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Team Teaching

Structural Design FTUI 2013


Unlike concrete, connections in steel
structures need special design
Bolts, Rivets and Welds are typical connectors


Connections of structural steel members are of critical
importance. An inadequate connection, which can be the
weak link in a structure, has been the cause of numerous
failures.
Failure of structural members is rare; most structural
failures are the result of poorly designed or detailed
connections.
Modern steel structures are connected by welding or
bolting (either high-strength or common bolts) or by
combination of both.
Welding has several advantages over bolting. A welded
connection is often simpler in concept and requires few, if
any, holes. Connection that are extremely complex with
fasteners can become very simple when welds are used.
Old style connectors
Permanent, Need field heating and head
forming
Safety issues
Tension on cooling is not estimated
accurately
Load distribution is not as good as that for
bolts
Welding can be done in the shop and bolting in the field.
Example : in the single-plate beam-to-column connection below,
the plate is shop welded to the column flange and field bolted
to the beam web.
h
Tension member connection
and splice. It subjects the
bolts to forces that tend to
shear the shank.

Beam end simple connection.
It subjects the bolts to forces
that tend to shear the shank.

Hanger connection. The
hanger connection puts the
bolts in tension
Carbon Steel Bolts - Normal strength ( A307)
Similar to ordinary machine bolts
Lower Strength, low load/shear connectors

High Strength Bolts - (A325, A325M, A490, A490M etc.)
Heat treated for greater strength
Higher shear resistance
Can also be used in Friction Connections
Can be used with or without washers

Bolt function
Snug tight bolts (allow slippage)
Pre-tensioned bolts (slip critical)
Both have the same ultimate strength

Snug tight bolts (allow slippage)
Easy to install (till about the first impact using the
pneumatic wrench). No inspection for tension
10-20% of tension strength
Pre-tensioned bolts (slip critical no slip)
Costly to install, need inspection
Repeated loadings, bridges, communication
towers, load reversals, impact, cranes, direct
tension, etc.
Safety against twist-off, all bolts yield
Both have the same ultimate strength
Standard dimensions, thread
lengths, bolt lengths for
different grips
ASTM F959 washers
Washer with
Protrusions (Gap)

Protrusions flatten
as Bolt is tightened

Visually inspected
to ensure that
protrusions are flat
(gap closed)
Tension indicator Washers
The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading.
In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to
shear.
Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.

Simple connection: If the line of action of the force
acting on the connection passes through the center of
gravity of the connection, then each bolt can be
assumed to resist an equal share of the load.
The strength of the simple connection will be equal to
the sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the
connection.

Design Concept : R
n
> Pu
where : R
n
= Factored design strength
Pu = factored load.

We need to examine the various possible failure
modes and calculate the corresponding design
strengths ( R
n
)

Possible failure modes are:
1. Shear failure of the bolts
2. Failure of connected member (failure mode of tension member)
3. Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate (gusset plate)
4. Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole (bearing
failure of bolts)

Shearing stress in the bolt : f
v
= P/A = P/( d
b
2
/4)

Strength of the bolt : P = f
v
x ( d
b
2
/4)

Where :
P = load acting on an individual bolt
A = area of the bolt and d
b
is its diameter
f
v
= shear yield stress = 0.6F
y


Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown
below.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are effective in
resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will have the twice the
shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are
effective in resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will
have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

BOLTS in Shear
Common bolts, also known as unfinished bolts, are designated as ASTM A307,
which differ from high-strength bolts not only in material properties, but also
in that we do not account for the clamping force from the tightening of the bolt.

The nominal shear strength:
b v n
A F R . =
Where
F
v
= ultimate shearing stress
A
b
= cross-sectional area of the unthreaded part of the bolt

The design strength:
) . ( 75 . 0
b v n
A F R =
For ASTM A307, F
v
=24 ksi
Two type of grades:
1. A325
Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy= 566- 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.
2. A490
Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.
In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness
that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a
large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal
to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection
in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the
connected parts.
The maximum possible value of this force is N F . =

Fastener Nominal Shear Strength
R
n
= F
v
A
b


A325N, threads in plane of shear
A325X, threads not in plane of shear
A490N, threads in plane of shear
A490X, threads not in plane of shear
48A
b
60A
b
60A
b
75A
b


The design shear strength of HTB is: ) . (
b v n
A F R =
where = 0.75
The nominal shear strength of HTB is given by ultimate shearing stress times
the nominal bolt area.
The shear strength of HTB depends on whether the threads are in plane of
shear rather than use a reduced cross-sectional area.
Approximately, the threaded area = 0.75 x unthreaded area.
Hole is slightly larger than
the fastener and the
fastener is loosely placed
in hole
The stress will be highest
at the radial contact point
(A).

