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Unlike concrete, connections in steel

structures need special design

Bolts, Rivets and Welds are typical connectors

Connections of structural steel members are of critical

importance. An inadequate connection, which can be the

weak link in a structure, has been the cause of numerous

failures.

Failure of structural members is rare; most structural

failures are the result of poorly designed or detailed

connections.

Modern steel structures are connected by welding or

bolting (either high-strength or common bolts) or by

combination of both.

Welding has several advantages over bolting. A welded

connection is often simpler in concept and requires few, if

any, holes. Connection that are extremely complex with

fasteners can become very simple when welds are used.

Old style connectors

Permanent, Need field heating and head

forming

Safety issues

Tension on cooling is not estimated

accurately

Load distribution is not as good as that for

bolts

Welding can be done in the shop and bolting in the field.

Example : in the single-plate beam-to-column connection below,

the plate is shop welded to the column flange and field bolted

to the beam web.

h

Tension member connection

and splice. It subjects the

bolts to forces that tend to

shear the shank.

Beam end simple connection.

It subjects the bolts to forces

that tend to shear the shank.

Hanger connection. The

hanger connection puts the

bolts in tension

Carbon Steel Bolts - Normal strength ( A307)

Similar to ordinary machine bolts

Lower Strength, low load/shear connectors

High Strength Bolts - (A325, A325M, A490, A490M etc.)

Heat treated for greater strength

Higher shear resistance

Can also be used in Friction Connections

Can be used with or without washers

Bolt function

Snug tight bolts (allow slippage)

Pre-tensioned bolts (slip critical)

Both have the same ultimate strength

Snug tight bolts (allow slippage)

Easy to install (till about the first impact using the

pneumatic wrench). No inspection for tension

10-20% of tension strength

Pre-tensioned bolts (slip critical no slip)

Costly to install, need inspection

Repeated loadings, bridges, communication

towers, load reversals, impact, cranes, direct

tension, etc.

Safety against twist-off, all bolts yield

Both have the same ultimate strength

Standard dimensions, thread

lengths, bolt lengths for

different grips

ASTM F959 washers

Washer with

Protrusions (Gap)

Protrusions flatten

as Bolt is tightened

Visually inspected

to ensure that

protrusions are flat

(gap closed)

Tension indicator Washers

The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading.

In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to

shear.

Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.

Simple connection: If the line of action of the force

acting on the connection passes through the center of

gravity of the connection, then each bolt can be

assumed to resist an equal share of the load.

The strength of the simple connection will be equal to

the sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the

connection.

Design Concept : R

n

> Pu

where : R

n

= Factored design strength

Pu = factored load.

We need to examine the various possible failure

modes and calculate the corresponding design

strengths ( R

n

)

Possible failure modes are:

1. Shear failure of the bolts

2. Failure of connected member (failure mode of tension member)

3. Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate (gusset plate)

4. Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole (bearing

failure of bolts)

Shearing stress in the bolt : f

v

= P/A = P/( d

b

2

/4)

Strength of the bolt : P = f

v

x ( d

b

2

/4)

Where :

P = load acting on an individual bolt

A = area of the bolt and d

b

is its diameter

f

v

= shear yield stress = 0.6F

y

Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown

below.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are effective in

resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will have the twice the

shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are

effective in resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will

have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

BOLTS in Shear

Common bolts, also known as unfinished bolts, are designated as ASTM A307,

which differ from high-strength bolts not only in material properties, but also

in that we do not account for the clamping force from the tightening of the bolt.

The nominal shear strength:

b v n

A F R . =

Where

F

v

= ultimate shearing stress

A

b

= cross-sectional area of the unthreaded part of the bolt

The design strength:

) . ( 75 . 0

b v n

A F R =

For ASTM A307, F

v

=24 ksi

Two type of grades:

1. A325

Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy= 566- 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

2. A490

Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness

that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a

large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal

to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection

in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the

connected parts.

The maximum possible value of this force is N F . =

Fastener Nominal Shear Strength

R

n

= F

v

A

b

A325N, threads in plane of shear

A325X, threads not in plane of shear

A490N, threads in plane of shear

A490X, threads not in plane of shear

48A

b

60A

b

60A

b

75A

b

The design shear strength of HTB is: ) . (

b v n

A F R =

where = 0.75

The nominal shear strength of HTB is given by ultimate shearing stress times

the nominal bolt area.

The shear strength of HTB depends on whether the threads are in plane of

shear rather than use a reduced cross-sectional area.

Approximately, the threaded area = 0.75 x unthreaded area.

Hole is slightly larger than

the fastener and the

fastener is loosely placed

in hole

The stress will be highest

at the radial contact point

(A).

