Biblical Hebrew

A Student Grammar

Ruth 1, the Aleppo Codex (10th c. C.E.)
www.aleppcodex.org

John A. Cook
Robert D. Holmstedt

Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar (Draft Copy)
© 2009 by John A. Cook and Robert D. Holmstedt
All rights reserved.

Preface
Purpose
This textbook is intended for a university classroom. It is divided into thirty lessons,
corresponding to the typical thirty-week academic year. Following the sequence of lessons will
provide the average student with a cutting-edge understanding of ancient Hebrew grammar and
will enable the student to read both prose passages and less complex poems from biblical and
non-biblical texts. Additionally, the textbook introduces the student to the standard Biblical
Hebrew lexicon1 and includes an appendix on the Masoretic “accents,” which may be
incorporated into the sequence of lessons at whatever point the instructor desires.
Because of the variety of first-year biblical Hebrew textbooks currently available, it is worth
briefly noting what this textbook is not: it is not a reference grammar; it is not meant to be used
without supplementation from the instructor; it is not meant for self-study; it is not theologically
oriented. What this textbook does not do represents fairly well the character of almost every
other available textbook, and thereby indicates that there exists a significant lacuna in the world
of Hebrew textbooks. This textbook is intended to fill this hole.
History
The genesis of this introductory textbook for ancient Hebrew lies in the experience of the two
authors in teaching first-year biblical Hebrew at the University of Wisconsin as graduate
instructors, from 1996 to 2002. The desire for “something different” was born early in this
period, after dissatisfaction with the out-datedness of Weingreen2 (which, in many ways, has yet
to be surpassed in terms of pedagogy as a classroom textbook) and outright frustration with the
lack of pedagogical awareness in Kelley,3 Seow,4 and Kittel,5 to name the most prominent
textbooks then on the market. “Necessity is the mother of invention,” as the proverb goes, and, as
in the case of most textbooks, eventually we decided that it was time to develop “something
different” ourselves. As we continued to teach Hebrew after Wisconsin, we clarified the focus
for our project and we identified two primary objectives: classroom pedagogy and a firm
linguistic foundation.
Design Objectives
Our concern for classroom pedagogy is based on the simple observation that many of the
textbooks on the market provide the student with entirely too much information. We found
ourselves instructing our students to skip entire sections in some of the textbooks we used. Not
only is this frustrating for instructor and student alike, it both establishes an underlying tension
between the instructor and the textbook and creates a sense of distrust in the often expensive
textbook the student was required to purchase for the course. Clearly, we needed a textbook that
1

Brown, F., S. R. Driver, and C. A. Briggs. [1906] 1979. The New Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew-English
Lexicon. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
2
Weingreen, J. 1939. A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. Oxford: Oxford University. [2nd edition,
1959 and 1967]
3
Kelley, P. H. 1992. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
4
Seow, C.-L. 1987. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Nashville, TN: Abingdon. [Revised edition, 1995]
5
Kittel, B. P., V. Hoffer, and R. Abts Wright. 1989. Biblical Hebrew: A Text and Workbook. New Haven, CN.:
Yale University. [Revised edition, 2005]

ii
was created for the classroom and no more. In other words, we felt that the desire of many
textbook authors to present, essentially, “mini-reference grammars” was an obstacle in the
effective presentation of the material and quite often resulted in information overload. It is
difficult to count the number of people who have recounted to us their experience of learning
Hebrew with anguish in their voices and a traumatic look in their eyes, and a little sensitive
digging almost always turns up one overriding reason: poor pedagogy.
To address the pedagogy issue we established an approach to each lesson that was based on three
simple criteria: (1) what can we accomplish in the classroom in one week and still have fun? (2)
what must the students learn? and (3) what do the students not need to learn? The result was the
thirty-lesson structure that moves the students quickly through the necessary but often less
engaging introductory material to get to issues more salient for interpreting the ancient texts,
such as clause structure and verbs. This enables us to introduce our students to stretches of
biblical texts as early as the fourth week of the course. And since understanding texts is the
motivation of the overwhelming majority of students in our courses, it only makes sense that this
would both please them and reduce the dreaded mid-year attrition rate.
It is important to note a critical feature of our textbook at this point: since it presents no more
than is necessary, it does not itself introduce students to long stretches of Hebrew discourse.
Moreover, we do not introduce students to the features of either the Masoretic codices or the
modern printed Hebrew Bibles, including the critical apparatus of the Biblica Hebraica
Stuttgartensia. A number of student-oriented introductions to these issues already exist and are
likely in the nearest library; thus, we saw no good reason to reinvent the wheel, as it were. What
this means is that the texts and the history of the Hebrew Bible must be covered within the lesson
planning external to the textbook.
As with many modern language textbooks, even those with vibrant color and snazzy drawings or
photographs, it is worth remembering that the textbook is a means to another end, not an end in
and of itself. This explains why we eschew defining every language term we use (for example,
“pharyngeal”): it is the instructor’s responsibility to have a basic competence in Hebrew
grammar and grammatical terminology. Whenever it is necessary we do briefly define the
linguistic terms we use (i.e., “valency” with regard to the binyanim, “focus” with regard to word
order). For the items we do not define, we suggest using Gary Long’s handbook,6 which can (and
probably should) be used as a supplemental text. Combining our textbook with Long’s handbook
achieves comprehensiveness without needlessly bloating the lessons.
The second objective for our textbook is to build the lessons on a firm linguistic foundation.
Both authors do research on the grammatical features of ancient (biblical and non-biblical)
Hebrew within explicitly linguistic frameworks, mostly typological and generative, and our
conclusions have often been at odds with the consensus described in standard reference
grammars and introductory textbooks (for example, you will find no reference in this textbook to
the so-called waw-consecutive imperfect and perfect verbs, but instead will find the labels pastnarrative and modal perfect, respectively). Hence, we desired a textbook that communicates our
linguistically-grounded views to a first-year Hebrew audience. While we try to avoid enmeshing
6

Long, G. A. 2002. Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew: Learning Biblical Hebrew Grammatical
Concepts through English Grammar. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

iii
the first-year student in the complexity of linguistics and typical linguistic description, we also
take a high view of our audience’s capacity to process basic linguistic concepts and to see how
they apply to both Hebrew and English.
Finally, this textbook is what some might call “traditional” in its essential organization and
presentation. Although each lesson does contain a diversity of categories for easier learning, the
student is moved through the linguistic categories of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics,
and pragmatics in mostly this order. With that said, we use more modern, or “second language
acquisition,” teaching techniques in the classroom. Again, we did not write this textbook for
every task of the language classroom. It is intentionally limited, and in light of this, we
encourage instructors who use this textbook to plan accordingly: additional activities will be
required for the first-year students to learn Hebrew and, critically, for them to enjoy the process.
(For interested parties, we invite requests for sample syllabi and other teaching materials.)
Note to the Reader: the glossary is currently undergoing revision; the glosses were initially based
on a combination of information from the two primary Hebrew-English lexica, BDB and HALOT.
Additionally, a third set of glossing choices was motivated by simplicity and pedagogy rather than
the often awkward English glosses given in either of the two lexica.

Acknowledgments
The detail and complexity of writing a introductory language textbook exceeded our wildest
dreams. It is entirely possible that if we had not begun this project as ambitious, energetic
doctoral students, we might never had begun it at all. Certainly, we are indebted to the eagle eyes
of numerous instructors who followed us at UW and who willingly accepted the challenge of
using a draft textbook. In particular, we are grateful to Michael Lyons, Kent Reynolds, James
Kirk, and Tim Mackie for their numerous lists of typos and other infelicities. Additionally, their
queries helped us to formulate more clearly our design objectives. We are also indebted to
Cynthia Miller, who endured the many drafts and yet remained willing to have the textbook used
at UW. Finally, we are most recently thankful of the proofreading and general feedback that John
Hobbins (Madison), Laliv Clenman (Toronto), and Brauna Doidge (Toronto) have provided.
John A. Cook
Wilmore, KY

Robert D. Holmstedt
Toronto, ON
June 18, 2009

iv
Table of Contents
Lesson 1.................................................................................................................................1
1.1. The Biblical Hebrew Alphabet
1.2. Vocabulary #1
Exercises
Lesson 2.................................................................................................................................8
2.1. The Biblical Hebrew Vowel System
2.2. Simple Sheva ְ
2.3. Compound Sheva
2.4. Independent Personal Pronouns
2.5. Verbless Clauses
2.6. Dagesh Qal and Dagesh Chazaq
2.7. Guttural Consonants
2.8. Open and Closed Syllables and Word Stress
2.9. Vocabulary #2
Exercises
Lesson 3.................................................................................................................................19
3.1. Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words
3.2. Definiteness
3.3. Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew
3.4. The Article –• ‫ַה‬
3.5. Inseparable Prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬, and sometimes ‫) ִמן‬
3.6. Vav Conjunction (- ְ‫)ו‬
3.7. Vocabulary #3
Exercises
Lesson 4.................................................................................................................................29
4.1. Masculine and Feminine Singular Nouns
4.2. Introduction to Verbs
4.3. Qal Perfect Conjugation - Singular
4.4. Objects in Biblical Hebrew
4.5. Vocabulary #4
Exercises
Lesson 5.................................................................................................................................38
5.1. Masculine and Feminine Plural and Dual Nouns
5.2. Qal Perfect Conjugation - Plural
5.3. Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬
5.4. Vocabulary #5
Exercises
Lesson 6.................................................................................................................................43
6.1. Construct Relationship.
6.2. Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns
6.3. Vocabulary #6
Exercises

v
Lesson 7.................................................................................................................................49
7.1. Suffixed Pronouns
7.2. Segolate Nouns
7.3. Modal Use of the Perfect Conjugation
7.4. Vocabulary #7
Exercises
Lesson 8.................................................................................................................................57
8.1. Qal Imperfect Conjugation
8.2. Past Narrative Conjugation
8.3. Qal Imperfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬
8.4. ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬
8.5. Vocabulary #8
Exercises
Lesson 9.................................................................................................................................62
9.1. Adjectives
9.2. Demonstrative Pronouns
9.3. Vocabulary #9
Exercises
Lesson 10...............................................................................................................................68
10.1. Qal Active Participle
10.2. Qal Passive Participle
10.3. Vocabulary #10
Exercises
Lesson 11...............................................................................................................................74
11.1. Introduction to the Binyanim
11.2. Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations
11.3. Vocabulary #11
Exercises
Lesson 12...............................................................................................................................80
12.1. Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations
12.2. Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations
12.3. Piel and Hifil Participles
12.4. Vocabulary #12
Exercises
Lesson 13...............................................................................................................................86
13.1. Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System (Jussives and Imperatives)
13.2. Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System
13.3. Vocabulary #13
Exercises
Lesson 14...............................................................................................................................92
14.1. Infinitive Construct
14.2. Infinitive Absolute
14.3. Vocabulary #14

vi
Exercises
Lesson 15...............................................................................................................................98
15.1. Introduction to the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.2. Perfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.3. Imperfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.4. Imperative and Jussive in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.5. Infinitive Construct and Absolute in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.6. Participles in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
15.7. Vocabulary #15
Exercises
Lesson 16...............................................................................................................................106
16.1. Using a Lexicon
16.2. Dynamic and Stative Verbs
16.3. Vocabulary #16
Exercises
Lesson 17...............................................................................................................................113
17.1. Introduction to Guttural Verbs
17.2. I-Guttural Verbs
17.3. II-Guttural Verbs
17.4. III-Guttural Verbs
17.5. Vocabulary #17
Exercises
Lesson 18...............................................................................................................................120
18.1. Introduction to Weak Verbs
18.2. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs
18.3. Vocabulary #18
Exercises
Lesson 19...............................................................................................................................127
19.1. I-Alef Weak Verbs
19.2. III-Alef Weak Verbs
19.3. Vocabulary #19
Exercises
Lesson 20...............................................................................................................................133
20.1. I-Nun Weak Verbs
20.2. ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬
20.3. Vocabulary #20
Exercises
Lesson 21...............................................................................................................................137
21.1. I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs
21.2. ‫ָה ַלְך‬
21.3. Vocabulary #21
Exercises

vii
Lesson 22...............................................................................................................................142
22.1. III-He Weak Verbs
22.2. Vocabulary #22
Exercises
Lesson 23...............................................................................................................................146
23.1. II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs
23.2. Vocabulary #23
Exercises
Lesson 24...............................................................................................................................151
24.1. II-III Weak Verbs
24.2. Vocabulary #24
Exercises
Lesson 25...............................................................................................................................155
25.1. Doubly-Weak Verbs
25.2. Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs
25.3. Vocabulary #25
Exercises
Lesson 26...............................................................................................................................159
26.1. Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1
26.2. Complements and Adjuncts
26.3. Argument Structure
26.4. Vocabulary #26
Exercises
Lesson 27...............................................................................................................................165
27.1. Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2
27.2. Main and Subordinate Clauses
27.3. Biblical Hebrew Word Order
27.4. Vocabulary #27
Exercises
Lesson 28...............................................................................................................................173
28.1. Introduction to Semantics in Biblical Hebrew
28.2. Lexical Semantics
28.3. Case Roles in Biblical Hebrew
28.4. Vocabulary #28
Exercises
Lesson 29...............................................................................................................................179
29.1. Introduction to Pragmatics in Biblical Hebrew
29.2. Information Structure
29.3. Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information Structure
29.3. Vocabulary #29
Exercises
Lesson 30...............................................................................................................................186
30.1. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Discourse

viii
30.2. The Foreground and Background of Narrative
30.3. Discourse Topic
Exercises
Appendices............................................................................................................................191
A. Noun, Adjective, and Pronoun Paradigms
1. Noun/Adjective Inflection
2. Frequent Irregular Nouns
3. Personal Pronouns
4. Demonstrative Pronouns
5. Suffixed Pronouns on Nouns, Prepositions, and the Object Marker
B. Strong Verb Paradigms
1. Strong Verb
2. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs
3. Parsing Flow Chart
C. Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms
1. I-Guttural
2. II-Guttural
3. III-Guttural
4. I-Alef and III-Alef
5. I-Nun
6. I-Vav/Yod
7. III-He
8. II-Vav/Yod
9. II-III
D. Numerals
E. Masoretic accents
Glossary................................................................................................................................219
Hebrew Songs.......................................................................................................................231

Lesson 1
Lesson Summary:

• The Hebrew Alphabet

1.1 The Hebrew Alphabet
The Hebrew ‫בּית‬-‫ף‬
ֵ ‫( ָא ֶל‬alphabet) is composed of the following.

• It consists of 23 consonants read right-to-left.

‫←אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשׂשׁת‬
• It has five letters with alternate final forms that are used when
the letter occurs at the end of a word.
Regular form: ‫כ מ נ פ צ‬
Final form:

BeGaD KeFaT
letters

‫ְך ם ן ף ץ‬

e.g., ‫שׁמים‬

• It has six letters, ‫( בּ גּ דּ כּ פּ תּ‬mnemonically referred to as the
BeGaD KeFaT), which can appear with a “dot” in them called
a dagesh qal. Three of these letters have two pronunciations:
one with the dagesh qal, and one without it.

‫ בּ‬like b in Boy

BUT ‫ ב‬like v in Voice

‫ כּ‬like k in Keep

BUT ‫ כ‬like ch in BaCH

‫ פּ‬like p in Pie

BUT ‫ פ‬like f in Fish

‫ גּ‬AND ‫ ג‬like g in Give
‫ דּ‬AND ‫ ד‬like d in Dog
‫ תּ‬AND ‫ ת‬like t in Tide

Lesson 1
Hebrew
Alphabet

Name

(Final) Form

álef

‫ָ֫א ֶלף‬

bet

‫ֵבּית‬

gímel

‫ימל‬
ֶ ‫֫ ִגּ‬

dálet

‫ָ ֫דּ ֶלת‬

he

2

‫ֵהא‬

vav

‫וָ ו‬

záyin

‫ַ֫זיִ ן‬

chet

‫ֵחית‬

tet

‫ֵטית‬

yod

‫יוֹד‬

kaf

‫ַכּף‬
(‫)ך‬

lámed

‫֫ ָל ֶמד‬

mem

‫ֵמם‬

(‫)ם‬

nun

‫נוּן‬

(‫)ן‬

sámech

‫ָ֫ס ֶמְך‬

áyin

‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬

pe

‫ֵפּא‬
(‫)ף‬

tsáde

‫ָ֫צ ֵדי‬

qof

‫קוֹף‬

resh

‫ֵרישׁ‬

sin

‫ִשׂין‬

shin

‫ִשׁין‬

tav

‫ָתּו‬

(‫)ץ‬

‫א‬
‫בּ‬
‫ב‬
‫גּג‬
‫דּד‬
‫ה‬
‫ו‬
‫ז‬
‫ח‬
‫ט‬
‫י‬
‫כּ‬
‫כ‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫נ‬
‫ס‬
‫ע‬
‫פּ‬
‫פ‬
‫צ‬
‫ק‬
‫ר‬
‫שׂ‬
‫שׁ‬
‫תּת‬

Pronunciation
glottal stop or silent
like b in Boy
like v in Voice
like g in Give
like d in Dog
like h in Hat
like v in Voice
like z in Zip
like ch in BaCH
like t in Tide
like y in Yellow
like k in Keep
like ch in BaCH
like l in Letter
like m in Mother
like n in Noon
like s in Sit
pharyngeal or silent
like p in Pie
like f in Fish
like ts in caTS
like k in Keep
like r in Race
like s in Sit
like sh in SHin
like t in Tide

Lesson 1

3

• Notice that the Hebrew alphabet has several letters which are
pronounced the same.

‫ א‬and ‫ע‬
‫ ב‬and ‫ו‬
‫ ח‬and ‫כ‬
‫ ט‬and ‫תּ‬/‫ת‬
‫ כּ‬and ‫ק‬
‫ ס‬and ‫שׂ‬

Similar
sounding letters

silent
like v in Voice
like ch in Bach
like t in Tide
like k in Keep
like s in Sit

1.2 Vocabulary #1

‫יהוה‬

PN

YHWH (often ‘the LORD’ in translations of the Bible).

Traditionally pronounced a-do-nai ‘Lord’ or ha-shem ‘the Name’.
It is possible that this name was originally pronounced yah-weh,
and was the middle word of a longer epithet El yahweh tseva'ot,
which might have meant ‘El/God (who) makes hosts exist’.
Vocabulary Learning Tips:
1. Make flash cards: Hebrew on front, English on back (in addition to practicing
with the cards, writing the vocabulary words on the cards will help you learn
them).
2. Quiz yourself with the cards. Put aside those that you know, return to the pile
those that you do not know and continue quizzing until you know them all.
3. Review the words regularly and keep up with new ones.

Exercises
1. Practice singing the Hebrew alphabet to the English ‘ABC’ tune
(Note: for the sake of the song’s rhythm, we have included both forms of the three BeGaD
KeFaT letters that change pronunciation with or without the dagesh qal – we’ve put the
second of the pair, not normally included in the “alphabet,” in subscripted position.)

‫שׂשׁת‬/‫צקר‬/‫עפּפ‬/‫מנס‬/‫זחטיכּכל‬/‫←אבּבגדהו‬

Lesson 1

4

2. Write out a full line of each consonant of the Biblical Hebrew alphabet (use the
following letters as a guide).

3. Fill in the blank with the missing consonant according to the order of the
alphabet (ignore the absence/presence of the dagesh), e.g., ‫א ב ג ד‬.

‫ת‬
‫מ נ‬
‫ח‬

__ __

‫( ר‬j

__ __ (k

__ __ __ (l

__

‫( ח ט י‬g

‫פ צ ק‬
‫ו‬

__

__ (h

‫גד‬

(i

‫שׂ‬

‫נס‬
‫ז‬

‫( צ ק‬d

__

__

__

‫( ל‬e

‫( ד ה‬f

‫נ‬
‫שׁ‬

__

‫( כ ל‬a

__

‫( ק ר‬b

__ __ __

‫( א‬c

Lesson 1

5

S4. Write an English word for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet which has the
sound of the Hebrew letter in it (do not use the words given in the chart in 1.1):
e.g., ‫ בּ‬as in boat.

‫ ג‬as in _______ (m

‫ דּ‬as in _______ (a

‫ ז‬as in _______ (n

‫ ה‬as in _______ (b

‫ ח‬as in _______ (o

‫ ו‬as in _______ (c

‫ ט‬as in _______ (p

‫ ס‬as in _______ (d

‫ י‬as in _______ (q

‫ פּ‬as in _______ (e

‫ כּ‬as in _______ (r

‫ פ‬as in _______ (f

‫ כ‬as in _______ (s

‫ צ‬as in _______ (g

‫ ל‬as in _______ (t

‫ ק‬as in _______ (h

‫ שׁ‬as in _______ (u

‫ ר‬as in _______ (i

‫ ת‬as in _______ (v

‫ שׂ‬as in _______ (j

‫ מ‬as in _______ (w

‫ בּ‬as in _______ (k

‫ נ‬as in _______ (x

‫ ב‬as in _______ (l

Lesson 1

6

5. Draw lines to connect each letter with its corresponding final form:

‫ץ‬

‫ְך‬

‫פ‬

‫ם‬

‫נ‬

‫צ‬

‫כ‬

‫ף‬

‫מ‬

‫ן‬

6. Draw a line from the Hebrew proper name to the English equivalent.

‫ישׂראל‬
‫משׁה‬
‫יהודה‬
‫אדם‬
‫יעקב‬
‫לוי‬
‫פּלשׁתּי‬
‫פּרעה‬
‫אברהם‬
‫שׁדרך‬

Judah
Jacob
Levi
Israel
Philistine
Shadrach
Abraham
Adam
Moses
Pharaoh

‫יוסף‬
‫כּנען‬
‫חזקיה‬
‫שׂרה‬
‫נבוכדנאצר‬
‫תּמר‬
‫עשׂו‬
‫רחל‬
‫שׁלמה‬
‫לאה‬

Tamar
Esau
Rachel
Hezekiah
Joseph
Canaan
Solomon
Nebuchadnezzar
Leah
Sarah

7. Find the names of the letters of the alphabet in the puzzle (no left-to-right or
backwards ones).

‫שׂין‬
‫שׁין‬
‫תו‬

‫עין‬
‫פא‬
‫צדי‬
‫קוף‬
‫רישׁ‬

‫כף‬
‫למד‬
‫מם‬
‫נון‬
‫סמך‬

‫וו‬
‫זין‬
‫חית‬
‫טית‬
‫יוד‬

‫אלף‬
‫בית‬
‫גימל‬
‫דלת‬
‫הא‬

Lesson 1

‫ן‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ת‬
‫ס‬
‫נ‬
‫כ‬
‫ג‬
‫צ‬
‫ג‬
‫ט‬
‫ס‬

‫י‬
‫א‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬
‫נ‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫ד‬
‫ן‬
‫ת‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬

‫ע‬
‫ב‬
‫ב‬
‫ו‬
‫ג‬
‫ן‬
‫ה‬
‫פ‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫ה‬

‫ט‬
‫מ‬
‫ה‬
‫נ‬
‫שׁ‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ן‬
‫מ‬
‫ח‬
‫שׂ‬
‫י‬

‫כ‬
‫מ‬
‫ל‬
‫מ‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ם‬
‫שׁ‬
‫ד‬
‫ף‬
‫ך‬
‫ס‬

‫ג‬
‫ן‬
‫ת‬
‫ט‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫ד‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫ו‬
‫ן‬

‫ן‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ג‬
‫שׁ‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫שׁ‬
‫מ‬
‫ת‬
‫ף‬

7

‫ט‬
‫ף‬
‫ז‬
‫ם‬
‫י‬
‫ב‬
‫ד‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ס‬
‫ל‬
‫כ‬

‫ן‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ר‬
‫ן‬
‫צ‬
‫ד‬
‫ד‬
‫ה‬
‫א‬
‫ק‬

‫ט‬
‫ק‬
‫ד‬
‫ע‬
‫כ‬
‫י‬
‫ג‬
‫ד‬
‫מ‬
‫א‬
‫פ‬
‫ה‬

‫ג‬
‫ט‬
‫ז‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫ז‬
‫ם‬
‫ו‬
‫ל‬
‫ע‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬

‫ל‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫א‬
‫צ‬
‫כ‬
‫ד‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫מ‬

8. Follow the directions for each of the following verses.
a) Say aloud the names of the letters in the following verses.