The average stress can be
calculated as : the applied
force divided by the
projected area of contact
f
p
= P/ (d
b
t)

where P = force applied to the
fastener.


The bearing stress state can be
complicated at the nearby/edge bolt.
The bolt spacing and edge distance will
have an effect on the bearing stress.
Bearing stress effects are independent
of the bolt type because the bearing
stress acts on the connected plate not
the bolt.
A possible failure mode resulting from
excessive bearing close to the edge of
the connected element is shear tear-
out. It can also occur between two
holes in the direction of the bearing
load.

Bolt bearing effect
Upper limit : to prevent excessive deformation of the hole
R
n
= C x F
u
x bearing area
= C. F
u
.d
b
.t
Where :
C = 3 (If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in)
C = 2.4 (If deformation is a concern < 0.25 in.
= 0.75
THEN :
If deformation is a concern < 0.25 in.
R
n
= 1.2 L
c
t F
u
2.4 d
b
t F
u


If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in
R
n
= 1.5 L
c
t F
u
3.0 d
b
t F
u


L
c
= the clear distance in the load direction, from the edge of the bolt hole
to the edge of the adjacent hole or to the edge of the material
F
u
= specified tensile strength of the connected material
t = thickness of connected material



The upper limit will become effective
when 1.2 L
c
t F
u
= 2.4 d
b
t F
u

then L
c
= 2 d
b


If L
c
< 2 d
b
, R
n
= 1.2 L
c
t F
u

If L
c
> 2 d
b
, R
n
= 1.4 d
b
t F
u

In a simple connection,
all bolts share the load
equally.

The shear strength of all
bolts = shear strength of
one bolt x number of
bolts

The bolts are subjected to
shear and the connecting
/ connected plates are
subjected to bearing
stresses.

The bearing resistance
shall be taken as the sum
of the bearing resistances
of the individual bolts.


T
T
T/n T/n
T/n T/n
T/n T/n
T
T
T/n T/n
T/n T/n
T/n T/n
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
Bolt in shear
Bearing stresses in plate
Bearing stresses in plate
T
T
T
T
AISC AISC Specification SNI
The minimum spacing (s) 2 2/3 d
b
or 3d
b
is preferred 3 x diameter baut
The maximum spacing 24 times thickness of connected
part but not more than 12
15 tp atau 200mm
The minimum edge
distance (L
e
)
See AISC Table J 3.4 1.5 x dimeter baut
The maximum edge
distance (L
e
)
12 times the thickness of the
connected part (but not more
than 6 in.).
4 tp +100 atau
200mm
tp = tebal pelat baja tertipis antara connected part
AISC Specification
Spasi minimum (s) 3 * d
b

Spasi maksimum 24 times the thickness of the thinner
part (but not more than 12 in.).
The minimum edge distance (L
e
) See AISC Table J 3.4
The maximum edge distance (L
e
) 12 times the thickness of the
connected part (but not more than 6
in.).
Le
Le s
s
(a)
(b)

Bolt
Diameter
Hole Dimensions
Standard
(Dia.)
Oversize
(Dia.)
Short-slot
(Width x Length)
Long-slot
(Width x Length)

5/8

7/8
1
1 1/8
9/16
11/16
13/16
15/16
1 1/16
d+1/16
5/8
13/16
15/16
1 1/16
1
d+5/16
9/16 x 11/16
11/16 x 7/8
13/16 x 1
15/16 x 1 1/8
1 1/16 x 1 5/16
(d+1/16)x(d+3/8)
9/16 x 1
11/16 x 1 9/16
13/16 x 1 7/8
15/16 x 2 3/16
1 1/16 x 2
(d+1/16)x(2.5xd)
Nominal Rivet or Bolt
Diameter (in)

At Sheared Edges
At Rolled of Plates, Shapes or
Bars, or Gas Cut Edges [c]

5/8

7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
Over 1 1/4
7/8
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 1/2 [d]
1 3/4 [d]
2
2 1/4
1 3/4 x Diameter


7/8
1
1 1/8
1 1/4
1 1/2
1 5/8
1 1/4 x Diameter
[a] Lesser edge distance are permitted to be used provided Equation from J3.10, as
appropriate, are satisfied.
[b] For oversized or slotted holes, see Table J3.8.
[c] All edge distance in this column are permitted to be reduced 1/8-in. when the
holes at a point where stress does not exceed 25 percent of the maximum design
strength in the element.
[d] These are permitted to be 11/4-in. at the ends of beam connection angles and
shear end plates.
I. The design shear strength of bolt in shear :
Rn= F
n
A
b
= 0.75 x 48 x x 0.75
2
/4 = 15.9 kips per bolt
Shear strength of connection = 4 x 15.9 = 63.6 kips

