowerToys operate as they should. But please note that these programs are not part of Windows and are not supported by Microsoft. For this reason, Microsoft Technical Support is unable to answer questions about PowerToys The PowerToys are installed into the directory you specify during setup. Typically this is the system32 directory. To uninstall the PowerToys, Open the control Panel. Launch the Add/Remove Programs control panel applet. Find the PowerToys for Windows XP entry, and choose Modify/Remove. From here you can remove specific toys or all of them. Faster User Switcher Note: You cannot use this toy if fast user switching is not enabled. What it is: With Fast User Switching enabled on Windows XP, this PowerToy allows you to switch users without having to use the logon screen. Special requirements: This PowerToy requires a Windows key on your keyboard. How to use: Press the Windows key then the Q key to activate; release and press Q to switch to a different user tile, then release both Q and Windows key to switch to that user. Shell Player What it is: This PowerToy plays MP3 files and WMA files from the taskbar. How to use: Right click on the taskbar, click toolbars, then click "Audio Player." If the taskbar is locked and you want to resize the player, you will have to unlock it. This will allow you to access the play list editor and view all the buttons. Task Switcher What it is: Replaces the existing Alt + Tab application switching mechanism of Windows XP. It provides a thumbnail preview of windows in the task list and is compliant with the new Windows XP visual style. How to use: (NOTE: You must log off and then log on again for the changes to take effect). Use just as you do the existing Alt + Tab mechanism by pressing the Alt key and the Tab key to activate. While holding down the Alt key, press the Tab key to cycle through running applications. To move backwards, press Shift + Alt + Tab. Release all keys when the desired application is highlighted. Open Command Window Here What it is: This PowerToy adds an "Open Command Window Here" context menu option on file system folders. This gives users a quick way to open a

command window (cmd.exe) pointing at a selected folder in the Explorer UI. How to use: After installation, right click on the folder you would like to have a quick launch command window for. Tweak UI What it is: Provides access to system settings that are not exposed in the Windows XP default user interface. How to use: Go to Start, All Programs, Accessories, TweakUI for Windows XP. PowerToy Calc What it is: Graphing calculator How to use: Go to Start, All Programs, Accessories, PowerToy Calc Bulk Resize for Photos What it is: Allows you to make a new, resized copy of your selected pictures in the same folder they are currently located in. You can opt to resize one or many pictures (as a batch). How to use: Right click any image(s) and select Resize Pictures in the context menu. ISO Image Burner What it is: Allows you to burn an ISO Image using a CD-ROM burner that is compatible with Windows XP How to use: Go to Start, All Programs, Accessories, ISO Burner Slide Show Generator What it is: Generate a slideshow when burning a CD How to use: Add only images to a CD-ROM using Windows XP Explorer, then Write these files to disk. A new task is presented in the wizard for generating the autorun for the slideshow. Virtual Desktop Manager What it is: Manage up to 4 desktops from the Windows Shell Taskbar. How to use:Right click on the taskbar, click toolbars, then click "Desktop Manager." If the taskbar is locked and you want to resize the manager, you will have to unlock it. Background Wallpaper switcher What it is: Allows you to switch the background image periodically. How to use: Access this PowerToy by right clicking the desktop, click properties. It has added a new tab that will allow you to specify the interval as well as the directory to obtain the images from. Taskbar Magnifier What it is: Allows you to magnify part of the screen from the taskbar. How to use:Right click on the taskbar, click toolbars, then click "Taskbar

Magnifier." If the taskbar is locked and you want to resize the magnifier, you will have to unlock it. Slide Show Wizard What it is: This wizard helps you create a slide show of your digital pictures. When you're done, you can put your slide show on the Web so that your family and friends can view it. How to use: Launch the Wizard from the Start Menu under All ProgramsPowertoys for Windows XPSlide Show Wizard. Follow the steps of the wizard to select and arrange your pictures, choose from a few simple options, and then save a Web-ready HTML slide show to a folder.

Use the Internet Connection Firewall to Secure Your Small Network A firewall is a security system that acts as a protective boundary between a network and the outside world. Windows XP includes Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) software you can use to restrict what information is communicated between the Internet and your home or small office network. ICF also protects a single computer connected to the Internet with a cable modem, a DSL modem, or a dial–up modem. If your network uses Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) to provide Internet access to multiple computers, you should use ICF on the shared Internet connection. However, ICS and ICF can be enabled separately. You should not enable the firewall on any connection that does not directly connect to the Internet, and ICF is not needed if your network already has a firewall or proxy server. You must be logged on to your computer with an owner account in order to complete this procedure. You should not enable Internet Connection Firewall on virtual private networking (VPN) connections or on client computers because ICF will interfere with file and printer sharing. ICF cannot be enabled on the private connections of the Internet Connection Sharing host computer. To enable or disable Internet Connection Firewall Open Network Connections (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double– click Network Connections.) Click the Dial–up, LAN or High–Speed Internet connection that you want to protect, and then, under Network Tasks, click Change settings of this connection. On the Advanced tab, under Internet Connection Firewall, select one of the following:

To enable Internet Connection Firewall (ICF), select the Protect my computer and network by limiting or preventing access to this computer from the Internet check box. To disable Internet Connection Firewall, clear the Protect my computer and network by limiting or preventing access to this computer from the Internet check box. This disables the firewall, your computer and network are then vulnerable to intrusions Turn off Welcome screen Open User Accounts in Control Panel. Click Change the way users log on or off Speed up viewing shared files across a network Windows 2000 & XP machines delay as long as 30 seconds when you try to view shared files across a network because Windows is using the extra time to search the remote computer for any Scheduled Tasks. Here's how to prevent this remote search for Scheduled Tasks: Open up the Registry and go to : HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/Explore r/RemoteComputer/NameSpace Under that branch, select the key : {D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF} and delete it. If you like you may want to export the exact branch so that you can restore the key if necessary. This fix is so effective that it doesn't require a reboot and you can almost immediately determine yourself how much it speeds up your browsing processes.

Setup XP from a Network drive You use three switches. If D: is the target, and G: is the net drive. G:i386winnt32 /tempdrive:D /makelocalsource /s:G:i386 Use a Shortcut to Local Area Network Connection Information

Something new in Windows XP—instead of using the command line program and typing ipconfig to find local area network information, you can use the following shortcut: 1.Click Start, point to Connect to, and then click Show All Connections. 2.Right–click the connection you want information about, and then click Status. 3.In the connection Properties dialog box, click the Support tab. For even more information, click the Advanced tab. To automatically enable the status monitor each time the connection is active, in the connection Properties dialog box, select the Show icon in taskbar notification area when connected check box. "STOP” ERROR MESSAGES AT SHUTDOWN Some users have gotten an error message similar to the following when attempting either to shutdown or restart Win XP: STOP 0000009F, DRIVER_POWER_STATE_FAILURE STOP 0x0000001E: KMODE_EXCEPTION_NOT_HANDLED STOP 0x000000D1: DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL TechNet and the Microsoft Knowledge Base have numerous articles discussing this type of error condition; for example, these. As a review of these articles will show, these are commonly device driver problems, but may also be caused by troublesome software (such as the notorious CrashGuard), or a problem in a system service. MSKB article Q262575 discusses a shutdown problem of this type, known to exist in Windows 2000 due to a resource (IRQ) conflict, if you have PACE Interlok anti-piracy software installed. This problem may occur in Windows XP as well. Microsoft advises the following as one approach to these problems: Restart the computer. Press F8 during the restart and select “Last Known Good Configuration.” If you catch the problem when it first occurs (meaning you likely have installed only one or two drivers or new service), this will return you to a previous working condition. (Would System Restore accomplish the same thing? I don’t know, and don’t have a broken system to test it on.) Microsoft reported similarly that these STOP code error message occur when Windows XP is trying to shut down devices. He says that he has seen this twice: once with Logitech Quickcam installed (with an unsupported driver), and once with a USB DSL modem that would hang if it wasn’t disconnected before shutdown. SHUTDOWN WORKS, BUT IT’S REAL SLOW.

If it appears that Win XP is not shutting down, give it some time. Some users have reported a minute or longer for shutdown to visibly start. Thus far, it appears that this is a consequence of software that is running when shutdown is attempted, and it also may have something to do with particular hardware. If you are experiencing this problem, be sure to close all running programs before attempting shutdown and see if this solves your problem. If so, then you can determine, by trial and error, which program(s) are involved. One specific solution for this was provided by Microsoft support. ” In Control Panel | Administrative Tools | Services. (You can also get this by launching SERVICES.MSC from a Run box. This utility is also built into the Computer Management console.) Stop the Nvidia Driver Helper service. Many other friends quickly confirmed that this solved this “extremely slow shutdown” problem for them. POWERDOWN ISSUES. “Powerdown issues” are quite distinctive from “shutdown issues.” I define a shutdown problem as one wherein Windows doesn’t make it at least to the “OK to shut off your computer” screen. If Windows gets that far, or farther, then it has shut down correctly. However, the computer may not powerdown correctly after that. This is a different problem, and I encourage that people reporting these issues to make a very clear distinction in their labeling. When Windows XP won’t powerdown automatically, the APM/NT Legacy Power Node may not be enabled. To enable this, right-click on the My Computer icon, click Properties | Hardware | Device Manager | View. Check the box labeled “Show Hidden Devices.” If it’s available on your computer, there will be a red X on the APM/NT Legacy Node. Try enabling it and see if this resolves the powerdown problem. This should resolve the powerdown issue in most cases. However, other factors can sometimes interfere with correct powerdown functioning. In that case, consider the following tips: · If you are changing the default power settings in the BIOS, it can lead to a powerdown problem. Restoring all BIOS power settings to default will likely fix it. OTHER KNOWN ISSUES & HINTS. · BIOS UPGRADE. As with every new operating system that comes along - especially one that is as much of a “step up” as Windows XP is from Windows 9x - the recommendation is made to be sure your BIOS is updated. Many people have reported that this has solved their shutdown problems (and had other advantages) with Win XP, just as it has in earlier versions of Windows

Speed up your Windows 2000/XP system and save resources at the same time You can improve performance of your Windows 2000/XP and reclaim memory by simply disabling the services that is also known as "System Services" you don't need which Windows 2000 or XP automatically provide by default. What Are System Services in the 1st place System services are actually small helper programs that provide support for other larger programs in Windows 2000. Many of the services are set up to run automatically each time you start Windows 2000. However, if you're not using the larger programs that these services are designed to support, these services are simply wasting RAM that could be put to better use by your applications. While the word "Disable" is used here to describe the idea that you'll remove these services from memory, what you'll really be doing is changing the startup setting from Automatic to Manual. When you do, the services won't automatically start each time you launch Windows 2000 Professional. However, Windows 2000 will be able to manually start the services if they're needed. That way you won't be unnecessarily wasting RAM, but you won't be crippling your system either. Note: If you're running Windows 2000 Professional on a corporate network, you may not be able to adjust system services. Regardless of whether you can or not, you should check with your system administrator before attempting the make these changes. Changing the startup type of a service from Automatic to Manual is a relatively simple operation. To begin, open the Control Panel, open the Administrative Tools folder, and then double click the Services tool. When you see the Services window, set the View to Detail if it isn't already. Then click the Startup Type column header to sort the services by Startup Type. When you do, all the Services that start automatically will appear at the top of the list. As you scan through the list of services on your system whose Startup Type setting is set to Automatic, look for the services in listed in the Table below. These are some of the services are good candidates to be set to a Manual Startup Type. Examples of services that can be safely changed to Manual :DHCP Client -- You're not connecting to a specific DHCP server on your local network Distributed Link Tracking Client -- You're not connected to a Windows 2000 domain DNS Client -- You're not connecting to a specific DNS server on your local network

FTP Publishing Service -- You don't need your system to act as an FTP server IIS Admin Service -- You don't need your system to act as an WWW server IPSEC Policy Agent -- You're not connected to a Windows 2000 domain Messenger -- You're not connected to a Windows 2000 domain Remote Registry Service -- You don't remotely access the Registry of other systems on your local network RIP Service -- You don't need your system to act as a router Run As Service -- You don't use any applications that run as an alias World Wide Web Publishing Service You don't need your system to act as an WWW server If you find a match and think that your system doesn't need that particular service, right-click on the service and choose the Properties command from the shortcut menu. When you see the Properties dialog box for that service, click the Startup Type drop down list and select Manual. Then click OK. As you change the Startup Type for any service, take note of the service's name. That way you'll have a record of which services you changed and can change them back if you need to, as I'll explain in a moment. Using the Windows Task Manager Trick : To determine the amount of RAM you'll regain by disabling unnecessary system services, use the Windows Task Manager. Here's how: Before you disable any system services, reboot your system and don't launch any applications. If you have applications that automatically load when you start Windows, hold down the [Shift] key to bypass the Startup folder. Then, right click on the task bar and select Task Manager from the shortcut menu. When you see the Windows Task Manager dialog box, select the Performance tab. Now take note of the Available value in the Physical Memory panel. After you disable those system services you deem unnecessary, reboot your system in the same manner and compare the Available value in the Physical Memory panel to the one that you noted earlier. Final thoughts Keep in mind that you may not find all the services listed in the Table set to Automatic on your system. In fact, you might not even see some of the services listed present on your system. If that's the case, don't worry about it. Each Windows 2000/XP installation is unique depending on the system and installed software, and different sets of services may be installed and set to start automatically. On the other hand, you may find services other than those listed in Table set to Automatic that you may think are unnecessary. If so, you can find out what each service does by hovering your mouse pointer over the service's

description. When you do, a tool tip window will pop up and display the entire description of the service. You can then better determine if the service is unnecessary. Remember, by changing the Startup Type to Manual, Windows 2000 can still start the service if it's needed. If you decide to experiment with changing the Startup Types of certain services, you can monitor the services over time by launching the Services utility and checking the list of running services. If you consistently find one of the services you set to Manual running, you may decide to change the Startup Type back to Automatic. Use Windows Update to Keep Your Computer Current Windows XP takes the chore out of keeping your software updated with the newest and best code for device drivers, security, reliability, and performance. Windows Update is the online extension of Windows. It’s a Web site where you find the most recent updates for your operating system, software programs, and hardware. Windows Update scans your computer and lists the code updates needed on your system. Then you can choose whether to download and install them. To find available updates 1. Open Windows Update. 2. Click Scan for updates to find out about recent releases for your system. 3. Click Yes when prompted to install any required software or device drivers. Notes:

To open Windows Update, click Start, then click Help and Support. Under “Pick a task,” click Keep your computer up–to–date with Windows Update. The first time you go to the Windows Update Web site, click Yes when prompted to install any required software or controls.

To use Windows Update, you need to establish a connection to the Internet. You might need to be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to perform some tasks

Use Virtual Private Networks for Secure Internet Data Transfer Data sent across the public Internet is generally not protected from prying eyes, but you can make your Internet communications secure and extend

your private network with a virtual private network (VPN) connection. VPN uses a technique known as tunneling to transfer data securely on the Internet to a remote access server on your workplace network. Using a VPN helps you save money by using the public Internet instead of making long– distance phone calls to connect securely with your private network. The connection over the Internet is encrypted and secure. New authentication and encryption protocols are enforced by the remote access server. Sensitive data is hidden from the public, but it is securely accessible to appropriate users through a VPN. There are two ways to create a VPN connection: By dialing an Internet service provider (ISP), or by connecting directly to the Internet.

If you dial–in to an ISP, your ISP then makes another call to the private network’s remote access server to establish the PPTP or L2TP tunnel. After authentication, you can access the private network.

If you are already connected to the Internet, on a local area network, a cable modem, or a digital subscriber line (DSL), you can make a tunnel through the Internet and connects directly to the remote access server. After authentication, you can access the corporate network. To make a virtual private network (VPN) connection 1. Open Network Connections. (Click Start, click Control Panel, click Network and Internet Connections, and then click Network Connections.) 2. Under Network Tasks, click Create a new connection, and then click Next. 3. Click Connect to the network at my workplace, and then click Next as shown below. 4. Click Virtual Private Network connection, click Next, and then follow the instructions in the wizard.