The average stress can be

calculated as : the applied

force divided by the

projected area of contact

f

p

= P/ (d

b

t)

where P = force applied to the

fastener.

The bearing stress state can be

complicated at the nearby/edge bolt.

The bolt spacing and edge distance will

have an effect on the bearing stress.

Bearing stress effects are independent

of the bolt type because the bearing

stress acts on the connected plate not

the bolt.

A possible failure mode resulting from

excessive bearing close to the edge of

the connected element is shear tear-

out. It can also occur between two

holes in the direction of the bearing

load.

Bolt bearing effect

Upper limit : to prevent excessive deformation of the hole

R

n

= C x F

u

x bearing area

= C. F

u

.d

b

.t

Where :

C = 3 (If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in)

C = 2.4 (If deformation is a concern < 0.25 in.

= 0.75

THEN :

If deformation is a concern < 0.25 in.

R

n

= 1.2 L

c

t F

u

2.4 d

b

t F

u

If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in

R

n

= 1.5 L

c

t F

u

3.0 d

b

t F

u

L

c

= the clear distance in the load direction, from the edge of the bolt hole

to the edge of the adjacent hole or to the edge of the material

F

u

= specified tensile strength of the connected material

t = thickness of connected material

The upper limit will become effective

when 1.2 L

c

t F

u

= 2.4 d

b

t F

u

then L

c

= 2 d

b

If L

c

< 2 d

b

, R

n

= 1.2 L

c

t F

u

If L

c

> 2 d

b

, R

n

= 1.4 d

b

t F

u

In a simple connection,

all bolts share the load

equally.

The shear strength of all

bolts = shear strength of

one bolt x number of

bolts

The bolts are subjected to

shear and the connecting

/ connected plates are

subjected to bearing

stresses.

The bearing resistance

shall be taken as the sum

of the bearing resistances

of the individual bolts.

T

T

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

T

T

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bearing stresses in plate

T

T

T

T

AISC AISC Specification SNI

The minimum spacing (s) 2 2/3 d

b

or 3d

b

is preferred 3 x diameter baut

The maximum spacing 24 times thickness of connected

part but not more than 12

15 tp atau 200mm

The minimum edge

distance (L

e

)

See AISC Table J 3.4 1.5 x dimeter baut

The maximum edge

distance (L

e

)

12 times the thickness of the

connected part (but not more

than 6 in.).

4 tp +100 atau

200mm

tp = tebal pelat baja tertipis antara connected part

AISC Specification

Spasi minimum (s) 3 * d

b

Spasi maksimum 24 times the thickness of the thinner

part (but not more than 12 in.).

The minimum edge distance (L

e

) See AISC Table J 3.4

The maximum edge distance (L

e

) 12 times the thickness of the

connected part (but not more than 6

in.).

Le

Le s

s

(a)

(b)

Bolt

Diameter

Hole Dimensions

Standard

(Dia.)

Oversize

(Dia.)

Short-slot

(Width x Length)

Long-slot

(Width x Length)

5/8

7/8

1

1 1/8

9/16

11/16

13/16

15/16

1 1/16

d+1/16

5/8

13/16

15/16

1 1/16

1

d+5/16

9/16 x 11/16

11/16 x 7/8

13/16 x 1

15/16 x 1 1/8

1 1/16 x 1 5/16

(d+1/16)x(d+3/8)

9/16 x 1

11/16 x 1 9/16

13/16 x 1 7/8

15/16 x 2 3/16

1 1/16 x 2

(d+1/16)x(2.5xd)

Nominal Rivet or Bolt

Diameter (in)

At Sheared Edges

At Rolled of Plates, Shapes or

Bars, or Gas Cut Edges [c]

5/8

7/8

1

1 1/8

1 1/4

Over 1 1/4

7/8

1 1/8

1 1/4

1 1/2 [d]

1 3/4 [d]

2

2 1/4

1 3/4 x Diameter

7/8

1

1 1/8

1 1/4

1 1/2

1 5/8

1 1/4 x Diameter

[a] Lesser edge distance are permitted to be used provided Equation from J3.10, as

appropriate, are satisfied.

[b] For oversized or slotted holes, see Table J3.8.

[c] All edge distance in this column are permitted to be reduced 1/8-in. when the

holes at a point where stress does not exceed 25 percent of the maximum design

strength in the element.

[d] These are permitted to be 11/4-in. at the ends of beam connection angles and

shear end plates.