‫כה אמר יהוה עשׂו משׁפט וצדקה והצילו גזול מיד עשׁוק וגר יתום ואלמנה אל־תנו‬
‫אל־תחמסו ודם נקי אל־תשׁפכו במקום הזה‬
‘Thus says YHWH: Act with justice and righteousness, and deliver from the hand of the
oppressor anyone who has been robbed. And do no wrong or violence to the alien, the
orphan, and the widow, or shed innocent blood in this place.’ (Jer 22:3)

b) Circle the letters which are final form.

‫לשׁלל שׁלל ולבז בז להשׁיב ידך על־חרבות נושׁבת ואל־עם מאסף מגוים עשׂה‬
‫מקנה וקנין ישׁבי על־טבור הארץ‬
‘. . . to seize spoil and carry off plunder; to assail the waste places that are now inhabited,
and the people who were gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who
live at the center of the earth.’ (Ezek 38:12)

Lesson 2
Lesson Summary:

• Hebrew Vowels and Vowels Signs
• Simple Sheva: ְ
• Compound Sheva: ֲ ֱ ֳ
• Independent Personal Pronouns
• Verbless Clauses
• Dagesh Chazaq and Dagesh Qal: ‫ִדּ ֶבּר‬
• Gutturals: ‫( ע ח ה א‬and ‫)ר‬
• Open and Closed Syllables, Word Stress: ‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬
2.1 The Biblical Hebrew Vowel System
Vowels

Sign

Name

ַ

pátach

ָ

qámets

‫ָה‬
ֶ
ֵ
‫ֵי‬
ִ
‫ִי‬
ָ
ֹ
ֹ‫ו‬
ֻ
‫וּ‬

Pronunciation

Class & Length
short

a in Father

a-class

qámets-he
ségol
tsére
tsére-yod

long
long
short

e in Met
ey in They

long
i-class

long

chíreq

i in Sit

short

chíreq-yod

ee in Seen

long
short

qámets-chatuf
chólem
chólem-vav
qibbuts
shúreq

long

o in Go
u-class
u in Rude

long
short
long

The Biblical Hebrew vowels have the following characteristics:

• The vowels appear under, over, or following the consonant

Lesson 2

9

they are pronounced after. For example, ‫ יָ ד‬is pronounced
[yad].

• Some long vowels are written as a vowel point and a
consonant. When ‫ה‬, ‫ו‬, or ‫ י‬are used in this way they are called
vowel letters. They are not consonants in these cases!

• ָ represents both long a-class qamets and short u-class
qamets-chatuf. Distinguishing which vowel it represents in a
given instance depends on knowing in what type of syllable it
occurs (see 2.2).

• The vowels in Biblical Hebrew are categorized by class (aclass, i-class, or u-class) and length (short or long).
2.2 Simple Sheva
Simple Sheva

The vowel system created by the Tiberian Masoretes (c. 500 C.E.)
required that every consonant have a vowel sign, except at the end
of a word. If a syllable ended in a consonant or began with two
consonants in a row it still required a vowel sign. For this purpose
they used the sheva, which means ‘nothingness’ (‫)שׁוָ א‬.
ְ
The sign is not properly a vowel, but in some places it is vocal,
pronounced like the “hurried” a as above and transliterated with ǝ:

‫[ ְבּ ִרית‬bərit]
In other places it is a silent place marker, showing that the
preceding syllable is closed:

‫[ ִמ ְד ָבּר‬midbar]
A sheva is vocal:

• at the beginning of a word:
‫מוֹ‬-‫[ ְשׁ‬shə-mo]

Lesson 2

10

• at the beginning of a syllable:
‫ ְמ‬in ‫רוּ‬-‫מ‬ְ ‫[ יִ ְשׁ‬yish-mə-ru]
Note: If two sheva are adjacent in a word, the first is silent and
the second is vocal.

• following a long vowel:
‫כם‬ֶ ‫ס‬-‫סוּ‬
ְ
[su-sə-chem]
Compound
Sheva

2.3 Compound Sheva
A compound sheva (also called composite sheva) is a ‘half
vowel’ that appears under guttural consonants in place of a simple
sheva. There are three compound sheva: an a-class, an i-class, and
a u-class. They are pronounced the same as their full vowel
counterparts but for a shorter duration.
Sign

Name

Pronunciation

Class

ֲ

chátef pátach

a in Aríse

a class

ֱ

chátef ségol

e in Excúse

i class

ֳ

chátef qámets

o in Omít

u class

2.4 Independent Personal Pronouns
Independent
Personal
Pronouns

Like English, Biblical Hebrew has independent personal
pronouns that are used as subjects of clauses.
These correspond to English I, you, he/she, we, they.

‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ ‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I (am) Joseph’ (Gen 45:3)
3MS

‫‘ הוּא‬he’

3MP

‫ ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬/ ‫‘ ֵהם‬they’

3FS

‫‘ ִהיא‬she’

3FP

‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬/ ‫‘ ֵהן‬they’

2MS

‫‘ ַא ָתּה‬you’

2MP

‫‘ ַא ֶתּם‬you’

2FS

‫‘ ַא ְתּ‬you’

2FP

‫‘ ַא ֶתּן‬you’

1CS

‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I’

1CP

‫‘ ֲא ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬we’

Lesson 2

11

2.5 Verbless Clauses
Verbless Clause

The present tense of the verb ‘to be’ is not expressed lexically
(i.e., by a word) in Hebrew. Thus, it must be supplied in English.

‫ֹלהים ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬
ִ ‫‘ לֹא ֱא‬they are not gods’ (2 Kgs 19:18)
These types of clauses are called verbless clauses.
2.6 Dagesh Qal and Dagesh Chazaq
Dagesh Qal

In 1.2 you learned about the six consonants (‫ )ב ג ד כ פ ת‬called
BeGaD KeFaT letters. Only these six consonants can have a dot
called a dagesh qal in them.
A dagesh qal in ‫ב‬, ‫כ‬, and ‫ פ‬marks their pronunciation as a stop
(i.e., [b], [k], [p] in which the air flowing through the mouth is
stopped) instead of the corresponding continuant (i.e., [v], [ch],
[f], in which the air flows through the mouth continuously).
A dagesh qal appears in a BeGaD KeFaT letter wherever there is
not a vowel (or vocal sheva) preceding it:

• at the beginning of a word:
‫[ ָדּ ָבר‬davar]

• at the beginning of a syllable following a closed syllable
‫[ ִמ ְד ָבּר‬midbar]
Dagesh Chazaq

The same dot can represent another type of dagesh called the
dagesh chazaq (“strong” dagesh). A dagesh chazaq can occur in
any consonant (except gutturals and ‫ )ר‬and lengthens it.

‫קשׁ = ִבּ ֵקּשׂ‬-‫ק‬
ֵ ‫[ ִבּ‬biqqesh]
The BeGaD KeFaT letters can also have a dagesh chazaq. In
addition to lengthening the consonant, this dagesh also makes the
pronunciation of ‫ב‬, ‫כ‬, and ‫ פ‬a stop just like the dagesh qal.

‫בּן = ַה ֵבּן‬-‫בּ‬
ֵ ‫[ ַה‬habben]

Lesson 2

12

Here are three principles for telling the two types of dagesh apart:
1) A dagesh in a non-BeGaD KeFaT letter is a dagesh chazaq.
2) A dagesh in a BeGaD KeFaT letter preceded by a vowel is
a dagesh chazaq.
3) A dagesh in a BeGaD KeFaT letter not preceded by a
vowel is a dagesh qal.
Note: A dagesh chazaq affects the syllable structure: ‫ִבּ ְקּשׁוּ‬
is ‫שׁוּ‬-‫ק‬ְ ‫[ ִבּ ְק‬biq-qə-shu]. A sheva under a consonant with a
dagesh chazaq is always vocal.

2.7 Guttural Consonants
Gutturals

Several pharyngeal and laryngeal consonants, pronounced in the
back of the throat, are grouped together under the label guttural
consonants: ‫ע ח ה א‬.
Four characteristics of gutturals are notable:
1) Gutturals (and ‫ )ר‬cannot be lengthened; that is, they cannot
have a dagesh chazaq.
2) Gutturals prefer a-class vowels nearby, i.e., before or after.

‫[ יַ ֲעמֹד‬ya'amod]
3) Gutturals ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, and ‫ ע‬at the end of a word following a long
vowel take an a-class ‘helping’ vowel called a furtive
patach (this is the only instance where two vowels occur in
a row).

‫רוּח‬
ַ [ruach]
4) Gutturals usually have a compound sheva (2.6) instead of
simple sheva (2.3).

‫'[ ֲא ֶשׁר‬asher] (instead of *‫) ְא ֶשׁר‬

Lesson 2
Syllable

13

2.8 Open and Closed Syllables and Word Stress
A syllable begins with a consonant (C) and ends with either a
vowel (CV = open), or a consonant (CVC = closed).

‫ ָדּ ָבר‬has two syllables:
an open –‫( ָדּ‬CV)
Mappiq

Open syllable

and
a closed ‫–בר‬
ָ (CVC).
Note: The vowel letters (‫ה‬, ‫ו‬, ‫ )י‬and ‫ א‬do not close syllables!
However, ‫ הּ‬at the end of a word does close a syllable. The
dot, called a mappiq, indicates that the ‫ ה‬is a consonant and
not a vowel letter.

• Open syllables usually have long vowels (as –‫ ָדּ‬in ‫ָ)דּ ָבר‬
Closed syllable

unless stressed – then they may have short vowels (as –‫ֶ֫מ‬
in ‫)מ ֶלְך‬.
ֶ֫

• Closed syllables usually have short vowels (as ‫–לְך‬
ֶ in ‫)מ ֶלְך‬
ֶ֫
unless stressed – then they may have long vowels (as ‫–בר‬
ָ
in ‫)דּ ָבר‬.
ָ
Note: The vowel ָ represents the short u-class qamets-chatuf
if it is in a closed, unstressed syllable, otherwise it is the long
a-class qamets.
Word stress

‫מה‬ָ ‫[ = ָח ְכ‬chochma]
A syllable is either stressed or unstressed: in most words the last
syllable is stressed. Words that are not stressed on the last
syllable in the lessons and exercises have an accent mark over the
stressed syllable, written as ֫ .

Lesson 2

14

2.9 Vocabulary #2
‫ָאב‬

M

‫ֲאד ֹנָ י‬

PN (EPITHET)

‫ִאישׁ‬

M

‫ֶאל־‬

PREP

‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫ֱא‬

‫יוֹם‬

father; P ‫ָאבוֹת‬
the LORD

‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬

man; P ‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬

‫כּ ֵֹהן‬

to, towards

‫לֹא‬

PN

God, gods

‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬
‫ַמ ְל ָכּה‬

‫ֶ֫א ֶרץ‬

F

earth, land

‫ִא ָשּׁה‬

F

woman, wife; P ‫נָ ִשׁים‬

‫מ ֶֹשׁה‬

M

day; P ‫יָמים‬
ִ

PN
M

Israel

priest

ADV

no, not

M

king

F

queen

PN

‫ֵבּן‬

M

son; P ‫ָבּנִ ים‬

‫ִעיר‬

F

‫ָדּ ָבר‬

M

word, thing

‫ַעם‬

M

‫ָדּוִ יד‬

PN

Moses

city
people

David

Exercises
1. a) Write each of the Biblical Hebrew vowels with each of the consonants; b)
Pronounce aloud the combination of consonant and vowel as you write them,
ֹ ‫ ַא ָא ֶא ֵא ֵאי ִא ִאי ָא‬.
e.g., ‫א אוֹ ֻא אוּ‬

2. a) Write each compound sheva with each of the guttural consonants. b)
Pronounce aloud the combination of consonant and vowel as you write them,
e.g., ‫ ֳא ֱא ֲא‬.

‫‪Lesson 2‬‬

‫‪15‬‬

‫‪3. Read aloud the name of each vowel and write the correct sign under the‬‬

‫‪.‬‬
‫‪(k‬‬

‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי יוֹד‬

‫‪(f‬‬

‫‪(l‬‬

‫שׁוּ֫ ֶרק‬

‫‪(g‬‬

‫ִחי֫ ֶרק יוֹד‬

‫‪(m‬‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬

‫‪(h‬‬

‫֫ ַפּ ַתח‬

‫‪(n‬‬

‫חוֹ ֶלם‬
‫֫‬

‫‪(i‬‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ְסגוֹל‬

‫‪(j‬‬

‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬

‫ִחי֫ ֶרק‬

‫‪(o‬‬

‫ְשׁוָ א‬

‫‪(a‬‬

‫ִקבּוּץ‬

‫‪(b‬‬

‫חוֹ ֶלם וָ ו‬
‫֫‬

‫‪(c‬‬

‫ְסגוֹל‬

‫‪(d‬‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ֫ ַפּ ַתח‬

‫‪(e‬‬

‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי‬

‫‪4. Find the names of the Biblical Hebrew vowels in the puzzle (no left-to-right or‬‬
‫‪backwards ones).‬‬
‫שׁוּ֫ ֶרק‬

‫֫ ַפּ ַתח‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ֫ ַפּ ַתח‬

‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ ָחטוּף‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬

‫ָ֫ח ֶטף ְסגוֹל‬

‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי‬

‫ִקבּוּץ‬

‫חוֹ ֶלם‬
‫֫‬

‫ָ ֫ק ֶמץ‬

‫ְשׁוָ א‬

‫חוֹ ֶלם וָ ו‬
‫֫‬

‫ִחי֫ ֶרק‬

‫ֵ֫צ ֵרי יוֹד‬

‫ִחי֫ ֶרק יוֹד‬

‫ְסגוֹל‬

‫ד‬
‫ס‬
‫ל‬
‫ך‬
‫י‬
‫צ‬
‫ל‬
‫צ‬
‫ק‬
‫צ‬
‫פ‬
‫ח‬

‫ר‬
‫ג‬
‫א‬
‫א‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫ך‬
‫ר‬
‫מ‬
‫נ‬
‫ת‬
‫ו‬

‫ל‬
‫ק‬
‫א‬
‫ס‬
‫ט‬
‫ך‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫ץ‬
‫שׁ‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬

‫ד‬
‫ג‬
‫א‬
‫ף‬
‫ג‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫י‬
‫ח‬
‫ג‬
‫ו‬
‫ם‬

‫ל‬
‫ד‬
‫פ‬
‫ד‬
‫ר‬
‫צ‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫ט‬
‫ח‬
‫ח‬
‫ל‬

‫ם‬
‫ת‬
‫מ‬
‫ק‬
‫ח‬
‫ז‬
‫ל‬
‫ד‬
‫ו‬
‫י‬
‫ט‬
‫א‬

‫ח‬
‫שׁ‬
‫י‬
‫א‬
‫ט‬
‫ס‬
‫ם‬
‫פ‬
‫ף‬
‫ר‬
‫ף‬
‫ז‬

‫ח‬
‫ו‬
‫צ‬
‫מ‬
‫ף‬
‫ג‬
‫ו‬
‫ץ‬
‫מ‬
‫ק‬
‫ס‬
‫ט‬

‫ד‬
‫א‬
‫ג‬
‫ו‬
‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ע‬
‫ל‬
‫ג‬
‫שׁ‬

‫ע‬
‫ע‬
‫ד‬
‫צ‬
‫מ‬
‫ל‬
‫א‬
‫נ‬
‫מ‬
‫ק‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬

‫ז‬
‫א‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ץ‬
‫א‬
‫ק‬
‫ם‬
‫ו‬
‫ר‬
‫ל‬
‫ק‬

‫נ‬
‫ח‬
‫שׁ‬
‫י‬
‫צ‬
‫ץ‬
‫ו‬
‫ב‬
‫ק‬
‫מ‬
‫ו‬
‫ח‬

Lesson 2

16

5. Identify a similar sounding English word for each Hebrew word, e.g., ‫ = ָכּר‬car.

_________ = ‫( ִלין‬q

_________ = ‫( ִדּין‬i

________ = ‫( פּוּשׁ‬a

_________ = ‫( לֹא‬r

_________ = ‫( ִעיר‬j

_________ = ‫( ֵבּין‬b

_________ = ‫( ֵפּן‬s

________ = ‫( הוּא‬k

_________ = ‫( ֵרד‬c

_________ = ‫( אוֹר‬t

________ = ‫( ִשׂים‬l

_________ = ‫( ִמי‬d

________ = ‫( ִהיא‬u

________ = ‫( ֵעת‬m

_________ = ‫( ֵכּן‬e

_________ = ‫( ֵאם‬v

_________ = ‫( ר ֹב‬n

________ = ‫( בּוֹר‬f

_________ = ‫( רוּץ‬w

_________ = ‫( ַרק‬o

_________ = ‫( ֶפּן‬g

_________ = ‫( ִשׁיר‬x

________ = ‫( שׁוֹר‬p

________ = ‫( פּוּר‬h

6. Spell these English words with Hebrew consonants and vowels, e.g., bed = ‫בּד‬.
ֶ
a) shed = _________

i) hot = _________

q) tar = _________

b) sheet = _________

j) near = _________

r) sew = _________

c) keep = _________

k) say = _________

s) name = _________

d) sight = _________

l) peet = _________

t) cave = _________

e) road = _________

m) key = _________

u) cots = _________

f) ooze = _________

n) ray = _________

v) red = _________

g) root = _________

o) vote = _________

w) doze = _________

h) soup = _________

p) soap = _________

x) give = _________

7. Practice reading the following verses until you can do so smoothly and then
identify each sheva as silent or vocal.

‫קוֹסס וְ יָ ֵבשׁ ָכּל־‬
ֵ ְ‫ת־פּ ְריָ הּ י‬
ִ ‫יה יְ נַ ֵתּק וְ ֶא‬
ָ ‫ת־שׁ ָר ֶשׁ‬
ָ ‫ֱאמֹר כֹּה ָא ַמר ֲאד ֹנָ י יְ הוִֹ ה ִתּ ְצ ָלח ֲהלוֹא ֶא‬
‫יה‬
ָ ‫אוֹתהּ ִמ ָשּׁ ָר ֶשׁ‬
ָ ‫ם־רב ְל ַמ ְשׂאוֹת‬
ָ ‫וּב ַע‬
ְ ‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫א־בזְ ר ַֹע גּ‬
ִ ֹ ‫יבשׁ וְ ל‬
ָ ‫ַט ְר ֵפּי ִצ ְמ ָחהּ ִתּ‬
‘Say: Thus says YHWH God: Will it prosper? Will he not pull up its roots, cause its fruit to rot
and wither all its fresh sprouting leaves to fade? No strong arm or mighty army will be
needed to pull it from its roots.’ (Ezek 17:9)

Lesson 2

17

8. Practice reading the following verses until you can do so smoothly and then
identify each dagesh as a dagesh qal or dagesh chazaq.

‫פוּה‬
ָ ‫וּשׂ ָר‬
ְ ‫ת־ה ִעיר ַהזֹּאת ָבּ ֵאשׁ‬
ָ ‫ל־ה ִעיר ַהזֹּאת וְ ִה ִצּיתוּ ֶא‬
ָ ‫וּבאוּ ַה ַכּ ְשׂ ִדּים ַהנִּ ְל ָח ִמים ַע‬
ָ
‫אֹלהים ֲא ֵח ִרים ְל ַמ ַען‬
ִ ‫יהם ַל ַבּ ַעל וְ ִה ִסּכוּ נְ ָס ִכים ֵל‬
ֶ ‫גּוֹת‬
ֵ ַ‫וְ ֵאת ַה ָבּ ִתּים ֲא ֶשׁר ִק ְטּרוּ ַעל־גּ‬
‫ַה ְכ ִע ֵסנִ י‬
‘The Chaldeans who are fighting against this city shall come, set it on fire, and burn it, with
the houses on whose roofs offerings have been made to Baal and libations have been poured
out to other gods, to provoke me to anger.’ (Jer 32:29)

9. Divide the following words into syllables: mark the syllable as open (CV) or
closed (CVC) and the vowel in each syllable as long (L) or short (S), e.g.,
CSC/CLC ‫ ָפּט‬/ ‫ִמ ְשׁ‬

__________

‫( ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬j

__________

__________

‫( ֫ ַליְ ָלה‬k

__________ ‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫( ֱא‬b

__________

‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫( ִל‬l

__________‫( ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬c

‫( ָח ְכ ָמה‬a

__________ ‫( ָה ֲא ָד ָמה‬m

__________

‫( ִק ְדּ ָשׁנוּ‬d

__________ ‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫( ְשׁ‬n

__________

‫( ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬e

__________ ‫( ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬o

__________

‫( ְצ ָד ָקה‬f

__________

‫( ַחיִּ ים‬p

__________

‫( ִל ְפנֵ י‬g

__________

‫( יַ ְח ָדּו‬q

__________

‫( ַא ָתּה‬h

__________

‫רוּח‬
ַ (r

__________

‫( ִא ָשּׁה‬i

Lesson 2

18

10. Translate the following phrases into Hebrew, and then practice saying them
with a classmate or friend.
a) I am a man

f) I (M) am a king

b) He is a father

g) We are a people

c) You (P) are not gods

h) He is the Lord

d) She is not a man

i) I (F) am a queen

e) They (FP) are not sons

j) It is Israel

11. Form five of your own phrases using independent personal pronouns and the
items from the vocabulary list.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 3
Lesson Summary:

• Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words
• Definiteness
• Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew
• The Article: – •‫ַה‬
• Inseparable Prepositions: (– ‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬, and ‫) ִמן‬
• Vav Conjunction: (– ְ‫)ו‬

3.1 Grammatical Words versus Lexical Words
All items within the lexicon of a language can be separated into one
of two categories: grammatical words and lexical words.
Grammatical
Words

Grammatical words are words that do not carry semantic content,
but rather they signal grammatical relationships. For example,
conjunctions signal the syntactic relationship between clauses,
phrases, and words. However, conjunctions do not have meaning
apart from the relationship they signal; in other words, grammatical
words do not refer to something in the real world. Other examples
are pronouns, prepositions, and articles.

Lexical Words

Lexical words, by contrast, do carry semantic content. Thus, nouns,
adjectives, and verbs are lexical words—they refer to people / places
/ things, qualities / quantities, and actions / events, respectively.
3.2 Definiteness

Definiteness

A further basic classification of nouns is whether they are definite or
not. Definiteness is a grammatical category (like gender, number, or
tense) that represents a noun’s identifiability. When a noun is
definite, the item to which it refers is identifiable by a
reader/listener. Consider the following English example:
I want to buy the book.

Lesson 3

20

In the clause given, the definite noun phrase the book signals to the
reader that the ‘real-world’ referent (i.e., the precise book) should be
identifiable by the reader/listener. However, when a noun phrase is
not definite (as below), its referent (e.g., that of the phrase a book) is
unidentifiable until it is identified by sight, description, etc.
I want to buy a book.

Languages express and use definiteness differently. For example, in
some languages noun phrases referring to specific (but
unidentifiable) items are definite (as in Biblical Hebrew), whereas in
other languages, such specific, unidentifiable noun phrases are
indefinite (as in English). Consider the following verse:

‫וּבא ַה ַבּיִ ת וְ ָס ַמְך‬
ָ ‫וּפגָ עוֹ ַהדּ ֹב‬
ְ ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר יָ נוּס ִאישׁ ִמ ְפּנֵ י ָה ֲא ִרי‬
‫ל־ה ִקּיר וּנְ ָשׁכוֹ ַהנָּ ָחשׁ‬
ַ ‫יָ דוֹ ַע‬
‘just as a man flees from the lion and the bear meets him and he
enters the house and leans his hand upon the wall and the snake
bites him’ (Amos 5:19)

In Amos 5:19, the noun phrases ‘the lion’, ‘the bear’, ‘the house’,
‘the wall’, and ‘the snake’ denote an arbitrary member of the class
described by each (e.g., an arbitrary member of the class ‘bear’).
In Biblical Hebrew, such noun phrases are often definite; whereas in
English, such noun phrases are overwhelmingly indefinite.
Compare the English translation given above (which directly reflects
the Hebrew) with the English translation given below from the New
Revised Standard Version:
‘as if someone fled from a lion, and was met by a bear; or went
into the house and rested a hand against the wall, and was bitten
by a snake.’