Notes:
• You can create multiple VPN connections by copying them in the Network Connections folder. You can then rename the connections and modify connection settings. By doing so, you can easily create different connections to accommodate multiple hosts, security options, and so on. •

If you have an active Winsock Proxy client, you cannot create a VPN. A Winsock Proxy client immediately redirects data to a configured proxy server before the data can be processed in the fashion required by a VPN. To establish a VPN, you should disable the Winsock Proxy client. Unlocking WinXP's setupp.ini

WinXP's setupp.ini controls how the CD acts. IE is it an OEM version or retail? First, find your setupp.ini file in the i386 directory on your WinXP CD. Open it up, it'll look something like this: ExtraData=707A667567736F696F697911AE7E05 Pid=55034000 The Pid value is what we're interested in. What's there now looks like a standard default. There are special numbers that determine if it's a retail, oem, or volume license edition. First, we break down that number into two

parts. The first five digits determines how the CD will behave, ie is it a retail cd that lets you clean install or upgrade, or an oem cd that only lets you perform a clean install? The last three digits determines what CD key it will accept. You are able to mix and match these values. For example you could make a WinXP cd that acted like a retail cd, yet accepted OEM keys. Now, for the actual values. Remember the first and last values are interchangable, but usually you'd keep them as a pair: Retail = 51882335 Volume License = 51883 270 OEM = 82503 OEM So if you wanted a retail CD that took retail keys, the last line of your setupp.ini file would read: Pid=51882335 And if you wanted a retail CD that took OEM keys, you'd use: Pid=51882OEM Note that this does NOT get rid of WinXP's activation. Changing the Pid to a Volume License will not bypass activation. You must have a volume license (corporate) key to do so. Ping In a previous tip, it was revealed how to continuously ping a host until stopped. Here are all of the ping options: example .. In DOS .. c:>ping 192.168.0.1 -t -t Ping the specifed host until interrupted -a Resolve addresses to hostnames -n count Number of echo requests to send -l size Send buffer size -f Set Don't Fragment flag in packet -i TTL Time To Live -v TOS Type Of Service

-r count Record route for count hops -s count Timestamp for count hops -j host-list Loose source route along host-list -k host-list Strict source route along host-list -w timeout Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply Experiment to see how helpful these can be! Use System Restore to Undo Changes if Problems Occur Windows XP Professional makes it easier to resolve problems if they occur in your system. You can use System Restore to remove any system changes that were made since the last time you remember your computer working correctly. System Restore does not affect your personal data files (such as Microsoft Word documents, browsing history, drawings, favorites, or e–mail) so you won’t lose changes made to these files. Windows XP creates “restore points” every day, as well as at the time of significant system events (such as when an application or driver is installed). You can also create and name your own restore points at any time. Creating a restore point can be useful any time you anticipate making changes to your computer that are risky or might make your computer unstable. If something goes wrong, you select a restore point and Windows XP undoes any system changes made since that time. When you run System Restore, a calendar is displayed to help you find restore points. If you don't use your computer every day, some days might not have any restore points. If you use your computer frequently, you might have restore points almost every day, and some days might have several restore points. To create a Restore Point 1. Access the System Restore Wizard through Help and Support Center. (Click Start, and then click Help and Support. Click Performance and Maintenance, click Using System Restore to undo changes, and then click Run the System Restore Wizard. 2. Click Create a restore point, and then click Next. 3. In the Restore point description box, type a name to identify this restore point. System Restore automatically adds to this name the date and time that this Restore Point is created.

To finish creating this restore point, click Create.

To cancel restore point creation and return to the Welcome to System Restore screen, click Back.

To cancel restore point creation and exit the System Restore Wizard, click Cancel.

To view or to return to this restore point, from the Welcome to System Restore screen of the System Restore Wizard select Restore my computer to an earlier time. Then select the date when the restore point was created from the calendar in the Select a Restore Point screen. All of the restore points that were created on the selected date are listed by name in the list box to the right of the calendar. To set advanced restore options 1. Open Backup. (Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup.) The Backup Utility Wizard starts by default, unless it is disabled. 2. Click the Advanced Mode button in the Backup Utility Wizard. 3. Click the Restore and Manage Media menu and select the files to restore. 4. Click the Start Restore button. 5. On the Confirm Restore dialog box, click Advanced. 6. Set the advanced restore options you want, and then click OK. See the Notes section for a description of each option. Use PostScript Type 1 fonts in XP

You don't need Adobe Type Manager to use PostScript Type 1 fonts under Windows XP. Just drag the Type 1 font files to your fonts folder; XP automatically installs and activates the font. This works for TrueType and OpenType fonts, too. Use Offline Files When You're off the Network Offline Files in Windows XP Professional can help you be more productive. You can use this feature on a portable computer, or on a desktop computer that occasionally connects to your workplace network. For example, this feature is useful if you are working at home on a desktop computer, and need to automatically get files off the network whenever you connect. The files that you select are automatically downloaded from shared folders on the network and stored on your computer. When you disconnect, the files are available to use. When you reconnect to the network, your changes are added to the files on the network in a process called synchronization. If someone else on the network made changes to the same file, you can save your version, keep the other version, or save both. To set up your computer to use offline files 1. Open My Computer. (Click Start, and then click My Computer.) 2. On the Tools menu, click Folder Options. 3. On the Offline Files tab, make sure that the Enable Offline Files check box is selected as shown below. 4. Select Synchronize all offline files before logging off to get a full synchronization. Leave it unselected for a quick synchronization. A full synchronization ensures that you have the most current version of every shared network file that you work with offline. A quick synchronization ensures that you have complete versions of your offline files, although they may not be the most current versions. You might select a quick synchronization if you are the only person working on a file or if you do not need the most current version of a file. If you want to control which offline files are synchronized, when they are synchronized, and whether Windows prompts you before synchronizing your files, you can use Synchronization Manager.

To make a file or folder available to you offline After you set up your computer to use offline files, you need to make shared network files available to you offline. 1. Open My Computer. (Click Start, and then click My Computer.) 2. Double–click a network drive to view its contents. If My Computer does not contain links to any network drives, you need to assign a drive letter to a shared network resource. 3. Click the shared network file or folder that you want to make available offline. 4. On the File menu, click Make Available Offline. This option appears on the File menu only after you set up your computer to use offline files as described above. 5. To make a network file or folder unavailable offline, right–click the item, and click Make Available Offline again to clear the check mark.

To view a list of all of the shared network files that are available offline 1. On the Tools menu, click Folder Options. 2. On the Offline Files tab, click View Files.

Use Infrared Data Transfer to Connect Computers and Devices You can connect your computer to other nearby computers and devices without wires, using infrared light to transfer data, the same way your TV remote control sends signals. Most new portable computers have built–in infrared transceivers, and Windows XP supports the Infared Data Association (IrDA) standards and protocols, allowing you to connect with such devices as printers, modems, digital pagers, personal digital assistants, electronic cameras, organizers, cellular phones, and hand–held computers. To establish an infrared link 1. Verify that the devices you want to connect with have infrared functionality enabled and work correctly. For information about verifying infrared functionality on your computer, see below. For information about verifying infrared functionality on other devices, see the device manufacturer's documentation. 2. Align your devices so that the infrared transceivers are within one meter of each other, and the transceivers are pointing at each other. When the devices are correctly aligned, the
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icon appears on the taskbar.

The infrared transceiver is the small, dark red window on your portable computer, printer, digital camera, adapter, or other device. You can choose whether to hide or display the Wireless Link taskbar icon when two infrared devices are aligned. By default, the Wireless Link taskbar icon is displayed.

To verify infrared support on your computer 1. Verify that your computer has an infrared transceiver (the transceiver will appear as a small, dark red window). If your computer does not have an infrared transceiver, see your manufacturer's documentation to verify whether IrDA functionality is supported. You could also consider adding a IrDA card which can found at most good computer supply shops.

2. Open Device Manager. Click Start, and then click Control Panel. Click Printers and Other Hardware, and then click System in the left panel. On the Hardware tab, click Device Manager. 3. Double–click Infrared Devices If you have an infrared transceiver, but Infrared Devices does not appear in Device Manager, you do not have an infrared device installed. If no infrared devices are listed, do one or both of the following:

Enter BIOS setup to verify whether the infrared device is enabled in BIOS, in IrDA, or Fast IrDA (FIR) mode. For information about how to enter BIOS setup, see your computer manufacturer's documentation. If the infrared device is disabled in BIOS, you might be able to use your computer's BIOS setup to enable it. Warning: Using a BIOS setup utility incorrectly can cause your computer to operate incorrectly. Microsoft cannot guarantee that problems resulting from the incorrect use of the BIOS setup can be solved. Use this utility at your own risk. Before you make any changes, make a note of the original settings so that you can reinstate them if necessary.

See your computer manufacturer's documentation to determine whether the BIOS needs to be updated. 1. Verify that at least one infrared device is listed and that it is enabled. If infrared devices are listed but they are not enabled, verify that the infrared devices are installed correctly on your computer. Infrared transceivers are now installed in nearly all new portable computers. If your computer does not have an infrared transceiver, but it supports IrDA, and IrDA is enabled in BIOS, you can install an external infrared transceiver. Use Hibernate and Standby to Conserve Batteries

The Hibernate function in Windows XP Professional can make the batteries in your laptop computer last longer. Windows XP supports the industry standard power management technology known as the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI), which enables the operating system to control power to your computer and peripheral devices. The power management features in Windows XP include Hibernate and Standby. Hibernate saves an image of your desktop with all open files and documents, and then it powers down your computer. When

you turn on power, your files and documents are open on your desktop exactly as you left them. Standby reduces the power consumption of your computer by cutting power to hardware components you are not using. Standby can cut power to peripheral devices, your monitor, even your hard drive, but maintains power to your computer’s memory so you don’t lose your work. Power Management Performance Windows XP wakes from Hibernate faster than any earlier version of Windows. So you can preserve your batteries without taking time to close all your files and shut down, and then restart and open all your files when you’re ready to work again. If you need to leave your computer, you can just leave it. Windows XP can automatically put your computer into Hibernate mode after a specified period of inactivity. Or Windows XP can detect when your batteries are running low, and then automatically put your computer in Hibernate mode to save your work before the battery fails. To put your computer into hibernation, you must have a computer that is set up by the manufacturer to support this option. To automatically put your computer into hibernation You must be logged on to your computer with an owner account in order to complete this procedure. 1. Open Power Options in Control Panel. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Power Options.) 2. Click the Hibernate tab, select the Enable hibernate support check box, and then click Apply. If the Hibernate tab is unavailable, your computer does not support this feature.

3. Click the APM tab, click Enable Advanced Power Management support, and then click Apply. The APM tab is unavailable on ACPI–compliant computers. ACPI automatically enables Advanced Power Management, which disables the APM tab. 4. Click the Power Schemes tab, and then select a time period in System hibernates. Your computer hibernates after it has been idle for the specified amount of time. To manually put your computer into hibernation You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of either the Administrators or Power Users group in order to complete this procedure. If your computer is connected to a network, network policy settings might also prevent you from completing this procedure. 1. Open Power Options in Control Panel. (Click Start, click Control Panel, and then double-click Power Options.) 2. Click the Hibernate tab, and then select the Enable hibernate support check box.

If the Hibernate tab is not available, your computer does not support this feature. 3. Click OK to close the Power Options dialog box. 4. Click Start, and then click Shut Down. In the What do you want the computer to do drop-down list, click Hibernate. If you are using Windows XP Home Edition, or Windows XP Professional with Fast User Switching turned on, the Shut Down menu will present the options to Stand By, Turn Off, or Restart your computer. Hold down the Shift key, and the Stand By button will change to Hibernate.

What upgrade paths does Windows XP support A. XP Home Edition and XP Professional are available in full and upgrade versions. If you're upgrading from a qualifying OS, you can purchase the less-expensive upgrade version; otherwise, you need to purchase the full version. However, even if you purchase the full version, XP doesn't support all upgrade paths. Review the following table to determine whether XP supports your upgrade path: Current Version Win 3.1/3.11 Windows 95 Windows 98/98SE Windows ME Windows NT 3.51 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 2000 Pro Windows XP Home Windows XP Pro Win XP Home No No Yes Yes No No No N/A No Win XP Pro No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes N/A

File Sharing without ICS To enable file and printer sharing on networks not using Internet Connection Sharing, you must run the Network Setup Wizard and select the following option: This computer connects to the Internet through another computer on my network or through a residential gateway.

If your computer is directly connected to the Internet, re-run the Network Setup Wizard and select the following option: This computer connects to the Internet directly or through a network hub. Other computers on my network also connect to the Internet directly or through a hub.

Error - ''boot_unmountable_drive'' when installing XP For those who are getting this error when you try to install WinXP on a motherboard that has UDMA 100 Promise Controllers you need to do the following in order to get XP to install correctly if your hard drives are connected to the UDMA 100 controller. Now there are two ways to get XP installed, the first one I am going to mention is the easiest way and the second is a bit more complicated but will work never the less. #1 - Easiest Way I have an Asus A7V motherboard and I have run into this more than once. What you need to do (this is the easiest way to do it that I have found) is to move your hard drives cable off the UDMA 100 controller (normally color coded blue) over to the UDMA 66 master controller on the motherboard. Once you have done that make sure your PC still boots into your current OS correctly. If it does then start your XP install or upgrade. Everything should be fine. Now, once XP is up on My Computer and choose Manage. Look under Device manager and you will see an error with a yellow exclamation point on it. Right click on it and install the Promise Drivers. You can download them directly from here ftp://ftp.promise.com/Controllers/IDE/Ultra66/UltraFamily/U100d160b32.zip Once you have the drivers installed re-boot the system and make sure the yellow exclamation points are gone and the promise drivers are listed under SCSI devices, if they are then turn off your system, move the HD's back to the UDMA 100 controller and boot it up. That should fix it. #2 - Fresh Install If you plan on installing XP to a freshly formatted hard drive the easiest way I have found to do this is to use the above method but for those with only one UDMA 66 controller on there motherboard you may need to do the following:

- First use the URL above and download the Promise drivers from the Promise website. - Second you need to extract the drivers to a floppy or to the partition on your hard drive that XP can see (FAT32 works great for this) but there is a trick to this in order to make XP see the drivers. Once you extract the drivers the promise drivers automatically make folders for each individual OS (see screen shot), what you need to do is move the files from under the Win2K directory to the of the Promise Folder. So you take the three files under the Win2K folder and copy them, don't move them but copy them to the root of the main folder where you extracted the Promise drivers to (if you don't see three files go to Tools/Folder Options/View and check "show hidden files"). The three files you need to copy to the area are: - Ultra.cat - Ultra.inf - Ultra.sys Now that you have all the files in the copy them to a floppy, reboot (if needed) and start your install of XP. Now pay attention here - at the bottom of the very first blue setup screen you will see a prompt to hit F6 to install third party SCSI or RAID drivers. HIT F6 A FEW TIMES NOW!!! Now it might take a couple of seconds but you should be prompted to insert your drivers into your floppy drive. Do so and choose the Promise ATA100 controller. Keep this disk handy as you will be prompted for it one more time during the install. Once XP has the drivers and loads them successfully XP should install just fine, well at least as far as the controller goes.

FDISK Tutorial The Basics of Fdisk: Primary partitions are the only one that are bootable. They're always the C: drive when active. Normally you can only have one (more with some special tricks etc.) Extended partitions are needed when you want more than one partition. You can only have ONE Extended partition. Logical Drives come into the Extended partition. They are handy since you know that you can only have one Primary and one Extended so you can get more than only two partitions. They would be your D:, E:, etc. drives. First you need to reboot your system with the Boot Disk inserted. 1.At the A: prompt start "FDISK."