I. The design shear strength of bolt in shear :

Rn= F

n

A

b

= 0.75 x 48 x x 0.75

2

/4 = 15.9 kips per bolt

Shear strength of connection = 4 x 15.9 = 63.6 kips

II. Check bolts spacing :

minimum edge distance = 1 in. for rolled edges of plates (see Table J.3.4)

edge distances (1.25 in.) > 1 in OK

min.spacing = 2.67 d

b

= 2.67 x 0.75 = 2.0 in.

preferred spacing = 3.0 d

b

= 3.0 x 0.75 = 2.25 in.

given spacing (2.5 in.) > 2.25 in. OK

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1/2

3/4

60 k

A325N

I I I . Bearing strength at bolt holes (plate 1/2in thickness)

edges : L

c

= 1.25 d

h

/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.

R

n

= 0.75 (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.5 x 58) = 22.02 kips

upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.5 x 58)= 39.15 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L

c

= 2.5 d

h

= 1.688 in.

R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.5 x 58) = 44.05 kips

Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 39.15 kips.

Bearing strength at holes = 2 x 22.02 + 2 x 39.15

= 122.34 kips

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1/2

3/4

60 k

hole diameter

d

h

= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

A36 : F

u

= 58 ksi

IV. Bearing strength at Gusset Plates (3/8 in)

edges : L

c

= 1.25 d

h

/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.

R

n

= 0.75 (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.375 x 58) = 16.52 kips

upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.375 x 58)= 29.36 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L

c

= 2.5 d

h

= 1.688 in.

R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.375 x 58) = 33.04 kips

Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 29.36 kips.

Bearing strength at gusset = 2 x 16.52 + 2 x 29.36 = 91.76 kips

Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller = 91.76 kips

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

_ in. bolts

1/2

3/4

60 k

hole diameter

d

h

= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

A36 : F

u

= 58 ksi

Connection Strength

Shear strength = 63.3 kips

Bearing strength (plate) = 122.34 kips

Bearing strength (gusset) = 91.76 kips

Rn = 63.3 kips > 60 kips (factored load)

Connection strength (Rn) > applied factored loads (Pu). OK.

Step I . Select 2L 3 x 2 x 3/8 with P

n

= 112 kips (yielding) and 113 kips

(fracture)

Step I I . Select size and number of bolts

The bolts are in double shear for this design (may not be so for other designs)

Use four 3/4 in. A325 bolts in double shear ; R

n

= 31.8 x 4 =127 kips

Step I I I . Design edge distance and bolt spacing

Le min = 1 in. for 3/4 in. diameter bolts in rolled edges.

Select Le = 1.25 in.

Minimum spacing = 2.67 d

b

= 2.0 in.

Preferred spacing = 3.0 d

b

= 2.25 in.

Select spacing = 3.0 in., (greater than preferred or minimum spacing)

Step I V. Check the bearing strength at bolt holes in angles

Angle thickness = 3/8 in.

BS at the edge holes (L

e

= 1.25 in.)

R

n

= 44.0 x 3/8 = 16.5 k

BS at non-edge holes (s = 3 in.) = R

n

= 78.3 x 3/8 = 29.4 k

Bearing strength at bolt holes in each angle = 16.5 + 3 x 29.4 = 104.7 kips

Bearing strength of double angles = 2 x 104.7 kips = 209.4 kips

Step V. Check the fracture and block shear strength of the tension member

Step VI . Design the gusset plate

The plates must be designed for the limit states of yielding and rupture

Limit state of yielding

R

n

= 0.9 A

g

F

y

> 100 kips - A

g

= L x t > 3.09 in

2

Assume t = in - L > 6.18 in.

Design gusset plate = 6.5 x in.

Limit state for fracture

A

n

= A

g

(d

b

+1/8) x t

A

n

= 6.5 x 0.5 (3/4 + 1/8) x 0.5 = 2.81 in

2

But, A

n

0.85 A

g

= 0.85 x 3.25 = 2.76 in

2

R

n

= 0.75 x A

n

x F

u

= 0.75 x 2.76 x 58 = 120 kips

Design gusset plate = 6.5 x 0.5 in.

Step VI I . Bearing strength at bolt holes in gusset plates

Assume L

e

= 1.25 in. (same as double angles)

Plate thickness = 1/2 in.

BS at the edge holes = R

n

= 44.0 x 1/2 = 22.0 k

BS at non-edge holes = R

n

= 78.3 x 1/2 = 39.15 k

BS at bolt holes in gusset plate = 22.0 + 3 x 39.15 = 139.5 kips

Summary of Member and Connection Strength

Connection Member Gusset Plate

Shear strength = 127 kips Yielding = 113 kips Yielding = 105.3 kips

BS = 209.4 kips (angles) Fracture = ? Fracture = 120 kips

BS = 139.5 (gusset) Block Shear = ?

Overall Strength is the smallest = 105.3 kips

Gusset plate yielding controls

Nominal Strength > Factored Load (100 kips).