II. Check bolts spacing :
minimum edge distance = 1 in. for rolled edges of plates (see Table J.3.4)
edge distances (1.25 in.) > 1 in OK
min.spacing = 2.67 d
b
= 2.67 x 0.75 = 2.0 in.
preferred spacing = 3.0 d
b
= 3.0 x 0.75 = 2.25 in.
given spacing (2.5 in.) > 2.25 in. OK


1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1/2
3/4
60 k
A325N
I I I . Bearing strength at bolt holes (plate 1/2in thickness)
edges : L
c
= 1.25 d
h
/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.
R
n
= 0.75 (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.5 x 58) = 22.02 kips
upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.5 x 58)= 39.15 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L
c
= 2.5 d
h
= 1.688 in.
R
n
= 0.75 x (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.5 x 58) = 44.05 kips
Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 39.15 kips.

Bearing strength at holes = 2 x 22.02 + 2 x 39.15
= 122.34 kips

1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1/2
3/4
60 k
hole diameter
d
h
= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

A36 : F
u
= 58 ksi
IV. Bearing strength at Gusset Plates (3/8 in)
edges : L
c
= 1.25 d
h
/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.
R
n
= 0.75 (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.375 x 58) = 16.52 kips
upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.375 x 58)= 29.36 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L
c
= 2.5 d
h
= 1.688 in.
R
n
= 0.75 x (1.2 L
c
t F
u
) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.375 x 58) = 33.04 kips
Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d
b
t F
u
) = 29.36 kips.

Bearing strength at gusset = 2 x 16.52 + 2 x 29.36 = 91.76 kips

Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller = 91.76 kips

1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1.25
2.50
1.25
1.25
2.50
1.25
65 k
A36
A36
5 x _
3/8 in.
_ in. bolts
1/2
3/4
60 k
hole diameter
d
h
= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

A36 : F
u
= 58 ksi
Connection Strength
Shear strength = 63.3 kips
Bearing strength (plate) = 122.34 kips
Bearing strength (gusset) = 91.76 kips

Rn = 63.3 kips > 60 kips (factored load)

Connection strength (Rn) > applied factored loads (Pu). OK.
Step I . Select 2L 3 x 2 x 3/8 with P
n
= 112 kips (yielding) and 113 kips
(fracture)
Step I I . Select size and number of bolts
The bolts are in double shear for this design (may not be so for other designs)
Use four 3/4 in. A325 bolts in double shear ; R
n
= 31.8 x 4 =127 kips
Step I I I . Design edge distance and bolt spacing
Le min = 1 in. for 3/4 in. diameter bolts in rolled edges.
Select Le = 1.25 in.
Minimum spacing = 2.67 d
b
= 2.0 in.
Preferred spacing = 3.0 d
b
= 2.25 in.
Select spacing = 3.0 in., (greater than preferred or minimum spacing)
Step I V. Check the bearing strength at bolt holes in angles
Angle thickness = 3/8 in.
BS at the edge holes (L
e
= 1.25 in.)
R
n
= 44.0 x 3/8 = 16.5 k
BS at non-edge holes (s = 3 in.) = R
n
= 78.3 x 3/8 = 29.4 k
Bearing strength at bolt holes in each angle = 16.5 + 3 x 29.4 = 104.7 kips
Bearing strength of double angles = 2 x 104.7 kips = 209.4 kips

Step V. Check the fracture and block shear strength of the tension member
Step VI . Design the gusset plate
The plates must be designed for the limit states of yielding and rupture
Limit state of yielding
R
n
= 0.9 A
g
F
y
> 100 kips - A
g
= L x t > 3.09 in
2

Assume t = in - L > 6.18 in.
Design gusset plate = 6.5 x in.
Limit state for fracture
A
n
= A
g
(d
b
+1/8) x t
A
n
= 6.5 x 0.5 (3/4 + 1/8) x 0.5 = 2.81 in
2

But, A
n
0.85 A
g
= 0.85 x 3.25 = 2.76 in
2

R
n
= 0.75 x A
n
x F
u
= 0.75 x 2.76 x 58 = 120 kips
Design gusset plate = 6.5 x 0.5 in.


Step VI I . Bearing strength at bolt holes in gusset plates
Assume L
e
= 1.25 in. (same as double angles)
Plate thickness = 1/2 in.
BS at the edge holes = R
n
= 44.0 x 1/2 = 22.0 k
BS at non-edge holes = R
n
= 78.3 x 1/2 = 39.15 k
BS at bolt holes in gusset plate = 22.0 + 3 x 39.15 = 139.5 kips

Summary of Member and Connection Strength


Connection Member Gusset Plate
Shear strength = 127 kips Yielding = 113 kips Yielding = 105.3 kips
BS = 209.4 kips (angles) Fracture = ? Fracture = 120 kips
BS = 139.5 (gusset) Block Shear = ?
Overall Strength is the smallest = 105.3 kips
Gusset plate yielding controls

Nominal Strength > Factored Load (100 kips).
Design is acceptable
The classification of a connection with high-strength bolts:
1. Slip-critical connections: no slippage is permitted
2. Bearing type connections: slip is acceptable
Theoretically, SCC are not subject the shear and bearing, but they must
have sufficient shear and bearing strength in the event of an overload that
may cause slip to occur.