While definiteness in Biblical Hebrew and definiteness in English
often correspond, we will find that this is not always the case.

Definiteness
in Biblical
Hebrew

3.3 Definiteness in Biblical Hebrew
Definiteness, like other grammatical categories such as gender,
number, tense, and aspect, often takes on a morphological form.
This is accomplished by means of grammatical words referred to as
definite (and indefinite) articles. Some languages have both a

Lesson 3

21

definite and indefinite article (so English: the versus a/an), whereas
many others have just one or the other.
Biblical Hebrew only has a definite article (•‫)ה‬.
ַ However, noun
phrases in Biblical Hebrew are also marked as definite by other
means.
Biblical Hebrew nouns are marked as definite in one of four ways:

• If it is inherently definite (e.g., names, appellatives, pronouns)
‫‘ ָדּוִ יד‬David’ ‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ֱא‬God’ ‫‘ ֲאנִ י‬I’
• If the article is prefixed to the noun:

‫‘ ַה ֵלּב‬the heart’

• If it is in a construct relationship with a definite noun (see 6.1):
‫ר־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫‘ ְדּ ַב‬the word of the king’

• If a possessive pronoun is suffixed:
‫‘ ִל ִבּי‬my heart’
Note: Nouns may only be marked as definite in one of these
ways; Biblical Hebrew nouns may not be doubly-marked for
definiteness. In other words, inherently definite nouns, nouns in
construct, or nouns with suffixes cannot take the article since
they are all already definite! The only “exceptions” are those few
proper (i.e., inherently definite) nouns whose origins were as
common nouns, such as ‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ָה ֱא‬God’.

The Hebrew
Article

3.4 The Article (– • ‫) ַה‬
The definite article takes the form of ‫ ַה‬prefixed to the word it
modifies and a dagesh chazaq in the first letter of the modified
word.

‫ ִמ ְד ָבּר = ַה ִמּ ְד ָבּר‬+ • ‫‘ ַה‬the wilderness’
However, this basic form may be modified. The form of the article
is as follows:

Lesson 3

22

1) • ‫ ַה‬before non-guttural consonants: ‫‘ ַהסּוּס‬the horse’
2) ‫ ָה‬usually before ‫א‬, ‫ע‬, or ‫ר‬: ‫‘ ָהרֹאשׁ‬the head’
3) ‫ ַה‬usually before ‫ ה‬or ‫ח‬: ‫יכל‬
ָ ‫‘ ַה ֵה‬the temple’
4) ‫ ֶה‬before ‫ ָה‬, ‫ ָח‬, or ‫( ָע‬unstressed!): ‫‘ ֶה ָה ִרים‬the mountains’
5) ‫ ָה‬before ‫ ָ֫ה‬or ‫( ֫ ָע‬stressed!): ‫‘ ָה ָהר‬the mountain’
BUT before ‫( ָ֫ח‬stressed!) it is ‫ ֶה‬: ‫‘ ֶה ָ֫חיִ ל‬the valor’
Summary of the article before gutturals:
‫ר‬
stressed
qamets

unstressed
qamets

‫ָה ָעז‬

‫ֶה ָע ָפר‬

‫ע‬

‫ָה ָהר‬

‫ֶה ָה ִרים‬

‫ה‬

‫ֶה ָ֫חיִ ל‬

‫ֶה ָח ָכם‬

‫ח‬

‫א‬

‫ָה‬

‫ָהרֹאשׁ‬
‫ָה ָאב‬
‫ָה ִעיר‬

‫ַה‬

‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ַה ֵה‬
‫ַה ֫חֹ ֶדשׁ‬

Note: There are a few nouns whose first vowel changes when the
article is added to them:

‫ ֶ֫א ֶרץ ← ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the earth’
‫ גַ ן ← ַהגָּ ן‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the garden’
‫ ַעם ← ָה ָעם‬+ •‫‘ ַה‬the people’
Inseparable
Prepositions

3.5 Inseparable Prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬, and sometimes ‫)מן‬
ִ
Prepositions are another type of grammatical word; that is, they
serve only to relate a noun, noun phrase, or clause syntactically to
other words in the sentence.
For example, the English preposition into in the following clause
relates the immediately following noun phrase the store to the
preceding verb phrase they ran:
They ran into the store.

Thus, prepositional phrases serve to specify the location, direction,

Lesson 3

23

manner, means, time, possession, etc., for other constituents such as
verb phrases, noun phrases, and clauses.
The most common prepositions in Biblical Hebrew are clitics, i.e.,
words that cannot stand on their own. There are three ‘inseparable’
prepositions, which may be prefixed to nouns, adjectives,
infinitives, and participles (thus, they are proclitic):
–‫‘ ְבּ‬in, at’ –‫‘ ְכּ‬like, as’ –‫‘ ְל‬to, for’

The principles of vocalization for the inseparable prepositions are:

• ‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫ ְל‬before a consonant with a full vowel.
‫‘ ְל ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬to/for a king’
‫‘ ְבּ ַ֫ביִ ת‬in/at a house’
• ‫ ִבּ‬, ‫ ִכּ‬, ‫ ִל‬before a consonant with a simple sheva, ְ .
‫‘ ִבּ ְב ִרית‬according to a covenant’
BUT before ְ‫ י‬the vowel becomes ‫ִ י‬.

‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫הוּדה ← ִל‬
ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬to/for Judah’
• The corresponding full vowel before a compound sheva.
‫ ֲא ֶשׁר ← ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬+ ‫‘ ְכּ‬like that which’
‫ ֱאדוֹם ← ֶל ֱאדוֹם‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬for Edom’
• The article vocalization before a noun with the article (i.e., the
article’s consonant ‫ ה‬is replaced by the inseparable
preposition).

‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ← ַל ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬+ ‫‘ ְל‬to/for the king’
• Some special cases:
Quiescent ‫א‬: ‫אֹלהים‬
ִ ‫‘ ֵל‬to/for God’ ‫‘ ַלאד ֹנָ י‬to/for the Lord’
‫ ְָבּ‬, ‫ ָכּ‬, ‫ ָל‬before a stressed syllable in some words: ‫‘ ָבּזֶ ה‬in this’

Lesson 3

24

The preposition ‫‘( ִמן‬from’) is mostly written as a separate word; in
such cases it is connected to the noun with a maqqef (‫)־‬. This is its
usual form before a noun with the article.

‫ן־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫‘ ִמ‬from the king’
The preposition ‫ ִמן‬may also be inseparable. In this case, the
vocalization is:

• •‫ ִמ‬before non-gutturals (the assimilation of ‫ ן‬into the following
consonant is marked by a dagesh chazaq).

‫ ָשׁם ← ִמ ָשּׁם‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from there’
BUT before ְ‫ י‬the vowel becomes a ‫ִ י‬.

‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫הוּדה ← ִמ‬
ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from Judah’
• ‫ ֵמ‬before gutturals (the vowel lengthens because the guttural
cannot be lengthened, i.e., they do not allow dagesh chazaq).

‫ ִאישׁ ← ֵמ ִאישׁ‬+ ‫‘ ִמן‬from a man’

Vav
Conjunction

3.6 Vav Conjunction (– ְ‫)ו‬
As mentioned above in 3.1, conjunctions are a type of grammatical
word, like the article. Conjunctions serve to connect words, phrases,
clauses, and sentences to each other syntactically, e.g., and, or, but.
The basic Hebrew conjunction (and, in fact, the most frequent word
in the Hebrew Bible) is the vav conjunction: – ְ‫ו‬. Like the article and
the inseparable prepositions, it is attached to the front of a word.
The vav conjunction has two functions:
1) It connects words and phrases together, signaling a
coordinating relationship (it may be translated with ‘and’,
‘or’, or ‘but’).

‫‘ ָה ָעם וְ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬the people and the king’

Lesson 3

25

2) It marks the beginning of a new clause and is untranslatable
(the type of clause and the context determine the type of
connection required for English translation).

‫ֹלהים יְ ִהי אוֹר‬
ִ ‫אמר ֱא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫וַ ֫יּ‬
‘(and) God said, “Let there be light!” (Gen 1:3)

The vocalization of the vav conjunction:

• ְ‫ ו‬normally.
‫‘ וְ ָדוִ יד‬and David’
Note: The definite article remains when the conjunction is added.
‫‘ וְ ָה ִאישׁ‬and the man’

• ִ‫ ו‬before ְ‫י‬.
‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ִ‫הוּדה ← ו‬
ָ ְ‫ י‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and Judah’
• with the corresponding full vowel before a compound sheva.
‫‘ וֶ ֱאדוֹם‬and Edom’ ‫‘ וַ ֲאנִ י‬and I’
• ‫ וּ‬before ‫ב‬, ‫מ‬, ‫פ‬, or simple sheva (other than ְ‫)י‬. This may be
mnemonically referred to as the BuMP-Sheva Rule.

‫וּביִ ת‬
ַ֫ ← ‫ ַ֫בּיִ ת‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and a house’
‫וּפנִ ים‬
ָ ← ‫ ָפּנִ ים‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and a face’
‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫וּמ‬
ִ ←‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫ ִמ‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and from Judah’
‫דוֹלים‬
ִ ְ‫דוֹלים ← וּג‬
ִ ְ‫ גּ‬+ ְ‫‘ ו‬and great (things)’
Note: This is the only case in which a vowel begins a syllable!

• Some special cases:
Quiescent ‫א‬:

‫אֹלהים‬
ִ ֵ‫‘ ו‬and God’ ‫‘ וַ אד ֹנָ י‬and the Lord’
ָ‫ ו‬occasionally before a stressed syllable:

‫וָ ֫בֹהוּ‬

‘and emptiness’

Lesson 3

26

3.7 Vocabulary #3
‫ָאדוֹן‬
‫ ֵאין־‬, ‫ַ֫איִ ן‬
‫ְבּ‬

M

‫ְל‬

master, lord

EXST ADV
PREP

there isn’t/aren’t

‫ ֵל ָבב‬, ‫ֵלב‬
‫ִמן‬

in, at, with, by

‫ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬

M/F

way, road

•‫ַה‬

DET

the

ְ‫ו‬

CONJ

and

‫ְכּ‬

PREP

like, as

‫ֶ֫נ ֶפשׁ‬
‫ָשׁם‬
‫ָשׁנָ ה‬

PREP
M

heart, mind; PL ‫ִלבּוֹת‬

PREP
F

from; more than

life, self

ADV
F

to, for

there

year; P ‫ָשׁנִ ים‬

Exercises
1. Add the definite article (•‫)ה‬
ַ to ten nouns from your vocabulary and translate
(remember that proper names cannot have a definite article).

2. Add one of the inseparable prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬,  ‫ ) ְל‬to ten nouns from your
vocabulary and translate.

3. Add one of the inseparable prepositions (‫ ְבּ‬, ‫ ְכּ‬,  ‫ ) ְל‬to your results in exercise #1
(i.e., inseparable preposition + the definite article + noun) and translate.

4. Add the preposition ‫ ִמן‬to five nouns from your vocabulary, making it
inseparable where possible, and translate.

Lesson 3

27

5. Add the vav conjunction to ten nouns from your vocabulary and translate.

6. Correct the vocalization of these definite articles and/or inseparable
prepositions, e.g., ‫ ַה ִאישׁ‬correct to ‫ה ִאישׁ‬.
ָ
‫( ָה ֶמ ֶלְך‬k
‫( ִמ ַביִ ת‬f
‫( ִבּ ָשׁלוֹם‬a

‫וּכבוֹד‬
ָ (l

‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫( ֶל ֱא‬g

‫( ַכּ ָשׁלוֹם‬b

‫( ֱב ְב ִרית‬m

‫ן־מ ְצ ַריִ ם‬
ִ ‫( וְ ִמ‬h

‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫( ִלי‬c

‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫( ְל ְשׁ‬n

‫( ֱבּ ֱא ֶמת‬i

‫( ָה ָה ִרים‬d

‫( ִב ֱאדוֹם‬o

‫ן־ה ִעיר‬
ֶ ‫( ִמ‬j

‫( וִ ְמ ָל ִכים‬e

7. Translate the following sentences.

‫( וְ ֵאין ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬a
‫( ֵאין ִעיר ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬b
‫( ָה ָעם וְ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ָבּ ִעיר‬c
‫( ָכּ ָאדוֹן ָכּ ֫ ֶע ֶבד‬d
‫( ָל ִא ָשּׁה ֵאין ִאישׁ‬e
‫ֹלהים ַכּיהוָ ה‬
ִ ‫( ֵאין ֱא‬f
‫( ֵאין כּ ֵֹהן ָל ָעם‬g
‫( וְ ִאישׁ ֵאין ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬h
‫( ֵאין ַעם ָשׁם‬i
‫( ֵאין ִעיר ַבּ ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬j

Lesson 3

28

8. a) Practice reading aloud until you can do so smoothly, b) Circle the definite
articles, inseparable prepositions, and vav conjunctions in each verse; be sure
you can explain why they are vocalized as they are.

‫וְ ַעל־יָ ָדם ֶה ֱחזִ יק ְמ ַל ְטיָ ה ַהגִּ ְבעֹנִ י וְ יָ דוֹן ַה ֵמּרֹנ ִֹתי ַאנְ ֵשׁי גִ ְבעוֹן וְ ַה ִמּ ְצ ָפּה ְל ִכ ֵסּא ֫ ַפּ ַחת ֫ ֵע ֶבר‬
‫ַהנָּ ָהר‬
‘Next to them repairs were made by Melatiah the Gibeonite and Jadon the Meronothite--the men
of Gibeon and of Mizpah--who were under the jurisdiction of the governor of the province
beyond the River.’ (Neh 3:7)

‫ל־שׂ ֵרי ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ַהגִּ בּ ִֹרים וַ ֲאנִ י ִה ְת ַח ַ֫זּ ְק ִתּי ְכּיַ ד־‬
ָ ‫וּל ָכ‬
ְ ‫יוֹע ָציו‬
ֲ ְ‫ה־ח ֶסד ִל ְפנֵ י ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ו‬
ֶ֫ ‫וְ ָע ַלי ִה ָטּ‬
‫אשׁים ַל ֲעלוֹת ִע ִמּי‬
ִ ‫ֹלהי ָע ַלי וָ ֶא ְק ְבּ ָצה ִמיִּ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָר‬
ַ ‫יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
‘. . . and who extended to me steadfast love before the king and his counselors, and before all the
king's mighty officers. I took courage, for the hand of Yhwh my God was upon me, and I
gathered leaders from Israel to go up with me.’ (Ezra 7:28)

‫א־ת ְשׂ ַבּע ֫ע ֹ ֶשׁר‬
ִ ֹ ‫ם־עינָ יו ל‬
ֵ ַ‫ל־ע ָמלוֹ גּ‬
ֲ ‫יֵ שׁ ֶא ָחד וְ ֵאין ֵשׁנִ י גַּ ם ֵבּן וָ ָאח ֵאין־לוֹ וְ ֵאין ֵקץ ְל ָכ‬
‫טּוֹבה גַּ ם־זֶ ה ֶ֫ה ֶבל וְ ִענְ יַ ן ָרע הוּא‬
ָ ‫וּמ ַח ֵסּר ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִשׁי ִמ‬
ְ ‫וּל ִמי ֲאנִ י ָע ֵמל‬
ְ
‘There is the case of solitary individuals, without sons or brothers; yet there is no end to all their
toil, and their eyes are never satisfied with riches. “For whom am I toiling,” they ask, “and
depriving myself of pleasure?” This also is absurd and an unhappy business.’ (Qoh 4:8)

9. Form five of your own phrases using prepositions and the items from the
vocabulary list.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 4
Lesson Summary:

• Singular Nouns: ‫סוּסה‬
ָ ‫סוּס‬
• Introduction to Verbs
• Qal Perfect Conjugation - Singular:
‫ָפּ ַקד ָפּ ְק ָדה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬

• Objects in Biblical Hebrew: ‫ ֶאת־‬/ ‫ֵאת‬
4.1 Masculine and Feminine Singular Nouns
Unlike grammatical words like the article, prepositions, and
conjunctions (discussed in Lesson 3), nouns are lexical words. That
is, nouns have semantic content—they refer to an entity in the
external world. Thus, the noun book refers to a concrete object (a
group of pages bound between a cover), whether real or
hypothetical.

Gender

Nouns in many languages are inflected for the grammatical category
gender. Biblical Hebrew is such a language—nouns (as well as
adjectives, pronouns, and verbs) in Biblical Hebrew are
morphologically marked as either masculine or feminine.
Though the ‘natural gender’ of animate objects often corresponds to
their grammatical gender, (e.g., ‫‘ ִאישׁ‬man’ is masculine; ‫ִא ָשּׁה‬
‘woman’ is feminine), grammatical gender is essentially a syntactic
agreement property of language.

Masculine
Singular noun

In Biblical Hebrew masculine nouns do not have an overt gender
inflection (alternatively, they could be considered to have a null
suffix, indicated by Ø, that marks them as masculine).

‫‘ ָאח‬brother’
‫‘ ֫ ַנ ַער‬young man’
In contrast, most feminine nouns are overtly inflected for gender.
Feminine
Singular noun

• Many feminine nouns end in ‫ָ ה‬.

Lesson 4

30

‫‘ ֲא ָד ָמה‬ground’
‫‘ ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬cattle’
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ ‘teaching’
• Some feminine nouns end in ‫ת‬.
‫‘ ְבּ ִרית‬covenant’
‫‘ ַמ ְלכוּת‬kingdom’
‫‘ ַח ָטּאת‬sin’
• Nouns referring to paired body parts are feminine, but do not
have an overt grammatical gender inflection.

‫‘ יָ ד‬hand’
‫‘ ֫ ַעיִ ן‬eye’
‫‘ ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬foot’
Note: Some nouns, like ‫‘ ֵאם‬mother,’ or body parts (above), are
grammatically feminine even though they do not have a
morphologically feminine gender marking (e.g., ‫) ָ ה‬. Therefore,
each noun’s gender should be learned with its meaning. The
gender of each noun in vocabulary lists is marked by M or F.

Masculine
‘stallion’
Feminine
‘mare’

The Hebrew
Verb

Binyan

Singular

Plural

Dual

(Ø marking) ‫סוּס‬

Lesson 5

Lesson 5

‫סוּסה‬
ָ

Lesson 5

4.2 Introduction to Verbs
Like most words in Biblical Hebrew, verbs can be derived from a
triconsonantal root (see 1.1). A triconsonantal verb root is modified
by affixes (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, or infixes) and/or vowel patterns
to indicate its binyan, conjugation, and person, gender, and
number (PGN). This information is called a verb’s ‘parsing’.

• Binyan (P binyanim) (‘building’) indicates the valency of a
verb’s action—whether active, passive, reflexive, or
causative. Each binyan has a pattern of affixes and vowels.
For example, the simple active binyan, called Qal (‫‘ ַקל‬light’),

Lesson 4

31

is characterized by a qamets--patach vowel pattern in the
Perfect conjugation: ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he attended’ (3MS).
The Qal binyan is introduced in this lesson; the other six
primary binyanim will be introduced in subsequent lessons.
Conjugation

• Conjugation in Biblical Hebrew determines the aspect, or view
of a verb’s action: the Perfect conjugation views an event as
a whole (perfective); the Imperfect conjugation views an
event as in progress (imperfective).
The conjugations do not signify tense, like English
conjugations do (e.g., Simple Past). However, the Perfect is
predominantly used to describe past time events, whereas the
Imperfect is predominantly used to describe non-past time
events (i.e., present or future).
Perfect
Conjugation
Imperfect
Conjugation

Inflectional
Affixes

‘whole’ view aspect
(perfective)
‘in progress’ view aspect
(imperfective)

usually past time
reference
usually non-past time
reference

• Inflectional affixes mark a verb’s agreement features:
person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd)
gender (M, F, or C = common)
number (S or P).
All of the conjugations, except the participle, are based on
two morphological patterns:
Suffix Pattern, which uses inflectional suffixes

‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
Prefix Pattern, which uses primarily prefixes

‫יִ ְפקֹד‬
Note: The form by which Hebrew verbs are listed in a lexicon
or dictionary is the Qal 3MS Perfect form.

Lesson 4
Qal Perfect
Conjugation
Singular

4.3 Qal Perfect Conjugation - Singular
The Perfect is the only conjugation built on the Suffix Pattern.
Conjugations built on the Prefix Pattern are introduced in Lesson
8.
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

Objects

32


‫ה‬-ָ
‫ ָתּ‬‫ ְתּ‬‫ ִתּי‬-





‫ָפּ ַקד‬
‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬

‘he attended’

3CP Lesson 5

‘she attended’
‘you attended’

2MP Lesson 5

‘you attended’

2FP Lesson 5

‘I attended’

1CP Lesson 5

4.4 Objects in Biblical Hebrew
Object refers to the grammatical function served by a noun or
pronoun that is the ‘receiver’ or ‘goal’ of the action of a verb.
Syntactically, an object noun phrase functions as the complement
of a transitive verb—the presence of an object is necessary for a
transitive verb to be ‘completed’ (see Lesson 26).
For example, in Moses struck the rock, the noun phrase ‘the rock’
is the object in that it is affected by the action of the verb ‘struck’.
The noun phrase ‘the rock’ is also the complement in that without
it the clause ‘Moses struck’ would be ungrammatical (i.e., the
transitive verb would not be ‘completed’).

Direct
and
Oblique
Objects

Oblique
Objects and
Prepositional
Phrases

For Biblical Hebrew, it is useful to distinguish between two types
of objects, direct and oblique (not to be confused with an
‘indirect’ object). The use of these two types of objects is
completely dependent upon the verb—some verbs select direct
objects as their complements, while others select oblique objects
as their complements.
What distinguishes direct and oblique objects from each other is
that direct objects are either preceded by the function word ‫ ֵאת‬or
nothing at all, whereas oblique objects are always preceded by a
preposition. Precisely which preposition used depends on what is
selected by the verb being modified.
For instance, the verb ‫נגע‬, ‘touch’, often takes as its complement
an oblique object manifested as a prepositional phrase with the

Lesson 4
preposition ‫בּ‬.

‫אכלוּ‬
ְ ֹ ‫ֹלהים ל ֹא ת‬
ִ ‫תוְֹך־הגָּ ן ָא ַמ ר ֱא‬
ַ
‫וּמ ְפּ ִר י ָה ֵע ץ ֲא ֶשׁ ר ְבּ‬
ִ
‫ן־תּ ֻמתוּן‬
ְ ‫ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ לֹא ִתגְּ עוּ בּוֹ ֶפּ‬
‘“and from the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the
garden,” God said, “you shall not eat from it and you shall not
touch it, lest you die.”’ (Gen 3:3)
Note: Oblique objects, regardless of whether they are
complements or adjuncts (see Lesson 26), are always
preceded by a preposition.

Direct Objects
and ‫ֵאת‬

The function word ‫ ֵאת‬precedes direct objects of Biblical Hebrew
verbs if those direct objects are individuated (i.e., if they are
strongly characterized as distinct entities or individuals—which
means that they are also often marked with the article).

