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IT- Next Five Years

Task 1
Briefing Notes

Issue
Urbanwings Tours & Travels will take advantage of the benefits of Internet
technologies in order to survive and last in the industry.

Background:
This report will show all the problematic area of the current system of the
company and how it can be solved with the use of Internet and Information
Technology (IT).

Current Situation
Urbanwings Tours & Travels is planning to apply Internet technology together with
the concept of business-to-business (b2b) and business-to-consumer (b2c), in
order for them to improve the supply chain of the company.

Key Consideration
The main concern here is how the Internet will be able to help the company to
improve and survive in the declining business of travel agency.

Background of the Company


Urbanwings Tours & Travels is a travel agency that started as a family business.
The company started its operation in the late 1990s. It started as an agency that
sells holiday package in behalf of different hotels in the United Kingdom. To meet
the needs of their target market, the company has deployed an Internet site that
serves as a reference site where their customers will find the different packages
that they are offering. They are also using different marketing technique such as
the use of brochures and other advertisement strategies to inform their target
market about their existence.

Statement of the Problem


According to Mills & Law (2005), the rapid growth of the tourism and travel
industry has meant that sophisticated information technologies (ITs) are required
to manage the increasing volume and quality of tourism services. The emergence
of new tourism services and products together with the rapid development in
tourism demand, has driven the wide-scale adoption of ITs in general, and the
Internet in particular, as an electronic intermediary (p. 118). The main problem of
the company is how they will be able to cope to the fast growing and developing
Internet technology and how can they apply the concept of business-to-business
(b2b) and business-to-consumer (b2c) without harming the job and work of their
agent. This problem started when the company has noticed that most of their
customers are no longer searching for their agents but just relying on their
brochures and Internet sites in choosing their package and will just go to their
office if they are going to book or reserve. This shows that agents are no longer
that involved in the overall transactions.
IT- Next Five Years

Due to the use of modern technology, most of the airline companies are selling
their tickets directly to their customers and resulted in disintermediation.
According to Shoniregun (2005), Disintermediation refers to the removal of
business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a given value
chain. In traditional distribution channel, there are intermediations layers such as
wholesaler, distributor and retailer, between the manufacturer and due to this
technological evolution, airlines will no longer have to pay commission to the
agents. Different hotels are also starting to direct their sales to the customer for
the same reason.

Aims and Scope of the Study


This study aims to show the different problematic areas and who are involved in
that specific problems and how it can be solved. The study also aims to show the
benefits and the impact of the use of Internet technology in modifying, developing
and improving the processes and transaction of the company.

This report will focus to different computerized internet-based information system


that can be applied to manage the overall performance of the company easier
and hassle free.

The study will also show the different factors that are affecting travel and tourism
industry in general and the impact of different new technologies and Internet in
the said industry.

This study will also shows the different effect of Internet technology to the people
that are involved in different transactions of the company like the customers, the
agents, the airline companies, different hotels and restaurants as well as the
company itself.

System Thinking
“Systems Thinking” is an approach for studying and managing complex feedback
systems, such as one finds in corporations and other social systems. In this
method the problems are considered as messes and looked at them as a ‘ whole’.
It is a perspective for going beyond events, to looking for patterns of behaviour, to
seeking underlying systemic interrelationships which are responsible for the
patterns of behaviour and the events. Systems thinking embody a world-view. A
world-view which implies that, the foundation for understanding lies in interpreting
interrelationships within systems. Interrelationships which result in the patterns of
behaviour and events we perceive. “Systems thinking” is a conceptual framework
for understanding the system of interrelationships that govern performance in an
organization The various themes involved in Systems Thinking are: (NCC
education,Lecture notes on IT next five years, 2006)

 Existence of a boundary
System and environment
 Emergent properties
Holism and synergy
IT- Next Five Years

 Recursiveness
Systems within systems (hierarchy)
 Systemic process
Control
 Communication networks
Transformation

Benefits

 More effective problem solving


To effectively solve a problem in an organization, it is important to
understand the real cause of it and how to address them. Instead of looking
at the wholeness of the problem leaders in the organization focus only on
the immediate relief from the problem and the issues associated with them
in the workplace.