To prevent slip, the service load shear on the fastener, must not exceed:
) . (
b v n
A F R =
where = 1.0 for standard, oversized, short-slotted, and long-slotted holes
the long slot is perpendicular to the line of force
= 0.85 for long-slotted holes the long slot is parallel to the line of
force
Fv = nominal slip critical shear resistance, ksi

Type of Bolt
Nominal Resistance to Shear, Fv
Standard Size
Holes
Oversized and
Short-slotted Holes
Long-slotted
Holes
A325
A490
17
21
15
18
12
15
(a) For each shear plane
(b) Based on Class A (slip coefficient 0.33)
(c) When the loading combination includes wind loads in addition to dead
and live load, the total shear on the bolt due to combined load effects, at
service load, may be multiplied by 0.75.
High strength (A325 and A490) bolts can be installed with such a
degree of tightness that they are subject to large tensile forces.

These large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates
together. The shear force applied to such a tightened connection
will be resisted by friction as shown in the Figure below.

There are currently four authorized procedure for installation of
high-strength bolts:

1. The turn-of-the-nut method

2. Calibrated wrench tightening

3. Alternate design bolts

4. Direct tension indicator
Slip-critical bolted connections can be designed to resist the applied
shear forces using friction.

If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops
between the two surfaces, then no slip will occur between them.

Slip will occur when the friction force is less than the applied shear
force. After slip occurs, the connection will behave similar to the
bearing-type bolted connections designed earlier.

Table J 3.1 summarizes the minimum bolt tension that must be
applied to develop a slip-critical connection.

High strength bolts in slip-critical connections can be designed to
prevent slip either as a serviceability limit state or at the required
strength limit state.

However, the connection must also be checked for shear strength
and bearing strength.

A325
Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy= 566- 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.
2. A490
Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.
In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness
that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a
large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal
to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection
in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the
connected parts.
The maximum possible value of this force is N F . =
Where :
= coefficient of static friction between connected parts,
N = the normal compressive force acting on the inner surfaces.

: depend on the surface condition of the steel: Painted or Rusted

(a) For Class A surface (unpainted clean mill scale steel surface or
surface with Class A coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.33
(b) For Class B (unpainted blast-cleaned steel surface or surface
with Class B coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.50
(c) For Class C surface (hot-dip galvanized and roughened surface),
= 0.40

Thus, each bolt in the connection is capable of resisting a load of P=F, even if
the bolt shank does not bear on the connected part. As long as this frictional
force does not exceeded, there is no bearing or shear. If P is greater than F and
slippage occurs, shear and bearing will then exist and will affect the capacity of
the connection.
=mean slip coefficient
Slip resistance = R
n
= m * D
u
* h
sc
* T
b
* N
s


where,
= 1.0 for connections at serviceability limit
= 0.85 for connections at the required strength level.

m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces
= 0.35 for Class A surfaces (unpainted clean mill scale)
= 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces

D
u
= 1.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension
to the specified minimum bolt pretension.

h
sc
= hole factor
= 1.00 for STD, 0.85 for OVS and SSLT, 0.70 for LSLT)

T
b
= minimum bolt tension given in Table J3.1
N
s
= number of slip planes
Bolt Size, in. A325 Bolts A490 Bolts

12 15
5/8 19 24

28 35
7/8 39 49
1 51 64
1 1/8 56 80
1 1/4 71 102
1 3/8 85 121
1 1/2 103 148
*Equal to 0.70 of minimum tensile strength of bolts, rounded off to
nearest kip, as specified in ASTM specifications for A325 and A490 bolts
with UNC threads.
Splice plate
Splice plate
W8 x 28
W8 x 28
Splice plate
Splice plate
W8 x 28
W8 x 28
Step I. Service loads = D + L = 200 kips.

Step II. Slip-critical splice connection, assume class A surface, Standard holes (STD)
R
n
of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = 0.35x1.13x 1 x T
b
N
s


If d
b
= 7/8 in. From Table J.3.1 -- Tb=39kips
R
n
of one bolt = 1.0 x 0.35 x 1.13 x 1.00 x 39 x 1 = 15.4 kips
R
n
of n bolts = 15.4 x n > 200 kips (splice must be slip-critical at service)
Therefore, n > 13

Choose 16 fully tensioned 7/8 in. A325 bolts on each side of the splice

Step III. Layout of splice connection
Minimum edge distance (L
e
) = 1-1/8in. from Table J 3.4
Design edge distance L
e
= 1.25 in.
Minimum spacing = s = 2-2/3 d
b
= 2.67 x 7/8 = 2.336 in. (Spec. J 3.3)
Preferred spacing = s = 3.0 d
b
= 3.0 x 7/8 = 2.625 in. (Spec. J 3.3)
Design spacing = 3 inch

Step IV. Connection strength at factored loads =300kips
The splice connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection
Beam flange thickness : t
f
= 0.465 in and flange width b
f
= 6.535 in.