2.If asked to use Large Disc support say Yes. 3.The first screen looks like this: Create Dos Partition or Logical Drive Set Active Partition Delete Partitions or Logical DOS Drives Display Partition Information Change current fixed drive. (In case you have two or more Hard Drivess) So, to prepare you hopefully did a backup from your data. You did, didn't you ?! 4.Next we need to remove the existing partitions. So go to 3. 5.Next screen like this: Delete Delete Delete Delete Delete Primary DOS Extended DOS Logical Drives Non-DOS always in the following order

Logical (All) > Extended > Primary (Last) 6.Go back to first screen after all partitions have been removed. 7.Now we need to setup our new partitions. Go to 1. This screen looks like this: Create Primary DOS Create Extended DOS Create Logical DOS Drives Here we create in the following order Primary > Extended > Logical Drives. 8.First create the Primary. If asked to use all space say No and enter the amount you wish for the C: drive. It should be set automatically to be the (only) Active partition. If not it may ask you or you have to select "2. Set active partition" from the main menu. 9.Next create the Extended Partition. Use all space left. It probably advances automatically to the next step, creating the Logical DOS Drives.

10.Enter the amount you wish for the D: partition and than the rest for the third partition. Think first about the size for the partitions. OK now we're finished with FDISK so just exit it. Next you need to reboot with the disc still inserted and Format all partitions (the C: partition might need to be formatted with "format c: /s", check the Win95 tip). Another reboot and you can go ahead and install Windows. When your system supports booting from CD just insert the Windows CD and reboot. The setup will start. If not, follow these steps: Win98: insert Boot Disk and CD, reboot, choose "2. boot with CDROM support" and once you're at the prompt change to your CD-drive letter (depends on your partition setup) and enter "setup". Win95: You must format the C: partition with "Format C: /s"!. Next install your CDROM driver, reboot, insert the Win95 CD, change to the CDdriveletter, enter "setup". I hope I made no mistakes. Dual Boot XP A computer can be configured to let you choose between two or more operating systems each time you restart the computer. With multibooting, you can choose which operating system to run or specify a default OS if no selection is made during the restart process. Computers Containing Multiple Windows 2000 or Windows XP Partitions Before installing Windows 2000 and Windows XP on the same machine, you need to prepare your system with different partitions (a process that divides a hard disk into separate sections that can be formatted for use by a file system. Partitions typically have different drive letters such as C or D). One OS per partition It’s important to install each operating system on a different partition and install the applications used with each operating system on the same partition as the OS. If an application is used with two different operating systems, install it on two partitions. Placing each operating system in a separate partition ensures that it will not overwrite crucial files used by the other OS. Install Latest OS Last In general, you should install the most recent OS last—after you have installed all other operating systems on the target computer. In this case, you should install Windows 2000 and then install Windows XP.

Unique Computer Name You can set up a computer so that it has multiple installations of Windows XP on multiple partitions. However, you must use a different computer name for each installation if the computer participates in a Windows 2000 Server domain. Because a unique security identifier (SID) is used for each installation of Windows XP on a domain, the computer name for each installation must be unique—even for multiple installations on the same computer. Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows 2000 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines: Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition. Install Windows XP after you have installed Windows 2000. When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a different partition during Setup. Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature. On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or e-mail software, after Setup is complete. Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions. If the computer is on a Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name. Computers Containing Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Setting up a computer to run Windows XP as well as an earlier operating system such as Windows NT Workstation 4.0 requires addressing compatibility issues among different file systems: NTFS, FAT, and FAT32. Normally, NTFS is the recommended file system because it supports important features, including the Active Directory™ service and domainbased security. However, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer that contains both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended. On these computers, a FAT or FAT32 partition containing the Windows NT 4.0 operating system ensures that when started with Windows NT 4.0, the computer will have access to needed files. In addition, if Windows NT is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, it is recommended that the system partition also be formatted with FAT. This is because earlier operating systems, with one exception, can't access a partition if it uses the latest version of NTFS. The one exception is

Windows NT version 4.0 with Service Pack 4 or later, which has access to partitions with the latest version of NTFS, but with some limitations. Even the latest Service Pack does not provide access to files using the new features in NTFS. Windows NT 4.0 cannot access files that have been stored using NTFS features that did not exist when Windows NT 4.0 was released. For example, a file that uses the new encryption feature won’t be readable when the computer is started with Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, which was released before the encryption feature existed. Note: If you set up a computer so that it starts with Windows NT 3.51 or earlier on a FAT partition, and Windows XP on an NTFS partition, when that computer starts with Windows NT 3.51, the NTFS partition will not be visible. Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines: As explained above, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer containing both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended. Make sure that Windows NT 4.0 has been updated with the latest released Service Pack available for download before installing Windows XP. Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition. When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a different partition during Setup. Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature. On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or email software, after Setup is complete. Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions. If the computer is on a Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name. Computers Containing MS-DOS or Windows 9x and Windows XP As explained above you need to address file system compatibility to ensure a multibooting configuration with these earlier operating systems and Windows XP. Remember to install the latest operating system last otherwise important files may be overwritten.

Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows XP and Windows 9x or MS-DOS, review the following guidelines: On computers that contain MS-DOS and Windows XP: MS-DOS must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. If MS-DOS is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten. On computers that contain Windows 95 and Windows XP: As in the case above, Windows 95 must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. (For Windows 95 OSR2, FAT32 may be used.) If Windows 95 is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT (or FAT32 for Windows 95 OSR2). Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 95. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten. On computers that contain Windows 98 (or Windows ME) and Windows XP: As in the cases above, Windows 98 or Windows Millennium Edition (ME) must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT or FAT32. If Windows 98 or Windows ME is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT or FAT32. Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 98. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten. Installation and How to : The order of installation is critical if you want a successful multiboot installation. In general terms, install non–Microsoft operating systems and earlier versions of the Windows operating system first. This would mean installing UNIX or Linux operating systems first; then Windows 95 or Windows 98 or Windows Me; then Windows NT; and finally, Windows 2000 and/or Windows XP. (In the unlikely event that you’re installing MS–DOS, you can install that either before or after UNIX– or Linux–based operating systems, and generally I’d opt for before.) It’s also important to understand

that, without using a third–party product to help out, you can’t install nonMicrosoft operating systems, or Windows 95 and Windows 98 on the same computer, and that you can install only a single version of Windows95/98/Me. But you can install as many different versions of Windows NT and later versions of the Windows operating system as you have available logical drives, with the sole caveat that you must install all Windows NT versions before you install any Windows 2000 or Windows XP versions. Let’s take a typical installation. Our target computer must be able to boot into Windows 98, Windows NT 4 Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows XP Professional. We have a 2–GB partition to hold our programs and the whole thing must fit on a single 10–GB hard drive. No problem. First, we partition the hard drive into two partitions: a 2–GB primary partition, and an 8-GB extended partition using FDisk. In the extended partition, we’ll create four logical volumes—D, E, F and G—to hold our remaining operating systems and our programs. After the disk is partitioned, format the primary partition using the FAT16 file system and install Windows 98 on it. So far so good. Now, format your D drive with FAT16 as well. Eventually, you’ll install your programs on D drive. Next, install Windows NT 4 Workstation. You will install this on any of the logical volumes not already used (either E drive, F drive or G drive) and choose NTFS as your file system. Leave D drive alone, because your applications go there where they’re visible to all operating systems. When you install Windows NT, it recognizes that you already have Windows 98 on the computer. Then it automatically sets up for dual booting between Windows 98 and Windows NT by creating a boot.ini file, which creates a menu of available operating systems. After you have Windows NT 4 installed, immediately apply Service Pack 6, before you install Windows 2000. Finally, install Windows 2000 and Windows XP, each in its own logical volume. Again, choose NTFS as the file system. As you install them, they are automatically added to the boot.ini file on your C drive, which lets you choose operating systems at start up.

Don't Ignore the Windows Logo Key The Windows logo key, located in the bottom row of most computer keyboards is a little-used treasure. Don't ignore it. It is the shortcut anchor for the following commands: Windows: Display the Start menu Windows + D: Minimize or restore all windows Windows + E: Display Windows Explorer Windows + F: Display Search for files Windows + Ctrl + F: Display Search for computer Windows + F1: Display Help and Support Center Windows + R: Display Run dialog box Windows + break: Display System Properties dialog

box Windows + shift + M: Undo minimize all windows Windows + L: Lock the workstation Windows + U: Open Utility Manager Disable CD Autorun ( WinXP PRO Only) 1) Click Start, Run and enter GPEDIT.MSC 2) Go to Computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, System. 3) Locate the entry for Turn autoplay off and modify it as you desire Disable Attachment restrictions in Outlook from Office [HKEY_CURRENT_USER > Software > Microsoft > Office > 10.0 >Outlook > Security] "Level1Remove" = "exe;bat;vbs Create a Password Reset Disk If you’re running Windows XP Professional as a local user in a workgroup environment, you can create a password reset disk to log onto your computer when you forget your password. To create the disk: 1.Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click User Accounts. 2.Click your account name. 3.Under Related Tasks, click Prevent a forgotten password. 4.Follow the directions in the Forgotten Password Wizard to create a password reset disk. 5.Store the disk in a secure location, because anyone using it can access your local user account. Do most of my programs from Windows 9* work in Windows XP Most programs that work on Windows 95/98/Me and NT will work on Windows XP. As with Windows 2000, several compatibility updates are sure to made after the product is released. There will be problems running older DOS programs (if they will run at all).

Error: Installing XP on an Asus UDMA 100 Board. For those who are getting this error when you try to install WinXP on a

motherboard that has UDMA 100 Promise Controllers you need to do the following in order to get XP to install correctly if your hard drives are connected to the UDMA 100 controller. Now there are two ways to get XP installed, the first one I am going to mention is the easiest way and the second is a bit more complicated but will work never the less. #1 - Easiest Way I have an Asus A7V motherboard and I have run into this more than once. What you need to do (this is the easiest way to do it that I have found) is to move your hard drives cable off the UDMA 100 controller (normally color coded blue) over to the UDMA 66 master controller on the motherboard. Once you have done that make sure your PC still boots into your current OS correctly. If it does then start your XP install or upgrade. Everything should be fine. Now, once XP is up right click My Computer and choose Manage. Look under Device manager and you will see an error with a yellow exclamation point on it. Right click on it and install the Promise Drivers. Once you have the drivers installed re-boot the system and make sure the yellow exclamation points are gone and the promise drivers are listed under SCSI devices, if they are then turn off your system, move the HD's back to the UDMA 100 controller and boot it up. That should fix it. Another option is to check the MS web site once you have XP installed and BEFORE you move your controller back to the UDMA 100 slot for XP compatible Promise drivers. See this FAQ on how to do a manual search for the drivers when you are on the new XP Windows Update site. #2 - Fresh Install If you plan on installing XP to a freshly formatted hard drive the easiest way I have found to do this is to use the above method but for those with only one UDMA 66 controller on there motherboard you may need to do the following: - First use the URL above and download the Promise drivers I have here on the site. - Second you need to extract the drivers to a floppy making sure when you extracted the above file that you left the directories/folders as they were. This is VERY important! If you used WinZip to extract the files I have made the directories for you. Simply unzip them to a floppy and out it aside. The key to this whole process is the Textsetup.oem file. Windows XP setup must see that in the root of the floppy. <<<< It should look like this once your done. Reboot and start your install.. Now pay attention here - at the bottom of the very first blue setup screen

you will see a prompt to hit F6 to install third party SCSI or RAID drivers. HIT F6 A FEW TIMES NOW!!! Now it might take a couple of seconds but you should be prompted to insert your drivers into your floppy drive. Do so and choose the Promise ATA100 controller for Windows 2000. Keep this disk handy as you will be prompted for it one more time during the install. Once XP has the drivers and loads them successfully XP should install just fine, well at least as far as the controller goes.

Using Windows XP Help and Support Center Although most Windows programs include an individualized Help program, which you can access by clicking Help from their menus, Windows XP also includes an all-encompassing Help program. It helps with general Windows questions, as well your computer in general. To start using it, choose Help and Support Center from the Start menu. The program rises to the screen. The Windows Help and Support Center works much like a Web site. To move back one page, click the little green Back arrow in the upper left corner. That arrow helps you out if you've backed into a corner. Just click it to move on to a more helpful page. The Help and Support Center offers assistance in these categories: Pick a Help Topic: Click these to see general information about a topic. Clicking Customizing Your Computer, for example, displays a list of things that you can change about your computer. Choose Your Start Menu from the list, and the Help menu lists how to add items to the Start menu, change the way they open when clicked, or tweak the menu's list of recently used files and documents. Ask for Assistance: Stumped? Here are two ways of bringing in outside help. The Remote Assistance program lets you invite a savvier Windows XP user to connect to your computer through the Internet. When the Geek connects to your computer, he sees your desktop on his screen. He can walk you through problems, offer tutorials, and behave as if he were standing over your shoulder. If you're not into that kind of computer intimacy, try the other option: Contact Microsoft for Help, or connect to help sites through the Internet. Pick a Task: Microsoft placed the most commonly used items here. One click enables you to keep your computer up-to-date, find Windows XP-compatible parts for your computer, restore your computer back to a time when it

worked well, and run diagnostic tools to view information and test your computer. Did You Know?: Windows XP tosses little updated tips here. You may just get lucky and spot one that's useful. For best results, start your quest for help by glancing at the Pick a Help Topic area. If your troublesome spot is listed here, click it and begin narrowing down the search for pertinent information. If that doesn't help, use the Search command at the page's top. Type in a key word or two describing your problem and click the green arrow next to the Search box. Typing e-mail, for instance, brings up 30 bits of information. Click any of the suggested topics to see if they solve your problem. The Search command groups its results in three areas. Suggested Topics, the first and most valuable, lists troubleshooters, step-by-step tutorials, and general information. The Full-text Search Matches area lists any area containing the words you searched for. The last, Microsoft Knowledge Base, shows any results found in a Microsoft-created database listing information about all its products. (Microsoft Knowledge Base requires an Internet connection.) Understanding My Music in Windows XP The My Music folder is the place where Windows automatically saves all the audio clips you download from the Internet or save on your hard drive with Windows Media Player. The My Music folder, like My Pictures, is an automatic part of the My Documents folder. To open the My Music folder from the Windows XP desktop, click the Start button and then click My Music (normally third from the top in the right-hand column in the Start pop-up menu). To open this folder from another folder, such as My Computer, click the Address bar drop-down button (on the right side) and then click My Documents at the top of the pop-up list (right below Desktop at the very top). You can then open My Music by double-clicking that folder icon (the one with the music note in it) in the My Documents window. Like the folders in My Pictures, the folders in My Music appear in thumbnail view. To play a particular audio file that you've saved in the My Music folder with Windows Media Player, right-click the file icon and then click Play on the shortcut menu. Windows Media Player opens and begins playing your selection. To play all the audio files in a particular folder, click the folder icon before clicking the Play All hyperlink in the Music Tasks section of the My Music

folder. To play all of the audio clips and tracks saved in the My Music folder, make sure that no folder or file is selected before you click the Play All hyperlink. Understanding Microsoft .NET Passport In its ever-expanding push toward computer domination, Microsoft launched a concept called the .NET Passport. (Soon after installation, Windows XP urgently asks you to sign up for one.) In theory, the Passport sounds great: Give Microsoft a user name and password, and you have a Passport. When you visit any Passport-aware Internet sites, you type in your same Passport name and password. You no longer have to remember different user names and passwords for every place that you visit or shop on the Internet. In fact, when you move from one Passport-enabled site to another, you don't even need to log on again. With the Passport, your personal data travels with you: name, address, and, if you purchased anything, your credit card number. Microsoft says its .NET Passport enables software, Internet services, and computer gadgetry to work together and share information, making the Internet easier for everyone to use. Think about it, though. No entity should govern your Internet use — except you. The Microsoft Passport contains your Internet identity. With Passport, Microsoft creates a consumer database that's just too powerful. Microsoft can collect information from any Passport-enabled site you visit, so Microsoft knows the stocks you track in Investor.com, the Web pages you view in MSN.com, and where you travel through Expedia.com. When you move from one Passport-enabled site to another, that information could be shared, too. In concept, Passport sounds great. When computers are working well, they do great things. But everybody knows how terrible computers can be if something goes wrong. Passport offers too much opportunity for things to go wrong. Sure, it's okay to occasionally use a Passport account when there's no alternative. But avoid Passport-enabled sites whenever possible. Turning Off the Licensing Feature in Windows XP

Everybody but the record industry agrees that the Microsoft licensing feature is awful. Luckily, you have a way to turn it off: 1. Choose Options from Media Player's Tools menu. 2. Click the Copy Music tab. 3. Remove any check mark from the box marked Protect Content.