‫ָה ָעם‬

‫ֵאת‬

‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬He visited the people’

the people [object he visited
marker]

Direct objects preceded by ‫ ֵאת‬are usually the semantic patients of
their verbs, i.e., they are effected or affected by the verbal action.
Note: The direct object marker is sometimes attached to the
noun with a maqqef (‫( )־‬see 3.5 within the discussion of ‫;)מן‬
ִ in
this case, the vowel is a segol.
‫ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬

‫‘ ָשׁ ַפט‬He judged Israel’

Israel [object he judged
marker]

33

Lesson 4

34

4.5 Vocabulary #4
‫ָא ָדם‬

M

man, humankind; PN Adam

‫ָמ ַלְך‬

Q

reign, be(come) king

‫ָאח‬

M

brother; P ‫ַא ִחים‬

‫נָ ִביא‬

M

prophet

‫֫ ַנ ַער‬

M

lad, young boy

‫ָאחוֹת‬

F

sister; P ‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬

‫ֵאם‬

F

mother; P ‫ִאמּוֹת‬

‫נַ ֲע ָרה‬

‫ ֶאת־‬, ‫ ֵאת‬direct object marker

‫סוּס‬
‫סוּסה‬
ָ

F
M

maiden, young girl
horse, stallion

‫ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬

F

cattle

‫ְבּ ִרית‬

F

covenant

‫ַבּת‬

F

daughter; P ‫ָבּנוֹת‬

‫ָפּ ַקד‬

Q

visit, attend to, appoint

‫זָ ַכר‬

Q

remember

‫ָשׁ ַמר‬

Q

keep, guard

‫ָכּ ַרת‬

Q

cut, cut off, cut down

‫ָשׁ ַפט‬

Q

judge, govern

‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ

F

direction, instruction, law

‫ִעם‬

F

mare

PREP

with

Exercises
1. Mark the gender of each noun in your vocabulary list from Lessons 1-3 and on
your vocabulary cards (M or F) (look in glossary if you are unsure).
2. Identify the gender (M or F) of the following nouns (use their form).

‫( ____ ָא ָדם‬p

‫( ____ ַח ָטּאת‬k

‫( ____ זָ ָהב‬f

‫( ____ ִמ ְשׁ ֶ֫מ ֶרת‬a

‫( ____ ַ֫בּ ַעל‬q

‫( ____ ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬l

‫( ____ ְצ ָד ָקה‬g

‫( ____ ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬b

‫( ____ ַמ ְל ָאְך‬r

‫( ____ ְדּמוּת‬m

‫( ____ נַ ֲח ָלה‬h

‫( ____ ֲא ָד ָמה‬c

‫( ____ ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬s

‫( ____ ֶ֫כּ ֶבשׂ‬n

‫( ____ ֶ֫מ ַלח‬i

‫( ____ ִתּ ְקוָ ה‬d

‫( ____ ָבּ ָקר‬t

‫( ____ ֲע ָר ָבה‬o

‫( ____ ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬j

‫( ____ ִמ ְצוָ ה‬e

Lesson 4

35

3. Add the Qal Perfect Singular endings (and vowels) to each of these verbs and
translate. Also add the appropriate personal pronouns before each verb.

‫שׁמר‬

‫פּקד‬

3MS

3MS

3FS

3FS

2MS

2MS

2FS

2FS

1CS

1CS

‫זכר‬

‫שׁפט‬

3MS

3MS

3FS

3FS

2MS

2MS

2FS

2FS

1CS

1CS

‫מלְך‬
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

Lesson 4

36

4. Translate the following sentences. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.e., give the
person, gender, number, and root) in each sentence. (* is placed by verses
that have been altered. PN is placed beside the first occurrence of proper name
other than YHWH.)

‫ת־ה ָדּ ָבר‬
ַ ‫ ָה ָאב ָשׁ ַמר ֶא‬Gen 37:11* (a
‫ וְ לֹא ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְר ָתּ ַה ְבּ ִרית‬I Kgs 11:11* (b
‫ת־א ְב ָרם ְבּ ִרית‬
ַ ‫ יְ הוָ ה ָכּ ַרת ֶא‬Gen 15:18* (c
‫ יְ הוָ ה ָמ ַלְך‬Ps 93:1* (d
‫י־שׁ ַ֫מ ְר ִתּי ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬
ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Ps 18:22* (e
‫ת־היּוֹם‬
ַ ‫ לֹא־זָ ַכ ְר ְתּ ֶא‬Ezek 16:43* (f
‫ת־ה ָעם‬
ָ ‫ ָפּ ַקד ֶא‬I Kgs 20:15* (g
‫ לֹא זָ ְכ ָרה‬Lam 1:9 (h
‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬PN‫יוֹאשׁ‬
ָ ‫ וְ לֹא־זָ ַכר‬II Chr 24:22 (i
‫ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ָשׁ ַפט‬I Kgs 3:28* (j
PN

‫ת־חנָּ ה‬
ַ ‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬
ָ ‫ ִכּ‬I Sam 2:21 (k
‫ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬Ps 65:10 (l

‫ת־ה ָעם‬
ָ ‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬
ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Ruth 1:6* (m

Lesson 4

37

‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ‫ ָמ ַלְך ִבּ‬PN‫ ְוּר ַח ְב ָעם‬I Kgs 14:21* (n

5. Compose five sentences in Hebrew. Each must have a subject, verb, and object
in them.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 5
Lesson Summary:

ִ ‫יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם סוּסוֹת‬
• Plural and Dual Nouns: ‫סוּסים‬
• Qal Perfect Conjugation – Plural:

‫דתּם ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬
ֶ ‫ָפּ ְקדוּ ְפּ ַק‬
• Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬
5.1 Masculine and Feminine Plural and Dual Nouns
Plural nouns

Singular nouns were introduced in Lesson 4. In this lesson the
plural and dual (= two) noun forms are introduced.
Singular

Plural

Dual

Masculine

(no marking) ‫סוּס‬

‫סוּסים‬
ִ

‫סוּסיִ ם‬
ַ֫

Feminine

‫סוּסה‬
ָ

‫סוּסוֹת‬

‫סוּס ַ֫תיִ ם‬
ָ

• There are some frequently occurring irregular nouns that do not
follow this paradigm. These irregular forms must be
memorized (paradigms of the most common irregular nouns
are in 6.2).

‫‘ ָאבוֹת‬fathers’ (S ‫) ָאב‬
‫‘ נָ ִשׁים‬women’ (S ‫) ִא ָשּׁה‬
Dual nouns

• The use of dual is largely confined to things that occur naturally
in pairs (eyes, feet, hands, etc.). Remember that paired body
parts are feminine (see 4.1).

‫‘ יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם‬hands’ (FS ‫)יָ ד‬
‫‘ ֵע ַ֫יניִ ם‬eyes’ (FS ‫) ֫ ַעיִ ן‬
‫‘ נַ ֲע ֫ ַליִ ם‬sandals’ (FS ‫) ֫ ַנ ַעל‬

‫‘ ָאזְ ֫ ַניִ ם‬ears’ (FS ‫אזֶ ן‬
ֹ֫)
‫‘ ַרגְ ֫ ַליִ ם‬feet’ (FS ‫) ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬

5.2 Qal Perfect Conjugation - Plural
Qal Perfect
Conjugation
plural

In Lesson 4 the singular inflectional suffixes of the Qal Perfect
were introduced. Here the plural inflectional suffixes are added.

Lesson 5
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3CP
2MP
2FP
1CP


‫ה‬-ָ
‫ ָתּ‬‫ ְתּ‬‫ ִתּי‬‫—וּ‬
‫— ֶתּם‬
‫— ֶתּן‬
‫—נוּ‬









39

‫ָפּ ַקד‬
‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬

‘he attended’
‘she attended’
‘you attended’
‘you attended’
‘I attended’
‘they attended’
‘you attended’
‘you attended’
‘we attended’

5.3 Qal Perfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬

Qal Perfect
Conjugation
of ‫ָהיָ ה‬

The verb ‫‘( ָהיָ ה‬be’) is both frequent and irregular. Here is the Qal
Perfect paradigm of the verb.
3MS

‫‘ ָהיָ ה‬he was’

3FS

‫‘ ָהיְ ָתה‬she was’

2MS

‫ָהיִ י֫ ָת‬

3CP

‫‘ ָהיוּ‬they were’

‘you were’

2MP

‫יתם‬
ֶ ִ‫‘ ֲהי‬you were’

2FS

‫‘ ָהיִ ית‬you were’

2FP

‫יתן‬
ֶ ִ‫( ֲהי‬not attested)

1CS

‫‘ ָהיִ י֫ ִתי‬I was’

1CP

‫‘ ָהיִ י֫ נוּ‬we were’

5.4 Vocabulary #5
‫אזֶ ן‬
ֹ֫
‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬

F

ear

CONJ

that, which, who

‫ִל ְפנֵ י‬

PREP

‫ַ֫מיִ ם‬

M

water

‫גּוֹי‬

M

nation, people

‫ָדּ ַרשׁ‬

Q

seek

‫ַעד‬

PREP

‫ָהיָ ה‬

Q

become, be

‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬

F

‫ַהר‬

M

mountain, hill country; with

‫ַעל‬

PREP

article ‫ָה ָהר‬

‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫י‬

PN

Judah

‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַליִ ם‬
ָ ְ‫י‬

PN

Jerusalem

‫ָל ַכד‬

Q

capture

‫ִמ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם‬

before

PN

Egypt
unto, as far as; until

eye
upon, over

‫ָק ַרב‬

Q

draw near, approach

‫רֹאשׁ‬

M

head; P ‫אשׁים‬
ִ ‫ָר‬

‫ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬

F

foot

‫רוּח‬
ַ

F

spirit, wind

Lesson 5

40

Exercises
1. Write out the plural (right column) and dual (left column) for the following
items and translate.

‫יָ ד‬

‫ָאדוֹן‬

‫אזֶ ן‬
ֹ֫

‫ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬

‫֫ ַעיִ ן‬

‫גּוֹי‬

‫ֶ ֫רגֶ ל‬

‫ָדּ ָבר‬

‫֫ ַנ ַעל‬

‫נָ ִביא‬
‫סוּס‬
‫סוּסה‬
ָ
‫רוּח‬
ַ
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ

2. Write out the complete Qal Perfect for each of these verb roots and translate.
Also add the appropriate personal pronouns before each form.

‫שׁמר‬

3MS

3CP

3FS

‫פּקד‬

3MS

3CP

3FS

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

‫לכד‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

‫שׁפט‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

Lesson 5

41

‫דּרשׁ‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

‫קרב‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

3. Translate the following sentences. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.e., give the
person, gender, number, and root) in each sentence. (GL is placed beside nonvocabulary words to alert you to check the glossary for their meanings.)
PN

‫ת־שׂ ָרה‬
ָ ‫ וַ יהוָ ה ָפּ ַקד ֶא‬Gen 21:1 (a

‫יהוּדה‬
ָ ִ‫ ָשׁנָ ה ַעל ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ו‬GL‫ וְ ָשׁלשׁ‬GL‫לשׁים‬
ִ ‫ירוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִ ִם ָמ ַלְך ְשׁ‬
ָ ‫וּב‬
ִ II Sam 5:5 (b
‫ וְ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה לֹא ָד ְרשׁוּ‬Isa 9:12* (c
‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫ ִכּי ָד ַ ֫ר ְשׁנוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬II Chr 14:6* (d
‫ וָ ֫בֹהוּ‬GL‫תהוּ‬
ֹ ֫ ‫ וְ ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ָהיְ ָתה‬Gen 1:2 (e

GL

‫ ָדּ ַ ֫ר ְשׁ ִתּי ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה‬Ps 34:5 (f
‫י־היִ י֫ ִתי ְליִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ְל ָאב‬
ָ ‫ ִכּ‬Jer 31:9 (g
‫א־ד ַרשׁ ַבּיהוָ ה‬
ָ ֹ ‫ וְ ל‬I Chr 10:14 (h
‫ ָק ְרבוּ ַהיָּ ִמים‬Ezek 12:23 (i

Lesson 5

42

‫י־ע ֶבד ָהיִ י֫ ָת ְבּ ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ ִכּ‬Deut 16:12 (j
‫ֹלהים לֹא ָק ְר ָבה‬
ִ ‫ל־א‬
ֱ ‫ ֶא‬Zeph 3:2* (k
‫ ָהיָ ה ְב ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬PN‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ ְ‫ ו‬Exod 1:5 (l

4. Compose five sentences in Hebrew. Each should have a subject, verb, and object
in them. Three should have plural verbs and three should have dual or plural
nouns.
a. ____________________________________________________________
b. ____________________________________________________________
c. ____________________________________________________________
d. ____________________________________________________________
e. ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 6
Lesson Summary:

• Construct Relationship: ‫ר־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫ְדּ ַב‬
• Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns:

‫ָאב ָאח ָאחוֹת ִאישׁ ִא ָשּׁה‬
‫ַ֫בּיִ ת ֵבּן ַבּת יוֹם רֹאשׁ ִעיר‬

6.1 The Construct Relationship
Construct
relationship

Biblical Hebrew does not have any equivalent to the English
preposition ‘of’. Instead, similar ‘of-relationships’ are expressed by
joining words together in the construct relationship. (The
semantics of this relationship are discussed further in Lesson 28.)
The typical construct relationship (often called ‫)ס ִמיכוּת‬
ְ consists of
two elements: a noun in the construct state (‫‘ נִ ְס ָמְך‬supported’)
ֵ ‘supporting’).
followed by one in the absolute state (‫סוֹמְך‬

‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־ ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬the word of the king’
the king (the) word of
ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCT

‫נִ ְס ָמְך‬

‫סוֹמְך‬
ֵ

Only the masculine plural and feminine singular nouns have
distinctive construct morphology (i.e., there are different inflectional
affixes for MP and FS nouns in construct and nouns not in construct).
However, the vocalization of a noun in construct often differs from
its vocalization when not in construct—even in the MS and FP.
Singular
Masculine

Feminine

Absolute
Construct
Absolute
Construct

Plural

Dual

‫ָדּ ָבר‬
‫ְדּ ַבר‬

‫ְדּ ָב ִרים‬
‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬

‫ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ם‬
‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬

‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬
‫ַא ְד ַמת‬

‫ֲא ָדמוֹת‬
‫ַא ְדמוֹת‬

‫ַא ְד ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬
‫ַא ְד ְמ ֵתי‬

Lesson 6

44

Description of the construct relationship:

Two nouns in a construct relationship are treated as a
compound: the two words are considered to be one prosodic
phrase and the major ‘phrase stress’ is on the absolute noun.
This phenomenon is similar to the stress change in English
compounds: a whíte hoúse versus the Whítehouse. As noted
above, the lack of major stress on the construct noun often
affects its vocalization.
ABSOLUTE
CONSTRUCT

‫‘ ָדּ ָבר‬word’
‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה‬the word of YHWH’ (Ezek 1:3)

Note: A construct noun is often attached to an absolute noun
with a maqqef (‫ ;)־‬this is a graphic signal that the two words are
stressed as a single unit.

• A noun in construct cannot have a definite article. However, if
the absolute noun is definite (e.g., it is a proper noun or has
the article), then the construct noun ‘inherits’ this
definiteness.

‫יאי־יְ הוָ ה‬
ֵ ‫‘ נְ ִב‬the prophets of YHWH’ (PN) (1 Kgs 18:4)
‫ב־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
ָ ‫‘ זְ ַה‬the gold of the land’ (article) (Gen 2:12)

The meanings expressed by the construct relationship are
similar to English ‘of’ (see Lesson 28 for further discussion).

‫‘ ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה‬the word of YHWH’ = ‘YHWH’S word’ (Ezek 1:3)
‫‘ יִ ְר ַאת־יְ הוָ ה‬the fear of YHWH’ (Prov 1:7)
‫וּבגְ ֵדי ַה ֫קֹּ ֶדשׁ‬
ִ ‘and the garments of holiness’
= ‘the holy garments’ (Exod 29:29)

• A construct relationship can have more than one construct noun
all related to one absolute noun.

‫י־א ָדם‬
ָ ‫‘ ָכּל־יְ ֵמ‬all of the days of Adam’ (Gen 5:5)

• A construct relationship can also have a single construct noun

Lesson 6

45

related to coordinated absolute nouns (often however, the
construct noun is repeated in two coordinated constructs).

‫ֹלהים וְ ָא ָדם‬
ִ ‫ְבּ ֵעינֵ י ֱא‬
‘in the eyes of God and (in the eyes of) man’ (Prov 3:4)

‫אֹלהי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי ַה ָשּׁ ַ֫מיִ ם ו‬
ֵ ‫ֱא‬
‘the God of heaven and the God of earth’ (Gen 24:3)

Irregular
nouns

6.2 Chart of Frequent Irregular Nouns
Some irregular noun forms occur frequently. You should familiarize
yourself with these forms.
Singular
Absolute

Singular
Construct

Plural
Absolute

Plural
Construct

‘father’ M

‫ָאב‬

‫ַאב‬

‫ָאבוֹת‬

‫ֲאבוֹת‬

‘brother’ M

‫ָאח‬

‫ֲא ִחי‬

‫ַא ִחים‬

‫ַא ֵחי‬

‘sister’ F

‫ָאחוֹת‬

‫ֲאחוֹת‬

*‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬

‫ַא ְחיוֹת‬

‘man’ M

‫ִאישׁ‬

‫ִאישׁ‬

‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬

‫ַאנְ ֵשׁי‬

‘woman’ F

‫ִא ָשּׁה‬

‫ֵ֫א ֶשׁת‬

‫נָ ִשׁים‬

‫נְ ֵשׁי‬

‘house’ M

‫ַ֫בּיִ ת‬

‫ֵבּית‬

‫ָבּ ִתּים‬

‫ָבּ ֵתּי‬

‫ֵבּן‬

‫ֶבּן‬

‫ָבּנִ ים‬

‫ְבּנֵ י‬

‘daughter’ F

‫ַבּת‬

‫ַבּת‬

‫ָבּנוֹת‬

‫ְבּנוֹת‬

‘day’ M

‫יוֹם‬

‫יוֹם‬

‫יָמים‬
ִ

‫יְמי‬
ֵ

‘city’ F

‫ִעיר‬
‫רֹאשׁ‬

‫ִעיר‬
‫רֹאשׁ‬

‫ָע ִרים‬
‫אשׁים‬
ִ ‫ָר‬

‫ָע ֵרי‬
‫אשׁי‬
ֵ ‫ָר‬

‘son’ M

‘head’ M

Lesson 6

46

6.3 Vocabulary #6
‫ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬

PN

Abraham

‫ַמ ְל ָאְך‬

M

messenger, angel

‫ַא ְב ָרם‬

PN

Abram

‫ָמקוֹם‬

M

place; P ‫ְמקוֹמוֹת‬

‫ַא ֲהר ֹן‬

PN

Aaron

‫ָע ַמד‬

Q

stand

‫ָא ַמר‬

Q

‫ָבּ ֶבל‬

PN

‫ָבּ ָשׂר‬

M

flesh

‫ַחיִּ ים‬

M

life

‫ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬

F

‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬
‫כֹּה‬

say
Babylon

‫ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬

ADV

Philistines, Philistine

PN

Pharaoh

‫ ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי‬,
‫ַפּ ְרעֹה‬

sword

CONJ

PN

as, just as, when
thus, so

‫ָצ ָבא‬

M

host, army; hard service; P ‫ְצ ָבאוֹת‬

‫קוֹל‬

M

voice, sound

‫ָשׁ ַכן‬

Q

settle, dwell

‫ָשׁ ַמע‬

Q

hear, listen; + ‫ ְבּקוֹל‬obey

Exercises
1. Complete the following construct phrases.

ִ ‫‘ __________ ֱא‬the spirit of God’ (Exod 35:31)
a) ‫ֹלהים‬
b) ‫‘ __________ יְ הוָ ה‬the angel/messenger of the Lord’ (Gen 16:11)
c) ‫‘ __________ ְפ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬all of the cities of the Philistines’ (1 Sam 6:18)
d) __________ ‫אשׁי‬
ֵ ‫‘ ָר‬the heads of the mountains’ (Gen 8:5)
e) ‫‘ _________ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬the sons of Israel’ (Exod 1:1)
f) ‫‘ __________ ָה ָא ָדם‬the daughters of man’ (Gen 6:2)
g) ‫‘ __________ ַה ָמּקוֹם‬the men of the place’ (Gen 26:7)
h) _______________ ‫‘ ֶאל‬to the house of the women’ (Esth 2:3)
i) ‫‘ __________ ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬in the days of Abraham’ (Gen 26:1)
j) ‫‘ __________ ְבנֵ י־עמּוֹן‬the father of the sons of Ammon’ (Gen 19:38)

Lesson 6
2. Translate the following construct phrases.

47

‫ ֵבּית יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬Lev 10:6 (a
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך י‬I Kgs 12:23 (b
‫ כֹּל ַמ ְל ֵכי גוֹיִ ם‬Isa 14:9 (c
‫ל־מ ְל ֵכי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
ַ ‫ ָכּ‬Ps 102:16 (d

‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫ישׁ־ה ֱא‬
ָ ‫משׁה ִא‬
ֶ ‫תוֹרת‬
ַ ‫ְכּ‬

II Chron 30:16 (e

‫אשׁי ֶה ָה ִרים‬
ֵ ‫ ְבּכֹל ָר‬Ezek 6:13 (f
‫ל־ע ֵרי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ָ ‫ִמ ָכּ‬

I Sam 18:6 (g

‫י־א ֲהר ֹן ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים‬
ַ ֵ‫ל־ע ֵרי ְבנ‬
ָ ‫ ָכּ‬Josh 21:19 (h
‫ְך־עיר‬
ִ ‫ ְבּרֹאשׁ ֶ ֫דּ ֶר‬Ezek 21:24 (i

3. Translate the following sentences. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.e., give the
person, gender, number, and root) in each sentence.

‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים‬
ַ ‫ ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׁ ַמע ֫ ֶע ֶבד ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא‬Gen 24:52* (a
‫ וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם ָע ַמד ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬Gen 18:22* (b
‫ל־ה ְמּקוֹמוֹת‬
ַ ‫ ָשׁ ַפט ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ְבּ ָכ‬I Sam 7:16* (c
‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫לוֹא־שׁ ְמעוּ ְבּקוֹל יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
ָ

Jer 7:28* (d

Lesson 6

48

‫וּמכֹּל ַהר יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ִ ‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫ ִמכֹּל ַהר י‬PN ‫ת־ה ֲענָ ִקים‬
ָ ‫ ָכּ ַרת ֶא‬PN‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬
ֻ ְ‫ י‬Josh 11:21* (e
‫ יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ָשׁ ַכן ְבּ ַהר ִציּוֹן‬Isa 8:18* (f
‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ֵ ‫ֹה־א ַמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
ָ ‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה כּ‬
ַ ‫משׁה וְ ַא ֲהר ֹן ָא ְמרוּ ֶא‬
ֶ Exod 5:1* (g
‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ֵ ‫ֹה־א ַמר יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ֱא‬
ָ ‫ כּ‬Jer. 7:3 (h

4. From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least
one construct phrase each.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 7
Lesson Summary:
• Suffixed Pronouns: ‫ְדּ ָב ִרי‬

• Segolate Nouns: ‫ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬
• Modal use of the Perfect Conjugation: ‫)וּ(פ ַק ְד ִתּי‬
ָ
7.1 Suffixed Pronouns
Suffixed
pronouns

English uses different pronominal forms based on the pronoun’s role
in a sentence: e.g., he/she for subject (Nominative case), his/hers for
possession (Genitive case), and him/her for object (Accusative case).
In Biblical Hebrew the independent pronouns (2.4) only function as
subjects. A set of suffixed pronouns fills the roles of possession/
Genitive and object/Accusative.
About pronouns suffixed to nouns:

• Suffixed pronouns express possession on nouns.
‫ְדּ ָב ִרי‬

‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬
ָ

‫ִי‬

‫ְדּ ַבר‬

‘my word’
me word of
(1CS) (MS CST)
+

+ ‫תּוֹרת‬
ַ ‘his teaching’
him teaching of
(3MS) (FS CST)

ֹ‫ו‬

Note: When pronominal suffixes are added to FS nouns, the
construct form (i.e., the form ending with a ‫ )ת‬is used.