The shear strength of bolts = (0.75x48xA
b
) /bolt x 16 = 345.6 kips

Bearing strength at edge holes (L
e
= 1.25 in.) = 40.8 kips/in. thickness
Bearing strength at non-edge holes (s = 3.0) = 91.4 kips/in. thickness
Bearing strength = 4 x 40.8 x 0.465 +12 x 91.3 x 0.465 = 673 kips


3 3 3 1.25
C.L.
Step V. Design the splice plate

Tension yielding: 0.9 A
g
F
y
> 300 kips; A
g
> 6.66 in
2


Tension fracture: 0.75 A
n
F
u
> 300 kips
A
n
=A
g
- 4 x (7/8 +1/8) x t > 6.15 in.

Beam flange width = 6.535 in.
Assume 6.5 in. wide splice plates with thickness = 0.75 in.

The strength of the splice plate
Yielding = 438.75 kips
Fracture = 329 kips

Check Block shear (Homework)

Step VI. Check member strength (yield, fracture and block shear)

Kekuatan Geser :
Rn = 0.75 * m * r
t
* Fu * A
b
dimana :
m = jumlah bidang geser
Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) dari baut
(Lihat tabel tipe-tipe baut)
rt = 0.5 untuk baut tanpa ulir pada bidang geser
= 0.4 untuk baut dengan ulir pada bidang geser
Ab = luas area baut

Kekuatan Tumpu
Untuk Le > 1.5 d
b
dan s > 3d
b

Rn = 0.75 * 2.4 * db * t * Fu
Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) terkecil antara baut dan pelat

Untuk baut dengan ukuran lobang besar :
Rn = 0.75 * 2 * db * t * Fu

TIPE-TIPE BAUT
Gaya yang dibutuhkan
untuk mengencangkan
baut
Tipe Baut
Diameter Baut
(mm)
Clamping Forces/
Proof Stress (Mpa)
Tegangan Leleh
(Mpa) (Fy)
Kuat Tarik Min
(Fu) (MPa)
Material
A307 6.35 - 10.4 - NA 60 Kadar karbon rendah
A325 12.7 - 25.4 585 560 - 630 825 Baja kartbon
A490 12.7 - 38.1 825 790 - 900 1035 Baja Alloy
Gusset t=12mm
D22 A308
50 40
3 @ 70mm
2L 120x120x8
Dua profil siku L120.120.8 disambung dengan 4 baut berdiameter 22mm
(7/8 in) jenis A308 (Fv=168Mpa).
a. Cek apakah lay-out sambungan tersebut memenuhi persyaratan jarak
yang diatur AISC
b. Hitung kekuatan sambungan
c. Jika baut ditukar dengan type A490N (Fv=420Mpa); hitung persentase
peningkatan kekuatan GESER sambungan.
Tampak Atas
WF250x125
Pelat penyambung 6mm
Tampak Samping
Potongan
125
125
250
Disainlah sambungan pada sayap (flange)
profil WF250x125 (t
f
=9mm dan t
w
=6mm)
pada kondisi service, jika gaya dalam akibat
beban mati adalah 100kN, beban hidup
70kN dan beban angin 50kN, dengan
menggunakan baut berdiameter 16mm
(5/8in) A325N dimana slip tidak diijinkan
terjadi. Sket hasil disain dalam gambar kerja
yang lengkap (tampak samping, tampak
atas dan potongan)!

Structural welding is a process wherein
the parts to be connected are heated
and fused together, with supplementary
molten metal added to the joint
(a) (b)
(SMAW) is usually done
manually and is the process
universally used for field
welds.
For shop welding, an
automatic or semi automatic
process is usually used.
Foremost among these is the
submerged arc welding
(SAW), gas shielded metal
arc, flux cored arc, and
electro-slag welding
(1) Fillet weld, which are defined as those placed in a corner formed by two
parts in contact. Example a lap joint & a tee joint.

(2) Groove weld, are those deposited in a gap, or groove, between two parts
to be connected. They are most frequently used for butt, tee, and corner
joints. In most cases, one or both of the connected parts will have beveled
edges, called prepared edges, although relatively thin materials can be
groove welded with no edge preparation.

Type: Complete penetration groove welds
Partial penetration groove welds.