If no check mark is there, Media Player doesn't embed any license or copy protection in your copied files. Disabling the licensing feature lets you copy your files to any of your computers and portable music devices. Radio and the Windows Media Player Select a Preset Station Windows Media Player for Windows XP features preset Web radio stations that make listening a snap. It's an easy way to get started and a great introduction to the music capabilities of Windows XP. Once you're on the Internet, you can tune in Web radio. To listen to Internet radio Click Start, point to All Programs, and then click Windows Media Player. Click Radio Tuner. Double-click a preset Web radio station from the list of featured presets. That’s all there is to it. Loading a station usually takes a few seconds, after which playing begins automatically. Create Your Own Presets Of course, you’re not limited to listening only to preset stations. After all, Internet radio is all about choice. It’s easy to find interesting new stations and create your own presets. To create preset radio stations Click Start, and then click Windows Media Player. Click Radio Tuner. Click Find More Stations. Search for stations by keyword or zip code (U.S. only), or browse through editor's selections in genres from Jazz & Blues to Modern Rock to New Age to Sports Radio and more. Click Use Advanced Search to search for stations based on genre, language, country, and more criteria. If you find a station that looks interesting, you can click it for more information. To create a preset, click Add to My Stations. When you are finished, click Return to My Stations. Click any station in My Stations to play it. Note Because Radio Tuner contains a live Web page that is hosted by WindowsMedia.com, the process for adding radio stations may change without notice. Streaming Audio Web radio is broadcast by a method called streaming. Instead of sending out a constant signal, the station sends out audio in batches, or packets, across

the Internet to reach your computer. Each packet is separately numbered, and the data it contains is compressed (reduced in size) for speedier delivery. When the computer receives packets, it decompresses (reconstitutes) their data and plays them in their proper order. The effect is the same as if the information was delivered by means of a continuous signal. Packets might travel by separate routes to reach your computer and might arrive out of order. To allow for delays, your computer initially stores packets instead of playing them until enough have arrived to fill the time it takes to receive any missing packets before it is their turn to play. The storing process is called buffering. Without streaming audio Web radio would not be possible, and full-length media files would take ages to download. Take your favorite tunes with you transfer music to a portable player Take your favorite tunes with you when you jog or work out at the gym. Windows Media Player for Windows XP is set up to make the transfer of music to portable players as simple as 1-2-3. And since the music is stored on your computer hard drive, you can keep refilling your portable player as often as you want. To transfer music to a portable player Connect your portable player to your computer, according to the directions supplied with the player. Click Start, point to All Programs, and then click Windows Media Player. Click Copy to CD or Device. If necessary, click the player to which you want to copy music. Choose a playlist from the Music to Copy drop-down menu. Clear the check boxes beside any tracks you do not want to copy. Click Copy Music. Playing DVDs in Windows XP Microsoft raves about how Media Player plays DVDs. But that's a lie. Windows XP can't play DVDs right out of the box. See, even though you've bought a Windows XP computer, a DVD drive, and a DVD, you need something else: special software called a decoder. This bit of software, called a codec because it converts one format to another, enables your computer to translate numbers on a disc into videos of galloping horses on the screen. Unfortunately, Windows XP doesn't come with a DVD codec, so you must pick up one somewhere else. Where? Well, most computers with DVD drives come with DVD-playing software — a little box with its own little controls. That software installs its own DVD codec in Windows, and Media Player simply borrows that. But if you don't have DVD-playing software, there's nothing to borrow, and Media Player ignores your DVDs.

If you choose Windows Media Player instead of your third-party DVD player to watch DVDs, the controls are pretty much the same as they are for playing CDs. You probably need to update your DVD software so that it will work under Windows XP. Otherwise, your DVD software won't work under Media Player, either. Head for the Web site of your DVD player's manufacturer and look for a Windows XP patch or upgrade. If you're lucky, the manufacturer won't charge you for the upgrade. Some companies, however, make you buy a new version. DVD stands for Digital Video Disc & Digital Versatile Disc. Bending to pressure, Microsoft made a last-minute deal with three companies to provide software for Windows Media Player to create MP3s and play DVDs. The catch? The complete package costs between $20 and $30, with separate components (the DVD decoder on its own, for instance) costing less. The three companies, CyberLink, InterVideo, and RAVISENT, each offers a DVD Decoder Pack for Windows XP. After October 25, 2001, Windows XP users may order and download the add-on packs from each company's Web site through links inside Windows Media Player. If you've upgraded to Windows XP from an earlier version of Windows, and your old DVD software no longer works, using the links to get the add-ons might be your best option. Logging On to Your computer

After you've installed Windows XP Professional, you can configure common settings, including user accounts and network connections. If you already have a user account, log on to your computer with that account name and password. If you don't have a user account, you must first log on as the administrator to create one. Log On as the Administrator Until you set up a user account on your computer, you need to log on as the Administrator. For security reasons, you should create a user account for yourself and a user account for each person who may be using the computer.

After you complete Setup, your computer restarts and the “Log On to Windows” dialog box appears. To log on as the Administrator In “Log On to Windows,” type Administrator and the password you assigned to the administrator during Setup. Click OK. If a message appears informing you that the system could not log you on, verify that CAPS LOCK is not turned on, and then retype your password. IMPORTANT Running Windows XP as an administrator makes the system vulnerable to unnecessary security risks. Instead, use your user account to perform routine tasks such as running programs, working on documents, and visiting Internet sites. Joining a Network If you want to connect to a network during Setup, you must have the correct hardware installed on your computer and be connected to your network. If you will be using a network, first determine whether your computer is joining a domain or a workgroup. If you're not sure, select Workgroup when you are prompted during Setup. (You can always join a domain later, after Windows XP Professional is installed.) Any computer user can join a workgroup—you don’t need special administrative permissions. You must provide an existing or new workgroup name, or you can use the workgroup name that Windows XP Professional suggests during Setup. If you select Domain ask your network administrator to create a new computer account in that domain or to reset your existing account. Joining a domain requires permission from the network administrator. Joining a domain during Setup requires a computer account to identify your computer to the domain you want to join. If you’re upgrading, Setup uses your existing computer account; or if there isn’t one, Setup prompts you to provide a new computer account. Ask your network administrator to create a computer account before you begin Setup. Or, if you have the appropriate privileges, you can create the account yourself and join the domain during Setup. To join a domain during Setup, you need to provide your domain user name and password.

Unless you're an advanced user, it's recommended you use the default settings. Multibooting with Windows XP - Installing Windows 2000 and Windows XP You can install two or more operating systems on your computer, and then choose the one that you want to use each time you restart. This is known as multibooting. You can configure your computer to start Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows NT, and either Windows 95 or Windows 98. Consider Disk Space, Type, and File System Before using the multibooting feature, consider the tradeoffs: each operating system uses valuable disk space, and file system compatibility can be complex if you want to run Windows XP on one partition and an earlier OS on another partition. In addition, dynamic disk format introduced in Windows 2000 does not work with earlier operating systems. However, multibooting capabilities are a valuable feature providing the single-machine flexibility to run multiple operating systems. In the past, some users installed multiple operating systems as a safeguard against problems with starting the computer. With Windows XP, you have more and better options for system recovery. For example, if you have a problem with a newly-installed device driver, you can use safe mode, in which the operating system restarts with default settings and the minimum number of drivers. Windows XP also includes compatibility mode, so you no longer need to keep an older operating system to run most of your older programs. However, multibooting continues to be a useful feature if you are using Windows XP but occasionally need to replicate older computing environments. This article provides an overview of multibooting, beginning with a summary of disk requirements followed by guidelines for multibooting with Windows XP. It also addresses multibooting issues for running Windows XP with earlier operating systems including Windows 2000, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 9x, and MS-DOS®. Each section includes a checklist summary for easy reference. Does Your Disk Support Multibooting? The following table shows the disk configurations on which you can install more than one operating system. Disk configuration Requirements for multiple operating systems

Basic disk

This is the common name for the hard disk in your computer. You have a basic disk unless you have converted it to dynamic disk. MS-DOS and all Windows-based operating systems can access basic disks. A basic disk can contain up to four primary partitions. A partition is a section of the disk that functions as a separate unit. Each partition can have a different file format and different drive letter, for example, C: and D:. Each operating system must be on a separate partition. If you have one hard disk and you have converted it to dynamic disk, you can install only one operating system. You cannot multiboot. To determine if you have a dynamic hard disk, click Start, click Control Panel, click Performance and Maintenance, click Administrative Tools. Double-click Computer Management, and then click Disk Management. In the right pane, your disk will be labeled as a basic or dynamic type. If you have two or more hard disks installed in your computer, each dynamic disk can contain one installation of Windows XP Professional, or Windows 2000. No other operating systems can start from a dynamic disk. Windows XP Home Edition does not support dynamic disks.

Single dynamic disk

Multiple dynamic disks

One OS Per Partition Before installing and Windows XP and an earlier version on the same machine, you must prepare your hard disk with different partitions. When you install Windows on a new or reformatted hard disk, the Setup program typically does not partition your hard disk automatically. To create multiple partitions, choose Advanced Options during Setup and follow the instructions to create and name multiple partitions. You can also create partitions using Fdisk. If you have already installed Windows, and you have only one partition, you must reformat and partition your hard drive before you can multiboot. You can divide your hard disk into multiple partitions, and each partition can function as a separate logical drive. For example, logical drives C: and D: can both exist on the same hard disk, but function as separate disks. You should install each operating system on a different partition. Then install applications on the same partition as the operating system with which you run them. If an application is used with two different operating systems,

install copies on both partitions. Placing each operating system in a separate partition ensures that it will not overwrite crucial files used by the other OS. A basic disk can contain up to four partitions. Each partition can be formatted for use by a file system, such as FAT32 or NTFS. In general, you should always install the most recent OS last. In this case, you should install Windows 2000 and then install Windows XP. Unique Computer Name You can set up a computer so that it has multiple installations of Windows XP and Windows 2000 Professional. However, you must use a different computer name for each installation if the computer participates in a Windows 2000 Server domain. Because a unique security identifier (SID) is used for each installation of Windows XP on a domain, the computer name for each installation must be unique—even for multiple installations on the same computer. Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows 2000 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines: Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition. Install Windows XP after you have installed Windows 2000. When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a partition during Setup. Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature. On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or e-mail software, after Setup is complete. Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions. If the computer is on a Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name. Mapping Network Drives in Windows XP

If you use Windows XP on a local area network (LAN), and you save and open files in shared folders as part of a workgroup on a server, you can create a virtual drive whose drive letter appears in the My Computer window along with those of your local drives — a process referred to as mapping a network drive. To map a network drive, follow these steps: 1. Click Tools-->Map Network Drive on the My Computer menu bar to open the Map Network Drive dialog box. 2. Click the Drive drop-down list button and select the drive letter you want to assign to the virtual drive containing this network folder (note that the list starts with Z: and works backwards to B:) from the pop-up menu. 3. Type the path to the folder on the network drive in the Folder text box or click the Browse button and select the folder directly from the outline of the network drives and folders shown in the Browse For Folder dialog box. Now click OK to close the Browse For Folder dialog box and return to the Map Network Drive dialog box (where the path to the selected folder now appears). 4. If you want Windows to recreate this virtual drive designation for the selected network folder each time that you start and log on to your computer, leave the check mark in the Reconnect at Logon check box. If you only want to use this drive designation during the current work session, click the Reconnect at Logon check box to remove the check mark. 5. If you're mapping the network drive for someone else who uses a logon different from your own, click the Different User Name hyperlink and enter the user name and password in the associated text boxes in the Connect As dialog box before you click OK. 6. Click the Finish button in the Map Network Drive dialog box to close it and return to the My Computer window. The network folder that you mapped onto a virtual drive now appears at the bottom of the contents area under a new section called "Network Drives" and Windows automatically opens the folder in a separate window. After mapping a network folder onto a virtual drive, you can redisplay the contents in the My Computer window by double-clicking that drive icon. To remove a virtual drive that you've mapped onto My Computer, click Tools->Disconnect Network Drive; next click the letter of the virtual drive in the Disconnect Network Drives dialog box and then click OK. Windows then

displays an alert dialog box warning you that files and folders are currently open on the virtual drive and that you run the risk of losing data if files are open. If you're sure that you have no files open on that drive, click the Yes button to break the connection and remove the virtual drive from the My Computer window.

If you use Windows XP on a local area network (LAN), and you save and open files in shared folders as part of a workgroup on a server, you can create a virtual drive whose drive letter appears in the My Computer window along with those of your local drives — a process referred to as mapping a network drive. To map a network drive, follow these steps: 1. Click Tools-->Map Network Drive on the My Computer menu bar to open the Map Network Drive dialog box. 2. Click the Drive drop-down list button and select the drive letter you want to assign to the virtual drive containing this network folder (note that the list starts with Z: and works backwards to B:) from the pop-up menu. 3. Type the path to the folder on the network drive in the Folder text box or click the Browse button and select the folder directly from the outline of the network drives and folders shown in the Browse For Folder dialog box. Now click OK to close the Browse For Folder dialog box and return to the Map Network Drive dialog box (where the path to the selected folder now appears). 4. If you want Windows to recreate this virtual drive designation for the selected network folder each time that you start and log on to your computer, leave the check mark in the Reconnect at Logon check box. If you only want to use this drive designation during the current work session, click the Reconnect at Logon check box to remove the check mark. 5. If you're mapping the network drive for someone else who uses a logon different from your own, click the Different User Name hyperlink and enter the user name and password in the associated text boxes in the Connect As dialog box before you click OK. 6. Click the Finish button in the Map Network Drive dialog box to close it and return to the My Computer window. The network folder that you mapped onto a virtual drive now appears at the bottom of the contents area under a new section called "Network Drives" and Windows automatically opens the folder in a separate window.

After mapping a network folder onto a virtual drive, you can redisplay the contents in the My Computer window by double-clicking that drive icon. To remove a virtual drive that you've mapped onto My Computer, click Tools->Disconnect Network Drive; next click the letter of the virtual drive in the Disconnect Network Drives dialog box and then click OK. Windows then displays an alert dialog box warning you that files and folders are currently open on the virtual drive and that you run the risk of losing data if files are open. If you're sure that you have no files open on that drive, click the Yes button to break the connection and remove the virtual drive from the My Computer window. Make Windows XP Professional Accessible

Do you have trouble reading the screen, hearing the sound themes, using the keyboard, or moving the mouse? Windows XP Professional includes features such as Accessibility Wizard, Accessibility Options, and Utility Manager that make Windows XP accessible and usable by everyone. For more detailed information about accessibility options, keyboard shortcuts, and assistant technology programs in Windows XP Professional: Click Start, then click Help and Support, and then click Accessibility, in the left-hand column. –or– Press the Windows Logo key + F1, use the TAB key to highlight Accessibility, and then press ENTER. To learn more about Microsoft products available for people with disabilities, visit the Microsoft Accessibility Web site. Note: The information in this section applies only to users who license Microsoft products in the United States. If you obtained this product outside the United States, your package contains a card that lists Microsoft subsidiary support services, telephone numbers, and addresses. Contact your subsidiary to find out whether the type of products and services described here are available in your area. Accessibility Wizard The Accessibility Wizard asks you questions about your accessibility needs and automatically configures text size, and settings for display, sound, and pointer.