Design is acceptable

The classification of a connection with high-strength bolts:

1. Slip-critical connections: no slippage is permitted

2. Bearing type connections: slip is acceptable

Theoretically, SCC are not subject the shear and bearing, but they must

have sufficient shear and bearing strength in the event of an overload that

may cause slip to occur.

To prevent slip, the service load shear on the fastener, must not exceed:

) . (

b v n

A F R =

where = 1.0 for standard, oversized, short-slotted, and long-slotted holes

the long slot is perpendicular to the line of force

= 0.85 for long-slotted holes the long slot is parallel to the line of

force

Fv = nominal slip critical shear resistance, ksi

Type of Bolt

Nominal Resistance to Shear, Fv

Standard Size

Holes

Oversized and

Short-slotted Holes

Long-slotted

Holes

A325

A490

17

21

15

18

12

15

(a) For each shear plane

(b) Based on Class A (slip coefficient 0.33)

(c) When the loading combination includes wind loads in addition to dead

and live load, the total shear on the bolt due to combined load effects, at

service load, may be multiplied by 0.75.

High strength (A325 and A490) bolts can be installed with such a

degree of tightness that they are subject to large tensile forces.

These large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates

together. The shear force applied to such a tightened connection

will be resisted by friction as shown in the Figure below.

There are currently four authorized procedure for installation of

high-strength bolts:

1. The turn-of-the-nut method

2. Calibrated wrench tightening

3. Alternate design bolts

4. Direct tension indicator

Slip-critical bolted connections can be designed to resist the applied

shear forces using friction.

If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops

between the two surfaces, then no slip will occur between them.

Slip will occur when the friction force is less than the applied shear

force. After slip occurs, the connection will behave similar to the

bearing-type bolted connections designed earlier.

Table J 3.1 summarizes the minimum bolt tension that must be

applied to develop a slip-critical connection.

High strength bolts in slip-critical connections can be designed to

prevent slip either as a serviceability limit state or at the required

strength limit state.

However, the connection must also be checked for shear strength

and bearing strength.

A325

Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy= 566- 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

2. A490

Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness

that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a

large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal

to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection

in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the

connected parts.

The maximum possible value of this force is N F . =

Where :

= coefficient of static friction between connected parts,

N = the normal compressive force acting on the inner surfaces.

: depend on the surface condition of the steel: Painted or Rusted

(a) For Class A surface (unpainted clean mill scale steel surface or

surface with Class A coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.33

(b) For Class B (unpainted blast-cleaned steel surface or surface

with Class B coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.50

(c) For Class C surface (hot-dip galvanized and roughened surface),

= 0.40

Thus, each bolt in the connection is capable of resisting a load of P=F, even if

the bolt shank does not bear on the connected part. As long as this frictional

force does not exceeded, there is no bearing or shear. If P is greater than F and

slippage occurs, shear and bearing will then exist and will affect the capacity of

the connection.

=mean slip coefficient

Slip resistance = R

n

= m * D

u

* h

sc

* T

b

* N

s

where,

= 1.0 for connections at serviceability limit

= 0.85 for connections at the required strength level.

m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces

= 0.35 for Class A surfaces (unpainted clean mill scale)

= 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces

D

u

= 1.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension

to the specified minimum bolt pretension.

h

sc

= hole factor

= 1.00 for STD, 0.85 for OVS and SSLT, 0.70 for LSLT)

T

b

= minimum bolt tension given in Table J3.1

N

s

= number of slip planes

Bolt Size, in. A325 Bolts A490 Bolts

12 15

5/8 19 24

28 35

7/8 39 49

1 51 64

1 1/8 56 80

1 1/4 71 102

1 3/8 85 121

1 1/2 103 148

*Equal to 0.70 of minimum tensile strength of bolts, rounded off to

nearest kip, as specified in ASTM specifications for A325 and A490 bolts

with UNC threads.

Splice plate

Splice plate

W8 x 28

W8 x 28

Splice plate

Splice plate

W8 x 28

W8 x 28

Step I. Service loads = D + L = 200 kips.

Step II. Slip-critical splice connection, assume class A surface, Standard holes (STD)

R

n

of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = 0.35x1.13x 1 x T

b

N

s

If d

b

= 7/8 in. From Table J.3.1 -- Tb=39kips

R

n

of one bolt = 1.0 x 0.35 x 1.13 x 1.00 x 39 x 1 = 15.4 kips

R

n

of n bolts = 15.4 x n > 200 kips (splice must be slip-critical at service)

Therefore, n > 13

Choose 16 fully tensioned 7/8 in. A325 bolts on each side of the splice

Step III. Layout of splice connection

Minimum edge distance (L

e

) = 1-1/8in. from Table J 3.4

Design edge distance L

e

= 1.25 in.