• Suffixed pronouns serve to make a noun definite; nouns with
pronominal suffixes cannot also have the article.
Either ‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬
ָ ‘his teaching’ or ‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ ‫‘ ַה‬the teaching’
BUT NOT BOTH

• Nouns with suffixed pronouns are stressed either on the last
syllable (i.e., on the suffix itself) or the next to last syllable
(i.e., on the ‘linking vowel’ that connects the noun to the
suffix).

Lesson 7

50

‫סוּסי‬
ִ ‘my horse’ (stressed on the last syllable)
‫סוּסנוּ‬
ֵ֫ ‘our horse’ (stressed on the linking vowel)
1) Suffixed pronouns on singular nouns
Suffixed
pronoun
on
3MS (‫) ֵ֫ הוּ‬, ֹ ‫ו‬
singular nouns

Added to Masculine

‫‘ ְדּ ָברוֹ‬his word’
‫ֵר ֫ ֵעהוּ‬

Suffixed
pronoun
on
plural nouns

Added to Feminine

‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬
ָ ‘his law’

‘his friend’

3FS

‫ָהּ‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרהּ‬her word’

‫תּוֹר ָתהּ‬
ָ ‘her law’

2MS

‫ְ ָך‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ְרָך‬your word’

‫תּוֹר ְתָך‬
ָ ‘your law’

2FS

‫ֵ ְך‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵרְך‬your word’

‫תּוֹר ֵתְך‬
ָ ‘your law’

1CS

‫ִי‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ִרי‬my word’

‫תּוֹר ִתי‬
ָ ‘my law’

3MP

‫ָם‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרם‬their word’

‫תּוֹר ָתם‬
ָ ‘their law’

3FP

‫ָן‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרן‬their word’

‫תּוֹר ָתן‬
ָ ‘their law’

2MP

‫ְ ֶכם‬

‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכם‬your word’

→ ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכם‬
ַ ‘your law’

2FP

‫ְ ֶכן‬

‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכן‬your word’

‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכן‬
ַ ‘your law’

1CP

‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ ֫רנוּ‬our word’

‫תּוֹר ֵ֫תנוּ‬
ָ ‘our law’

2) Suffixed pronouns on plural nouns
Added to Masculine

Added to Feminine

3MS

‫ָ יו‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָריו‬his words’

‫תּוֹרוֹתיו‬
ָ
‘his laws’

3FS

‫יה‬
ָ ֶ֫

‫יה‬
ָ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ ֫ר‬her words’

‫יה‬
ָ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֶ֫
‘her laws’

2MS

‫ֶ֫ יָך‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ ֫ריָך‬your words’

‫תּוֹרוֹתיָך‬
ֶ֫
‘your laws’

2FS

‫ַ֫ יִ ְך‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ְך‬your words’

‫תּוֹרוֹתיִ ְך‬
ַ֫
‘your laws’

1CS

‫ַי‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַרי‬my words’

‫תּוֹרוֹתי‬
ַ
‘my laws’

3MP

‫יהם‬
ֶ ֵ

‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’

→ ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘their laws’

3FP

‫יהן‬
ֶ ֵ

‫יהן‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’

2MP

‫יכם‬
ֶ ֵ

‫יכם‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’

→ ‫יכם‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘your laws’

2FP

‫יכן‬
ֶ ֵ

‫יכן‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’

‫יכן‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘your laws’

1CP

‫ֵ֫ ינוּ‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ ֫רינוּ‬our words’

‫תּוֹרוֹתינוּ‬
ֵ֫
‘our laws’

‫יהן‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘their laws’

Lesson 7
Suffixed pron.
on
prepositions
and
-‫ ֶאת‬,-‫אֹת‬

51

3) Suffixed pronouns on Prepositions and Direct Object Marker
3MS
ֹ‫ו‬

‫‘ לוֹ‬for him’

‫‘ אוֹתוֹ‬him’

→ ‫אוֹתהּ‬
3FS
‫ָהּ‬
‫‘ ָלהּ‬for her’
ָ
‘her’
2MS
‫ְ ָך‬

‫‘ ְלָך‬for you’
→ ‫אוֹתָך‬
ְ
‘you’
2FS
‫ָ ְך‬
‫‘ ָלְך‬for you’
ָ
‘you’

→ ‫אוֹתְך‬


1CS
‫ִי‬
‫‘ ִלי‬for me’
‫אוֹתי‬
ִ
‘me’
3MP ‫ ָ ם‬/ ‫ָ ֶהם‬
‫‘ ָל ֶהם‬for them’
ָ
‘them’

→ ‫אוֹתם‬
3FP
‫ָ ֶהן‬

‫‘ ָל ֶהן‬for them’

‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶהן‬them’

→ ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬you’
2MP
‫ָ ֶכם‬
‫‘ ָל ֶכם‬for you’
2FP
‫ָ ֶכן‬
‫‘ ָל ֶכן‬for you’

→ ‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכן‬you’
1CP
‫ָ֫ נוּ‬

‫‘ ֫ ָלנוּ‬for us’
→ ‫אוֹתנוּ‬
ָ֫
‘us’
ִ
Note: The prepositions ‫ ִעם‬and ‫ ֵאת‬use different forms with suffixes: –‫ ִעמּ‬and –‫אתּ‬,
respectively (in the case of the preposition ‫את‬,
ֵ this difference helps to distinguish
it from the object marker ‫)את‬.
ֵ Also important is the fact that some prepositions,
such as ‫)עלי ( ַעל‬, ‫)אלי ( ֶאל‬, and ‫)עדי ( ַעד‬, take plural noun suffixes (see chart under
[2] above).

Suffixed pron.
on
‫ ְכּ‬and ‫ִמן‬

4) Suffixed pronouns on ‫ ְכּ‬/‫כּ‬/‫מוֹ‬
ָ ‫ ָכּ‬and ‫ ִמן( ִמן‬+ ‫) ִמן‬
3MS →
3FS →
2MS →
2FS →
1CS →
3MP →
3FP →
2MP →
2FP →
1CP →

‫ָכּ ֫מוֹהוּ‬
‫וֹה‬
ָ ‫ָכּ ֫מ‬
‫ָכּ ֫מוָֹך‬
‫ָכּמוְֹך‬
‫ָכּ ֫מוֹנִ י‬
‫ָכּ ֵהם‬
‫ָכּ ֵהן‬
‫ָכּ ֶכם‬
‫ָכּ ֶכן‬
‫ָכּ ֫מוֹנוּ‬

‘like him’

‘like her’

‘like you’

‘like you’

‘like me’

‘like them’

‘like them’

‘like you’

‘like you’

‘like us’

‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬
‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנָ הּ‬
‫ִמ ְמָּך‬
‫ִמ ֵמְּך‬
‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנִ י‬
‫ֵמ ֶהם‬
‫ֵמ ֶהן‬
‫ִמ ֶכּם‬
‫ִמ ֶכּן‬
‫ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬

‘from him’
‘from her’
‘from you’
‘from you’
‘from me’
‘from them’
‘from them’

3MS is
identical to
1CP

‘from you’
‘from you’
‘from us’

About pronouns suffixed to prepositions:

• Suffixed pronouns designate objects on prepositions and on the
direct object marker (the form of which is -‫ ֶאת‬or -‫ אוֹת‬with
suffixes).

‫ ְ ָך ← ָא ַמר ְלָך‬+ ‫ָא ַמר ְל‬
you to
(2MS)

‘he said to you’

Lesson 7

52

‫אוֹתם‬
ָ ‫ָ ם ← ָעזַ ב‬

+ ‫‘ ָעזַ ב אוֹת‬he abandoned them’
them direct object
(3MP) marker

Segolate
nouns

7.2 Segolate Nouns
Segolate nouns are a distinct group of nouns that were originally
monosyllabic (i.e., one-syllable) nouns in the masculine singular.

• Segolate nouns originated as single-syllable nouns to which a
segol ‘helping vowel’ was added; the result was the creation
of a new, second syllable. The original vowel (that is, the
vowel in the first syllable) is regularly altered.

‫ַמ ְלך* ← ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬

‘king’

Note: A guttural second or third root consonant can affect the
vowels.

‫נַ ְער* ← ֫ ַנ ַער‬

( ַ instead of ֶ ) ‘young man’
(because gutturals prefer a-class vowels)

• Masculine segolate nouns are stressed on the initial syllable
(originally the only syllable) in the singular absolute form.

‫‘ ֫ ֶע ֶבד‬servant’
• Feminine segolate nouns come in two forms: those with
feminine gender inflection (e.g., ‫ )נַ ֲע ָרה‬and those without (e.g.,
‫)נ ֶפשׁ‬.
ֶ ֫ Those with feminine gender inflection (‫ ָ) ה‬are stressed
on the final syllable.

‫ ָ ה ← נַ ֲע ָרה‬+ *‫‘ נַ ְער‬young woman’; P‫נְ ָע רוֹת‬
‫‘ נַ ְפשׁ* ← ֫ ֶנ ֶפשׁ‬life’; P‫נְ ָפ שׁוֹת‬
• Segolate nouns exhibit their original vowel with some suffixes.
‫ִ י ← ַא ְר ִצי‬

+ *‫‘ ַא ְרץ‬my land’

Lesson 7

53

• Segolate nouns use a two-syllable pattern in the plural.
SINGULAR

PLURAL

Modal use of
the Perfect
Conjugation

‘king’

‘kings’

‫ַמ ְלְך* ← ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬
‫( ָמ ָלְך* ← ְמ ָל ִכים‬like ‫) ָדּ ָבר‬

7.3 Modal Use of the Perfect Conjugation
The Perfect Conjugation was described in Lesson 4 as expressing
perfective aspect. The Perfect is also used to express modality,
which indicates the role that the speaker wants a statement to play in
the context (e.g., a condition, an outcome, a command, an
instruction).

• The modal use of the Perfect is distinguished from the
indicative by its word order: the Perfect functioning modally
will have a verb-subject word order (see Lesson 27 for a
discussion of Biblical Hebrew word order).

‫ת־ה ָדּ ָבר‬
ַ ‫וְ ָא ִביו ָשׁ ַמר ֶא‬

(subject-verb)
‘(and) his father kept the word’ (Gen 37:11)

‫ת־ה ְבּ ִרית‬
ַ ‫ֹלהיָך ְלָך ֶא‬
ֶ֫ ‫וְ ָשׁ ַמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬

(verb-subject)
‘(so) YHWH your God shall keep for you the covenant’ (Deut
7:12)
Note: Often the subject is not explicit in BH clauses; in such
cases, it is impossible to identify whether a perfect is used
modally or not based on the word order. However, because most
modal Perfects are prefixed with the vav conjunction, the
presence of the conjunction is a good introductory way to
distinguish the modal from the indicative use of the verb.

• The most common modal function of the Perfect is to mark
(semantically) subordinate clauses. These are equivalent to
English clauses beginning with ‘if/when/so that/in order that/
because’, i.e., conditional, purpose, result, or causal clauses.
‘For I have chosen him so that he might command his sons and
his household after him so that they might keep the way of YHWH
(‫ )וְ ָשׁ ְמרוּ ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך יְ הוָ ה‬to practice righteousness and justice so that
YHWH might bring about for Abraham that which he promised.’
(Gen 18:19)

Lesson 7

54

‘If he leaves his father then he shall die’ (‫וָ ֵמת‬
(Gen 44:22)

‫ת־א ִביו‬
ָ ‫)וְ ָעזַ ב ֶא‬

Note: The Perfect often appears in both the subordinate clause
and the governing clause in constructions like the conditional
clause above.

• Another common modal function of the Perfect is to mark
instructions and commands.
‘(and) he should stand and say (‫וְ ָא ַמר‬
marry her”’ (Deut 25:8)

‫“ )וְ ָע ַמד‬I do not wish to

‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצוָ ה‬
ַ ‫וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא‬
‘(and) you must keep the commandment’ (Deut 7:11)

7.4 Vocabulary #7
‫ָא ַהב‬

Q

love

[ ‫] ֻח קּ‬, ‫ ָחק־‬, ‫חֹק‬

‫א ֶהל‬
ֹ֫

M

tent

‫יַ ֲעקֹב‬

PN

‫ָא ַכל‬

Q

eat

‫֫ ֶל ֶחם‬

M

bread, food

‫֫ ַליְ ָלה‬

M

night
strength; ADV exceedingly

[-‫] ִאתּ‬, ‫ ֶאת‬, ‫ֵאת‬

PREP

with [w/suffixes]

M

statute [w/suffixes]
Jacob

‫ֶ֫בּגֶ ד‬

M

garment

‫ְמאֹד‬

M

‫ָבּ ָקר‬

M

cattle, ox, herd

‫ִמ ְצוָ ה‬

F

commandment; P ‫ִמ ְצו ֹת‬

‫ָעזַ ב‬

Q

abandon, forsake

M /F

‫גַּ ם‬

ADV

also, even

‫ָה ַלְך‬

Q

walk, go

‫צֹאן‬

‫זָ ַבח‬

Q

slaughter

‫ַ֫שׁ ַער‬

‫ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬

M

kindness, loyalty

M

sheep, flock

gate

Lesson 7

55

Exercises
1. Add the correct suffix to these vocabulary items (note: the vowels within the
triconsonantal root have already been modified).
a)

‫‘ ַל ְחמ‬my bread’

b)

‫‘ ַח ְסד‬your (MS) loyalty’

c)

‫‘ ְבּ ָקר‬their (M) cattle’ (S – collective)

d)

‫‘ ַשׁ ֲער‬their (MP) gates’

e)

‫‘ ָעל‬upon us’

f)

‫( אֹת‬direct object marker) ‘you (FS)’

g)

‫‘ ֵלאֹלה‬to/for their (F) gods’

h)

‫‘ ֵאל‬to him’

i)

‫‘ ֻחקּ‬my statute’

j)

‫‘ ִמ ְצוָ ת‬his commandment’

2. Translate the following sentences. Identify and parse the verb(s) (i.e., give the
person, gender, number, and root) in each sentence. Also, indicate whether
each verb is modal or non-modal.

‫א־עזַ ב ַח ְסדּוֹ‬
ָ ֹ ‫ֹלהי ֲאד ֹנִ י ַא ְב ָר ָהם ל‬
ֵ ‫ יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬Gen 24:27* (a
‫ ָה ַלְך ְל ַד ְרכּוֹ‬PN‫ם־בּ ָלק‬
ָ ַ‫ וְ ג‬Num 24:25 (b
‫ל־ה ֫ ָלּיְ ָלה‬
ַ ‫ל־היּוֹם וְ ָכ‬
ַ ‫ ִכּי לֹא ָא ַכל ֫ ֶל ֶחם ָכּ‬I Sam 28:20 (c
‫א־ה ְלכוּ ָבנָ יו ִבּ ְד ָר ָכיו‬
ָ ֹ ‫ וְ ל‬I Sam 8:3 (d

‫‪56‬‬

‫‪Lesson 7‬‬

‫ת־ה ֻח ִקּים‬
‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצוָ ה וְ ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 7:11 (e‬וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא ַ‬
‫ל־א ָחיו‬
‫יהם ִמ ָכּ ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:4 (f‬אֹתוֹ ָא ַהב ֲא ִב ֶ‬
‫ל־מא ֶ ֹ֫דָך‬
‫וּב ָכ ְ‬
‫וּב ָכל־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך ְ‬
‫ל־ל ָב ְבָך ְ‬
‫ֹלהי֫ ָך ְבּ ָכ ְ‬
‫‪ Deut 6:5 (g‬וְ ָא ַה ְב ָ֫תּ ֵאת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬
‫וּמצֹּאנְ ָך וְ ָא ַכ ְל ָ֫תּ ִבּ ְשׁ ָע ֶרי֫ ָך‬
‫‪ Deut 12:21* (h‬וְ זָ ַב ְח ָ֫תּ ִמ ְבּ ָק ְרָך ִ‬
‫וּמ ְצו ָֹתיו‬
‫ֹלהי֫ ָך וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָ֫תּ ֻחקּ ָֹתיו ִ‬
‫‪ Deut 11:1* (i‬וְ ָא ַה ְב ָ֫תּ ֵאת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬
‫ֹלהים‬
‫תּוֹרת ֱא ִ‬
‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים ְבּ ֵ֫ס ֶפר‪ַ GL‬‬
‫הוֹשׁ ַע ָכּ ַתב‪ֶ GL‬א ַ‬
‫‪ Josh 24:26* (j‬יְ ֻ‬
‫‪3. From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one noun + suffixed pronoun each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Lesson 8
Lesson Summary:

• Qal Imperfect Conjugation: ‫יִ ְפקֹד‬
• Past Narrative Conjugation: ‫וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬
• Qal Imperfect Conjugation of: ‫ָהיָ ה‬
• ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬
8.1 Qal Imperfect Conjugation
Imperfect
Conjugation

The Perfect and Imperfect were introduced in Lesson 4 as the main
conjugations in Biblical Hebrew. The Perfect was described as
perfective aspect, and a paradigm was given in Lessons 4 and 5. The
Imperfect Conjugation was described as expressing imperfective
aspect. In most instances, an English present or future verb will be
used to translate the Imperfect.
The Imperfect is the main conjugation built on the Prefix Pattern.
However, other conjugations such a the Imperative and the Jussive
are also based on the Prefix Pattern (see Lesson 13). The complete
paradigm for the Qal Imperfect is given below.
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

Past Narrative
Conjugation

‫יִפקֹד‬
ְ
‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬
‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬

‘he will attend’

3MP

‘she will attend’

3FP

‘you will attend’

2MP

‘you will attend’

2FP

‘I will attend’

1CP

‫יִפ ְקדוּ‬
ְ
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְפקֹד‬

‘they will attend’
‘they will attend’
‘you will attend’
‘you will attend’
‘we will attend’

8.2 Past Narrative Conjugation
Languages typically use a past tense or perfective aspect verb form
for narrating past events (e.g., English Simple Past). Some
languages, however, may devote a particular verb form entirely to
literary narrative (e.g., French Passé Simple). In Biblical Hebrew an
archaic past tense verb predominates and is mostly restricted to past
narrative passages.

Lesson 8

58

‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ַכל וַ יֵּ ְשׁ ְתּ וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך‬
‘He ate, he drank, he rose, he went’ (Gen 25:34*)

The Past Narrative Conjugation, like the Imperfect, is built on the
Prefix Pattern. In the majority of cases the only distinguishing
feature between these two conjugations is that the Past Narrative
form almost always has a uniquely vocalized vav conjunction
prefixed to it: • ַ‫( ו‬forms without the • ַ‫ ו‬exist primarily in poetic texts).

‫‘ יִ ְפקֹד‬he will visit’ (Imperfect)
‫‘ וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬he visited’ (Past)
Qal Imperfect
Conjug. of
‫ָהיָ ה‬

8.3 Qal Imperfect Conjugation of ‫ָהיָ ה‬
The verb ‫‘( ָהיָ ה‬be’) is both frequent and irregular. Here is the
paradigm of the Qal Imperfect Conjugation of the verb.
‫יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְהיִ י‬
‫ֶא ְהיֶ ה‬

3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

The Verb
Form ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬

‘he will be’

3MP

‘she will be’

3FP

‘you will be’

2MP

‘you will be’

2FP

‘I will be’

1CP

‫יִ ְהיוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְה ֶ֫יינָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְהיוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְה ֶ֫יינָ ה‬
‫נִ ְהיֶ ה‬

‘they will be’
‘they will be’
‘you will be’
‘you will be’
‘we will be’

8.4 ‫וַ יְ ִהי‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי‬, the 3MS Past Narrative form of ‫היָ ה‬,
ָ is extremely frequent.
There are two distinct functions of this form in narrative.

• Often, it functions just like other Past Narrative forms with the
meaning of ‘was’, ‘become’, or ‘come’.

‫יח‬
ַ ‫ת־יוֹסף וַ יְ ִהי ִאישׁ ַמ ְצ ִל‬
ֵ
‫וַ יְ ִהי יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬
‘YHWH was with Joseph and he became a successful man’ (Gen
39:2)

‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫ל־שׁ‬
ְ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬
‘The word of YHWH came (lit. was) to Samuel’ (1 Sam 15:10)

Lesson 8

59

Just as frequently, however, the form introduces a
circumstantial clause in a narrative; often the clause opens or
closes a narrative episode.

‫ימ ֶלך‬
ֶ֫ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ָבּ ֵעת ַה ִהוא וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲא ִב‬
‘and then at about that time (lit. and it was at that time and)
Abimelek said . . .’ (Gen 21:22)

‫ן־ה ָר ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬
ָ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ִאישׁ ֶא ָחד ִמ‬
‘now there was a certain man from Ramathaim’ (1 Sam 1:1)

8.5 Vocabulary #8
‫ֶ֫א ֶבן‬
‫ִאם‬

F

stone

‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬

M

judgment, justice; custom

if

‫ֵ֫ס ֶפר‬

M

scroll, document, book

COND

‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר‬

Q

3MS PAST √ ‫אמר‬

‫עוֹלם‬
ָ

M

forever, antiquity

‫ַח ָטּאת‬

F

sin, sin-offering

‫ֵעץ‬

M

tree; P wood

‫יְ הוֹנָ ָתן‬

PN

Jonathan

‫ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬

M

righteousness

‫יִ ְצ ָחק‬

PN

Isaac

‫ָכּבוֹד‬

M

glory, honor, wealth

‫ָכּ ַתב‬

Q

write

‫ָשׁאוּל‬

PN

Saul

‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫ְשׁ‬

PN

Samuel

‫ ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִ ם‬, ‫ְשׁ ֫ ַניִ ם‬

M; F

two

Exercises
1. Write out the Qal Imperfect paradigm for the following verbs. Include the
appropriate personal pronouns for each verb form.

‫שׁמר‬

‫פּקד‬

3MS

3MP

3MS

3MP

3FS

3FP

3FS

3FP

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

Lesson 8

‫כּתב‬

60

‫שׁפט‬

3MS

3MP

3MS

3MP

3FS

3FP

3FS

3FP

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

‫דּרשׁ‬

‫שׁכן‬

3MS

3MP

3MS

3MP

3FS

3FP

3FS

3FP

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

2. Translate the following sentences. Identify and parse (i.e., give the conjugation,
person, gender, number, and root) the verbs in each sentence.

‫יתי‬
ִ ‫ת־בּ ִר‬
ְ ‫ וְ גַ ם ֲאנִ י ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְע ִתּי ֶאת־קוֹל ְבּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל וָ ֶאזְ כֹּר ֶא‬Exod 6:5* (a
‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי יְ הוָ ה‬
ִ ‫משׁה ֵאת ָכּ‬
ֶ ‫ וַ יִּ ְכתֹּב‬Exod 24:4 (b
‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם‬
ַ ‫ת־בּ ִריתוֹ ֶא‬
ְ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬
ִ ‫ וַ יִּ זְ כֹּר ֱא‬GL‫ֹלהים ֶאת־נַ ֲא ָק ָתם‬
ִ ‫ וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע ֱא‬Exod 2:24 (c
‫ֶאת־יִ ְצ ָחק וְ ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב‬
‫ֹט־א ֶרץ ְבּ ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬
ֶ֫ ‫ וְ הוּא יִ ְשׁפּ‬Ps 9:9* (d

‫‪61‬‬

‫‪Lesson 8‬‬

‫יתי ִת ְשׁמֹר‬
‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬
‫ל־א ְב ָר ָהם וְ ַא ָתּה ֶא ְ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 17:9 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֱא ִ‬
‫ל־א ְמ ֵרי‪ GL‬יְ הוָ ה‬
‫י־היא ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬
‫‪ִ Josh 24:27* (f‬כּ ִ‬
‫ֹלהים‬
‫תּוֹרת ֱא ִ‬
‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים ְבּ ֵ֫ס ֶפר ַ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ַע ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Josh 24:26* (g‬וַ יִּ ְכתֹּב יְ ֻ‬
‫יְמי ַחיָּ יו‬
‫מוּאל ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל כֹּל ֵ‬
‫‪ I Sam 7:15 (h‬וַ יִּ ְשׁפֹּט ְשׁ ֵ‬
‫ֹלהי֫ ָך וְ ָה ַל ְכ ָ֫תּ ִבּ ְד ָר ָכיו‬
‫ת־מ ְצו ֹת יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬
‫‪ִ Deut 28:9 (i‬כּי ִת ְשׁמֹר ֶא ִ‬
‫‪ I Sam 18:3* (j‬וַ יִּ ְכ ְרתוּ יְ הוֹנָ ָתן וְ ָדוִ ד ְבּ ִרית‬
‫יהם ְבּ ִרית ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה וִ יהוֹנָ ָתן ָה ַלְך ְל ֵביתוֹ‬
‫‪ I Sam 23:18 (k‬וַ יִּ ְכ ְרתוּ ְשׁנֵ ֶ‬
‫ל־הר ִסינַ י‬
‫‪ Exod 24:16 (l‬וַ יִּ ְשׁכֹּן ְכּבוֹד־יְ הוָ ה ַע ַ‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫‪3. From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one imperfect or past narrative verb each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Lesson 9
Lesson Summary:

• Adjectives: ‫ָקדוֹשׁ‬
• Demonstrative Pronouns:

Near – ‫זֶ ה זֹאת ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬
Far – ‫הוּא ִהיא ֵ֫ה ָמּה ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬

9.1 Adjectives
Adjectives

Adjectives modify nouns by specifying attributes of the noun.