To start the Accessibility Wizard Click Start and point to All Programs. Then point to Accessories, point to Accessibility, and click Accessibility Wizard. –or– Press the Windows Logo key , press P to open All Programs, and then press ENTER. Press A to open Accessories, press ENTER to open Accessibility, and then press ENTER again to start Accessibility Wizard. Note: Utility Manager lets you start, stop, and check the status of the accessibility programs you select from the Accessibility Wizard. To open the Utility Manager Click Start and point to All Programs. Then point to Accessories, point to Accessibility, and click Utility Manager. –or– Press the Windows Logo key , press P to open All Programs, and then press ENTER. Press A to open Accessories, press ENTER to open Accessibility. Use the arrow keys to highlight Utility Manager, and then press ENTER. Accessibility Options Accessibility Options allow you to directly customize keyboard, display, and mouse functions. To open Accessibility Options Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click Accessibility Options. –or– Press the Windows Logo key , use the arrow keys to highlight Control Panel, and then press ENTER. Use the TAB key to highlight Accessibility Options, and then press ENTER. Installing Windows XP with MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 or Windows Millennium Edition You must address file system compatibility to ensure a multi-booting configuration with these earlier operating systems and Windows XP. Remember to install the latest operating system last, otherwise important files may be overwritten.

Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows XP and Windows 9x or MS-DOS, review the following guidelines: On computers that contain MS-DOS and Windows XP:

MS-DOS must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. If MS-DOS is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.

On computers that contain Windows 95 and Windows XP:

As in the case above, Windows 95 must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT. (For Windows 95 OSR2, FAT32 may be used.) If Windows 95 is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT (or FAT32 for Windows 95 OSR2). Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 95. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.

On computers that contain Windows 98 (or Windows Me) and Windows XP:

As in the cases above, Windows 98 or Windows Me must be installed on a basic disk on a partition formatted with FAT or FAT32. If Windows 98 or Windows Me is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition must also be formatted with FAT or FAT32. Compressed DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes won’t be available while you are running Windows XP. It is not necessary to uncompress DriveSpace or DoubleSpace volumes that you will access only with Windows 98. Windows XP must be installed last. Otherwise important files needed for starting Windows XP could be overwritten.

Multibooting with Windows XP - Installing Windows NT Workstation 4.0 and Windows XP Setting up a computer to run Windows XP as well as an earlier operating

system such as Windows NT Workstation 4.0 requires addressing compatibility issues among different file systems: NTFS, FAT, and FAT32. Normally, NTFS is the recommended file system because it supports important features, including the Active Directory™ service and domainbased security. However, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer that contains both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended. On these computers, a FAT or FAT32 partition containing the Windows NT 4.0 operating system ensures that when started with Windows NT 4.0, the computer will have access to needed files. In addition, if Windows NT is not installed on the system partition, which is almost always the first partition on the disk, the system partition should also be formatted with FAT. Windows NT 4.0 cannot access files that have been stored using NTFS features that did not exist when Windows NT 4.0 was released. For example, a file that uses the new NTFS encryption feature won’t be readable when the computer is started with Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, which was released before the encryption feature existed. Note: If you set up a computer so that it starts with Windows NT 3.51 or earlier on a FAT partition, and Windows XP on an NTFS partition, when that computer starts with Windows NT 3.51, the NTFS partition will not be visible. Checklist Summary To configure a computer containing Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP, review the following guidelines: As explained above, using NTFS as the only file system on a computer containing both Windows XP and Windows NT is not recommended. Make sure that Windows NT 4.0 has been updated with the latest released Service Pack available for download before installing Windows XP. Install each operating system on a separate drive or disk partition. When you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), by default, the installation is placed on a partition on which no other operating system is located. You can specify a partition during Setup. Don’t install Windows XP on a compressed drive unless the drive was compressed with the NTFS file system compression feature. On any partition where you perform a new installation of Windows XP (as opposed to an upgrade), you will need to re-install any programs, such as word processing or email software, after Setup is complete. Install the programs used by each operating system on the partition with

that system. If you want your programs to run with multiple operating systems, you need to install separate copies of the programs in each of the operating system partitions. If the computer is on a Windows NT Server or Windows 2000 Server domain, each installation of Windows XP on that computer must have a different computer name. Step by Step Guide to Installing a New Printer in Windows XP When installing a new printer with the Add Printer Wizard, you can choose between adding a local printer (one that's directly cabled to your computer through one of the ports) or a network printer (a printer that's connected to your network with an Ethernet connection, just as your computer is connected to the LAN). To install a new local printer with the Add Printer Wizard, follow these steps: 1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar and then click Control Panel on the right side of the Start menu. 2. Click the Printers and Other Hardware hyperlink if the Control Panel window is in Category View. Otherwise, double-click the Printers and Faxes icon if the Control Panel window is in Classic View. 3. Click the Add a Printer hyperlink in the Printers and Other Hardware window to start the Add Printer Wizard and then click the Next button, or press Enter to advance to the Local Printer or Printer Connection dialog box. 4. Make sure that the Add Printer Wizard selects the Local Printer radio button, and the Automatically Detect and Install my Plug and Play Printer check box beneath this radio button before you click the Next button. 5. If the wizard is unable to detect your printer in the New Printer Detection dialog box, click Next to install the printer manually. 6. Select the port for the printer to use in the Use the Following Port dropdown list box in the Select a Printer Port dialog box and then click the Next button. 7. Click the manufacturer and the model of the printer in the Manufacturers and Printers list boxes, respectively, of the Install Printer Software dialog box.

If you have a disk with the software for the printer, put it into your floppy or CD-ROM drive and then click the Have Disk button: Select the drive that contains this disk in the Copy Manufacturer's Files drop-down list box and then click OK. 8. Click the Next button to advance to the Name Your Printer dialog box. If you want, edit the name for the printer in the Printer Name text box. If you want to make the printer that you're installing the default printer that is automatically used whenever you print from Windows or from within a Windows program, leave the Yes radio button selected beneath the heading, Do you want your Windows-based programs to use this printer as the default printer? 9. Click the Next button to advance to the Printer Sharing dialog box. If you want to share this printer with other users on the network, click the Share Name radio button and then, if you want, edit the share name (this is the name that the other users on the network see when they go to select this printer for printing their documents) that the wizard gives the printer in the Share Name text box. 10. To print a test page from your newly installed printer, click the Yes radio button selected beneath the heading, Would you like to print a test page? in the Print Test Page dialog box. 11. Click the Next button to advance to the Completing the Add Printer Wizard dialog box, where you can review the settings for your new printer before you click the Finish button or press Enter to finish installing the new printer. To use the Add Printer Wizard to install a printer that's available through your Local Area Network, you follow just slightly different steps: 1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar and then click Control Panel on the right side of the Start menu. 2. Click the Printers and Other Hardware hyperlink if the Control Panel window is in Category View. Otherwise, double-click the Printers and Faxes icon if the Control Panel window is in Classic View. 3. Click the Add a Printer hyperlink in the Printers and Other Hardware window to start the Add Printer Wizard and then click the Next button or press Enter to advance to the Local or Network Printer dialog box.

4. Click the A Network Printer or a Printer Attached to Another Computer radio button in the Local or Network Printer dialog box and then click the Next button or press Enter to the Specify a Printer dialog box. 5. If you know the name of the network printer, click the Connect to This Printer (or to Browse for a Printer, Select this Option and click Next) radio button and then enter the network path in the Name text box. If your network printer is on a network that uses an Internet address and you know this URL address, click the Connect to a Printer on the Internet or on a Home or Office Network radio button and then enter the address in the URL text box. If you know neither of these pieces of information, leave the Browse for a Printer radio button selected and then click Next to advance to the Browse for Printer dialog box. 6. In the Browse for Printer dialog box, locate the printer in the Shared Printers list box by clicking the network icons until you expand the outline sufficiently to display the printer icon. When you click the printer icon in this outline, the wizard adds the path to the Printer text box above. 7. Click the Next button to advance the Default Printer dialog box. If you want to make the printer that you're installing the default printer that is automatically used whenever you print from Windows or from within a Windows program, leave the Yes radio button selected beneath the heading, Do you want your Windows-based programs to use this printer as the default printer? 8. Click the Next button to advance to the Completing the Add Printer Wizard dialog box, where you can review the settings for your new printer before you click the Finish button or press Enter to finish installing the new printer. After you add a printer to your computer, you can start using it when printing with programs such as Word 2002 and Excel 2002, or when printing from Windows itself. To switch to a new printer that you haven't designated as the default printer in programs such as Word and Excel, you need to open the Print dialog box (choose File-->Print) and then select the printer name in the Name dropdown list box. Install Windows XP Professional - New Installation

There are three reasons why you may need to install a new copy of Windows XP:

Your current operating system doesn’t support an upgrade to Windows XP Professional. Your current operating system supports an upgrade to Windows XP Professional, but you don’t want to keep your existing files and personalized settings. Your computer does not have an operating system.

The setup process is similar for new installations and upgrades with a few notable exceptions. For example, during a new installation, you are able to configure Special Options, convert your file system, and create a new partition for the Windows XP installation. IMPORTANT A new installation deletes all programs or system files from a previous installation. Special Options Under Special Options, you have the choice to change Language, Advanced, and Accessibility settings during the setup process. Note: If you are in a country that has recently adopted the euro as its currency, you may have to modify the currency settings to display monetary amounts correctly. For more information, go to Help and Support Center and type “euro” in the Search box. Select Language If you want to... • Choose the primary language and regions for Windows XP, which affects the default settings for date, time, currency, numbers, character sets, and keyboard layout. • Choose additional language groups and character sets to use with the programs you are running on Windows XP. Advanced Options • Change the default location of the Setup

files. • Store system files in a folder other than the default (Windows) folder • Copy the installation files from the CD to the hard disk. Accessibility • Use Narrator or Magnifier during Setup.

IMPORTANT Unless you're an advanced user, it's recommended that you use the default settings. Choosing a File System During a new installation of Windows XP, you may have to choose which file system your computer should use. Windows XP Professional supports:

FAT32: An enhanced version of the file allocation table (FAT) system that is standard on all Windows operating systems starting with later (32-bit) versions of Windows 95. The FAT32 system can be used on large hard disks, from 512 megabytes (MB) to 32 gigabytes (GB). NTFS: The NT file system (NTFS) is used with the Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP operating systems. NTFS provides enhanced reliability, stability, and security, and supports large hard disks of up to 2 terabytes (TB).

IMPORTANT You can convert your file system any time, even after you install Windows XP, without losing any of your data. The conversion to NTFS is one–way only; if you convert your FAT or FAT32 file system to NTFS you can’t convert your hard disk back to FAT later. If you’re not sure which file system to use, keep the one your computer defaults to during Setup. If you want to change your file system, here are a few recommendations:
• • •

Use FAT32 if your hard disk is smaller than 32 GB. Use FAT32 if you want to install more than one operating system on your computer. Use NTFS if your hard drive is larger than 32 GB and you are running only one operating system on your computer.

• •

Use NTFS if you want enhanced file security. Use NTFS if you need better disk compression.

Disk Partitions You can create partitions to organize information—for example, to back up data—or to install more than one operating system on your computer. A hard disk can contain up to four partitions. If you’re performing a new installation, the appropriate disk partition is selected automatically during Windows XP Setup unless you click Advanced Options and specify your own requirements For more information about configuring, sizing, reformatting, or converting disk partitions, see your current online Help before you install or upgrade to Windows XP Professional.

How to Use Qfixapp.exe In Windows XP This article describes the Quick Fix utility (Qfixapp.exe) that is included with the Application Compatibility Toolkit for Windows XP and Windows .NET. Qfixapp.exe is a tool that includes pre-packaged fixes that provide an easy way to fix a program. Use Qfixapp.exe To Apply Program Fixes You can use Qfixapp.exe to quickly apply various program fixes (AppFixes, also known as "shims") to a program to determine their effectiveness. Qfixapp.exe reads the %SystemRoot%\windows\apppatch\sysmain.sdb database to produce a list of available fixes. When you select an AppFix, you can start the program executable (.exe) file, and the AppFix will be applied. If a suitable AppFix is found, the tool eventually helps you to generate and test matching file information. When you run Qfixapp.exe, you see the following items:

The The application for which to apply the fix(es) check box. This setting disables existing fixes in the database. The Layer tab with the Choose one of the existing layers to apply to your app box that contains the following entries: 256 Color 640X480 Disable Themes Internaltional

LUA(Limited User Account) LUACleanUp NT4SP5 ProfilesSetup Win2000 Win95 Win98

The Fixes tab. On this tab you can select the individual fixes that you want to apply.

Example of How to Use Qfixapp.exe 1. Start Notepad, and then click About Notepad on the Help menu. Note that the version is 5.1. 2. Start Qfixapp.exe, click Win95, click Browse, and then open the Windows folder. Note that the Windows\System32 folder is protected by Windows File Protection, so it is not able to use the layers. 3. Click Notepad.exe, click Open, and then click Run. 4. Start Notepad, and then click About Notepad on the Help menu. Note that the version is now 4.0. If you click ViewLog, you could see what AppFix(es) are being used. If you click Advanced, you could see information about the .exe file. You can click Add Matching Info, and then select files that are related to the .exe file to identify that particular program. After you finish that step, you could click Create Fix Support to add the layers with the Matching Information (GRABMI) and create an XML-based database that is named YourAppName.sdb. Note that in the preceding example it is named Notepad.sdb, and is in the AppPatch folder. Burning CDs in Windows XP and the Limitations Windows XP's integrated CD burner is powered by the Roxio engine but lacks the familiar Easy CD Creator interface. There is no CD Burner icon on the desktop or in the start menu. So where is this promised CD burner? There are two answers, depending on if you want to burn audio or data CD's. To burn data CDs Open a folder. Look at the folder options on the left of your screen. You should see an option to Copy All Items to CD or Copy to CD, depending on your folder view. You can also right-click a file or folder and choose Send To and then CD drive. I appreciate that XP has made it as easy to drop files to a CD as it is a Zip disk. It does not copy the files immediately. Instead, it

places them into a repository and waits for further instruction on when and where to burn the CD. Now, place a blank CD into your CD drive or navigate to your CD drive in My Computer, and choose to write the files to a CD. To burn music CDs The Windows Media Player was always a monstrosity, and now it now includes a new function -- CD burning. Select a song in your My Documents folder, and choose Copy to Audio CD from the folder options on the left. Surprise! Up pops the Windows Media Player, waiting for you to choose Copy to CD. Hit the record button, and have a good time. Limitations of the incorporated CD burner You cannot create bootable CDs with the Windows XP CD burner, nor can you create a CD from an image (like a .iso file). If you want this functionality, you need to install your favorite CD burning software. Don't try to install Easy CD Creator 5 just yet -- Windows XP won't let you. Roxio will have XP patches available on their website soon, but only for their latest edition of CD creator. Roxio will not support Easy CD Creator 3.X and 4.X for Windows XP, and the user will be required to purchase the upgrade to Easy CD Creator 5 Platinum. Windows XP does not have a CD burning interface, but it has CD burning artfully integrated into the operating system. However, third-party CD burning software is still necessary for those who want to burn more than the occasional audio CD. Troubleshooting and Driver Issues With Windows XP, installation and hardware configuration has never been easier. The installation of new hardware and the recognition of hardware devices during the installation process has never been so easy and reliable. The Windows 2000 Factor What do you do if XP is unable to find a driver for your device? Windows XP is based on an enhanced Windows 2000 kernel, so 2000 drivers should work in XP, but this is not always the case. I loaded one system that had a Wacom board with a 2000 driver, and no matter what I tried, I was unable to find a suitable driver for this component. I disconnected the unit and am waiting for an XP driver update.

The .vxd drivers used in Windows 98 are not supported at all by Windows 2000 and Windows XP. Using these drivers could create more issues in Windows XP, and you should stay away from them. Check your device manager, and disable those devices that have yellow cautionary flags if you are unable to locate an appropriate driver. Now that XP has been officially released on the market, manufacturers of those components that are lacking compatible drivers should be issuing those drivers in the near future. Keep checking those manufacturers' websites. When the driver become available, enable those devices, and update the drivers. Add Album Art to any Music Folder One of the coolest new features in Windows XP is its album thumbnail generator, which automatically places the appropriate album cover art on the folder to which you are copying music (generally in WMA format). But what about those people that have already copied their CDs to the hard drive using MP3 format? You can download album cover art from sites such as cdnow.com or amguide.com, and then use the new Windows XP folder customize feature to display the proper image for each folder. But this takes time you have to manually edit the folder properties for every single folder and you will lose customizations if you have to reinstall the OS. There's an excellent fix, however. When you download the album cover art from the Web, just save the images as folder.jpg each time and place them in the appropriate folder. Then, Windows XP will automatically use that image as the thumbnail for that folder and, best of all, will use that image in Windows Media Player for Windows XP (MPXP) if you choose to display album cover art instead of a visualization. And the folder customization is automatic, so it survives an OS reinstallation as well. Your music folders never looked so good! Album cover art makes music folder thumbnails look better than ever!