 More effective leadership


The most important responsibilities of the role of a leader are to set direction
and to influence others to follow that direction. It's difficult to establish
direction for an organization and to keep that organization on its course if
you don't understand how the organization works in the first place. Without
clear understanding of the overall nature and needs of an organization, the
leader can never really give attention to the more important activities, such
as planning the organization's overall direction and organizing the
organization's resources.

 More effective organizational development


The most effective form of organizational development results from the use
of various strategies,including strategic planning, management and
leadership development, team building, supervisory development,
organizational and group and employee performance management, and
principles of organizational change. Any leader would be hard-pressed to
employ these various strategies in an effective fashion without a good
understanding of the overall systems in their organizations, including its
major functions, departments, processes, teams and individual employees.
Consequently, having a systems view is critical to accomplishing effective
organizational development.

Weaknesses
 Very unlikely to happen
In most of the problem situation, no one really bother to look in the root
cause of the problem. As the problem comes back at a later stage still repeat the
same thing. Everyone look for an immediate solution.

 No immediate result
In order to work the ‘system thinking’ the root cause and associated events
need to analyse. So the total time taken to the solution is long.
IT- Next Five Years

Conclusions
Though each methods of research have its own strengths, weaknesses and the
working situation, a positive approach should be taken to all. Deductive method is
easier to work out as the theory already exists. The research will based or it will be
in with respect to the existing theories. In case on inductive method, the individual
is free to conduct any type of research and come to theory. The complex system
method which is multiple realities, the problem is analysed by many experts and
comes to a conclusion. But there are chances of conflict on the ideas. The systems
thinking method looks to the problem as a ‘whole’ to make a complete picture of
it, making it a complete solution without leaving any cause to come back in a later
stage. Looking at the benefits of Systems thinking method, it will be more
approachable to Organizations in problem solving and development. From the
case I employed the last and the best form of enquiry which is the Multiple
Perspective form for solving the case problem. Since, this is the only method
gives us an overall view of enquiry system includes the societal, organizational
and the personal views. Urbanwings Tours & Travels is moving ahead and
benchmarking itself by going for a Global strategy. Moving from local into Global,
UrbanWings has to see its view in to a broader sense covering all the view from
organizational, societal and personnel in a single dimension. Urbanwings Tours &
Travels has to provide its facilities through online irrespective any city in the
country. If we look in an organizational view it has to build a strong environment
in the IT society, it has to look for the best and robust technology that has to cater
to all students. Countries like India and China respects a lot in the traditional way
of learning, to with stand the cultural and the societal changes Urbanwings should
be able to provide its services to all nations irrespective of the cultural, traditional
(stand and deliver), and societal changes. This enquiry system is the best system
to undergo such analysis to find out the best suitable and applicable answers to fit
the strategy. In the competitive world the Travel Industry has coming with
different new methodologies to sustain in the market. Solving the problem of
Urbanwings Tours & Travels the best Enquiry system, steers is the System
Thinking.

Task 2
Introduction:
The Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. The
World Travel and Tourism Council estimates that in 2009 Travel and tourism is
expected to generate
* US$ 7,780.4 billion of economic activity
* 10.4% of total GDP
* 214,697,000 jobs or 8.1% of total employment
* 12.2% of total exports
IT- Next Five Years

Within the tourism industry, I have to select one area of interest like
transportation, accommodation and transportation etc. and with Urbanwings
Travel & Tourism doing business with these sectors related with the tourism.
According to Leiper “Transportation is the only link between the tourist-generating
region and destination region” So, transportation was a more interesting sector to
discuss in the report but I tried to find a company which is related with all these
main sub-sectors discussed above in the report.

I have decided to look in the U.K market for such company because “Tourism is
one of the largest industries in U.K, worth approximately 75.9 £ Billion to the U.K
economy in 2008 and supporting around 2.1 million jobs.”

