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# THEORY

## General Mole Balance Equation

Assumptions
1) Steady state therefore
2) Well mixed therefore r
A
is the same throughout the reactor

Rearranging the generation

In terms of conversion

Reactors in Series
Given -r
A
as a function of conversion, , -r
A
= f(X), one can also design any sequence of
reactors in series provided there are no side streams by defining the overall conversion
at any point.

Mole Balance on Reactor 1

Mole Balance on Reactor 2

Given -r
A
= f(X) the Levenspiel Plot can be used to find the reactor volume

For a PFR between two CSTRs

Reactor 2
Reactor 1
Reactor 3
Effect of Step Change in Input Concentration to the Concentration of Solute in Stirred
Tank Reactors in Series.
When a step change of solute concentration is introduced at the feed of tank 1, the tank
in series will experience a transient behavior as a Figure 7 below. The response will be
dependent on the residence time of each reactor in series.

Concentration Concentration

----------------------------------

Time Time

Figure 1a: Step change input Figure 1b: Transient response of
tank in series to the step input.

Effect of Pulse in Input Concentration to the Concentration of Solute in Stirred Tank in
Series.
When a pulse input of solute concentration is introduced at the feed of tank 1, the
transient behavior will be different than the step change input due to the diminishing
concentration from the input after pulsing as described in Figure 2.

Time Time

Figure 2a: Pulse input Figure 2b: Transient response of
tank in series to the pulse input
Reactor 1
Reactor 2
Reactor 3
C
o
n
c
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n
t
r
a
t
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o
n

C
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PROCEDURES

Experiment 1: The Effect of Step Change Input

In this experiment a step-change input would be introduced and the progression of the tracer will
be monitored via the conductivity measurements in all the three reactors.
Tank 1 and tank 2 was filled up with 20L feeds deionised water.
300g of Sodium Chloride was dissolved in tank 1until the salts dissolve entirely and the
solution is homogenous.
Three way valve (V3) was set to position 2 so that deionised water from tank 2 will flow
into reactor 1.
Pump 2 was switched on to fill up all three reactors with deionised water.
The flow rate (Fl1) was set to 150 ml/min by adjusting the needles valve (V4). Do not use
too high flow rate to avoid the over flow and make sure no air bubbles trapped in the
piping. The stirrers 1, 2 and 3 were switched on.
The deionised water was continued pumped for about 10 minute until the conductivity
readings for all three reactors were stable at low values.
The values of conductivity were recorded at t
0
.
The pump 2 was switched off after 5 minutes. The valve (V3) was switched to position 1
and the pump 1 was switched on. The timer was started.
The conductivity values for each reactor were recorded every three minutes.
Record the conductivity values were continued until reading for reactor 3 closed to
reactor 1.
Pump 2 was switched off and the valve (V4) was closed.
All liquids in reactors were drained by opening valves V5 and V6.