(3) Plug or slot weld
Fillet welds are most common and used in all structures.
Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments
A fillet weld can be loaded in any direction in shear, compression, or
tension. However, it always fails in shear.
Assumption the cross section (A) =
Effective throat thickness 0.707 a x length L
The shear failure of
the fillet weld occurs
along a plane
through the throat of
the weld
a
a
Throat =a x cos45
o
=0.707 a
a
a
Throat =a x cos45
o
=0.707 a
Critical Shear Strength:
The nominal load capacity:
The nominal Design Strength:
where Fw= the weld ultimate shear strength
= 0.75
w
L a
P
fv
707 . 0
=
w w n
L a f R = 707 . 0
w w
L a f = 707 . 0 75 . 0 R
n
Fw depends on the weld metal used that is, it is a function of the type
electrode.

Ultimate tensile strength of Electrode: 60, 70, 80, 90, and 110ksi.
E60XX / E60 = an electrode with an ultimate tensile strength of 60 ksi.
This is the standard terminology for weld electrodes

Electrodes should be selected to match the base metal:
E70xx electrodes : for steels with Fy < 60 - 65 ksi
E80xx electrodes : for steels with Fy > 60 - 65 ksi.
E70XX is the most popular electrode used for fillet welds made by the SMAW
method.

Fw in a fillet weld = 0.60 times the tensile strength of the weld metal,
denoted by F
EXX
.

The design stress: Fw = 0.60 F
EXX
---- = 0.75.
E70XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (70)] = 31.5 ksi
E80XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (80)] = 36 ksi
Fillet weld strength that account for load direction :
Fw = 0.6F
Exx
(1.0 + 0.50 sin
1.5
)

Fw = 0.6 F
Exx
is valid only if = 0
For weld with load perpendicular ( = 90
o
), the
strength is 50% higher



axis of weld
AISC J2.4c specifies that the larger nominal strength from
the following two options :
1. Use the basic strength for both : R
n
= R
wl
+ R
wt
R
wl
= R
wt
= 0.6 F
Exx

2. Use the 50% higher of transverse welds but reduce
the basic strength of longitudinal welds
R
n
= R
wl
+ R
wt
R
n
= 0.85 (0.6 F
Exx
) + 1.5 (0.6 F
Exx
)


The design shear strength of base metal:
shear to subject metal base of area x F Rn
BM
=
Ag F Rn
BM
=
where
= 0.90
F
BM
= Fv=0.60 Fy
Ag = the area subject to shear
AI SC specification J 4.2
Base metal area can fail by shear yielding or rupture. The smaller of the
two strengths will govern.

Shear yielding;
R
n
= 1.0 x 0.6 F
y
x gross area of base metal subjected to shear
Shear rupture;
R
n
= 0.75 x 0.6 F
u
x net area of base metal subjected to shear
where, F
y
and F
u
are the yield and tensile strength of the base metal.

Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal

=0.75 x 0.707 x a x L
w
x f
w
=min {1.0 x 0.6 x F
y
x t x L
w

0.75 x 0.6 x F
u
x t x L
w
}




Smaller governs the strength of the weld
Example :
1. Always check weld metal and base metal strength. Smaller value
governs. In most cases, the weld metal strength will govern.

2. In weld design problems, it is advantageous to work with strength
per unit length of the weld or base metal.



t
Example:
The design strength of weld per inch of length:
W n
F xsizex R 707 . 0 =
The capacity of the bracket plate in shear per inch of length:
t F Rn
BM
=
a. Berdasarkan Kekuatan Las


b. Berdasarkan Kekuatan bahan Dasar / Base Metal
(Pelat yang disambung)


W n
F ax x R 707 75 . 0 =
Fu ax x R
n
6 . 0 707 75 . 0 =
Minimum Size of Fillet Welds a
min
:
Material Thickness of Thicker
Part J oined (in.)
Minimum Size of Fillet
Welds[a] (in.)
To inclusive
Over to
Over to
Over 3/4
1/8
3/16

5/16
[a] Leg dimension of fillet welds. Single pass welds must be used.
[b] See Section J 2.2b for maximum size of fillet welds.
Tebal las minimum (t, mm)
paling tebal
Ukuran las sudut minimum
(a min)
t < 7 3
7 < t < 10 4
10 < t < 15 5
15 < t 6
SNI Baja
Maximum Size of fillet welds a
max
:
- function of the thickness of the thickest connected plate:
- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a
max-
= t or 0.25 in. (the smallest).
- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a
max
= t - 1/16 in.