During my research on internet I found many companies offering services in the


tourism of U.K but I have decided to choose “Urbanwings Travel & tourism”
because of its variety of services offering related with the accommodation,
transportation and attractions.

Limitations
The biggest limitation for writing this report is time and the pages to write. It is a
broad topic and it could be better presented if available more time and space to
write about, but still I have tried to highlight some main points raised during my
finding. My knowledge about the company “Urbanwings Travel & Tourism” is
internet-based and I could not able to contact the company for further
information. Due to the lack of information about the company I will only describe
one component of the Service Management System. I will be describing only the
OT part of the SWOT analysis.

Methodology
Being inspired from the Service Management System I will describe the service
concept of the company .I will conduct a P.E.S.T analysis to find out the political,
economical, social and Technological factors affecting the company. From SWOT
analysis, I was conducting OT analysis to find opportunities for the “Urbanwings
Travel & Tourism” in future.

As discussed by Alan Chapman, (2006), one of the main problems of strategic


management is coping with uncertainty, it is quite useful to consider how
uncertain the environment is and why. Depending on how the environmental
conditions are dynamic or complex, the environmental uncertainty increases. In
this task, PEST framework is used to identify the key issues that Tourism Industry
could face in implementing Internet Technology and Information Systems.

PEST analysis

An organization must consider its environment before beginning the marketing


process. In fact, environmental analysis should be continuous and feed all aspects
of planning. The organization's marketing environment is made up from:
• The internal environment e.g. staff, office technology, and finance, etc.
IT- Next Five Years

• The micro-environment e.g. external customers, distributors, suppliers


and competitors etc.
• The macro-environment e.g. Political forces, Economic forces, Socio-
cultural forces and Technological forces. These are known as PEST
factors.

In the context of PEST framework, key issues that Tourism Industry face to
implement Internet technologies are:

Political Factors
Political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of businesses .It includes
government regulations and legal issues under which businesses should operate.
According to the findings, political environment of U.K. is quite stable. Issues like
enlargement of European Union and war against terror have had an effect on the
political stability of the government. In result of growing awareness of the
environmental consequences, U.K Government is planning actions to ensure
aviation reflects its environmental impacts. Proposals are emerging for a tax on
aviation fuel and VAT on air tickets. Government’s taxation policies and decision
about the increasing the petrol prices have affected the buying power of the
individuals in U.K. The political decision as to whether a UK sign up to single
European currency is again having an effect on the businesses.

Economic Factors
Economic factors affect the purchasing power of potential customers and also
affect the individual company’s offerings. U.K economy is benefiting from gradual
low inflation rate. Inflation rate Inflation rate fell to 1.3% in February 2004. In U.K,
unemployment is low. According to labour market statistics in January 2008 fell
down to 4.8 per cent. Job confidence is high and because of this confidence
spending by consumer is also high. reductions point to continuing GDP growth
over the period averaging around 2.4% a year (GDP rose by 0.9% in fourth
quarter of 2007), with real household disposable income rising at a somewhat
faster rate. Household expenditures rose to 0.9 per cent with the increase in
disposable income. The UK’s deficit on trade in goods and services in February
2008 stood at £3.2 billion –compared with the revised deficit for January of £4.4
billion.

Continued sales growth has been observed during the past few months in the UK
economy. Exchange rates are favorable for UK residents for travelling abroad due
to strong position of British Pound against the other foreign currencies. “Euro”
used as a single currency in many European countries, is also stable against the
other foreign currencies. Latest predictions for the UK economy suggest that it will
remain one of the strongest economies in the world over the next five years, with
low inflation (inflation fell to 1.3% during February 2008), low unemployment and
reasonable economic growth.

The downside is that disparities between the wealthier parts of the country, not all
in the south east of England, and pockets of deprivation, will get wider, with
implications for travel demand. These are likely to influence the growth of the UK
IT- Next Five Years

resident travel market.