Change the location of the My Music or My Pictures Folders In Windows 2000, Microsoft added the ability to right-click the My Documents folder and choose a new location for that folder in the shell. With Windows XP, Microsoft has elevated the My Music and My Pictures folders to the same "special shell folder" status of My Documents, but they never added a similar (and simple) method for changing those folder's locations. However, it is actually pretty easy to change the location of these folders, using the following method.

Open a My Computer window and navigate to the location where you'd like My Music (or My Pictures) to reside. Then, open the My Documents folder in a different window. Drag the My Music (or My Pictures) folder to the other window, and Windows XP will update all of the references to that folder to the new location, including the Start menu. Add/Remove Optional Windows Components For some reason, Microsoft has removed the ability to specify which Windows components you want to install during interactive Setup, and when you go into Add/Remove Windows Components in the Control Panel, you still don't have the full list of applications and applets you can add and remove. Thankfully, this is easy to fix. To dramatically expand the list of applications you can remove from Windows XP after installation, navigate to C:\WINDOWS\inf (substituting the correct drive letter for your version of Windows) and open the sysoc.inf file. Under Windows XP Professional Edition RC1, this file will resemble the following by default: [Version] Signature = "$Windows NT$" DriverVer=06/26/2001,5.1.2505.0 [Components] NtComponents=ntoc.dll,NtOcSetupProc,,4 WBEM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wbemoc.inf,hide,7 Display=desk.cpl,DisplayOcSetupProc,,7 Fax=fxsocm.dll,FaxOcmSetupProc,fxsocm.inf,,7 NetOC=netoc.dll,NetOcSetupProc,netoc.inf,,7 iis=iis.dll,OcEntry,iis.inf,,7 com=comsetup.dll,OcEntry,comnt5.inf,hide,7 dtc=msdtcstp.dll,OcEntry,dtcnt5.inf,hide,7 IndexSrv_System = setupqry.dll,IndexSrv,setupqry.inf,,7 TerminalServer=TsOc.dll, HydraOc, TsOc.inf,hide,2 msmq=msmqocm.dll,MsmqOcm,msmqocm.inf,,6 ims=imsinsnt.dll,OcEntry,ims.inf,,7 fp_extensions=fp40ext.dll,FrontPage4Extensions,fp40ext.inf,,7 AutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,au.inf,hide,7 msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,hide,7 msnexplr=ocmsn.dll,OcEntry,msnmsn.inf,,7 smarttgs=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,msnsl.inf,,7 RootAutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,rootau.inf,,7 Games=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,games.inf,,7 AccessUtil=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,accessor.inf,,7 CommApps=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,communic.inf,HIDE,7 MultiM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,multimed.inf,HIDE,7 AccessOpt=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,optional.inf,HIDE,7 Pinball=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,pinball.inf,HIDE,7

MSWordPad=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wordpad.inf,HIDE,7 ZoneGames=zoneoc.dll,ZoneSetupProc,igames.inf,,7 [Global] WindowTitle=%WindowTitle% WindowTitle.StandAlone="*" The entries that include the text hide or HIDE will not show up in Add/Remove Windows Components by default. To fix this, do a global search and replace for ,hide and change each instance of this to , (a comma). Then, save the file, relaunch Add/Remove Windows Components, and tweak the installed applications to your heart's content.

Remove Windows Messenger I don't recommend this but In Windows XP, Windows Messenger will be the hub of your connection to the .NET world, and now that this feature is part of Windows, I think we're going to see a lot of .NET Passport-enabled Web sites appearing as well. But if you can't stand the little app, there are a couple of ways to get rid of it, and ensure that it doesn't pop up every time you boot into XP. The best way simply utilizes the previous tip: If you'd like Windows Messenger to show up in the list of programs you can add and remove from Windows, navigate to C:\WINDOWS\inf (substituting the correct drive letter for your version of Windows) and open sysoc.inf (see the previous tip for more information about this file). You'll see a line that reads: msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,hide,7 Change this to the following and Windows Messenger will appear in Add or Remove Programs, then Add/Remove Windows Components, then , and you can remove it for good: msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,7 Protect your Identity Like many other audio players, Windows Media Player rushes out to the Internet to find information for you when you play a CD. Some of this information, such as song titles and album art, is useful, but Media Player also identifies your copy of Media Player to the site where it's getting data. Why? According to the help file, "The server uses this unique identifier to monitor your connection. By monitoring your connection, the server can

make adjustments to increase the playback quality and to alert you about events that occur when receiving streams over the Internet." If you're disturbed by this exchange of information, here's how to stop it. In Windows Media Player, click Tools > Options and go to the Player tab. Notice the option that says "Allow Internet sites to uniquely identify your player?" Turn it off.

Multiuser Features and Advanced Settings Like Windows 2000, but unlike Windows 95, 98, and Me, the ability to log in multiple users simultaneously plays a big role in Windows XP. There is a default Administrator account set up when Windows XP is first installed, but you can create as many accounts as you need later, depending on how many people will be using the machine. Each user, once he or she has an account, can customize XP to his or her liking. Individual users get their own subfolders in the Documents And Settings folder; this folder serves as a centralized location for most personalized information, such as the Start Menu, Favorites, and Documents settings. Missing Administrator account Once you have created regular user accounts, the default Administrator account vanishes from the Welcome screen, which you see when the computer starts up. Press Ctrl-Alt-Delete twice at the Welcome screen to retrieve the standard logon dialog. You can log on as Administrator from here. To switch among accounts, just click the Log Off button on the Start menu. You'll then see the Log Off Windows dialog box. Click the Switch User button, and you'll be taken to the Welcome screen where you can select and log on to other accounts. Show yourself Only the Administrator can set up new user accounts (go to Control Panel > User Accounts > Create A New Account). You can select a picture to identify the account. When you're logged on to the system under your username, this picture, along with your username, peeks out at you from the top of the Start menu. There are a slew of 48x48-pixel bitmap images to choose from within XP. They're housed in D:\Documents And Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\User Account Pictures\Default Pictures. But why limit yourself? You can also copy any graphic you want into this folder or browse for another from your hard drive. Usable file types are BMP, GIF, JPEG, or PNG. However, always use a square picture, to limit the white space on the side. Your image can be any size but will be displayed as 48x48-pixel image, so a close-up works best.

Hide yourself Once you've created a user account, password-protect it to keep other users from viewing your files, Favorites, and cookies. Why? You may not want your child to see the note that you're sending to his or her teacher, or you may be planning someone's surprise party. (Note: Anyone with an Administrator account can still see them.) Worried about remembering your password? Create a hint to help you when you initially create it by following the prompts during setup. XP stores the password hints in the Registry at Hkey_local_machine\Software\Microsoft\Windows\Current Version\Hints. What if the hint doesn't help? Any user or Administrator can create a password reset disk, which you can use to log on and create a new password. Go to Control Panel > User Accounts and select "Prevent a forgotten password" in the Related Tasks box on the left. Follow the wizard's instructions. After creating the disk, find a safe place for it. Don't forget the password or where you put the disk. Someone else could use it to change your password without you knowing it.

Display the Quick Launch Bar If you have opened more than one program, you might like to display and use the Quick Launch bar. The Quick Launch bar makes it easy to access frequently used programs like Windows Media Player and your e-mail, and to open an Internet Explorer window. Windows XP loads several programs in the Quick Launch, including Show Desktop. One click on Show Desktop minimizes all the programs on your desktop. Another click restores them just as you'd left them. To display Quick Launch on the taskbar 1. If the Quick Launch bar is not displayed, right-click an empty area on the taskbar and click Properties. 2. On the Taskbar tab, under Taskbar appearance, select the Show Quick Launch check box and click OK. After Quick Launch is displayed, click Show Desktop to minimize all open programs.

Microsoft Product Activation

Microsoft Product Activation which will only allow you to install Windows XP on one system at a time. Under this new policy, you must use the CD Key code that comes with the software to install the operating system. You'll then have 30 days in which to contact Microsoft, either via the Internet or by telephone, and activate the software. When you do, you won't have to give Microsoft any personal information, just your CD Key code. Microsoft will assign you an activation code, which you'll then enter in the appropriate text box in the Microsoft Product Activation wizard. If you don't activate the software within the 30-day period, you won't be able to boot Windows XP past a dialog box that prompts you to enter activation code. When you enter the activation code, it supposedly analyzes your system's specific hardware configuration, generates some hardware ID code based on this information, and then associates the activation code with this hardware ID code. If for some reason you have to reinstall Windows XP on the same system, you'll be able to use the same activation code. If you purchase an additional computers and you want to install Windows XP on your new system instead, you'll need to reactivate the software. While Microsoft says it's possible to install it on another machine, it's unclear how exactly this will work under its license agreement. Consumers should refer to the terms of their license agreement to determine whether or not it is legal to transfer a license to another computer. But in those cases where it is allowed, the product must first be removed from the previous computer. Users may be required to complete the activation on the new computer by placing a call to the Microsoft Activation Center. The details are still a bit hazy, but you can be sure that Microsoft will figure them out before the release. If you only have one PC and rarely reinstall the operating system, this really won't be a problem. but, if you have multiple PCs in your home, you won't be able to buy one copy of Windows XP and install it on all the PCs in your home. Instead, you'll need to buy one copy for each system. This may sound harsh, it's actually been a part of the Microsoft End-User License Agreement for years. The only difference is that now Microsoft has developed a physical way to enforce what the paper license has said all along.

No Java in Windows XP Microsoft has announced it will not include support for the Java programming language in the upcoming Windows XP. After settling a lawsuit with Java creator Sun Microsystems in January, the software giant decided the easiest

way to prevent further litigation was to simply remove the code entirely. The settlement stipulated that Microsoft would no longer license Java from Sun, and refrain from stating that Windows is "Java Compatible." Outdated Java support will remain available as an added download from Windows Update if required. Java's removal from the software giant's new operating system comes on the heels of announcements surrounding .NET, Microsoft Web services based on XML. These services are accessed over the Internet from a variety of devices. Coincidentally, Sun has been developing its own Java-based version of .NET, dubbed Jini. However, Microsoft vehemently denies claims that it intends to phase out support for Java as an attack on Sun. Prepare your Hardware Windows XP is a cat's cradle of all the Windows versions that precede it. Some of its features and functions mimic Windows 95/98 and Millennium Edition; some act like Windows 2000; others are all new. As a rule, however, this OS does everything on a big scale. It demands higher system requirements than we've seen before for a consumer or business desktop OS. Any newer PC--one less than two years old--should certainly meet or exceed the minimums. In fact, if you're currently running Windows Me, you can probably squeak by with a slowerthan-recommended CPU, but Windows XP setup will not proceed without the required minimum processor, memory, disk space, or video capability (640x480 is not an option). Not sure if you have what it takes? Read on. Meet XP's minimum requirements Windows XP: 233MHz CPU (300MHz or higher recommended) 64MB of RAM 1.5GB of free disk space Super-VGA (800x600 resolution) video adapter and monitor CD-ROM or DVD drive Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device

recommendations will only improve your system's performance. Your CPU's speed and the amount of RAM you have is usually shown on the screen when you turn on your PC. Based on our experience, your disk drive should support Ultra-ATA66 or ATA100 IDE and have a fast average seek time of 10 milliseconds or less with 256-512KB of on-drive cache buffering. Your video card should be a PCI version with 4MB or more of video RAM; AGP is even better. Your CD-ROM drive should be a late-model ATAPI device providing 8X, 12X or 16X performance. Your sound card should also be a late-model, name-brand PCI version. The specifications for your CD-ROM or hard drive are usually printed on the label on the drive itself. The drives included with most systems built since 1999 should meet these specs just fine. You can look up the specs for your devices by their model numbers on the equipment manufacturer's Web site. Don't know the make or model of the hard drive, CD-ROM drive, or video or sound card you have? You can look these up through Start > Settings > Control Panel > System; select the Device Manager tab, then double-click the devices in the list. Older I/O cards that use the ISA I/O slots (usually the longer black connectors on your system board) will perform slower than cards that use PCI (typically white connectors) or AGP (typically green connectors) I/O slots on your system board, and could make it harder for Plug and Play and Windows to configure your system. System boards with built-in video and sound features already use the PCI bus, so they're as fast as they are going to get. Like Windows Millennium Edition, NT, and 2000, XP does not load DOS or real-mode drivers and programs before Windows start-up. If XP recognizes your hardware, it will try to use its own new drivers, but if you have a very old (say pre-1995 or 1996) CD-ROM drive or an ISA-bus sound card that required drivers to be loaded in your C:\config.sys and C:\autoexec.bat files, XP may not support those devices. For performance reasons, you probably want newer hardware anyway. Hint: We've found that, in many cases, if your hardware or peripherals lack XP driver support, you can download and install Windows 2000 drivers for the devices, and

they will work just fine, although you may get a pop-up message from XP telling you that the drivers you are installing are unsigned (not registered with Microsoft) and therefore not proven to work. Fortunately, you can use XP's System Restore feature to keep track of things before and after you try them and back out if you need to. Additional hardware requirements Now that you have the baseline requirements, here are a few items you'll need to fully take advantage of Windows XP. Windows XP: For using the Internet in general and Microsoft's .Net Internet-based services and features (including Passport credentials, e-mail, Microsoft Messenger, voice and videoconferencing, Remote Assistance, Remote Desktop, and application sharing): For voice and videoconferencing over the Internet, both parties also need:

28.8Kbps modem for dial-up or cable, DSL, or wireless Internet connection through an ISP; Microsoft Passport account

Videoconferencing camera; microphone and sound card with speakers or headset Windows XP on the helper's PC and a connection between the two (local network or Internet) Sound card and speakers or headphones DVD drive and DVD decoder card or DVD decoder software; 8MB of video RAM Video-capture feature requires appropriate

For Remote Assistance:

For sound:

For DVD video playback:

For Windows Movie Maker:

digital or analog videocapture device and 400MHz or higher processor for digital video camera capture

Check with hardware companies Windows XP should recognize and run on any hardware that supports Windows 98 or Me (again, excepting any device that requires a DOS-level driver). This includes your PC's motherboard, BIOS, and chipsets. Since XP is based on Windows 2000, most, if not all, Windows 2000 hardware drivers should work with XP. If in doubt, or if a Windows 2000 driver doesn't work, check your system's and device manufacturers' Web sites or Microsoft's list for information about compatibility. Microsoft's XP Web pages also list dozens of XP-ready PCs, and the company will soon publish a downloadable copy of Upgrade Advisor, a tool that tests system and software compatibility. The Windows XP CD also contains several vendor-specific text and HTML files in the i386compdata folder that indicate precautions and exceptions for many vendors' devices that may or may not work under XP. Be prepared for some disappointment: it's up to manufacturers to decide whether they can or want to create new drivers for their older products. Some manufacturers did not update their drivers for older (1994-1999) hardware to work with Me or 2000; they may not create new drivers for XP, either. This could apply to products just a year or two old, leaving your relatively new toys to become doorstops or flea-market stock.