Minimum spacing = s = 2-2/3 d

b

= 2.67 x 7/8 = 2.336 in. (Spec. J 3.3)

Preferred spacing = s = 3.0 d

b

= 3.0 x 7/8 = 2.625 in. (Spec. J 3.3)

Design spacing = 3 inch

Step IV. Connection strength at factored loads =300kips

The splice connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection

Beam flange thickness : t

f

= 0.465 in and flange width b

f

= 6.535 in.

The shear strength of bolts = (0.75x48xA

b

) /bolt x 16 = 345.6 kips

Bearing strength at edge holes (L

e

= 1.25 in.) = 40.8 kips/in. thickness

Bearing strength at non-edge holes (s = 3.0) = 91.4 kips/in. thickness

Bearing strength = 4 x 40.8 x 0.465 +12 x 91.3 x 0.465 = 673 kips

3 3 3 1.25

C.L.

Step V. Design the splice plate

Tension yielding: 0.9 A

g

F

y

> 300 kips; A

g

> 6.66 in

2

Tension fracture: 0.75 A

n

F

u

> 300 kips

A

n

=A

g

- 4 x (7/8 +1/8) x t > 6.15 in.

Beam flange width = 6.535 in.

Assume 6.5 in. wide splice plates with thickness = 0.75 in.

The strength of the splice plate

Yielding = 438.75 kips

Fracture = 329 kips

Check Block shear (Homework)

Step VI. Check member strength (yield, fracture and block shear)

Kekuatan Geser :

Rn = 0.75 * m * r

t

* Fu * A

b

dimana :

m = jumlah bidang geser

Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) dari baut

(Lihat tabel tipe-tipe baut)

rt = 0.5 untuk baut tanpa ulir pada bidang geser

= 0.4 untuk baut dengan ulir pada bidang geser

Ab = luas area baut

Kekuatan Tumpu

Untuk Le > 1.5 d

b

dan s > 3d

b

Rn = 0.75 * 2.4 * db * t * Fu

Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) terkecil antara baut dan pelat

Untuk baut dengan ukuran lobang besar :

Rn = 0.75 * 2 * db * t * Fu

TIPE-TIPE BAUT

Gaya yang dibutuhkan

untuk mengencangkan

baut

Tipe Baut

Diameter Baut

(mm)

Clamping Forces/

Proof Stress (Mpa)

Tegangan Leleh

(Mpa) (Fy)

Kuat Tarik Min

(Fu) (MPa)

Material

A307 6.35 - 10.4 - NA 60 Kadar karbon rendah

A325 12.7 - 25.4 585 560 - 630 825 Baja kartbon

A490 12.7 - 38.1 825 790 - 900 1035 Baja Alloy

Gusset t=12mm

D22 A308

50 40

3 @ 70mm

2L 120x120x8

Dua profil siku L120.120.8 disambung dengan 4 baut berdiameter 22mm

(7/8 in) jenis A308 (Fv=168Mpa).

a. Cek apakah lay-out sambungan tersebut memenuhi persyaratan jarak

yang diatur AISC

b. Hitung kekuatan sambungan

c. Jika baut ditukar dengan type A490N (Fv=420Mpa); hitung persentase

peningkatan kekuatan GESER sambungan.

Tampak Atas

WF250x125

Pelat penyambung 6mm

Tampak Samping

Potongan

125

125

250

Disainlah sambungan pada sayap (flange)

profil WF250x125 (t

f

=9mm dan t

w

=6mm)

pada kondisi service, jika gaya dalam akibat

beban mati adalah 100kN, beban hidup

70kN dan beban angin 50kN, dengan

menggunakan baut berdiameter 16mm

(5/8in) A325N dimana slip tidak diijinkan

terjadi. Sket hasil disain dalam gambar kerja

yang lengkap (tampak samping, tampak

atas dan potongan)!

Structural welding is a process wherein

the parts to be connected are heated

and fused together, with supplementary

molten metal added to the joint

(a) (b)

(SMAW) is usually done

manually and is the process

universally used for field

welds.

For shop welding, an

automatic or semi automatic

process is usually used.

Foremost among these is the

submerged arc welding

(SAW), gas shielded metal

arc, flux cored arc, and

electro-slag welding

(1) Fillet weld, which are defined as those placed in a corner formed by two

parts in contact. Example a lap joint & a tee joint.

(2) Groove weld, are those deposited in a gap, or groove, between two parts

to be connected. They are most frequently used for butt, tee, and corner

joints. In most cases, one or both of the connected parts will have beveled

edges, called prepared edges, although relatively thin materials can be

groove welded with no edge preparation.

Type: Complete penetration groove welds

Partial penetration groove welds.

(3) Plug or slot weld

Fillet welds are most common and used in all structures.

Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments

A fillet weld can be loaded in any direction in shear, compression, or

tension. However, it always fails in shear.