Social Factors
A trend of getting internet access at home and buying online is developing in the
UK. According to statistics in September 2007, 11.9 million households online
were recorded. Listening to music or radio is a popular choice among the UK
residents.92% of people content to spend their evenings and Weekends watching
TV or hired videos. To socialize, most people think to entertain family and friends
at home rather than going out (79%). A great trend has been seen in U.K
population about diet and health issues in the recent years. This trend leads
towards the need of more fitness clubs and organic food for the people from U.K
Changes in the structure of the population because of the immigrants from
Europe, Asia and Africa etc. will also affect the supply and demands of goods
within the U.K economy. Continued concerns over safety and security while
travelling are found in the U.K residents.

Lifestyle changes have also been affecting the U.K travel market for a number of
years. Postponing the start of the family and an increase in the number of
households consisting of couples with two incomes are the main trends toward
the changing life style. Changing fashions, which are difficult to predict also have
an effect on the market.

Technological Factors
The rapid development of technology is affecting the businesses in UK and all
over the world. Changes in the technology have changed the way businesses
operate i.e. Internet booking for tickets and holidays. Faster changing
development in technology creates a need to react quickly for different
businesses in order they want to maintain the competitive environment by
providing the same innovative services, which their competitors are offering.
Distribution of products by the use of technologies e.g. marketing information
systems, customer relationship management are also common practices with
different businesses for effective services to their customers.

Impacts on demand situation


Findings from the PEST analysis will enable me to comment on the impacts on the
demand situation of the customers of the “Urbanwings Tours & Travels”.

Elasticities
Changes in the quantity demanded due to change in price and income are very
important for the tourism industry. Rising disposable income among the UK
residents is the positive indication for the “Urbanwings Tours & Travels” that
people will have enough money to buy company’s products. However,
Government’s fiscal policies for tax on aviation fuel and VAT on air tickets will
impact the company’s supply of services at the same rate. Higher prices of the
tour packages will lead to lesser demand among the UK residents.

Cross-Price Elasticities
Not only a price change in the UK due to taxes is important but also the price of
IT- Next Five Years

the facilities in other destinations where company serves is also important. For
example rising prices in Italy, Spain etc. for different tourism related products will
also make supply of products expensive for the tourists.

Trends
Latest trends of home- entertainment and more awareness about the diet and
health-issues does also have an impact on the demand of the tourist. Company
will have to compile the Supplies of services
packages with variety of facilities available according to individual’s choice, so it
can make supply of the products a bit expensive for the customers.

Purchasing method
Growing direct purchases of holiday packages from airlines will impact the
demand situation .Buying the package direct from suppliers i.e. Hotels, air lines
will decrease the demand of the tourists. Moreover, low inflation rate and high
employment rate and favorable exchange rate will increase the buying power of
the tourists so it will increase the demand in British holiday travelers for the
holiday travels abroad.

Opportunity - Threat analysis


To find opportunities and threats from the external environment for the
“Urbanwings Tours & Travels”, I will conduct the OT analysis.

Opportunities
Opportunities exist for “Urbanwings Tours & Travels” in expanding the service
package according to the latest trends such as

1. Packages with individual concerned Diet and health matters.


2. Adding particular activities for the tourists, providing experiences.
3. Providing more choice, individuality and variety. And providing the real
value for the money of the tourists.

Threats
Cheap airlines adding facilities for the travellers to make their own travel plan are
the biggest threat for the company. Government’s decision to add taxes on
aviation fuel and VAT for air lines are also a main threat for the company. Latest
trends of home entertainment i.e. listening radio, watching TV, Inviting family and
friends are also threatening the company. Terrorist attacks like 9/11 is also a big
threat for the company.

Possible IT/IS changes which might affect the organization


Information systems represent opportunities for one business and threats to
others. In retailing, large chains have benefited at the expense of smaller shops.
Any use of IS by one company to enter a new market is a potential threat to a
competitor.

Advancements of information technology have had serious ramifications on the


global workforce and the world economy. They have created Complex issues for
IT- Next Five Years

Governments, societies, and business corporations such as changing job contents,


global unemployment, and transition from human workers to machines.
Replacement of workers by machines is going to force every nation to rethink the
role of technology in everyday life in the twenty-first century.