Windows XP Authentication It wouldn't be fair to start off without placing a link to Microsoft's article about Windows XP activation. In a nutshell, XP Activation is an anti-piracy technology that links your computer to the CD that installed XP. This way, if someone tries to install XP from the same CD, when XP installation goes out to the internet to activate XP, it will see that the CD that XP is being installed from already has a PC linked with it, and that the PC that it's currently being

installed on isn't that same PC that's in the Microsoft database. If this happens, you can use XP for a certain period of time, but after that time (I think it was changed to 30 days), you cannot boot back into XP on that second PC without calling Microsoft and getting a 50-digit activation code. At first I thought it was a little extreme, and I still think it is. Technically, according to the EULA, you can only install Windows on one PC. You can find the End User License Agreement (EULA) in c:\windows\system32\eula.txt if you need to refer back to it after installation Windows XP and DVD Nowadays, PCs are sold with either a DVD-ROM drive, or a CD-R drive. There are drives that do both, there are even drives that burn both. Either way, those of you with DVD-ROM drives will want to know if you can play DVD movies on your XP machine. XP out of the box won't play DVD Video. DVD's video is stored in a format called "MPEG 2", and you need an MPEG decoder to get the video off the DVD into a format that the computer can show you. Without yet installing any third-party applications, I popped in my DVD of Fantasia 2000. XP asked me which application I wanted to open the disc with and I selected "Windows Media Player" since it was the only option - the other one being "Do Nothing". When WMP started I got a message box saying "WMP cannot play DVDs because there is no DVD decoder". As a registered user of PowerDVD 3.0, I installed it on my XP machine. After reboot, I got an error about a missing ASPI file, but ignored it. I rebooted again and the message didn't come up a second time. Update Oct. 16, 2001: After installing PowerDVD 3 under the retail version of Windows XP Pro, this message no longer shows up. The error happened under Win XP Home Edition RC2. I started Power DVD 3.0 and without any hassle, Fantasia 2000 was playing on my PC. I don't know the exact reason why Microsoft chose not to include DVD decoding in their XP operating system, especially since Apple includes DVD decoding in MacOS 9 and the soon to be released MacOS 10.1. Update: Microsoft announced MP3 and DVD support via third-party add-on packs, available on Oct. 25, 2001. Windows XP support OpenGL Although the operating system does not have built-in support for the 3D graphics standard, according to Microsoft. However, XP does support the graphics standard OpenGL by way of your video card drivers. If you're getting graphics errors after you upgrade to Windows XP, check your video

settings (click Control Panel > Display > Properties > Settings > Advanced > Adapter) for OpenGL controls. If you don't see any, check with your video card's maker to get updated video drivers for Windows XP.

XP expires To reduce instances of "casual copying" (a nice name for software piracy), Microsoft has implemented a two-stage antipiracy scheme in its upcoming OS. The first stage is the installation and registration counter: this lets you install Windows XP only five times on the same system. (Note that you'll be able to install the final version of XP on only one machine, as opposed to the current beta, which can be installed on five machines for testing purposes.) The second stage creates a profile of the system to prevent you from reinstalling or registering the OS on different PCs. To make this scheme work, you must activate your copy of Windows--over the Internet or by calling for an activation code--within 30 days of installation. Activation differs from a classic registration process in that no personal information is requested by or sent to Microsoft, just a record that a specific copy of Windows XP is installed on your specific PC. If you fail to activate your copy of the OS within 30 days, your login will fail. (Since XP is based on Windows NT-like privilege levels, you can't use your computer until you log on.) Microsoft says the scheme should not prevent you from reinstalling your copy of XP on your PC as many times as you need to, as long as it's the same PC or close to it, allowing for some hardware changes. It's the "some" that has most folks worried. In theory, you might have to reactivate your OS if you upgrade significantly or swap out a lot of components because XP might think it's running on a new PC. So far, Microsoft isn't saying what system information the OS uses to determine the "same PC or close to it" status. That means we don't know to what degree you can upgrade your hardware before you cross the invisible line. We also don't know how much, if any, personally identifiable data Microsoft is gathering from your PC. Microsoft says you can, of course, change at least one and possibly several hardware components--RAM, video or sound cards, CPUs, motherboards, and so on--without having to reactivate your OS. But if you try to reinstall your copy of Windows XP on what Microsoft calls a "different or significantly upgraded or changed PC" (again, the company declined to specify how different), the activation will most likely be rejected, requiring you to call Microsoft to explain and get a new (free) activation code. Microsoft plans to set up a new call center for U.S.-based customers to expedite activation issues. Many non-U.S. customers will likely have to go through the existing, shared Microsoft technical support lines they currently

use. Microsoft says it expects only 2 percent of the total installed base of Windows XP to have to reactivate the OS. Whether the anti-piracy initiative will present problems for consumers or result in fewer upgrades to XP remains to be seen. Remember, the final release is at least a few months off.

Everything You Ever Needed to know about Microsoft Passport Whether you know it or not, if you've ever signed up for a Hotmail account, you have a Passport account, too. And that's a good thing, because if you want to access Microsoft's Web support site these days, you must enter a Passport ID and a password. So what gives? What is this thing called Passport? Microsoft Passport is an online identification system that assigns a unique ID to individual Web surfers. Once you sign up for Passport, Microsoft provides access to a variety of its own services, including the new Windows Messenger chat program in Windows XP. And, thanks to a lot of crafty business development work from Microsoft, you can also use Passport to sign in to dozens of non-Microsoft sites, including Starbucks.com and Costco Online. Microsoft intends to make Passport the undisputed ID system for the Internet, and its ambitious plan has consumer watchdogs, privacy advocates, and Microsoft's competitors up in arms. We'll tell you what all the controversy is about and whether you really need a Passport. What is Passport? Passport is Microsoft's online authentication service. Once you have a Passport account, you can use your e-mail address and password to log in to and shop a variety of Web sites and services. Many in-house Microsoft sites (such as tech support) and services (such as Windows Messenger in Windows XP) require a Passport account or will soon, along with a growing number of non-Microsoft sites, including OfficeMax.com and Victoria's Secret. Passport is a part of Microsoft's .Net initiative, an ambitious plan to deliver software and services to businesses and consumers via the Web. Ultimately, Microsoft wants to turn Passport into the premiere authentication system for the Internet, but the company expects plenty of competition in the near future. Passport comes in two flavors: sign-in and wallet. You need a sign-in account to use Microsoft's consumer services, including free e-mailer Hotmail, MSN Internet Access, and Windows Messenger. If you have a Hotmail or MSN account, you already have Passport: simply use your Hotmail or MSN address and password at sites that require a Passport sign-in.

The Passport wallet service lets you buy services and products online without having to reenter billing and payment information at every participating site; it's similar to Amazon.com's one-click shopping. Currently, however, only a limited number of non-Microsoft Web sites use the Passport sign-in and wallet. To date, Microsoft hasn't announced any plans to increase the number of sites. How do I get Passport, and what am I in for? When you create a Passport account, you're allowing Microsoft to maintain your online identity. Although that sounds vaguely Orwellian, it's really not as intrusive as you might think--especially if you skip the wallet option. To sign on at the official Passport site, for example, simply enter an e-mail address and a password. You don't have to provide your name, address, or any other personal information. If you want both a Passport and an e-mail account, sign up for Hotmail, Microsoft's free e-mail service. You'll need to surrender a few extra personal details, here, including a sign-in name, password, zip code, e-mail address, country of residence, region or city, and a secret question and answer (in case you forget your password and need to recover it). Once your Hotmail account is active, your e-mail address and password will get you into Passport-enabled sites. A Passport wallet account requires the most information, including purchasing information (for example, credit card numbers and billing addresses). Often referred to as e-wallets, online ID services such as the Passport wallet offer online shoppers many conveniences. For instance, you won't have to reenter billing and payment information every time you make a purchase online. Microsoft isn't the only player in the fledgling online ID market. Both VeriSign and Liberty Alliance, the latter is an industry consortium led by Sun Microsystems, are developing competing authentication systems. Can I use Passport on my site? As you may have heard, Microsoft has also made Passport available to Web developers, so if any Webmaster wants his or her site to have a built-in ID system, there's no need to reinvent the wheel. To put Passport on your site, you must install Passport Manager software on your Web server. For more information on how to Passport-enable your site, check out this Business Services page. One of the benefits of online authentication systems such as Passport is that they save Net businesses from the expense and hassle of creating their own ID schemes. Currently, Microsoft is waiving licensing fees for businesses, though it plans to charge a "nominal" annual fee in the future. What is .Net, and how is Passport related to it? Microsoft .Net is Microsoft's platform for delivering Web services to a variety of Internet-connected devices (such as handhelds and phones), regardless of

programming language or operating system, including Mac, Linux, and Windows. In theory, .Net will allow different applications on different platforms to communicate and share data over the Internet. It's the foundation of Microsoft's software-as-services business model. (The Redmond company ultimately plans to charge subscription fees for the use of its applications.) Windows XP features the first batch of .Net services, including Windows Messenger, Web Publishing Wizard, and the Online Print Ordering Wizard (for purchasing paper prints of digital photos). Passport is the authentication system for .Net, so you'll need a Passport account to use future and current .Net services. Will Passport help Microsoft monopolize the Internet? Microsoft already dominates the PC software market, from operating systems to browsers to office suites. But it's too early to say who will control the online authentication market. Passport isn't the only player in the online ID game. Liberty Alliance, a consortium led by Sun Microsystems, General Motors, Fidelity Investments, and other industry titans, plans to launch a competing service. However, it's unclear when this service will be ready or even what its name will be. So far, Passport is the best-developed online authentication scheme. In any event, once the competing Net ID systems are available, Microsoft claims that Passport will be interoperable with them, similar to the way banks and their respective ATMs share financial information. What's all the hoopla about Passport and security? In the wake of two recent, well-publicized security breaches involving Hotmail and Microsoft's Internet Information Server, some analysts and privacy advocates question Microsoft's ability to ensure customer security. Microsoft is also a popular target among unscrupulous hackers, who are constantly trying to find holes in various Microsoft programs. To be fair, Microsoft does as much as any other company to protect your data from hackers and thieves. According to the company, your information is stored on secure servers in a controlled environment, safe from hackers and physical intruders. When you log in to or buy something from a Passport-enabled site, the server sends your billing and contact information in encrypted form (using the Triple DES encryption). Still, potential Passport customers should consider these security issues before signing up--or deciding not to. Will anyone sell my Passport information? Security aside, privacy groups such as the Electronic Privacy Information Center are apprehensive about Microsoft's and other Passport participants' plans for your data. For example, once you start using your Passport account, will vendors track your Net activities and purchases? Will they sell your personal data to marketers? Microsoft says they won't. Passport's privacy policy lets you, the consumer, choose (during account setup) whether to grant Microsoft the right to share your data with third parties.

And Passport's architecture doesn't allow Microsoft to see what you're buying online, according to Directions on Microsoft analyst Matt Rosoff. Microsoft possesses only the information you surrendered at sign-up (e-mail address, password, and so on). While Microsoft can share this information with its Passport partners--such as when you sign on to a participating site--it can't share it with other companies without your consent. But what about Passport partner sites? Unfortunately, things get a little murky here. While Microsoft insists that its partners must have privacy policies, it does not dictate the terms of these policies. Microsoft "strongly encourages" Passport users to read its partners' privacy policies before they log in to or share information with a partner site. What's a Kids Passport? Microsoft offers a Passport service for pups, but it's designed to keep your children safe while they surf (rather than to get them shopping). Many Web sites customarily collect personal information from visitors, regardless of age. But according to the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA), commercial sites must obtain parental consent before collecting, using, or disclosing personal information on anyone under 13. Microsoft's Kids Passport service is designed to help enforce that rule. The Kids Passport lets parents control what information their children share with Passport sites. When your child tries to sign on to or share information with a Passport site, he or she is denied access until approval is received from a parent. If you're in the same room as your child, you can walk over to the PC and enter your Passport ID and password to allow her access to, say, MSN.com. If you're at work, your child can e-mail you a request for permission to enter the site. Kids Passport is free, but you will need to provide a credit card number to set up an account. (Microsoft says it uses this information to verify your identity.) Passport options Can I use Passport if I don't have Windows? Despite the Microsoft label, Passport isn't just for Windows. Whether you have a Mac, a Linux machine, or a Unix box, you can sign up for Passport as long as you have a Web browser. Can I pass on Passport and still buy stuff on the Web? If you'd rather not shop the Microsoft way, don't panic. You don't need Passport to shop online--well, not yet, anyway. Major retail Web sites such as Amazon.com and Kmart's BlueLight.com have their own proprietary authentication systems. For instance, once you've made a purchase at Amazon, the site stores your name, credit card number, and mailing address in its own database. As frequent Amazon shoppers know, the next time you buy the latest Harry Potter epic, your billing and payment information will appear automatically in the appropriate fields (after you enter your

password, of course). And, like Amazon, Passport offers single-click shopping. That said, however, you will need Passport to shop at many participating sites, such as Starbucks.com. Some vendors, however, including Costco Online, accept Passport but also allow you to register directly with the site without going through Passport. Can I use Windows XP without Passport? We've all heard rumors that Microsoft forces XP users to sign up for Passport. Well, we're happy to report that it's not true. Neither XP's product activation nor its product registration will automatically register you for the Passport service. That doesn't mean XP is Passport-free. Some elements of the OS do require a Passport account, including Windows Messenger, the built-in upgrade to Microsoft's MSN Messenger chat program. (Of course, MSN Messenger also requires Passport, so it's not a major change.) Do I really need Passport? If you regularly access Microsoft content sites, such as MSN or bCentral, or if you want to use Hotmail, Windows Messenger, or even MSN Messenger, you will need a Passport account. You'll also need one if you use Microsoft software and want access to online technical support. But plenty of sites on the Web are still Passport-free.

The Windows XP File Systems When installing Windows XP from scratch, it prompts you to select from two different file systems: FAT32 and NTFS. As expected, it gives no real reason why you should select one or the other, and defaults to NTFS. FAT32 If you're installing on a dual-boot system where you would have a FAT32 partition (default type for Windows 98 and SE for partitions over 2GB), you may run into problems depending on your situation. The FAT32 file system was created when the size of hard drives exceeded 2GB. The previous file system for DOS and Windows 95 was FAT16, which offered at most 2GB of allocation on your hard drive. This of course is useless for today's hard drives when you can't find anything under 10GB anymore. Where FAT16 allowed a 2GB maximum, FAT32 only allows a 32GB maximum. If your hard drive is over 32GB, you'll have to split it into separate partitions, or use NTFS. NTFS NTFS was introduced with Windows NT. Among the reasons why it was

introduced, it allowed partitions greater than what's even offered today, and boasts better performance and security. Focusing on security, it's possible that while an NTFS hard drive is secure when running Windows XP, there's no easy way to get back into the hard drive if you boot from an emergency floppy that only sees a FAT16 or FAT32 partition, such as what you'd get from a 98 or ME emergency floppy. The security in NTFS actually prevents you from circumventing its own file system from a boot floppy. This means that if for some reason your hard drive becomes unusable and you need to move data off of it, the task won't be as easy as it was when using Windows 95, 98, and ME. The solution that the user has in this situation is to boot from the Windows XP CD and run a repair on the hard drive. This should fix any problems the user had with the system and bring it back to a bootable state. The other issue is in dual-boot situations. Running under NTFS, you can see FAT16 and FAT32 partitions, but if you boot back into Windows ME, you can't see the NTFS partition. This is a problem if you downloaded something to your XP partition and you want to move it to your ME partition while running under ME. Also, if you upgraded ME to XP and you convert your file system from FAT32 to NTFS, you cannot go back to Windows ME since ME can't run under NTFS. However, only NTFS allows you to set permissions on individual folders so that you can control who sees what. Converting from FAT32 to NTFS at a later time If you want, under Windows XP you can convert your FAT32 partition to NTFS using the following command from your Command Prompt: convert c: /fs:ntfs Conclusion With all this information, find what suits your needs and go with it. If you're the kind of person that backs up regularly, go with NTFS. Same if you want to use a partition over 32GB without partitioning. If you want to play it safe, or if you want the ability to transfer files from one partition to another under a dual-boot situation, stick with FAT32. If you want to read more about these file systems, Microsoft has an excellent article on their web site.

Add sound to almost every event in Windows XP comes with a new set of sounds that will surely add pizzazz to the way you work in Windows. But there's one problem -- you need to actually turn on the Windows default sound scheme before you'll be able to hear them. To turn on the Windows XP default sound scheme, follow these directions: Single-click the Start menu. Single-click the Control Panel.