Minimum Length of fillet welds L
w

- L
w
4 a otherwise a
eff
= L
w
/ 4
- Intermittent fillet welds: L
w-min
= 4 a and 1.5 in.
End Returns:
When a weld extends to the corner of a member, it must be continued around
the corner to avoid stress concentration.
Length of end returns > two times the weld size. = 2a






The maximum size than can be made with a single pass of
electrode is approximately 5/ 16 inch, and multiple passes
will add to the cost.
Pelat dengan tebal < 6.4 mm
a maks diambil sama dengan tebal connected parts (t)

Pelat > 6.4mm; amks = t 1.6mm
1/4
6
1/4
6
6
1/4
1/4
6
6
1/4
6
1/4
6
E70
Near side (arrowside)
Other side
Bothside
Weldall arround
Reference Fieldweld
Step I. Check the limitations

t
min
= 3/8 in. (member)
t
max
= 0.5 in. (gusset)
Then, a
min
= 3/16 in.
a
max
= 3/8 - 1/16 = 5/16in.
weld size = a = 1/4 in. OK!

L
w-min
= 1.0 in.
Given length = 5.0 in. > L
min
.
OK!

End returns :
Min size = 2 a = 0.5 in. OK!

Step II. Design strength of the weld
Weld strength = f x 0.707 x a x 0.60 x F
EXX
x L
w

= 0.75 x 0.707 x 0.25 x 0.60 x 70 x 10 = 55.67 kips

Step I I . Design strength of the weld
Base Metal strength = min { x 0.6 x F
y
x L
w
x t ; x 0.6 x F
u
x L
w
x t}
= min {1.0 x 0.6 x 50 x 10 x 3/8 ; 0.75 x 0.6 x 65 x 10 x 3/8}
= min {112.5 ; 109.7 kips}
= 109.7 kips

Step I I I . Tension strength of the member
R
n
= 0.9 x 50 x 4 x 3/8 = 67.5 kips - tension yield
R
n
= 0.75 x A
e
x 65 - tension fracture
A
e
= U A
A = A
g
= 4 x 3/8 = 1.5 in
2

U = 0.75 , since connection length (L
conn
) < 1.5 w
Therefore, R
n
= 54.8 kips

The design strength of the member-connection system = 54.8 kips.
Tension fracture of the member governs.
The end returns at the corners were not included in the calculations.

Step I. Assume material properties :
Fy= 36ksi for member & gusset plates and E70XX electrode for the fillet welds.
Step II. Design the tension member
Select 2L 5 x 3 x 1/2 made from 36 ksi steel.
Yield strength = 260 kips Fracture strength = 261 kips.

Step III. Design the welded connection
a
min
= 3/16 in. a
max
= 1/2 - 1/16 in. = 7/16 in.
Design, a = 3/8 in. = 0.375 in.

Shear strength of weld metal = R
n
= 0.75 x 0.60 x F
EXX
x 0.707 x a x L
w

= 8.35 L
w
kips
Strength of the base metal in shear =
min {1.0 x 0.6 x F
y
x t x L
w
; 0.75 x 0.6 x F
u
x t x L
w
}
min { 10.8 L
w
; 14.62 L
w
} kips
Shear strength of weld metal governs, R
n
= 8.35 L
w
kips
R
n
> 250 kips 8.35 L
w
> 250 kips
L
w
> 29.94 in.
use Lw = 30.0 in.
L
w
= 30 in. for two angles
Assume L
w
for each = 15.0 in.
E70XX fillet weld can be placed in
three ways (a), (b), and (c).


AISC Spec. requires that the fillet weld
terminate at a distance greater than the
size (1/2 in.) of the weld. For this option,
L
1
will be equal to 7.5 in.

The fillet weld can be returned
continuously around the corner for a
distance of at least 2 a (1 in.).
L
2
can be either 6.5 in. or 7.5 in.
However, the value of 7.5 in. is
preferred.

L
3
will be equal to 5.75 in.
Step V. Fracture strength of the member
A
e
= U A
g

U = 1- x/L Asssume case a ------ U = 1-0.901/7.5 = 0.88 0.9
R
n
= 0.75 x 0.88 x 8.00 x 58 = 306.24 kips > 250 kips OK

Step VI . Design the gusset plate R
n
> T
u

Tension yielding limit state
0.9 x A
g
x 36 > 250 kips A
g
> 7.71 in
2

Tension fracture limit state
0.75 x A
n
x F
u
> 250 kips
AISC specification A
n
0.85 A
g

A
n
> 5.747 in
2
A
g
> 6.76 in
2

Design gusset plate :
thickness = 1.0 in.
width = 8.0 in.

1/2
7.5 in.
(a)
1/2 7.5 in.
1/2
7.5 in.
1/2 7.5 in.
Gusset plate 8 x in.
Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in
1/2
7.5 in.
(a)
1/2 7.5 in.
1/2
7.5 in.
1/2 7.5 in.
Gusset plate 8 x in.
Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in
E70
120.120.8
7 120
E70
7 75
E70
7 225
gusset 9mm
Hitung beban maksimum yang
mampu ditahan sambungan las.