According to (Calvin McDonald and James Yao, Unemployment and the Role of
Institution) “Rapid Information Technology revolution has seen the introduction of
new types of machines. The productivity of new capital is higher than pre-existing
capital, but workers who have developed a set of capital-specific skills can only be
suitable for that capital. The acquisition of new skills that are appropriate for the
emerging technology is costly, and the labor force is heterogeneous in the cost of
learning these skills”. The wage gap between workers with the traditional capital
and workers with the new capital becomes increasingly large. Workers with low
learning costs start using the new capital as the skill premium is greater than
their learning cost, while high-learning-cost individuals remain attached to the
traditional capital with less advanced technology. Given an assumption of
constant saving, new investment diverges from workers in low-skilled capital
industries and toward those in the high-skilled capital sectors. With a lower
capital-labor ratio, high-learning-cost workers could experience an absolute
decline in their wages. This is the so-called working poor phenomenon. Low-
learning-cost workers, because they work with new capital with more advanced
technology, and because they subsequently have a higher capital-labor ratio, see
their wages rise. Wage inequality therefore increases during the Information
Technology revolution.

Implementing advanced information systems eats in to a greater deal of


management time and results in complex organizational ramifications.
Implementation of advanced Information systems is very difficult, which involves
many stakeholders with different priorities .It creates a very uncertain
environment and change over’s incur additional costs, manpower and other
resources.

Task 3
Introduction
Consequence analysis is the analysis of risks. It involves identifying sources of
potential harm, assessing the likelihood that harm will occur and the
IT- Next Five Years

Consequences if harm does occur. Before jumping to information technology it is


advisable to assess the behaviors and its consequences in every one of its
potential operational states. Then the conclusion can be made whether it would
be better to abandon its use completely, or else address the cultural and
behavioral aspects which could render it a curse rather than a blessing. In this
task consequence analysis is used to identify the impact of internet technology on
Tour Operators. Also an effect/probability/action grid is used to explain the
impact.

Impact of Internet technology on Urbanwings Tours & Travels

1. Life-Cycle Costing (LCC):


Life-cycle costs are the total cost to the organization for the ownership and
acquisition of the product over its full life. This includes the cost of R&D,
production, operation, support, and where applicable, disposal. Implementation of
internet technology requires huge capital investment for Tour Operators.

2. Problems of abuse
Once the internet is connected there are high chances of hacking and viruses
attacking company’s confidential data. Enough security measures should be taken
to protect the data and network.

3. Employees become less productive


The chances are more that employees spent time on internet for personal
purposes during office hours. People can spend time downloading music, reading
e-mail news and other unnecessary web sites, which will affect the network
bandwidth.

4. Hardware failure
All the hardware has risk of failure. It can be network equipments, computers, and
servers etc. Regular maintenance is required to reduce the risk of failure and get
optimum performance.

5. Software failure
The chances of software failures are related to, wrong design of the program that
prevents it from working as indented operating system instability, security
vulnerabilities, application instability.

6. Globalization
Once the internet and web services are implemented the company has become
multinational, serving people anywhere in the world. With proper supply channel
Tour Operators will benefit from internet technology

7. Better way of communication


Using online services an organization can improve the communication gap
between customers and suppliers.

8. Expanding market
IT- Next Five Years

The area of the market coverage increases with online services. As most of the
people are depend on internet for their daily shopping, Urbanwings Tours &
Travels will definitely benefit from implementing broadband internet technology

Effect/Probability/Action grid explains the impacts


The impacts of broadband technology are placed on the grid for analysis. The
effect/probability/action grid shows the benefits, seriousness and severity of
impacts affecting the Urbanwings Tours & Travels. Please find the appendix B
(NCC education, Lecture notes on IT next five years, 2006).