Assumption the cross section (A) =

Effective throat thickness 0.707 a x length L

The shear failure of

the fillet weld occurs

along a plane

through the throat of

the weld

a

a

Throat =a x cos45

o

=0.707 a

a

a

Throat =a x cos45

o

=0.707 a

Critical Shear Strength:

The nominal load capacity:

The nominal Design Strength:

where Fw= the weld ultimate shear strength

= 0.75

w

L a

P

fv

707 . 0

=

w w n

L a f R = 707 . 0

w w

L a f = 707 . 0 75 . 0 R

n

Fw depends on the weld metal used that is, it is a function of the type

electrode.

Ultimate tensile strength of Electrode: 60, 70, 80, 90, and 110ksi.

E60XX / E60 = an electrode with an ultimate tensile strength of 60 ksi.

This is the standard terminology for weld electrodes

Electrodes should be selected to match the base metal:

E70xx electrodes : for steels with Fy < 60 - 65 ksi

E80xx electrodes : for steels with Fy > 60 - 65 ksi.

E70XX is the most popular electrode used for fillet welds made by the SMAW

method.

Fw in a fillet weld = 0.60 times the tensile strength of the weld metal,

denoted by F

EXX

.

The design stress: Fw = 0.60 F

EXX

---- = 0.75.

E70XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (70)] = 31.5 ksi

E80XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (80)] = 36 ksi

Fillet weld strength that account for load direction :

Fw = 0.6F

Exx

(1.0 + 0.50 sin

1.5

)

Fw = 0.6 F

Exx

is valid only if = 0

For weld with load perpendicular ( = 90

o

), the

strength is 50% higher

axis of weld

AISC J2.4c specifies that the larger nominal strength from

the following two options :

1. Use the basic strength for both : R

n

= R

wl

+ R

wt

R

wl

= R

wt

= 0.6 F

Exx

2. Use the 50% higher of transverse welds but reduce

the basic strength of longitudinal welds

R

n

= R

wl

+ R

wt

R

n

= 0.85 (0.6 F

Exx

) + 1.5 (0.6 F

Exx

)

The design shear strength of base metal:

shear to subject metal base of area x F Rn

BM

=

Ag F Rn

BM

=

where

= 0.90

F

BM

= Fv=0.60 Fy

Ag = the area subject to shear

AI SC specification J 4.2

Base metal area can fail by shear yielding or rupture. The smaller of the

two strengths will govern.

Shear yielding;

R

n

= 1.0 x 0.6 F

y

x gross area of base metal subjected to shear

Shear rupture;

R

n

= 0.75 x 0.6 F

u

x net area of base metal subjected to shear

where, F

y

and F

u

are the yield and tensile strength of the base metal.

Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal

=0.75 x 0.707 x a x L

w

x f

w

=min {1.0 x 0.6 x F

y

x t x L

w

0.75 x 0.6 x F

u

x t x L

w

}

Smaller governs the strength of the weld

Example :

1. Always check weld metal and base metal strength. Smaller value

governs. In most cases, the weld metal strength will govern.

2. In weld design problems, it is advantageous to work with strength

per unit length of the weld or base metal.

t

Example:

The design strength of weld per inch of length:

W n

F xsizex R 707 . 0 =

The capacity of the bracket plate in shear per inch of length:

t F Rn

BM

=

a. Berdasarkan Kekuatan Las

b. Berdasarkan Kekuatan bahan Dasar / Base Metal

(Pelat yang disambung)

W n

F ax x R 707 75 . 0 =

Fu ax x R

n

6 . 0 707 75 . 0 =

Minimum Size of Fillet Welds a

min

:

Material Thickness of Thicker

Part J oined (in.)

Minimum Size of Fillet

Welds[a] (in.)

To inclusive

Over to

Over to

Over 3/4

1/8

3/16

5/16

[a] Leg dimension of fillet welds. Single pass welds must be used.

[b] See Section J 2.2b for maximum size of fillet welds.

Tebal las minimum (t, mm)

paling tebal

Ukuran las sudut minimum

(a min)

t < 7 3

7 < t < 10 4

10 < t < 15 5

15 < t 6

SNI Baja

Maximum Size of fillet welds a

max

:

- function of the thickness of the thickest connected plate:

- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a

max-

= t or 0.25 in. (the smallest).

- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a

max

= t - 1/16 in.

Minimum Length of fillet welds L

w

- L

w

4 a otherwise a

eff

= L

w

/ 4

- Intermittent fillet welds: L

w-min

= 4 a and 1.5 in.

End Returns:

When a weld extends to the corner of a member, it must be continued around

the corner to avoid stress concentration.

Length of end returns > two times the weld size. = 2a

The maximum size than can be made with a single pass of

electrode is approximately 5/ 16 inch, and multiple passes

will add to the cost.