‫‘ גּוֹי ַצ ִדּיק‬a righteous nation’ (Isa 26:2)
Biblical Hebrew has relatively few pure adjectives. The construct
relationship is used more often to modify nouns.

‫‘ ִבּ ְמקוֹם ַה ֫קֹ ֶדשׁ‬in the place of holiness’
= ‘the holy place’ (construct) (Lev 10:17)

‫‘ ְבּ ָמקוֹם ָקדוֹשׁ‬in a holy place’ (adjective) (Lev 7:6)
Adjectives have the following characteristics:

• Adjectives are declined with the same endings as nouns, except
that they do not have dual endings.
Singular
Masculine
Feminine

Absolute (ABS)
Construct (CST)
Absolute (ABS)
Construct (CST)

Plural

‫גָּ דוֹל‬
‫גְּ דוֹל‬

‫דוֹלים‬
ִ ְ‫גּ‬
‫דוֹלי‬
ֵ ְ‫גּ‬

‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫גּ‬
‫דוֹלת‬
ַ ְ‫גּ‬

‫גְּ דוֹלוֹת‬
‫גְּ דוֹלוֹת‬

• Adjectives must agree with the modified noun in both gender
and number (dual nouns are modified by plural adjectives).

‫‘ ִאישׁ ַצ ִדּיק‬a righteous man’ (Gen 6:9)
‫‘ ֲאנָ ִשׁים ְר ָשׁ ִעים‬evil men’ (2 Sam 4:11)
‫‘ יָ ַ ֫דיִ ם ָרפוֹת‬a weak (pair of) hands’ (Job 4:3)

Lesson 9
Predicative
Adjectives

63

• Adjectives can modify nouns predicatively:
A predicate adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in
gender, number, but not definiteness. (The verb ‘to be’ must
be supplied in translation; see 2.5 or 26.1.)

‫‘ טוֹב ַה ָדּ ָבר‬the word (is) good’ (Deut 1:14)
‫טוֹבה ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
ָ ‘the land (is) good’ (Deut 1:25)
Attributive
Adjectives

• Adjectives can modify nouns attributively:
An attributive adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in
gender, number, and definiteness. The attributive adjective
usually follows the noun it modifies.

‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫‘ ִעיר גּ‬a great city’ (Josh 10:3)
‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫‘ ָה ִעיר ַהגּ‬the great city’ (Gen 10:12)
Substantive
Adjectives

Comparative
and
Superlative

• Adjectives can be substantival (i.e., used as a nouns).
‫‘ ַצ ִדּיק ַע ְב ִדּי‬a righteous man, my servant’ (Isa 53:11)
• Adjectives can express the comparative and superlative.
‫‘ ָא ִחיו ַה ָקּטֹן‬his brother who (was) younger’ (Gen 48:19)
ִ
Note: comparison is often expressed with the preposition ‫מן‬.
‫טוֹבה ִמ ֶ֫מּנָּ ה‬
ָ ‘(she is) better than her’ (Judg 15:2)

‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫‘ ִבּ ִתּי ַהגּ‬my daughter who (is) oldest’ (1 Sam 18:17)
Note: superlative is also expressed by a construct phrase in
which both construct and absolute use the same noun.
‫‘ ֫קֹ ֶדשׁ ֳק ָד ִשׁים‬holy of holies’ = ‘most holy’ (Exod 29.37)

Demonstrative
Pronouns

9.2 Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns are deictic (pointing) words (e.g., this,
that, those in English). They are used to modify a noun either
attributively or predicatively.

Lesson 9

64

‫‘ ַהגּוֹי ַהזֶּ ה‬this nation’ (attributive)
‫‘ זֶ ה ַה ָדּ ָבר‬this (is) the word’ (predicative)
Demonstrative pronouns may be used substantivally, i.e., as a noun.

‫ִשׁ ְלחוּ ֶאת־זֹאת‬
‘send this one (F) away ’ (2 Sam 13.17*)

The two major groups of demonstrative pronouns are near and far.
The far demonstratives are the same as the 3rd person personal
pronouns.

Near

Far

Singular
this

Plural

F

this

‫זֶ ה‬
‫זֹאת‬

M

that

‫הוּא‬

M

those

‫ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬

F

that

‫ִהיא‬

F

those

‫ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬

‫ ְק ַטנָּ ה‬, ‫ָקטֹן‬

ADJ (M, F)

M

M

‫ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬

these

F

9.5 Vocabulary #9
‫ַאל‬

ADV NEG

‫ֵבּין‬

PREP

not (w/commands)

between

‫ָק ָרא‬

Q

great

‫ ָר ָעה‬, ‫ַרע‬

animal

‫ָר ָעב‬

M

‫גָּ דוֹל‬

ADJ

‫ַחיָּ ה‬

F

small

call, proclaim, read

ADJ (M, F)

bad, evil

famine, hunger

‫ָח ָכם‬

ADJ

wise

‫ָר ָשׁע‬

ADJ

‫טוֹב‬

ADJ

good, pleasant

‫ָשׂ ֶדה‬

M

field; P ‫ָשׂדוֹת‬

‫ָכּ ֵבד‬

ADJ

heavy

‫ָשׁ ַכב‬

Q

lie (down)

‫ָשׁ ַלח‬

Q

send

‫ֵשׁם‬

M

name; P ‫ֵשׁמוֹת‬

‫ִמי‬
‫נָ ַתן‬
‫ַצ ִדּיק‬

INTER
Q

who?

give, place, set

ADJ

righteous

wicked

Lesson 9

65

Exercises
1. Construct the following adjectival phrases in Hebrew. Identify the adjective as
attributive, predicative, or substantival.
a) I (M) am a good man

f) the king is great

b) He is the righteous man

g) the house is small

c) the people are wicked

h) she is the smallest/youngest sister

d) the famine is heavy

i) you (MP) are the righteous ones

e) they (FP) are great cities

j) YHWH is great

2. Identify the adjectives in the following as attributive, predicative, or
substantival, and translate the verse.

‫ ָר ִעים‬PN ‫ וְ ַאנְ ֵשׁי ְסד ֹם‬Gen 13.13 (a
‫ וְ ָא ַ֫מ ְרנוּ ַחיָּ ה ָר ָעה ָא ְכ ָלה אֹתוֹ‬Gen 37:20 (b
PN

‫ וְ ֵשׁם ַה ְקּ ַטנָּ ה ָר ֵחל‬PN ‫ ְשׁ ֵתּי ָבנוֹת ֵשׁם ַהגְּ ד ָֹלה ֵל ָאה‬PN ‫וּל ָל ָבן‬
ְ Gen 29:16 (c
‫יְ הוָ ה ַה ַצּ ִדּיק וַ ֲאנִ י וְ ַע ִמּי ָה ְר ָשׁ ִעים‬
‫וִ ֵידי מ ֶֹשׁה ְכּ ֵב ִדים‬

Exod 9:27 (d

Exod 17:12 (e

‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָשׁאוּל ְלנַ ֲערוֹ טוֹב ְדּ ָב ְרָך‬I Sam 9:10 (f

Lesson 9

66

‫ וְ ָה ִאישׁ גָּ דוֹל ְמאֹד‬I Sam 25:2 (g
‫ וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ט ִֹבים ֫ ָלנוּ ְמאֹד‬I Sam 25:15 (h
‫ ִכּי ִאישׁ ָח ָכם ַא ָתּה‬I Kgs 2:9 (i
‫ וְ ָאנ ִֹכי ֫ ַנ ַער ָקטֹן‬I Kgs 3:7 (j
‫ן־ה ִעיר‬
ָ ‫ וּנְ ָע ִרים ְק ַטנִּ ים ָה ְלכוּ ִמ‬II Kgs 2:23* (k
‫ וַ יִּ ְל ְכדוּ ֵמ ֶ֫א ֶרץ יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל נַ ֲע ָרה ְק ַטנָּ ה‬II Kgs 5:2* (l
3. Construct the following demonstrative phrases in Hebrew. Identify the
demonstratives as attributive or predicative.
a) this is the house

f) those are the nations

b) these men

g) those are the women

c) these cities

h) this is the daughter

d) that son

i) this law

e) that is the city

j) these are the mountains

Lesson 9

67

4. Identify the demonstratives in the following as attributive, predicative, or
substantival, and translate the verse.

‫תּוֹרה ַהזֹּאת ֲא ֶשׁר‬
ָ ‫יקים ְכּכֹל ַה‬
ִ ‫וּמ ְשׁ ָפּ ִטים ַצ ִדּ‬
ִ ‫וּמי גּוֹי גָּ דוֹל ֲא ֶשׁר־לוֹ ֻח ִקּים‬
ִ Deut 4:8* (a
‫יכם ַהיּוֹם‬
ֶ ֵ‫נָ ַתן יְ הוָ ה ִל ְפנ‬
‫ל־הגּוֹי ַההוּא‬
ַ ‫ ֶא ְפקֹד ַע‬GL ‫וּב ֶ ֫דּ ֶבר‬
ַ ‫וּב ָר ָעב‬
ָ ‫ ְבּ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ָבּ ֶבל ַבּ ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬Jer 27:8* (b
‫י־ה ִאישׁ ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶדה וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָה ֫ ֶע ֶבד הוּא ֲאד ֹנִ י‬
ָ ‫ל־ה ֫ ֶע ֶבד ִמ‬
ָ ‫ וַ תּ ֹ֫א ֶמר ֶא‬Gen 24:65* (c
‫ֹלהיָך יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ֶ֫ ‫אמרוּ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ֱא‬
ְ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Exod 32:4 (d
‫ ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ְשׁ ִמי‬Isa 42:8 (e
‫ירוּשׁ ָל ִם‬
ָ֫ ‫ ַהנָּ ִביא ִמ‬PN ‫ וְ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ִדּ ְב ֵרי ַה ֵ֫סּ ֶפר ֲא ֶשׁר ָשׁ ַלח יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬Jer 29:1 (f
5. From the nouns in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least
one adjective or demonstrative pronoun each.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 10
Lesson Summary:

• Qal Active Participle: ‫פּוֹקד‬
ֵ
• Qal Passive Participle: ‫ָפּקוּד‬
10.2 Qal Active Participle
Participles

Participles are a part of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system. Unlike
the Perfect, Past Narrative, and Imperfect verbs, however, Participles
are only marked for gender and number (not person).
Like the Perfect and Imperfect Verbs, Participles express aspect (as
opposed to tense); in particular, the Participle expresses progressive
aspect.
Semantically, therefore, the Participle in Biblical Hebrew is similar
to the English Participle in a statement like the water is running.
(Note that Biblical Hebrew does not require a copula ‘is’ in such a
construction.)
Biblical Hebrew Participles are declined like adjectives. The Qal
Active Participle is declined as follows:
Singular
Masculine

ABS
CST

Feminine

ABS
CST

Predicative
and
Substantival
Participles

Plural

‫פּוֹקד‬
ֵ
‫פּוֹקד‬
ֵ

‫פּוֹק ִדים‬
ְ
‫פּוֹק ֵדי‬
ְ

‫פּוֹק ָדה‬
ְ / ‫פּוֹק ֶדת‬
ֶ֫
‫פּוֹק ַדת‬
ְ / ‫פּוֹק ֶדת‬
ֶ֫

‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬
ְ
‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬
ְ

Participles may be used predicatively or substantivally:

Predicatively: the Participle functions as the main verb in a
clause, conveying the progressive aspect (the tense is derived
from the context).

‫יכל יְ הוָ ה‬
ַ ‫מוּאל שׁ ֵֹכב ְבּ ֵה‬
ֵ ‫וּשׁ‬
ְ
‘(and) Samuel (was) lying in the temple of YHWH’ (1 Sam 3:3)

Lesson 10

69

• Participles are often introduced by the article ‫ה‬. In these cases,
the ‫ ה‬functions as a relative word, and the participle is the
main verb within a relative clause that modifies a noun.

‫ם־ה ִא ָשּׁה‬
ָ ‫ָה ִאישׁ ַהשּׁ ֵֹכב ִע‬
‘the man who lies with the woman’ (Deut 22:22)

The ‫ה‬, though, is not always present to introduce the relative:

‫וְ נָ ַת ָ֫תּ ְל ַע ְב ְדָּך ֵלב שׁ ֵֹמ ַע‬
‘so you should give your servant a heart that listens’ (1 Kgs 3:9)

• Substantivally: some participles are regularly used as “standalone agentive nouns; their meaning is derived from the action
or function that the agents regularly perform/fulfill.

‫‘ שׁ ְֹפ ֵטי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬the judges of Israel’ (Num 25:5)
Passive
Participle

10.3 Qal Passive Participle
The Qal binyan has a passive counterpart to its active Participle. It,
too, is declined like an adjective.
Singular
Masculine

ABS
CST

Feminine

ABS
CST

Predicative
Passive
Participle

Plural

‫ָפּקוּד‬
‫ְפּקוּד‬

‫קוּדים‬
ִ ‫ְפּ‬
‫קוּדי‬
ֵ ‫ְפּ‬

‫קוּדה‬
ָ ‫ְפּ‬
‫קוּדת‬
ַ ‫ְפּ‬

‫ְפּקוּדוֹת‬
‫ְפּקוּדוֹת‬

Most occurrences of the Qal passive Participle are predicative. The
passive Participle functions as the main verb in a clause with a sense
like the English Past Participle in similar passive constructions, such
as you are blessed. The tense is derived from the context.

‫ִכּי ָע ִשׂי֫ ָת זֹּאת ָארוּר ַא ָתּה‬
‘because you have done this, you (are) cursed’ (Gen 3:14)
Note: Like the active participle, the passive participle may be the
main verb within a relative clause, with or without a ‫ה‬:
‫רוֹעי ַהנְּ טוּיָ ה‬
ִ ְ‫ת־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ ִבּז‬
ָ ‫( ָאנ ִֹכי ָע ִשׂי֫ ִתי ֶא‬Jer 27:5*)
‘I made the earth with my arm that (was) stretched out’

Lesson 10

70

10.4 Vocabulary #10
‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬

F

ground, land

‫ֱא ֶמת‬

F

truth, faithfulness

‫ָא ַסף‬

Q

gather, remove

‫בּוֹר‬, ‫ְבּ ֵאר‬

M

well, pit, cistern

‫ָבּ ַטח‬

Q

trust

‫יכל‬
ָ ‫ֵה‬

M

palace, temple

‫ָה ַרג‬

Q

kill, slay

‫זָ ֵקן‬
‫ִמ ְד ָבּר‬

ADJ
M

‫ָמה‬
‫ָמ ֵלא‬
‫ַמ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ֶ֫נגֶ ד‬

ADJ
M

what? how?

full; Q be full, fill

appearance, vision

ADV, PREP

in front of, in sight of,

opposite to

‫ֶפּן‬

old; VB Q be old

wilderness

INTER

CONJ

lest

‫֫קֹ ֶדשׁ‬

M

holiness, sacredness

‫ָשׁ ַאל‬

Q

inquire, ask

‫ ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬, ‫ִשׁ ְב ָעה‬
‫ָשׁ ַכח‬

M, F
Q

seven

forget

Exercises
1. Construct the following verbless clauses in Hebrew.
a) I (MS) am old

f) You (MS) are full

b) We (MP) are wise

g) You (FP) are small

c) You (FS) are heavy

h) He is bad

d) They (FP) are righteous

i) You (MP) are big

e) She is good

j) They (MP) are wicked

Lesson 10

71

2. Construct the following participial clauses in Hebrew.
a) I (MS) am gathering

f) They (MP) are sending

b) We (MP) are trusting

g) He is walking

c) You (MS) are killing

h) You (FP) are lying down

d) They (FP) are forgetting

i) You (MP) are giving

e) She is asking

j) You (FS) are writing

3. Identify the independent pronouns and participles in the following and translate
the verse.

‫אֹלהי יִ ְצ ָחק ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה‬
ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם ָא ִ֫ביָך ו‬
ֵ ‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬Gen 28:13* (a
‫וּלזַ ְר ֫ ֶעָך‬
ְ ‫יה ִהיא ְלָך‬
ָ ‫שׁ ֵֹכב ָע ֫ ֶל‬
‫יכן‬
ֶ ‫ת־א ִב‬
ֲ ‫ ָע ַ֫ב ְד ִתּי ֶא‬GL‫ ִכּי ְבּ ָכל־כּ ִֹחי‬GL‫ וְ ַא ֵ֫תּנָ ה יְ ַד ְע ֶתּן‬Gen 31:6 (b
‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫ ָה ֱא‬GL‫ ִכּי‬GL‫א־א ֶתּם ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם א ִֹתי ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬
ַ ֹ ‫ ל‬GL‫ וְ ַע ָתּה‬Gen 45:8 (c
‫יהוֹשׁ ַע זָ ֵקן וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר יְ הוָ ה ֵא ָליו ַא ָתּה זָ ַ ֫קנְ ָתּה‬
ֻ
ִ‫ ו‬Josh 13:1* (d
‫וּב ֶ֫ניָך לֹא ָה ְלכוּ ִבּ ְד ָר ֶ֫כיָך‬
ָ ‫אמרוּ ֵא ָליו ִהנֵּ ה ַא ָתּה זָ ַ ֫קנְ ָתּ‬
ְ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬I Sam 8:5 (e
‫ֹלהיָך ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה בּ ֵֹט ַח בּוֹ‬
ֶ֫ ‫ֱא‬

II Kgs 19:10 (f

‫‪Lesson 10‬‬

‫‪72‬‬

‫בּוֹט ַח ָבּ ֶהן‬
‫‪ַָ Jer 5:17* (g‬ע ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר ַא ָתּה ֵ‬
‫‪II Chr 32:10 (h‬‬

‫ל־מה ַא ֶתּם בּ ְֹט ִחים‬
‫כֹּה ָא ַמר ַסנְ ֵח ִריב‪ֶ֫ PN‬מ ֶלְך ַאשּׁוּר‪ַ PN‬ע ָ‬

‫‪4. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence. Identify‬‬
‫‪any participle as predicative or substantival (and note where a predicative‬‬
‫‪participle is within a relative clause).‬‬

‫‪ Gen 18:22* (a‬וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם ע ֵֹמד ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬
‫‪ Gen 25:28 (b‬וְ ִר ְב ָקה ‪ PN‬א ֶֹ֫ה ֶבת ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב‬
‫ל־ע ְמָּך‬
‫‪ Exod 34:10 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ִהנֵּ ה ‪ָ GL‬אנ ִֹכי כּ ֵֹרת ְבּ ִרית ֫ ֶנגֶ ד ָכּ ַ‬
‫ה־בּנִ י‬
‫‪ I Kgs 3:23 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך זֹאת א ֶֹ֫מ ֶרת זֶ ְ‬
‫‪ Deut 22:29* (e‬וְ נָ ַתן ָה ִאישׁ ַהשּׁ ֵֹכב ִעם ַהנַּ ֲע ָרה ֶ֫כ ֶסף‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪ Gen 12:12* (f‬וְ ָא ְמרוּ ִא ְשׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְ ָה ְרגוּ א ִֹתי‬
‫ת־בּנְ ָך ְבּכ ְֹרָך‬
‫‪ִ Exod 4:23* (g‬הנֵּ ה ָאנ ִֹכי ה ֵֹרג ֶא ִ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ֹלהיָך שׁ ֵֹאל ֵמ ִע ָמְּך‬
‫‪ Deut 10:12 (h‬וְ ַע ָתּה יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָמה יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ֫‬
‫ל־ה ָעם ַהשּׁ ֲֹא ִלים ֵמ ִאתּוֹ ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬
‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬
‫מוּאל ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬
‫‪ I Sam 8:10 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ְשׁ ֵ‬
‫‪Jer 38.14 (j‬‬

‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך ֶאל־יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‪ PN‬שׁ ֵֹאל ֲאנִ י א ְֹתָך ָדּ ָבר‬

Lesson 10

73

‫ ֲא ֻס ֵפי ָר ָעב ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬GL ‫ וְ לֹא־יִ ְהיוּ עוֹד‬Ezek 34.29 (k
‫י־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך בּ ֵׁט ַח ַבּיהוָ ה‬
ַ ‫ ִכּ‬Ps 21:8 (l
4. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least
one participle each.
a) ____________________________________________________________
b) ____________________________________________________________
c) ____________________________________________________________
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

Lesson 11
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to the Binyanim
• Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations: ‫ִפּ ֵקּד ִה ְפ ִקיד‬
Binyanim

11.1 Introduction to the Binyanim
Lesson 4 (4.2) introduced the fact that verb forms in Biblical
Hebrew indicate binyan (e.g., Qal), conjugation (e.g., Perfect
conjugation), and person, gender, and number (e.g., 3MS).
The Qal Perfect conjugation was introduced in Lessons 4 and 5. In
this lesson the binyan system of the Biblical Hebrew verb is
discussed and the Perfect conjugation of the Piel and Hifil binyanim
are introduced.
Just as inflectional affixes mark a verb’s conjugation (e.g., Perfect),
there are binyan affixes which indicate a verb’s binyan. These
binyan affixes indicate a verb’s “valency”—whether it is active,
passive, reflexive, or causative.

Binyanim Chart

Active

Simple

Factitive/Resultative

Causative

Qal ‫ָק ַדשׁ‬

Piel ‫ִק ֵדּשׁ‬

Hifil ‫ִה ְק ִדּישׁ‬

‘Abram was holy’

Passive
Reflexive

‘Abram consecrated Sarai’
‘Abram caused Sarai to
treat X as holy’
(Abram made Sarai to be holy)

Nifal ‫נִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬

Pual ‫ֻק ַדּשׁ‬

Hofal *‫ָה ְק ַדּשׁ‬

‘Abram was
consecrated’

‘Abram was made to be holy’

‘Abram was caused to
treat X as holy’

Nifal ‫נִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬

Hitpael ‫ִה ְת ַק ֵדּשׁ‬

‘Abram showed himself
to be holy’

‘Abram consecrated himself’
(‘Abram made himself holy’)

*the Hofal of this root is
not attested in the
Hebrew Bible

Note: Factitive/resultative refers to causing a change of state, whereas
causative refers to causing action. Translating the former with a form of
‘make’ and the latter with a form of ‘cause’ may be helpful.

The verb ‫פּ ַקד‬,
ָ which is used in the lesson paradigms, is one of the
few verb roots that occurs in every binyan in the Hebrew Bible. The
relationships among the binyanim are illustrated by translations of
this verb in each binyan.