100
100
32.4
32.4
D=80kN
L=140kN
Akibat pembebanan yang
ada, disainlah sambungan
antara profil siku 100x100x8
dengan gusset plate setebal
3/8inc (9.5mm)
menggunakan tebal las
minimum yang disyaratkan
dan mempertimbangkan
efek eksentrisitas.
Sambungan hanya pada 2
sisi saja (arah longitudinal).
Sket hasil disain dalam
gambar kerja yang lengkap!
Unbalanced Condition
1. Ukuran las yang sama
pada sisi atas dan
bawah,
mengakibatkan
terjadinya
ketidaksetimbangan
pada gaya-gaya
2. Seolah-olah
sambungan bersifat
eccentric

Disain Sambungan Las pada Profil yang unsymetri
(profil siku)
Dengan menerapkan konsep kesetimbangan,
1. maka : P1 P2
2. Akan diperoleh panjang las yang berbeda antara sisi
atas dan sisi bawah L1 L2
Combined Shear and Tension
in Fasteners
The vertical component of the load will
put the fasteners in shear, the horizontal
component will cause tension (with the
possible inclusion of prying force).

Since the line of action of the load acts
through the center of gravity of the
connection, each fastener can assumed to
take an equal share of each component.
where :
ft = required tensile strength (stress)
Ft = available tensile strength (stress)
fv = required shear strength (stress)
Fv = available shear strength (stress)
Elliptical interaction
Approximate : 3 straight line
t
v
v
t t
F
F
f
F f = 3 . 1
Required tensile strength f
t
for a given f
v
Nominal strength = available strength /
If f
t
is viewed as available tensile strength in presence strength,
nominal strength is :
nt v
v
t
t
nt
t
F f
F
F F
F
f

= =

3 . 1 '
where :
F
nt
= Nominal tensile stress in the presence of shear
F
nt
= Nominal tensile stress in the absence of shear
F
nv
= Nominal shear stress in the absence of tension
f
v
= required shear stress
= 0.75
Nominal Tensile strength :
b nt
A F Rn ' =
Description of
Fasteners
Threads Included in
the Shear Plane
Threads Excluded
from the Shear Plane
A307 bolts Ft =59-1.9fv 45
A325 bolts Ft =117-1.9fv 90 Ft =117-1.5fv 90

A490 bolts Ft =147-1.9fv 113

Ft =147-1.5fv 113

Threaded parts A449 bolt
over 1 diameter
Ft =0.98Fu-1.9fv
0.75Fu
Ft =0.98Fu-1.5fv
0.75Fu

A502 Gr.1 rivets Ft =59-1.8fv 45
A502 Gr.2 rivets Ft =78-1.8fv 60
a. Bolt in Shear
Check bearing strength and shear strength of one bolt
Compare with ultimate shear strength of one bolt
b. Bolt in Tensile
Check Tensile force for one bolt Tu/n
c. Check available tensile strength

Where :
F
nt
= Nominal tensile stress in absence of shear
(90ksi for A325, 113 ksi for A490)
F
nv
= Nominal shear stress in absence of tension (dari mutu baut)
f
v
= V
u
bolt/ A
b

d. Calculate nominal tensile force (0.75F
nt
x A
b
) and compared it with available
tensile (point b)
nt v
nv
nt
nt nt
F f
F
F
F F =

3 . 1 '
Design strength of bolt in slip critical connection should be reduced by a factor
ks :
b b u
u
s
N T D
T
k =1
where
Tu = total factired tensile load on the connection
Du = ratio of mean bolt pretension (1.13 is default)
Tb = initial bolt tension from AISC
Nb = Number of bolt in the connection
Slip resistance = R
n
= m D
u
h
sc
T
b
N
s

where,
= 1.0 for connections at serviceability limit
= 0.85 for connections at the required strength level.

m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces
= 0.35 for Class A surfaces (upainted clean mill scale)
= 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces

D
u
= 1.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension
to the specified minimum bolt pretension.

h
sc
= hole factor
= 1.00 for STD, 0.85 for OVS and SSLT, 0.70 for LSLT)

T
b
= minimum bolt tension given in Table J3.1
N
s
= number of slip planes

Due to shear and tension : Slip resistance = R
n
x k
s

EXAMPLE
1. Check the adequacy of one bolt due to shear force R
n
> V
u
bolt
2. Check the adequacy of one bolt due to tensile stress force R
n
> T
u
bolt
Adequate for bearing
connection
Sambungan Baut : 7.4.4 ; 7.4.6 ;


Sambungan Las : 7.11.2; 7.11.4

Many pictures in this file are taken from
various sources such as AISC, SNI Baja
Indonesia & William T Segui Book.
This file is for teaching purposes only.