Pelat dengan tebal < 6.4 mm

a maks diambil sama dengan tebal connected parts (t)

Pelat > 6.4mm; amks = t 1.6mm

1/4

6

1/4

6

6

1/4

1/4

6

6

1/4

6

1/4

6

E70

Near side (arrowside)

Other side

Bothside

Weldall arround

Reference Fieldweld

Step I. Check the limitations

t

min

= 3/8 in. (member)

t

max

= 0.5 in. (gusset)

Then, a

min

= 3/16 in.

a

max

= 3/8 - 1/16 = 5/16in.

weld size = a = 1/4 in. OK!

L

w-min

= 1.0 in.

Given length = 5.0 in. > L

min

.

OK!

End returns :

Min size = 2 a = 0.5 in. OK!

Step II. Design strength of the weld

Weld strength = f x 0.707 x a x 0.60 x F

EXX

x L

w

= 0.75 x 0.707 x 0.25 x 0.60 x 70 x 10 = 55.67 kips

Step I I . Design strength of the weld

Base Metal strength = min { x 0.6 x F

y

x L

w

x t ; x 0.6 x F

u

x L

w

x t}

= min {1.0 x 0.6 x 50 x 10 x 3/8 ; 0.75 x 0.6 x 65 x 10 x 3/8}

= min {112.5 ; 109.7 kips}

= 109.7 kips

Step I I I . Tension strength of the member

R

n

= 0.9 x 50 x 4 x 3/8 = 67.5 kips - tension yield

R

n

= 0.75 x A

e

x 65 - tension fracture

A

e

= U A

A = A

g

= 4 x 3/8 = 1.5 in

2

U = 0.75 , since connection length (L

conn

) < 1.5 w

Therefore, R

n

= 54.8 kips

The design strength of the member-connection system = 54.8 kips.

Tension fracture of the member governs.

The end returns at the corners were not included in the calculations.

Step I. Assume material properties :

Fy= 36ksi for member & gusset plates and E70XX electrode for the fillet welds.

Step II. Design the tension member

Select 2L 5 x 3 x 1/2 made from 36 ksi steel.

Yield strength = 260 kips Fracture strength = 261 kips.

Step III. Design the welded connection

a

min

= 3/16 in. a

max

= 1/2 - 1/16 in. = 7/16 in.

Design, a = 3/8 in. = 0.375 in.

Shear strength of weld metal = R

n

= 0.75 x 0.60 x F

EXX

x 0.707 x a x L

w

= 8.35 L

w

kips

Strength of the base metal in shear =

min {1.0 x 0.6 x F

y

x t x L

w

; 0.75 x 0.6 x F

u

x t x L

w

}

min { 10.8 L

w

; 14.62 L

w

} kips

Shear strength of weld metal governs, R

n

= 8.35 L

w

kips

R

n

> 250 kips 8.35 L

w

> 250 kips

L

w

> 29.94 in.

use Lw = 30.0 in.

L

w

= 30 in. for two angles

Assume L

w

for each = 15.0 in.

E70XX fillet weld can be placed in

three ways (a), (b), and (c).

AISC Spec. requires that the fillet weld

terminate at a distance greater than the

size (1/2 in.) of the weld. For this option,

L

1

will be equal to 7.5 in.

The fillet weld can be returned

continuously around the corner for a

distance of at least 2 a (1 in.).

L

2

can be either 6.5 in. or 7.5 in.

However, the value of 7.5 in. is

preferred.

L

3

will be equal to 5.75 in.

Step V. Fracture strength of the member

A

e

= U A

g

U = 1- x/L Asssume case a ------ U = 1-0.901/7.5 = 0.88 0.9

R

n

= 0.75 x 0.88 x 8.00 x 58 = 306.24 kips > 250 kips OK

Step VI . Design the gusset plate R

n

> T

u

Tension yielding limit state

0.9 x A

g

x 36 > 250 kips A

g

> 7.71 in

2

Tension fracture limit state

0.75 x A

n

x F

u

> 250 kips

AISC specification A

n

0.85 A

g

A

n

> 5.747 in

2

A

g

> 6.76 in

2

Design gusset plate :

thickness = 1.0 in.

width = 8.0 in.

1/2

7.5 in.

(a)

1/2 7.5 in.

1/2

7.5 in.

1/2 7.5 in.

Gusset plate 8 x in.

Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in

1/2

7.5 in.

(a)

1/2 7.5 in.

1/2

7.5 in.

1/2 7.5 in.

Gusset plate 8 x in.

Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in

E70

120.120.8

7 120

E70

7 75

E70

7 225

gusset 9mm

Hitung beban maksimum yang

mampu ditahan sambungan las.