Lesson 11

75

‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he visited, attended to’
‫‘ נִ ְפ ַקד‬he was visited’
‫‘ ִפּ ֵקּד‬he mustered’ (i.e., ‘he made him attend to’)
‫‘ ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬he mustered (himself)’
‫‘ ֻפּ ַקּד‬he was mustered’ (i.e., ‘he was made to be attended to’)
‫‘ ִה ְפ ִקיד‬he caused him to be overseer/attend to’
‫‘ ָה ְפ ַקד‬he was caused to be overseer/attend to’
The system of binyanim is not usually as “neat” as ‫ קדשׁ‬or ‫ פּקד‬may
make it appear. Rarely do individual verb roots appear in all or even
most binyanim and the relationships among the meanings for a root
are not always transparent or predictable.
In fact, some verb roots, such as ‫( ִדּ ֵבּר‬Piel ‘he spoke’) and ‫ִה ְשׁ ִליְך‬
(Hifil ‘he threw/cast’), do not occur in Qal nor exhibit the standard
meaning for their binyan (factitive/resultative and causative,
respectively). Therefore, it is important to memorize the particular
meaning of a verb root in each individual binyan in which it occurs.

Piel and Hifil
Perfect

11.2 Piel and Hifil Perfect Conjugations
Besides the Qal, the Piel and Hifil are the most frequently used
binyanim in the Hebrew Bible.
Note: the endings of the Perfect conjugation are the same in all binyanim.
QAL
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3CP
2MP
2FP
1CP

‫ָפּ ַקד‬
‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬
‘attend to’

PIEL

‫ִפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬
‘muster’

HIFIL

‫ִה ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ִה ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬
‘make oversee’

Lesson 11

76

The Piel Perfect conjugation is characterized by:

• i-class vowel under R1 (i.e., the first root letter).
• doubled R2 (i.e., the second root letter).
Note: we will begin using R to indicate a verbal root consonant, and the
subscripts 1 2 3 to indicate the position of the consonant within the
triconsonantal root.

The Hifil Perfect conjugation is characterized by:

• a ‫( ִה‬or ‫ ה‬with an i-class vowel) prefix.
11.3 Vocabulary #11
‫ ְכּנַ ֲענִ י‬, ‫ְכּ ַ֫נ ַען‬

‫ָא ַבד‬

Q

perish; PI, HI destroy

‫בּקשׁ‬

PI

seek

‫ֶ֫כּ ֶסף‬

M

silver, money

‫גָּ ַדל‬

Q

be great; PI make great,

‫ָמ ָצא‬

Q

find

‫ָע ָשׂה‬

Q

do, make, act

‫ָק ַדשׁ‬

Q

be holy; PI consecrate

‫ַשׂר‬

M

official, captain, prince; P

grow/raise

PN

Canaan, Canaanite

‫דּבר‬

PI

‫ִהנֵּ ה‬

INTJ

‫זָ ָהב‬

M

gold

‫ָח ָטא‬

Q

sin

‫שׁכם‬

HI

wake early

‫יָ ַדע‬

Q

know

‫שׁלְך‬

HI

throw, cast

‫יָ ַשׁב‬

Q

sit, dwell

‫שׁמד‬

HI

annihilate

‫ָכּ ֵבד‬

Q

be heavy; PI, HI make

‫ָשׁ ַ֫מיִ ם‬

M

heavens

speak
behold, see!

heavy, honor

‫ָשׂ ִרים‬

‫ַ֫תּ ַחת‬

PREP

under, beneath

Lesson 11

77

Exercises
1. Based on the Qal meaning, translate the following verb forms: e.g., ‫נִ ְשׁ ַמר‬
(Nifal) ‘he was guarded’
(Hifil) ‫( ִה ְק ִריב‬e

(Nifal) ‫( נִ ְשׁ ַפּט‬a

(Pual) ‫( ֻשׁ ַלּח‬f

(Hifil) ‫( ִהזְ ִכּיר‬b

(Piel) ‫( ִק ֵדּשׁ‬g

(Hofal) ‫( ָה ְכ ַרת‬c

(Piel) ‫( גִּ ֵדּל‬h

(Hitpael) ‫( ִה ְת ַק ֵדּשׁ‬d

2. Write out the Piel Perfect paradigm for the following verbs. Include the
appropriate personal pronouns with each form.
‫דּבר‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

‫בּקשׁ‬
3MS

3CP

3FS

2MS

2MP

2MS

2MP

2FS

2FP

2FS

2FP

1CS

1CP

1CS

1CP

‫‪Lesson 11‬‬

‫‪78‬‬

‫‪3. Write out the Hifil Perfect paradigm for the following verbs.‬‬
‫שׁכם‬
‫‪3CP‬‬

‫שׁלְך‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪3CP‬‬

‫‪3FS‬‬

‫‪3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬

‫‪2MP‬‬

‫‪2MS‬‬

‫‪2MP‬‬

‫‪2MS‬‬

‫‪2FP‬‬

‫‪2FS‬‬

‫‪2FP‬‬

‫‪2FS‬‬

‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫‪4. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verb in each sentence.‬‬

‫יהן ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ִמ ְצ ָ ֫ריִ ם‬
‫‪ַ Exod 1:17 (a‬כּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ֶבּר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬
‫‪ִ Isa 1:2 (b‬כּי יְ הוָ ה ִדּ ֵבּר ָבּנִ ים גִּ ַ ֫דּ ְל ִתּי‬

‫‪ I Sam 15:2 (c‬וְ ִה ְשׁ ִכּים ַא ְב ָשׁלוֹם ‪ PN‬וְ ָע ַמד ַעל־יַ ד ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך ַה ָ֫שּׁ ַער‬
‫ן־הגּוֹיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר ִה ְשׁ ִמיד יְ הוָ ה ִמ ְפּנֵ י ‪ְ GL‬בּנֵ י‬
‫ת־ה ָרע ִמ ַ‬
‫‪ II Kgs 21:9* (d‬יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָע ָשׂה ֶא ָ‬
‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫הוֹשׁ ַע ְבּ ֵעינֵ י ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫‪ַ Josh 4:14* (e‬בּיּוֹם ַההוּא גִּ ֵדּל יְ הוָ ה ֶאת־יְ ֻ‬
‫ן־ה ָ֫שּׁ ַמיִ ם‬
‫יהם ֲא ָבנִ ים גְּ ד ֹלוֹת ִמ ַ‬
‫‪ Josh 10:11 (f‬וַ יהוָ ה ִה ְשׁ ִליְך ֲע ֵל ֶ‬

‫‪Lesson 11‬‬

‫‪79‬‬

‫ל־מ ָל ֵ֫כינוּ ָשׂ ֵ ֫רינוּ‬
‫יאים ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ְבּרוּ ְבּ ִשׁ ְמָך ֶא ְ‬
‫ל־ע ָב ֶ ֫דיָך ַהנְּ ִב ִ‬
‫‪ Dan 9:6 (g‬וְ לֹא ָשׁ ַ֫מ ְענוּ ֶא ֲ‬
‫ל־עם ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
‫וַ ֲאב ֵֹ֫תינוּ וְ ֶאל ָכּ ַ‬
‫‪ I Sam 13:14* (h‬יְ הוָ ה ִבּ ֵקּשׁ לוֹ ִאישׁ ִכּ ְל ָבבוֹ‬
‫י־ב ֵקּשׁ זֹאת ִמיֶּ ְד ֶכם‬
‫‪ִ Isa 1:12 (i‬מ ִ‬
‫ל־ל ָב ְבָך‬
‫את ִכּי ִת ְדר ֹשׁ אוֹתוֹ ְבּ ָכ ְ‬
‫וּמ ָ֫צ ָ‬
‫ֹלהיָך ָ‬
‫וּב ַקּ ְשׁ ֶתּם ִמ ָשּׁם ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ֫‬
‫‪ִ Deut 4:29* (j‬‬
‫וּב ָכל־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך‬
‫ְ‬
‫ן־ה ָמּקוֹם ַההוּא‬
‫ת־שׁ ָמם ִמ ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 12:3 (k‬וְ ִא ַבּ ְד ֶתּם ֶא ְ‬
‫ן־ה ָ֫א ֶרץ‬
‫ת־שׁ ֵ֫מנוּ ִמ ָ‬
‫‪ Josh 7:9* (l‬וְ יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ַה ְכּנַ ֲענִ י וְ כֹל י ְֹשׁ ֵבי ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ וְ ִה ְכ ִריתוּ ֶא ְ‬
‫‪I Sam 6:6 (m‬‬

‫ת־ל ָבּם‬
‫וּפ ְרעֹה ֶא ִ‬
‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִכּ ְבּדוּ ִמ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם ַ‬

‫‪5. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one Piel or Hifil perfect verb each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Lesson 12
Lesson Summary:

• Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations:
‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד יַ ְפ ִקיד‬

• Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations:
‫וַ יְ ַפ ֵקּד וַ יַּ ְפ ֵקד‬

• Piel and Hifil Participles:
‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬

Piel and Hifil
Prefix
Pattern/Imperfect

12.1 Piel and Hifil Imperfect Conjugations
The Prefix pattern and Imperfect conjugation of the Qal were
introduced in Lesson 8. Here we will look at the Piel and Hifil
Imperfect conjugations.
Just as in the Qal Imperfect, the Piel and Hifil Imperfect share the
same forms as the Piel and Hifil Prefix pattern. (The Qal is given in
the charts for comparison).
QAL
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP

‫יִפקֹד‬
ְ
‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬
‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬
‫יִפ ְקדוּ‬
ְ
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְפקֹד‬
‘attend to’

PIEL

‫יְפ ֵקּד‬
ַ
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֲא ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫יְפ ְקּדוּ‬
ַ
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נְ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‘muster’

HIFIL

‫יַפ ִקיד‬
ְ
‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬
‫ַא ְפ ִקיד‬
‫יַפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
ְ
‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ְפ ִקיד‬
‘make oversee’

The Piel Imperfect conjugation is characterized by the following:
• ְ under the prefix consonant;

• a-class vowel under R1 (i.e., the first root letter);
• doubled R2 (i.e., the second root letter).

Lesson 12

81

The Hifil Imperfect Conjugation is characterized by the following:

• a-class vowel under the prefix;
• i-class theme vowel (i.e., between R2 and R3).
Note: the i-class theme vowel is often spelled defectively (without ‫)י‬.

‫‘ וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִ֫חתוּ‬they destroyed’ (2 Sam 11:1)
12.2 Piel and Hifil Past Narrative Conjugations
Piel and Hifil
Past Narrative

As with the Qal binyan (see 8.2), the Piel Past Narrative
conjugation is based upon to the Prefix pattern with • ַ‫ ו‬prefixed.

‫וַ ְתּ ַד ֵבּר ִל ְפנֵ י ַה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
‘she spoke before the king’ (Esth 8:3)

In the Hifil Past Narrative conjugation, however, the Prefix
pattern is altered slightly. The theme vowel in the Past Narrative
verb form is ֵ tsere instead of ‫ִ י‬chiriq-yod.

‫ת־ה ַ֫בּ ַעל‬
ַ ‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ֵמד יֵ הוּא ֶא‬
‘Jehu destroyed the Baal’ (II Kgs 10:28)

Vilminqs
or
Sqinmlevi

A peculiarity occurs with the Piel 3MS and 3MP forms: the dagesh
“falls out” of the ‫ י‬prefix. This phenomenon is part of a general
tendency of the consonants ‫ו‬, ‫ י‬, ‫ל‬, ‫מ‬, ‫נ‬, ‫ק‬, ‫ס‬, ‫צ‬, ‫ שׂ‬and ‫ שׁ‬to drop a
dagesh when they have a vocal sheva.
This phenomenon is often referred to as vilminqs (= ‫ וילמנק‬+
sibilants) or sqinmlevi (i.e., “skin them Levi”).

‫‘ וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה‬YHWH spoke to Moses’ (Num 1:1)
12.3 Piel and Hifil Participles
Piel and Hifil
Participle

The Piel and Hifil Participles are characterized by a ‫ מ‬inflectional
prefix throughout. Also, the vowel pattern of the masculine singular
is the same as that of the Prefix pattern in the respective binyanim.
Piel Imperfect

‫ יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬and Participle ‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬

Lesson 12
Hifil Imperfect

82

‫ יַ ְפ ִקיד‬and Participle ‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬

The other participial forms are declined by adding
noun/adjective endings to the masculine singular form.
Qal

Piel

‫פּוֹקד‬
ֵ
‫פּוֹק ָדה‬
ְ
‫פּוֹק ִדים‬
ְ
‫פּוֹקדוֹת‬
ְ

MS
FS
MP
FP

‘attending’

Hifil

‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּדוֹת‬

‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ָידה‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ִידים‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִקידוֹת‬

‘mustering’

‘making oversee’

12.4 Vocabulary #12
‫ָבּ ָמה‬

F

‫ַ֫בּ ַעד‬

PREP

high-place
behind, on behalf of

‫יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬

PN

‫ֵלאמֹר‬

COMP

Jeremiah
(introduces direct speech;

untranslatable)

‫ָע ַבר‬

Q

pass over

‫ע ָֹלה‬

F

burnt offering

‫ָצ ַדק‬

Q

be righteous; HI justify

‫קהל‬

HI

‫קטר‬

PI, HI

congregate
make sacrifices smoke

‫ָל ַבשׁ‬

Q

wear; HI clothe

‫ֵר ַע‬

M

friend

‫ָל ַמד‬

Q

learn; PI teach

‫ָר ַשׁע‬

Q

be wicked; HI condemn

‫ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬

M

altar

‫ָשׁ ַבר‬

Q

break; PI shatter, break

‫סתר‬

NI

hide oneself, be hid; HI conceal

‫שׁחת‬
‫תּוֹע ָבה‬
ֵ

PI, HI
F

spoil, destroy

abomination

the

Lesson 12

83

Exercises
1. Write the Imperfect paradigm for the following verbs in the binyan specified.
Include the appropriate personal pronouns with each form.
Piel ‫למד‬

Hifil ‫צדק‬

Piel ‫קטר‬

Hifil ‫שׁחת‬

3MS

3MS

3MS

3MS

3FS

3FS

3FS

3FS

2MS

2MS

2MS

2MS

2FS

2FS

2FS

2FS

1CS

1CS

1CS

1CS

3MP

3MP

3MP

3MP

3FP

3FP

3FP

3FP

2MP

2MP

2MP

2MP

2FP

2FP

2FP

2FP

1CP

1CP

1CP

1CP

2. Translate the following. Identify and parse all the verbs in each sentence, and
identify the way each participle you find is being used.

‫ ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬GL ‫ת־ה ָמּקוֹם ַהזֶּ ה ִכּי־גָ ְד ָלה ַצ ֲע ָק ָתם‬
ַ ‫י־מ ְשׁ ִח ִתים ֲא ֫ ַנ ְחנוּ ֶא‬
ַ ‫ ִכּ‬Gen 19:13* (a
‫אֹלהי יַ ֲעקֹב וַ יַּ ְס ֵתּר‬
ֵ ֵ‫ֹלהי יִ ְצ ָחק ו‬
ֵ ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֱא‬
ֵ ‫ֹלהי ָא ִבי֫ ָך ֱא‬
ֵ ‫ וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָאנ ִֹכי ֱא‬Exod 3:6 (b
‫מ ֶֹשׁה ָפּנָ יו‬

‫‪84‬‬

‫‪Lesson 12‬‬

‫‪ Ezek 37:28 (c‬וְ יָ ְדעוּ ַהגּוֹיִ ם ִכּי ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ְמ ַק ֵדּשׁ ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫ת־ה ְדּ ָב ִרים‬
‫ל־ה ָעם ֶאת־יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‪ְ PN‬מ ַד ֵבּר ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Jer 26:7 (d‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים וְ ַהנְּ ִב ִאים וְ ָכ ָ‬
‫ָה ֵ֫א ֶלּה ְבּ ֵבית יְ הוָ ה‬
‫ת־ח ָט ַאי ‪ֲ GL‬אנִ י ַמזְ ִכּיר ַהיּוֹם‬
‫‪ֶ Gen 41:9 (e‬א ֲ‬
‫אמרוּ גִּ ְדעוֹן‬
‫ל־ר ֫ ֵעהוּ ִמי ָע ָשׂה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה וַ יִּ ְד ְרשׁוּ וַ יְ ַב ְקשׁוּ וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬
‫אמרוּ ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬
‫‪ Judg 6:29 (f‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬
‫‪PN‬‬
‫ן־יוֹאשׁ ָע ָשׂה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהזֶּ ה‬
‫‪ֶ PN‬בּ ָ‬
‫ר־יְב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ִשׁי ַיְב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפ ְשָׁך‬
‫‪ִ I Sam 22:23* (g‬כּי ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬
‫ל־בּמוֹת ַכּגּוֹיִ ם‬
‫רוּ־שׁם ְבּ ָכ ָ‬
‫‪ II Kgs 17:11 (h‬וַ יְ ַק ְטּ ָ‬
‫‪ Exod 9:34 (i‬וַ יַּ ְכ ֵבּד ִלבּוֹ הוּא וַ ֲע ָב ָדיו‬
‫ת־א ַחי ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַב ֵקּשׁ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:16 (j‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֶא ַ‬
‫ְך־מ ְצ ַ ֫ריִ ם‬
‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶל ִ‬
‫‪ֵ Exod 6:27 (k‬הם ַה ְמ ַד ְבּ ִרים ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ִ Exod 31:13* (l‬כּי ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ְמ ַק ֵדּשׁ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬
‫ת־ה ִעיר‬
‫י־מ ְשׁ ִחית יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ִ Gen 19:14 (m‬כּ ַ‬
‫יהם‬
‫ם־שׁנֵ ֶ‬
‫תּוֹע ַבת יְ הוָ ה גַּ ְ‬
‫יע ַצ ִדּיק ֲ‬
‫וּמ ְר ִשׁ ַ‬
‫‪ַ Prov 17:15* (n‬מ ְצ ִדּיק ָר ָשׁע ַ‬

‫‪85‬‬

‫‪Lesson 12‬‬

‫ת־ה ֻלּחֹת ‪ GL‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ֵבּר א ָֹתם ַ֫תּ ַחת ָה ָהר‬
‫‪ Exod 32:19 (o‬וַ יַּ ְשׁ ֵלְך ִמיָּ דוֹ ֶא ַ‬
‫ת־הגּוֹיִ ם ָה ֵ֫א ֶלּה ִמ ְלּ ָפ ֫ ֶניָך‬
‫ֹלהי֫ ָך הוּא ע ֵֹבר ְל ָפ ֶ֫ניָך הוּא־יַ ְשׁ ִמיד ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 31:3 (p‬יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֶ‬
‫ל־ה ָר ָעה ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה‬
‫‪ Deut 31:18* (q‬וְ ָאנ ִֹכי ַא ְס ִתּיר ָפּנַ י ַבּיּוֹם ַההוּא ַעל ָכּ ָ‬
‫‪ַ Deut 4:1* (r‬ה ֻח ִקּים וְ ַה ִמּ ְשׁ ָפּ ִטים ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַל ֵמּד ֶא ְת ֶכם‬
‫רוּשׁ ֫ ָל ִם‬
‫ת־כּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶאל־יְ ָ‬
‫‪ I Chr 15:3 (s‬וַ יַּ ְק ֵהל ָדּוִ יד ֶא ָ‬
‫ת־בּגְ ֵדי ֵע ָשׂו ‪ְ PN‬בּנָ הּ ַהגָּ ד ֹל וַ ַתּ ְל ֵבּשׁ ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב ְבּנָ הּ ַה ָקּ ָטן‬
‫‪ִ Gen 27:15* (t‬ר ְב ָקה ָל ְק ָחה ֶא ִ‬

‫‪3. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one Piel or Hifil imperfect, past narrative, or participle each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Lesson 13
Lesson Summary:
• Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System

• Jussive -

Qal

‫יִ ְפקֹד ִתּ ְפקֹד ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬

Piel

‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬

Hifil ‫יַ ְפ ֵקד ַתּ ְפ ֵקד ַא ְפ ִקי֫ ָדה‬

• Imperative

- Qal ‫ ְפּקֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

• Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System

Prefix Pattern
Modal Verbs

13.1 Introduction to the Prefix Pattern Modal System
Biblical Hebrew has two distinct parts to its verb system. The first
consists of verbs used to make statements—the indicative system.
The second consists of verbs used to express the will of the speaker
—the modal system.
You studied for Hebrew class. (indicative)
Study for Hebrew class! (modal)
Let’s study for Hebrew class. (modal)

There are two categories of modal verbs in Biblical Hebrew:
Jussives and Imperatives.
Jussives

• The Jussive verb occurs in all three persons and expresses both
positive and negative commands or wishes. When expressing
a negative command or wish, the Jussive is preceded by ‫ַאל‬
(never ‫)לֹא‬.

‫‘ יַ ְס ֵתּר ָפּנָ יו ֵמ ֶהם‬may he hide his face from them’ (Mic 3:4)
‫ל־תּ ְס ֵתּר ָפּ ֶ֫ניָך ִמ ֶ֫מּנִּ י‬
ַ ‫‘ ַא‬do not hide your face from me’
(Ps 102:3)

Jussives follow the prefix pattern and are identical to the
Imperfect forms with two exceptions:

Lesson 13

87

1) In the Hifil some forms of the Jussive have ֵ (tsere)
under R2 instead of ‫ ִ( י‬chiriq-yod).
3MS Jussive ‫יַ ְפ ֵקד‬
(versus 3MS Imperfect ‫)יַ ְפ ִקיד‬
3FS/2MS Jussive ‫ַתּ ְפ ֵקד‬
(versus 3FS/2MS Imperfect ‫) ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬

2) The 1st person Jussive forms (sometimes referred to as
cohortatives) often end with ‫ ָ ה‬in all binyanim.
QAL
1CS
1CP

‫ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‘attend to’

PIEL

‫ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫נְ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬
‘muster’

HIFIL

‫ַא ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬
‫נַ ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬
‘make oversee’

The ‫ ָ ה‬suffix originally expressed action to/toward the speaker
or on behalf of the speaker, and it periodically occurs on the
Imperative and Past Narrative forms with this meaning.
However, with first person Jussive forms, it has become
conventionalized, and therefore its original sense is not always
evident.
Imperatives

• The Imperative verb occurs only in the 2nd person. It expresses
positive commands and wishes (it cannot be negated).

‫‘ ְשׁמֹר נַ ְפ ְשָׁך ְמאֹד‬Guard your life very much’ (Deut 4:9)
The form of the Imperative is identical to the Jussive minus the
prefix (in the Hifil the ‫י‬, ‫ת‬, ‫א‬, and ‫ נ‬are replaced by ‫)ה‬.
QAL
2MS
2FS
2MP
2FP

‫ְפּקֹד‬
‫ִפּ ְק ִדי‬
‫ִפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ְפּ ֫קֹ ְדנָ ה‬
‘attend to’

PIEL

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ַפּ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‘muster’

HIFIL

‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬
‫ַה ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬
‫ַה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ַה ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‘make oversee’

Lesson 13

88

The modal verbs are sometimes followed by ‫־נָ א‬. This word most
often signals a polite request or command (e.g., English ‘please’),
though it is not always necessary (or easy) to translate.