Conclusion
The consequence portion portrays an array of outcomes…
o Representing staged increments of success / failure
o With each increment having associated level of probability based on
permutations of behaviour available with in the system analyzed.
Consequences or risks must be analysed to see the impacts of any technology
before the acquition and implementation of IT. There are many advantages like
globalization, better communication and wider market coverage, for the Internet
technology. Major disadvantages are data protection or security, attitude of the
people, and the failures of hardware and software. Considering the business
advantages using the Internet Techonology , taking effective precaution against
the risk will help Tour Operators to benefit from Internet Technology
IT- Next Five Years

Task 4
The Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is an approach to organizational process
modeling and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the
management of change. It was developed in England by Prof Jenkins, Brian Wilson
and their colleagues at the University of Lancaster Systems Department as part of
an Action Research program in partnership with ISCOL Ltd (a consultancy owned
by the department).This approach deals with, “How to manage the disasters
planning?” and how the outcomes can be resolved by taking the different
parameters in to consideration

The word complex rings in every ones years in all the parts of the organization
due some messy problems. In the decision making process we see a lot
complexity in an organization This means that, whenever the organization is to
decide "what is to be done", there is a division between those elements that are
going to be considered and those that are not, and, more seriously, between
those who are involved and those who are affected (or between those who will
benefit and those who are likely to suffer). Hence, not only will the majority feel
alienated because they are on the wrong side of the fence, but also their values
are less likely to inform the negotiation that determines the organization’s
actions. Let us analyze of one such problem taking into consideration in the
process of the system development.

Briefing Notes
Developing a Soft System Methodology (SSM) will help the company to dig in to
the problem and see the overview of their current system.

Background
The company will be implementing two major changes: the application of Internet-
based systems and telemarketing. This two reconstruction plan will help the
company to improve their service as well as provide for their staffs.

Current Status
The company is choosing the right software that will be helpful in developing their
overall performance.

Key Considerations
IT- Next Five Years

The key considerations here are the people or organizations that will be affected
by the change such as the staff, the customers, the company itself and their
partner companies.

Soft System Methodology or SSM, according to Vissher, Fung & Wild (2001),
involves a more holistic approach which is intended to incorporate the human
element of such systems into the systems design work (p. 102).

Stage 1 – The Problem Unstructured Stage


The problems and defect of the current system of the Urbanwings Tours & Travels
will be defined and analyzed during this stage. The people that will be involved
during this stage are the travel agents and other company’s staff, the partner
companies and the customers. The problem will be rooted from the different
perspective of different people that are involved and in the end will locate the
main problem that is causing other problems.

Stage 2 – The Problematic Situation Expressed


All the necessary data and information that will help in developing the proposed
system will be gathered. This will include the entire problem or the inconvenience
of the different people involved such as the customers, the staffs and the partner
companies.

The rich picture will also be drawn during this stage. According to Couprie et al,
rich pictures are used to provide a model for thinking about the system and to
help the analyst to gain an appreciation of the problem situation. The rich picture
of the case of Urbanwings Tours & Travels is shown in Figure 2.

Stage 3 – Root Definition of Related Systems


According to Couprie et al, A root definition is expressed as a transformation
process that takes some entity as input, changes or transforms that entity and
produces a new form of the entity as output. The first root definition is the
application of the Online Systems. This will help the company to serve their
customers minus the hassle.
The second root definition is the application of telemarketing. Telemarketing will
help the company to answer the questions of the customers without seeing each
other. This is to help train the staff to be more efficient at work. This will also help
to retain the staff.

Stage 4 – Conceptual Models


The first root definition deals with the application of new Internet technologies to
the company. This will start by hiring a web-based system expert and by choosing
the right software and hardware that will complement the protocol and rules of
the company. This shows a continuous process because maintenance is the most
important part of the systems development.

The second root definition also shows a continuous process because it is also in
great need of maintenance and training.
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Stage 5 – Identification of Feasible and Desirable Change


During this stage, the desirable change and feasibility of the company that is
based on the evaluation of the situations will be categorized. There are different
changes that can be done: changes in structure, changes in procedure and
changes in the attitude of the entire organization.

To solve the problem of the company regarding their relationship to their


customers and their partner companies, they must involved their selves to the
transactions and must maintain their system by directing to the needs and
demands of the customer as well as offer services and guide that will cause
convenience on their part.