100

100

32.4

32.4

D=80kN

L=140kN

Akibat pembebanan yang

ada, disainlah sambungan

antara profil siku 100x100x8

dengan gusset plate setebal

3/8inc (9.5mm)

menggunakan tebal las

minimum yang disyaratkan

dan mempertimbangkan

efek eksentrisitas.

Sambungan hanya pada 2

sisi saja (arah longitudinal).

Sket hasil disain dalam

gambar kerja yang lengkap!

Unbalanced Condition

1. Ukuran las yang sama

pada sisi atas dan

bawah,

mengakibatkan

terjadinya

ketidaksetimbangan

pada gaya-gaya

2. Seolah-olah

sambungan bersifat

eccentric

Disain Sambungan Las pada Profil yang unsymetri

(profil siku)

Dengan menerapkan konsep kesetimbangan,

1. maka : P1 P2

2. Akan diperoleh panjang las yang berbeda antara sisi

atas dan sisi bawah L1 L2

Combined Shear and Tension

in Fasteners

The vertical component of the load will

put the fasteners in shear, the horizontal

component will cause tension (with the

possible inclusion of prying force).

Since the line of action of the load acts

through the center of gravity of the

connection, each fastener can assumed to

take an equal share of each component.

where :

ft = required tensile strength (stress)

Ft = available tensile strength (stress)

fv = required shear strength (stress)

Fv = available shear strength (stress)

Elliptical interaction

Approximate : 3 straight line

t

v

v

t t

F

F

f

F f = 3 . 1

Required tensile strength f

t

for a given f

v

Nominal strength = available strength /

If f

t

is viewed as available tensile strength in presence strength,

nominal strength is :

nt v

v

t

t

nt

t

F f

F

F F

F

f

= =

3 . 1 '

where :

F

nt

= Nominal tensile stress in the presence of shear

F

nt

= Nominal tensile stress in the absence of shear

F

nv

= Nominal shear stress in the absence of tension

f

v

= required shear stress

= 0.75

Nominal Tensile strength :

b nt

A F Rn ' =

Description of

Fasteners

Threads Included in

the Shear Plane

Threads Excluded

from the Shear Plane

A307 bolts Ft =59-1.9fv 45

A325 bolts Ft =117-1.9fv 90 Ft =117-1.5fv 90

A490 bolts Ft =147-1.9fv 113

Ft =147-1.5fv 113

Threaded parts A449 bolt

over 1 diameter

Ft =0.98Fu-1.9fv

0.75Fu

Ft =0.98Fu-1.5fv

0.75Fu

A502 Gr.1 rivets Ft =59-1.8fv 45

A502 Gr.2 rivets Ft =78-1.8fv 60

a. Bolt in Shear

Check bearing strength and shear strength of one bolt

Compare with ultimate shear strength of one bolt

b. Bolt in Tensile

Check Tensile force for one bolt Tu/n

c. Check available tensile strength

Where :

F

nt

= Nominal tensile stress in absence of shear

(90ksi for A325, 113 ksi for A490)

F

nv

= Nominal shear stress in absence of tension (dari mutu baut)

f

v

= V

u

bolt/ A

b

d. Calculate nominal tensile force (0.75F

nt

x A

b

) and compared it with available

tensile (point b)

nt v

nv

nt

nt nt

F f

F

F

F F =

3 . 1 '

Design strength of bolt in slip critical connection should be reduced by a factor

ks :

b b u

u

s

N T D

T

k =1

where

Tu = total factired tensile load on the connection

Du = ratio of mean bolt pretension (1.13 is default)

Tb = initial bolt tension from AISC

Nb = Number of bolt in the connection

Slip resistance = R

n

= m D

u

h

sc

T

b

N

s

where,

= 1.0 for connections at serviceability limit

= 0.85 for connections at the required strength level.

m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces

= 0.35 for Class A surfaces (upainted clean mill scale)

= 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces

D

u

= 1.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension

to the specified minimum bolt pretension.

h

sc

= hole factor

= 1.00 for STD, 0.85 for OVS and SSLT, 0.70 for LSLT)

T

b

= minimum bolt tension given in Table J3.1

N

s

= number of slip planes

Due to shear and tension : Slip resistance = R

n

x k

s

EXAMPLE

1. Check the adequacy of one bolt due to shear force R

n

> V

u

bolt

2. Check the adequacy of one bolt due to tensile stress force R

n

> T

u

bolt

Adequate for bearing

connection

Sambungan Baut : 7.4.4 ; 7.4.6 ;

Sambungan Las : 7.11.2; 7.11.4

Many pictures in this file are taken from

various sources such as AISC, SNI Baja

Indonesia & William T Segui Book.

This file is for teaching purposes only.

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