Single-click the Sounds, Speech, and Audio Devices icon. Single-click the Sounds and Audio Devices icon or the text labeled "Change the sound scheme." Make sure you're on the Sound tab and locate the pull-down menu under Sound scheme. Select the Windows Default option and press Apply. Windows will ask you if you want to save the previous sound scheme. Since there wasn't a sound scheme already loaded, just choose No. If you look under the text labeled "Program events," you'll be able to sample your new sounds or customize them with your own. Read Customize Events Sounds if you'd like to learn how to do this yourself. Classic Look Make XP look just like older versions of Windows If you're like me, you probably have grown way too close to the familiar Windows interface. That's OK. I don't adjust well to change either. After installing XP you may notice the revamped interface looks nothing like the old one. I was completely thrown back when I tried using it for the first time, but I suspect that over time the new interface will begin to grow on you as it has with me. Therefore, to ease your transition to the new OS, make a simple adjustment to XP to give it that classic look. Here's how to do it: Right-click your Desktop and select Properties. On the Desktop Display properties, click the Appearance tab. Under the Windows and buttons pull-down menu, select Windows Classic. Click Apply to see your new look. Click OK to close the Desktop Display properties. Volume Icon in Taskbar It's really handy to have access to the Volume Control panel in the event you quickly need to move the volume slider up or down. In its default state, XP ships with almost a clean slate for both the desktop and taskbar. So, if you'd like to place the volume control icon in the taskbar, you're going to need to make a little adjustment. To place the volume control icon in the taskbar, follow these steps:

Single-click the Start menu. Single-click Control Panel. Single-click Sound, Speech, and Audio Devices. Single-click Sounds and Audio Devices to launch the Sound and Audio Devices properties. On the Volume tab, locate the text labeled "Device Volume" and place a check mark next to the text labeled "Place volume icon in the taskbar." Single-click Apply. You should now have the volume icon in the taskbar. Now all you need to do is double-click this icon to bring up your Volume Control panel.

Make XP display a custom screen saver using your very own pictures It used to be darn near impossible to create a personal screen saver using your own photo collection. To do this, you had to track down a third-party application and sloppily piece together your pictures to create a screen saver. Well, the engineers at Microsoft must have realized they hated third-party applications and decided enough was enough. XP can take any pictures stored in your "My Pictures" folder and display them in random order as a screen saver. To make a personal screen saver in XP, follow these directions: Right-click an empty spot on your desktop and choose Properties. Click the Screen Saver tab inside the Display Properties dialog box. In the Screen Saver pull-down menu, choose "My Pictures Slideshow." Underneath the Screen Saver pull-down menu, adjust the time of inactivity before Windows will initiate your screen saver. Click Settings to make additional adjustments. You'll be able to adjust transition effects between pictures, how frequently they change, what size the pictures should be, and more. Click OK when you're done tweaking the settings adjustments. Press the Preview button to see what your screen saver looks like. If everything is to your liking, click Apply. Custom User Icons If you plan on getting a copy of XP, one of the first things you're going to do is set up a user account. Why not give your user account its very own

picture? It's OK if you don't want to use a picture of your own because Windows comes with at least 20 beautiful pictures to choose from. Here's how you can customize your user account icon. Single-click the start menu and choose Control Panel. Single-click the User Accounts icon. Find the user account you'd like to change the icon for and click on it. Click the text that says "Change My Picture." You'll have the option to either pick one of the predefined icons or choose your own. If you like one of the predefined icons, just highlight the one you like and click the button labeled "Change Picture." If you'd like to use your own picture, just click the magnifying glass or the text labeled "Browse for more pictures." This will launch a dialog box directing you to navigate to where your new picture is stored. After you find it, just click Open to save your new changes. Password Recovery Disk Take preventive measures against losing user-level passwords. It doesn't matter if you never again remember a Windows user password. Thanks to XP's Forgotten Password Wizard, your conscience will be free and clear -- should your mind happen to accidentally misplace your user password. I highly suggest you create a password recovery disk the minute you create your user account. Why? In order to create a password recovery disk you're going to need your password. Write it down the minute you create your user account and then proceed to creating your very own password recovery disk. Here's how to launch the Forgotten Password Wizard: Single-click Start menu, Control Panel, and User Accounts. Click your user account name. Under Related Tasks on the left, click "Prevent forgotten password" to launch the wizard. Now that you've launched the wizard, let it walk you through creating the recovery disk. Make sure the disk you use is formatted and in the drive. After it's finished creating the disk, label it and stash it away for an emergency. If you happen to forget your password, all you need to do is click your user icon at the logon screen. Even though you don't have your password, go ahead and click the green arrow just like you would to finish logging on to

your computer. This will launch a little yellow dialog box directing you to use your password recovery disk.

Windows XP and Symmetric Multiprocessing Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) is a technology that allows a computer to use more than one processor. The most common configuration of an SMP computer is one that uses two processors. The two processors are used to complete your computing tasks faster than a single processor. (Two processors aren't necessarily twice as fast as a single processor, though.) In order for a computer to take advantage of a multiprocessor setup, the software must be written for use with an SMP system. If a program isn't written for SMP, it won't take advantage of SMP. Not every program is written for SMP; SMP applications, such as image-editing programs, videoediting suites, and databases, tend to be processor intensive. SMP in Windows XP Operating systems also need to be written for SMP in order to use multiple processors. In the Windows XP family, only XP Professional supports SMP; XP Home does not. If you're a consumer with a dual-processor PC at home, you have to buy XP Professional. Windows XP Advanced Server also supports SMP. In Microsoft's grand scheme, XP Professional is meant to replace Windows 2000, which supports SMP. In fact, XP Professional uses the same kernel as Windows 2000. XP Home is designed to replace Windows Me as the consumer OS, and Windows Me does not support SMP. The difference between XP Professional and XP Home is more than just $100 and SMP support. XP Professional has plenty of other features not found in XP Home; some you'll use, others you won't care about. Get more information on the differences by reading this article.

XP Game Compatibility You want to know if all your favorite games are still going to run under Windows XP. Remember what happened when we tried to run games on our Windows 2000 machines? Sometimes we were a little disappointed. Windows 2000 was made more for corporate applications than "Quake," but true techno-geeks know they don't have to sacrifice death matches for a robust business environment -- at least not anymore.

Windows XP has shown an impressive track record of game compatibility. We ran a number of standard games, such as "Tiger Woods Golf," "NHL 2001," "Max Payne," and "Unreal" on our Windows XP Professional machine. Some of these games were specifically slated for Windows 95 and 98, and were shown not to work in Windows 2000. The installation in XP was as smooth as silk. The games ran quickly and beautifully -- not a problem in sight (except for my bad chip shot -- Tiger was hanging his head in shame). Some less-sophisticated programs may not run as smoothly, and we found that some older applications, such as the Atari 2600 Classic Game Collection, did not appreciate the Windows XP environment. In this case you can use the Application Compatibility Wizard, found in the accessories menu. XP includes integrated compatibility layers to mimic older versions of Windows, so if your program does not work in Windows XP, the compatibility wizard will walk you through the process of getting even your favorite DOS games up and running. In this case, we ran the Atari Classic Game Collection in the Windows 95 environment, at 256 colors and 640x480 screen resolution. Then we set XP to always run our Atari application in this environment, and everything was smooth sailing after that. One final tip about compatibility: Don't run the compatibility wizard if your program appears to be running well in the normal environment, as the wizard will give you an error message. In general, XP has great program compatibility, so you can upgrade your operating system without giving up all your old favorites.

Windows XP Step-by-Step Installation Instructions These steps are for a clean install of XP. Read this article for steps on upgrading your current system to XP. First, you're going to need to change your BIOS boot order to boot from CDROM. Once you do this you'll then be able to boot your computer from the Installation CD. After changing the boot order in BIOS, save the changes, and then reboot your computer. Make sure your Installation CD is in your CD-ROM. If it is you'll be prompted to press your space bar to directly boot from CD-ROM emulation. Press your space bar as soon as you see this message. Wait a few minutes while the installation begins to copy the preliminary setup files to your computer. After this completes you'll be ready to start directing the install process.

You will be asked if you want to perform a new installation, repair an existing installation, or quit. In this case, you will be performing a new install. Press the correct key to perform a new installation. Read the terms of the end user license agreement, and press F8 to agree. The next phase of the installation is real similar to that of Windows 2000. So, if you're familiar with the Windows 2000 installation process this should be a cinch. Basically, you need to decide which partition of your hard drive you will install Windows XP on. You will have the opportunity to create and/or delete partitions or just allocate the available disk space to one partition. However, try to keep your partitions within reasonable size. We recommend using multiple partitions of 4-8GB, preferably on more than one hard drive. This will help you back up your data and optimize system performance later on down the road. Once you have figured out which partition XP will be installed on it's time to format it. Choose to format the partition to either FAT32 or NTFS (recommended for single OS install). You'll also see two additional choices to perform a quick format of each option. Stick with doing a full format of either option instead. After you've determined which option is right for you, press the correct key to format the partition. This would be a good time to take a break and come back in a few minutes. The setup program will automatically start copying files after the partition is formatted. From this point on, you're going to see each and every file name that's being copied over to your hard drive appear in the lower left corner. As the file names go from A to Z, the installation completion percentage will increase. Choose the region and language. Type in your name and organization. Enter your product license key. Name the computer, and enter an Admin password. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password. After the installation is complete it would be extremely wise to create a password restore disk in the event you forget your Administrator password someday. Enter the correct date and time.

Choose your network settings. Leave on automatic if you use a dhcp server to assign IP addresses. If you have static IP address for broadband access, enter the settings that your ISP has provided you. Choose workgroup or domain name. Register this copy of Windows XP if you've installed all the current hardware on your machine. Otherwise, wait until you've finished installing any additional hardware so you don't have to activate your copy of XP again. Add users that will sign on to this computer. Log in, and update drivers. Driver install XP found drivers for all of the hardware in our test machines, with the exception of a wireless network adapter that was added. Update all drivers that had updates available for download. It takes about 30 minutes to perform this installation. After that, you will be a few personalized settings away from getting started on your XP-experience. With a little use, the GUI even starts to grow on you.

Install Windows XP Professional - New Installation There are three reasons why you may need to install a new copy of Windows XP:

Your current operating system doesn’t support an upgrade to Windows XP Professional.
• Your current operating system supports an upgrade to Windows XP Professional, but you don’t want to keep your existing files and personalized settings.

Your computer does not have an operating system.

The setup process is similar for new installations and upgrades with a few notable exceptions. For example, during a new installation, you are able to configure Special Options, convert your file system, and create a new partition for the Windows XP installation.

IMPORTANT A new installation deletes all programs or system files from a previous installation. Special Options Under Special Options, you have the choice to change Language, Advanced, and Accessibility settings during the setup process. Note: If you are in a country that has recently adopted the euro as its currency, you may have to modify the currency settings to display monetary amounts correctly. For more information, go to Help and Support Center and type “euro” in the Search box. Select Language If you want to... • Choose the primary language and regions for Windows XP, which affects the default settings for date, time, currency, numbers, character sets, and keyboard layout. • Choose additional language groups and character sets to use with the programs you are running on Windows XP. • Change the default location of the Setup files. • Store system files in a folder other than the default (Windows) folder • Copy the installation files from the CD to the hard disk. • Use Narrator or Magnifier during Setup.

Advanced Options

Accessibility

IMPORTANT Unless you're an advanced user, it's recommended that you use the default settings. Choosing a File System

to choose which file system your computer should use. Windows XP Professional supports: FAT32: An enhanced version of the file allocation table (FAT) system that is standard on all Windows operating systems starting with later (32-bit) versions of Windows 95. The FAT32 system can be used on large hard disks, from 512 megabytes (MB) to 32 gigabytes (GB). • NTFS: The NT file system (NTFS) is used with the Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows XP operating systems. NTFS provides enhanced reliability, stability, and security, and supports large hard disks of up to 2 terabytes (TB).

IMPORTANT You can convert your file system any time, even after you install Windows XP, without losing any of your data. The conversion to NTFS is one–way only; if you convert your FAT or FAT32 file system to NTFS you can’t convert your hard disk back to FAT later. If you’re not sure which file system to use, keep the one your computer defaults to during Setup. If you want to change your file system, here are a few recommendations:

Use FAT32 if your hard disk is smaller than 32 GB. • Use FAT32 if you want to install more than one operating system on your computer. • Use NTFS if your hard drive is larger than 32 GB and you are running only one operating system on your computer. • Use NTFS if you want enhanced file security. • Use NTFS if you need better disk compression. Disk Partitions

You can create partitions to organize information—for example, to back up data—or to install more than one operating system on your computer. A hard disk can contain up to four partitions. If you’re performing a new installation, the appropriate disk partition is selected automatically during Windows XP Setup unless you click Advanced Options and specify your

own requirements For more information about configuring, sizing, reformatting, or converting disk partitions, see your current online Help before you install or upgrade to Windows XP Professional.

XP File Sharing and Permissions File sharing and permissions in Windows XP seem complicated. Microsoft provides a Knowledge Base article, but reading it is like walking through molasses: It describes in infinite detail a file security system based on a 1-to-5 scale. However, if you look for this 1-to-5 scale anywhere in your security-settings interface, you may come away a little confused. These numbers are nowhere to be found. Microsoft's 1-to-5 scale means nothing to the individual user and relates in no way to the actual practice of setting your security protocols. Enter the Screen Savers. We are here to explain it to you. The security settings the user actually sets relate to read access, write access, shared folders, and password protection. These features are available in both Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional, however the features only work if the operating system is installed with NTFS. FAT32 does not support the file permissions described here. You can choose to install Windows XP Home using NTFS, but you should use a FAT32 file system if you are dual booting and want to see the contents of your Windows 95, 98, or Me partition from your XP partition. Your file system is not set in stone when you install Windows XP. You always can change your file system from FAT32 to NTFS without losing any of your data; however, the transition is one-way only. There is no going back to FAT32 from NTFS unless you grab a copy of Partition Magic. Microsoft recommends you install Windows XP Home with FAT32 if you intend to install more than one OS on your computer or if your hard drive is less than 32GB.

If you have Windows XP Home or Professional running NTFS, you can hide files and entire folders from prying eyes. When you set up multiple user accounts on one machine, any user with administrator access can view the documents in another's My Documents folders. To protect a folder, right-click it, choose Properties, the Share tab, and select "make this folder private." No one, not even a fellow system administrator, can access these most secret files. Every file or folder contained within whichever folder you choose to make private will take on the settings of the parent folder. If the administrator does not have a password to the account, Windows XP will prompt the user to make a password or risk subjecting his or her private work to public scrutiny. No Windows password means no protected files. A person who logs in as a guest or as a user without administrator privileges cannot see the contents of any other user's My Documents folder, even if the folder has not been explicitly made private. The user with limited privileges can, however, set a password and protect his or her documents from the prying eyes of the administrators. Windows XP is all about privacy. It is a nice feeling to keep your personal tax documents secure from the passing lookey-loo. It's about time Microsoft made snooping your computer more difficult than snooping your medicine cabinet.

Compatibility Mode Make older programs run in Windows XP If you're having trouble running older programs originally developed for previous versions of Windows, you're not out of luck. Luckily for consumers, Microsoft built Compatibility Mode into XP. Compatibility Mode allows you to run a program using the shell of the original program it was developed for. Here's how to access a program's Compatibility Mode in XP: Find the executable or program shortcut icon you'd like to run. Right-click the icon and select Properties. Click the Compatibility tab and place a checkmark next to the text labeled "Run this program in compatibility mode." Select the operating system that the program was originally intended to run on. You may need to fine-tune the three fields under "Display Settings" if an

older program requires 640x480 resolution or 256 colors. Click Apply. Try starting the program after making these changes. If it still gives you trouble, try a different operating system. If the program was written for Win95 and worked fine in Win98, there's nothing that says it still won't work fine with Win98.

With Regards

Pranith Nambiar