References:
NCC Education (2006), Lecture notes on IT Next Five Years

Mason & Culnan (1995), Ethics of the Information Management, 1st edition
James O Hicks, Jr. (1993), Management Information Systems: a User Prospective

Harold Kerzner, PhD (1998), Project Management – A System approach to


Planning, scheduling, and Controlling; 6thEdition

McDonald, Calvin L. and Yao, James Y., "Mauritius: Unemployment and the Role of
Institutions" (November 2003).

Gerry Johnson & Kevan Scholes (1997), Exploring Corporate Strategy text and
cases, 4th edition. Harold Kerzner, PhD (1998), Project Management. A systems
approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling; Sixth Edition
IT- Next Five Years

James O. Hicks, Jr. (1993), Management Information Systems: a user perspective.

Lawrence M Hinman (1999),


http://ethics.sandiego.edu/courses/logic/powerpoint/1_3/logic%201.3.ppt retrieved
on 15 October 2009

Lawrence M Hinman (2001)


http://ethics.sandiego.edu/courses/logic/powerpoint/1_3/logic%201.3.ppt retrieved
on 15 October 2009

Mason & Culnan (1995), Ethics of Information Management, 1st Edition.NCC


Education (2008), Lecture notes on IT Next Five Years

systems thinking – a disciplined approach http://www.systems-


thinking.org/stada/stada.htm#anchor909268 retrieved on 20 October 2009

systems thinking
http://www.managementhelp.org/systems/systems.htm#anchor296937 retrieved
on 20 October 2009

Shoniregun, C.A., Smith, P., Logvynovskiy, A., and Grebenyuk, V. (2005) ‘Impacts
of E-learning on Organisational Strategy’, in the Proceedings of the 1 st
International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies
(WEBIST), May 26–28, Miami, Florida, USA.

Appendices:
Appendix 1 – Impact of various Factors on implementing IT/IS
Factor Impact - Definition Expected Results

Critical mass. -The environment must attract and - Larger volume of requests.
retain a critical mass of - Attraction of participants.
participants –- The environment - Larger amount of contents.
must also attract the community
outside the company, at an
international scale
Responsivene - The environment must be - Better response to the
ss and quality efficiently supported by a suitable participants’ requirements,
information system and traduced mainly by learning
technology, assuring the capability success.
of organising and acceding to the
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information.
- Since the only certainty is
change, the environment must be
flexible enough to respond to
internal and external changes,
itself supporting agility.
Trust - Establishing trust amongst - Awareness of the
learners in effectiveness of the new
synchronous and asynchronous campaign processes.
situations
- Trust amongst employers and
employees; employees must
believe on employers interest in
participating and contributions
both in synchronous and
asynchronous environments, more
than delivering learning materials.
Expertise in - Expertise to support company in - Participants’ satisfaction.
contents developing attractive and valuable - Attraction of participants
development contents.
Motivation - Encouraging collaborative - Participants’ satisfaction.
learning between learners. - Increased interaction
- Encouraging company’s (synchronous / asynchrony.)
management to prepare contents communication.
and to organise discussion - Larger amount of contents.
situations and fora.
- Encourange the outside/external
community towards life-long
learning)
Commitment - A strong motivation of contents - Larger adhesion of
producers (management) towards participants (mainly staff).
quality, actuality, organisation.
Usability and - The effort towards a useable site, - Participants’ satisfaction,
interaction well assisted, able to track the which find it easy to use.
user difficulties.

Contents - Quality and quality. - Attraction of participants.


- Organisation of the contents - Attraction of the external
made available. community.
- Actuality, etc - Better satisfaction of
participant’s needs and
expectancies, traduced
mainly by learning success.

Appendix 2
IT- Next Five Years

Effect / Probability/ Action Grid ( by stakeholder)

Probability

Very likely possible unlikely


negligible g
Fatal
b
Severe
a
Slightly negative
e
Effects c
None d
f
Favourable

Highly beneficial