‫ל־ה ֶ֫מּ ֶלְך‬
ַ ‫וְ ַע ָתּה ַדּ ֶבּר־נָ א ֶא‬
‘now, speak, please, to the king’ (II Sam 13:13)

13.2 Overview of the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System
The Biblical Hebrew verbal system is summarized in the following
chart (excluding the participle). It consists of both modal forms
(Jussive and Imperative) as well as indicative forms (Perfect,
Imperfect, and Past).
SUFF

INDICATIVE
FUNCTION

PREF
SUFF

MODAL

PREF

FUNCTIONS
PREF

‫ָפּ ַקד‬
‫)וַ (יִּ ְפקֹד‬
‫יִפקֹד‬
ְ
‫)וּ(פ ַקד‬
ָ
‫יִפקֹד‬
ְ
‫יִפקֹד‬
ְ
‫ְפּקֹד‬

Perfect: perfective (whole view of situation)
Past Narrative(Preterite): past event in narrative (or poetry)
Imperfect: imperfective (partial view of situation)
Modal Perfect: contingent modality/command
Modal Imperfect: command or wish (it is negated with ‫)לֹא‬
Jussive: command or wish (any person; it is negated with ‫) ַאל‬
Imperative: command or wish (2nd person only; it cannot be
negated)

The Perfect and Imperfect, although indicative forms, also have
modal functions. This use of indicative verbs to express modal
meanings is found in many other languages as well.
For example, in English the Past Perfect verb is regularly used to
express contrary-to-fact modality, as in the statement Had he known
he would have been there, in which the use of the Past Perfect
indicates that he did not know.
The Biblical Hebrew Perfect can express contingent modality or
commands/instructions (see 7.3). The imperfect may also express
commands, most often categorical negative prohibitions (with ‫)לֹא‬.

‫לֹא ִתּ ְר ָצח לֹא ִתּנְ ָאף לֹא ִתּגְ נֹב‬
‘Do not kill. Do not commit adultery. Do not steal.’ (Exod 20:1315)

Lesson 13

89

13.3 Vocabulary #13
‫ֶא ָחד‬
‫ ַא ַחר‬, ‫ַא ֲח ֵרי‬

M

‫ָלשׁוֹן‬

one, each (one)

PREP/ADV

behind, after

M

tongue, language

‫ִמנְ ָחה‬

F

gift, grain offering

‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬

M

‫ַא ֵחר‬

ADJ

‫בּרְך‬

PI

bless

‫דּוֹר‬

M

generation

‫נָ ָשׂא‬

Q

lift up

‫הלל‬

PI

praise

‫ָע ַבד‬

Q

serve, work

‫יָ ם‬

M

sea; P ‫יַמּים‬
ִ

‫ָעו ֹן‬

M

transgression, iniquity

‫יָ ָצא‬

Q

go forth

‫ַע ָתּה‬

ADV

‫יָ ֵרא‬

Q

fear

‫ָשׂ ָפה‬

F

lip, shore

‫ְכּ ִלי‬

M

vessel, utensil; P ‫ֵכּ ִלים‬

‫ָשׁ ַפְך‬

Q

pour out, shed (blood)

‫כּפר‬

PI

appease, atone

‫ָ֫תּוֶ ְך‬

M

midst (often with ‫ב‬, ‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬in the

‫ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬

another

PREP

‫נָ א‬

for the sake of; CONJ in

dwelling, tabernacle

ADV

please (polite request)

now

midst of)

order that

Exercises
1. Write out the Imperative paradigm of the listed binyan for the following verbs.
Qal ‫שׁמר‬

Qal ‫זכר‬

Hifil ‫קדשׁ‬

Piel ‫בּקשׁ‬

2MS

2MS

2MS

2MS

2FS

2FS

2FS

2FS

2MP

2MP

2MP

2MP

2FP

2FP

2FP

2FP

‫‪Lesson 13‬‬

‫‪90‬‬

‫‪2. Parse the following verb forms and translate.‬‬

‫‪ְ (a‬שׁמֹר‬

‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ֵמד‬
‫‪ַ (e‬א ַ‬

‫‪ (b‬זִ ְכ ִרי‬

‫‪ַ (f‬דּ ֶבּר־נָ א‬

‫‪ֶ (c‬א ְד ְר ָשׁה‬

‫‪ַ (g‬בּ ֵ ֫קּ ְשׁנָ ה‬

‫‪ַ (d‬ה ְשׁ ֵלְך‬

‫יִמ ְצאוּ־נָ א‬
‫‪ְ (h‬‬

‫‪3. Translate the following. Identify and parse all of the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫‪ Gen 27:8 (a‬וְ ַע ָתּה ְבנִ י ְשׁ ַמע ְבּק ִֹלי‬
‫ל־הבּוֹר ַהזֶּ ה‬
‫כוּ־דם ‪ַ GL‬ה ְשׁ ִלי֫ כוּ אֹתוֹ ֶא ַ‬
‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְפּ ָ‬
‫אוּבן ‪ַ PN‬א ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:22 (b‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ֲא ֵל ֶהם ְר ֵ‬
‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ־בוֹ‬
‫ֲא ֶשׁר ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָבּר וְ יָ ד ַא ִ‬
‫ת־בּנָ יו ִאתּוֹ ִמתּוְֹך ְבּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫ת־א ֲהר ֹן ָא ִחי֫ ָך וְ ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Exod 28:1 (c‬וְ ַא ָתּה ַה ְק ֵרב ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Psa 34:4 (d‬גַּ ְדּלוּ ַליהוָ ה ִא ִתּי‬
‫‪Psa 22:23* (e‬‬

‫אוֹתךָּ‬
‫ֲא ַס ְפּ ָרה ‪ִ GL‬שׁ ְמָך ְל ֶא ָחי ְבּתוְֹך ָק ָהל ‪ֲ GL‬א ַה ֵלּל ְ‬

‫‪ַ Psa 45:18 (f‬אזְ ִכּי֫ ָרה ִשׁ ְמָך ְבּ ָכל־דּ ֹר וָ ד ֹר‬
‫ֹלהי֫ נוּ ֲא ַב ְק ָשׁה טוֹב ָלְך‬
‫‪ְ Psa 122:9 (g‬ל ַ֫מ ַען ֵבּית־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬
‫ל־תּ ְשׁ ֵחת ַע ְמָּך‬
‫‪ֲ Deut 9:26 (h‬אד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה ַא ַ‬
‫ת־בּנֵ י־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫אוֹתהּ ֶא ְ‬
‫ת־ה ִשּׁ ָירה ‪ַ GL‬הזֹּאת וְ ַל ֵמּד ָ‬
‫‪ Deut 31:19* (i‬וְ ַע ָתּה ִכּ ְתבוּ ָל ֶכם ֶא ַ‬

‫‪91‬‬

‫‪Lesson 13‬‬

‫יכם ַדּ ְבּרוּ־נָ א ְבּ ָאזְ נֵ י ַפ ְרעֹה‬
‫אתי ֵחן ‪ְ GL‬בּ ֵעינֵ ֶ‬
‫‪ִ Gen 50:4 (j‬אם־נָ א ָמ ָ֫צ ִ‬
‫ֹלהי֫ נוּ יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָחד‬
‫‪ְ Deut 6:4 (k‬שׁ ַמע יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬
‫וּבין ַכּ ְר ִמי‬
‫הוּדה ִשׁ ְפטוּ־נָ א ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬
‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִ ִם וְ ִאישׁ יְ ָ‬
‫יוֹשׁב יְ ָ‬
‫‪ Isa 5:3 (l‬וְ ַע ָתּה ֵ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ל־שׂ ְפ ֵתי ֲח ָלקוֹת ‪ָ GL‬לשׁוֹן ְמ ַד ֶ֫בּ ֶרת גְּ ד ֹלוֹת‬
‫‪ Ps 12:4 (m‬יַ ְכ ֵרת יְ הוָ ה ָכּ ִ‬
‫ל־פּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶלְך ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ֵאת‬
‫‪ Exod 6:29 (n‬וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה ֵלּאמֹר ֲאנִ י יְ הוָ ה ַדּ ֵבּר ֶא ַ‬
‫ל־א ֶשׁר ֲאנִ י דּ ֵֹבר ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך‬
‫ָכּ ֲ‬
‫ל־א ֶשׁר־לוֹ‬
‫ל־כּ ָליו וְ ַעל ָכּ ֲ‬
‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּן וְ ַעל ָכּ ֵ‬
‫ת־ה ְלוִ יִּ ם ‪ַ PN‬ע ִ‬
‫‪ Num 1:50 (o‬וְ ַא ָתּה ַה ְפ ֵקד ֶא ַ‬
‫ת־ה ָעם ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים וְ ַהנָּ ִשׁים וְ ַה ַטּף ‪ GL‬וְ גֵ ְרָך‪ֲ GL‬א ֶשׁר ִבּ ְשׁ ָע ֶרי֫ ָך ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬
‫‪ַ Deut 31:12* (p‬ה ְק ֵהל ֶא ָ‬
‫תּוֹרה ַהזֹּאת‬
‫ל־דּ ְב ֵרי ַה ָ‬
‫ת־כּ ִ‬
‫יכם וְ ָשׁ ְמרוּ ֶא ָ‬
‫ֹלה ֶ‬
‫וּל ַ֫מ ַען יִ ְל ְמדוּ וְ יָ ְראוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ְ‬

‫‪4. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one jussive or imperative in each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Lesson 14
Lesson Summary:

• Infinitive Construct Qal ‫ ְפּקֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬

• Infinitive Absolute Qal ‫ ָפּקוֹד‬Piel ‫ ַפּ ֵקּד‬Hifil ‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

Infinitive
Construct

14.1 Infinitive Construct
Infinitives, in contrast to the finite conjugations (Perfect, Imperfect,
etc.), are not marked for person, gender, or number. Biblical
Hebrew has two infinitive verbs: the Infinitive Construct and the
Infinitive Absolute.
The Infinitive Construct is equivalent in form to the 2MS
Imperative in the same binyan, except in the Hifil. The Hifil
Infinitive Construct has ‫(ִ י‬chiriq-yod) instead of ֵ (tsere) for the
theme vowel.
QAL

PIEL

HIFIL

‫ְפּקֹד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬

‘to attend’

‘to muster’

‘to make oversee’

The Form of the Infinitive Construct is as follows:

• It can have pronominal suffixes expressing the subject or object
of the infinitive.

‫‘ ָא ְמ ֵרְך‬your saying’ (Jer 2:35)
‫‘ ִל ְשׁ ָמ ְרָך‬to keep you’ (Ps 91:11)
Note: The Qal Infinitive Construct (like the Imperative) often
appears with ָ (qamets chatuf) instead of ֹ (cholem) when suffixes
are added.

‫‘ ָא ְמ ֵרְך‬your saying’ ‫‘ ֲאמֹר‬to say’
‫‘ ִל ְשׁ ָמ ְרָך‬to keep you’ ‫‘ ְשׁמֹר‬to keep’

Lesson 14

93

• It is often prefixed with an inseparable preposition.
‫‘ ְל ַב ֵקּשׁ‬to seek’
‫‘ ְבּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬when he reigns’ (lit., ‘in his reigning’)
‫‘ ְכּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬when he reigns’ (lit., ‘at his reigning’)
The Function of the Infinitive Construct is as follows:

• It can serve as the subject of another verb.
‫לֹא־טוֹב ֱהיוֹת ָה ָא ָדם ְל ַבדּוֹ‬
‘the man being alone is not good’ (Gen 2:18)

• It can serve as the object of another verb.
‫ִהנֵּ ה לֹא־יָ ַ ֫ד ְע ִתּי ַדּ ֵבּר‬
‘Behold, I do not know (how) to speak’ (Jer 1:6)

• It can express purpose/result, usually with a ‫ ל‬preposition.
‫ִכּי־יָ ָצא ָשׁאוּל ְל ַב ֵקּשׁ ֶאת־נַ ְפשׁוֹ‬
‘that Saul had gone out to seek his life’ (II Sam 23:15)

• It can be explanatory after the main verb (i.e., ‘by -ing’).
‫ָשׁמוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ְדּשׁוֹ‬
‘Keep (INF ABS) the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12)

• It can express a temporal meaning with the ‫ בּ‬or ‫ כּ‬prepositions.
‫ֹלשׁים ָשׁנָ ה ָדּוִ ד ְבּ ָמ ְלכוֹ‬
ִ ‫ן־שׁ‬
ְ ‫ֶבּ‬
‘David was thirty years old when he became king’ (II Sam 5:4)

‫ל־בּית יָ ָר ְב ָעם‬
ֵ ‫ת־כּ‬
ָ ‫ְכ ָמ ְלכוֹ ִה ָכּה ֶא‬
‘As soon as he became king he struck down the whole house of
Jeroboam’ (I Kgs 15:29)
Note: With ‫ בּ‬the infinitive has a more general temporal sense,
while with ‫ כּ‬it often refers to an immediately preceding event.

Lesson 14
Infinitive
Absolute

94

14.2 Infinitive Absolute
The Infinitive Absolute in the Qal has a unique form. In the Piel
the form is equivalent to the Infinitive Construct and 2MS
Imperative, and in the Hifil the form is equivalent to the 2MS
Imperative.
QAL

PIEL

HIFIL

‫ָפּקוֹד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

‘to attend

‘to muster’

‘to make oversee’

The Infinitive Absolute functions as follows:

• It is an adverb when it is used with a finite verb of the same
root and binyan—it expresses a modal nuance (e.g., doubt,
necessity, possibility) as the context dictates.

‫יכם‬
ֶ ‫ֹלה‬
ֵ ‫ת־מ ְצו ֹת יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
ִ ‫ָשׁמוֹר ִתּ ְשׁ ְמרוּ ֶא‬
‘carefully keep the commandments of YHWH your God’ (Deut
6:17*)

‫ֲה ָמֹלְך ִתּ ְמֹלְך ָע ֵלי֫ נוּ‬
‘will you really reign over us?’ (Gen 37:8)

• It is occasionally used to replace finite verb forms, especially
Imperatives.

‫ָשׁמוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ְדּשׁוֹ‬
‘keep the sabbath day by sanctifying it’ (Deut 5:12)

Lesson 14

95

14.3 Vocabulary #14
‫ַאְך‬
‫גֵּ ר‬
- ‫ֲה‬

‫ָע ָלה‬

Q

go up

‫֫ ֶע ֶצם‬

F

bone

‫ֵעת‬

F

time

“no” questions)

‫ַרב‬

ADJ

overturn, destroy

‫ָשׂנֵ א‬

Q

hate

‫שׁבע‬

N

swear (an oath); HI cause

ADV
M

only, surely

resident alien, stranger

INTER

‫ָה ַפְך‬

Q

‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ

PN

(marker for “yes” and

Joseph

‫יָ ַלד‬

Q

beget, bear (children)

‫ָכּ ָלה‬

Q

be complete; PI complete,

to swear

finish

‫ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬

F

war, battle

‫ָמ ַשׁל‬

Q

rule

many, much; P ‫ַר ִבּים‬

‫ַשׁ ָבּת‬

M, F

‫ָשׁלוֹם‬

M

‫ ָשֹׁלשׁ‬, ‫ֹלשׁה‬
ָ ‫ְשׁ‬

Sabbath, rest

peace, well-being

FS, MS

three; P ‫ֹלשׁים‬
ִ ‫ ְשׁ‬thirty

Exercises
1. Parse and translate the following verbs.

‫( ְכּ ַד ֵבּר‬e

‫( ֲהפְֹך‬a

‫( ַה ְכ ֵבּד‬f

‫( ְמשׁ ֹל‬b

‫( ְל ַה ְק ִדּישׁ‬g

‫( ָהלוְֹך‬c

‫יע‬
ַ ‫( ְבּ ַה ְשׁ ִבּ‬h

‫( ִכּ ְשׁמ ַֹע‬d

2. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫ זָ כוֹר ֶאת־יוֹם ַה ַשּׁ ָבּת ְל ַק ֵדּשׁ אוֹתוֹ‬Exod 20:8* (a
‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬
ַ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬
ִ ‫ וַ יִּ זְ כֹּר ֱא‬GL ‫ת־ע ֵרי ַה ִכּ ָכּר‬
ָ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬
ִ ‫ וַ יְ ִהי ְבּ ַשׁ ֵחת ֱא‬Gen 19:29 (b
‫ת־ה ָע ִרים ֲא ֶשׁר־יָ ַשׁב ָבּ ֵהן לוֹט‬
ֶ ‫ ַבּ ֲהפְֹך ֶא‬GL ‫ ִמתּוְֹך ַה ֲה ֵפ ָכה‬PN ‫ֶאת־לוֹט‬

‫‪96‬‬

‫‪Lesson 14‬‬

‫ל־דּוִ ד כֹּה ָא ַמר יְ הוָ ה‬
‫‪ָ I Sam 24:12 (c‬הלוְֹך וְ ִד ַבּ ְר ָ֫תּ ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 27:30 (d‬וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ִכּ ָלּה יִ ְצ ָחק ְל ָב ֵרְך ֶאת־יַ ֲעקֹב וַ יְ ִהי ַאְך יָ צֹא יָ ָצא יַ ֲעקֹב ֵמ ֵאת ְפּנֵ י‬
‫יִ ְצ ָחק ָא ִביו‬
‫‪ָ Prov 25:27* (e‬אכֹל ְדּ ַבשׁ‪ַ GL‬רב לֹא־טוֹב‬
‫ת־בּ ְל ָהה ‪ִ PN‬פּ ֫ ֶילגֶ שׁ‬
‫אוּבן ‪ PN‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב ֶא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 35:22 (f‬וַ יְ ִהי ִבּ ְשׁכֹּן יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ ַה ִהוא וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך ְר ֵ‬
‫‪ָ GL‬א ִביו וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫ְך־מ ֶלְך ִל ְבנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫‪ Gen 36:31 (g‬וְ ֵ֫א ֶלּה ַה ְמּ ָל ִכים ֲא ֶשׁר ָמ ְלכוּ ְבּ ֶ֫א ֶרץ ֱאדוֹם ‪ִ PN‬ל ְפנֵ י ְמ ָל ֶ֫‬
‫ֹה־ד ֶבּר ֵא ַלי ָה ִאישׁ‬
‫ת־דּ ְב ֵרי ִר ְב ָקה ֲאחֹתוֹ ֵלאמֹר כּ ִ‬
‫וּכ ָשׁ ְמעוֹ ָל ָבן ‪ֶ PN‬א ִ‬
‫‪ְ Gen 24:30* (h‬‬
‫ם־משׁוֹל ִתּ ְמשׁ ֹל ָ֫בּנוּ‬
‫אמרוּ לוֹ ֶא ָחיו ֲה ָמֹלְך ִתּ ְמֹלְך ָע ֵלי֫ נוּ ִא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:8 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬
‫ְך־מ ְצ ָריִ ם‬
‫ֹלשׁים ָשׁנָ ה ְב ָע ְמדוֹ ִל ְפנֵ י ַפּ ְרעֹה ֶ֫מ ֶל ִ‬
‫ן־שׁ ִ‬
‫יוֹסף ֶבּ ְ‬
‫‪ Gen 41:46* (j‬וְ ֵ‬

‫‪3. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one infinitive construct or absolute in each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬

Lesson 14
d) ____________________________________________________________
e) ____________________________________________________________

97

Lesson 15
Lesson Summary:

• The Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
Nifal

Pual

Hitpael

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד ֻפּ ַקּד נִ ְפ ַקד‬

PassiveReflexive
Binyanim

PassiveReflexive
Perfect

Hofal

‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬

15.1 Introduction to the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
Lesson 11 introduced the various verbal binyanim and their valency
relationships. Lessons 11-14 then introduced the Perfect, Imperfect,
etc., for the active binyanim: Qal, Piel, and Hifil. This lesson
provides paradigms for the passive-reflexive binyanim: Nifal, Pual,
Hitpael, and Hofal.
15.2 Perfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
NIFAL
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3CP
2MP
2FP
1CP

PUAL

‫נִ ְפ ַקד‬
‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫נִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬
‘be attended to’

HITPAEL

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬
‫ֻפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ֻפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬
‘be mustered’

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬
‘be mustered’

Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Perfect:
Nifal: ִ‫ נ‬prefix.
Pual: u-class ( ָ or ֻ ) vowel under R1,
doubled R2.
Hitpael: ‫ ִה ְת‬prefix,
doubled R2.
Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix ( ‫ ָה‬or ‫) ֻה‬.

HOFAL

‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָה ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָה ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬
‘be made to
oversee’

Lesson 15
PassiveReflexive
Imperfect

99

15.3 Imperfect Conjugation in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP

NIFAL

PUAL

‫יִפּ ֵקד‬
ָ
‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ְק ִדי‬
‫ֶא ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫יִפּ ְקדוּ‬
ָ
‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יְפ ַקּד‬
ֻ
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֲא ֻפ ַקּד‬
‫יְפ ְקּדוּ‬
ֻ
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‘be attended to’ ‘be mustered’

HITPAEL

‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫יִ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‘be mustered’

HOFAL

‫יָפ ַקד‬
ְ
‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬
‫ָא ְפ ַקד‬
‫יָפ ְקדוּ‬
ְ
‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נָ ְפ ַקד‬
‘be made to
oversee’

Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Prefix pattern:
Nifal: doubled R1 with ָ (a-class qamets)
Pual: ְ under the prefix,
u-class ( ָ or ֻ ) vowel under R1,
doubled R2.
Hitpael: ‫ ְת‬after the prefix,
doubled R2.
Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix ( ָ or ֻ ).

PassiveReflexive
Imperative
and Jussive

15.4 Imperative and Jussive in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
As in the active binyanim, the modal forms for the passive-reflexive
binyanim are based upon the Prefix pattern.
The passive-reflexive Jussive is identical to the Prefix pattern. The
Imperative and 1st Person Jussive do not occur in the passive
binyanim (i.e., Pual and Hofal).
The Nifal Imperative generally occurs with that binyan’s reflexive

Lesson 15

100

sense (as opposed to its passive sense).
Imperative:
NIFAL
2MS
2FS
2MP
2FP

HITPAEL

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫ִה ָפּ ְק ִדי‬
‫ִה ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬

Characteristics of the passive-reflexive Imperatives:
Nifal: ‫ ִה‬prefix
doubled R1 with ָ (a-class qamets)
Hitpael: ‫ ִה ְת‬prefix
doubled R2.
1st Person Jussive:
NIFAL
1CS
1CP

PassiveReflexive
Infinitives

HITPAEL

‫ֶא ָפּ ְק ָדה‬
‫נִ ָפּ ְק ָדה‬

‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫נִ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬

15.5 Infinitives in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim
NIFAL
INF CST
INF ABS

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫נִ ְפקֹד‬, ‫ִה ָפּקֹד‬
‘to be attended to’

HITPAEL

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‘to be mustered’

HOFAL

‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָה ְפ ֵקד‬
‘to be made to oversee’

There is only one occurrence each of a Pual Infinitive Construct,
‫( ֻפּ ַקּד‬Ps 132:1), and Infinitive Absolute, ‫( ֻפּ ַקּד‬Gen 40:15), in the
Hebrew Bible.
The Hofal Infinitives are also rare; so is the Hitpael Infinitive
Absolute, which has the same form as the Infinitive Construct.
The Nifal has two alternate forms of the Infinitive Absolute.

Lesson 15

101

15.6 Participles in the Passive-Reflexive Binyanim

PassiveReflexive
Participle

NIFAL

‫נִ ְפ ָקד‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫נִ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬

MS
FS
MP
FP

PUAL

HITPAEL

‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּד‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּדוֹת‬

HOFAL

‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוֹת‬

‘being attended
‘being mustered’ ‘being mustered’
to’

‫ָמ ְפ ָקד‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬
‘being made to
oversee’

Characteristics of the passive-reflexive participles:
Nifal: ִ‫ נ‬prefix,
ָ (a-class qamets) under R2.
Pual: ‫ ְמ‬prefix,
u-class vowel under R1 ( ָ or ֻ ),
doubled R2.
Hitpael: ‫ ִמ ְת‬prefix,
doubled R2.
Hofal: u-class vowel under the prefix (‫ ָמ‬or ‫) ֻמ‬
15.7 Vocabulary #15
‫ַאף‬

ADV

also, even, moreover

‫פּלל‬

HIT

pray

‫גַּ ן‬

M

garden

‫֫ ַפּ ַעם‬

M

step, time

‫ָהמוֹן‬

M

multitude

‫ָפּ ַתח‬

Q

open

wall

‫ָצ ַלח‬

Q

prosper, be successful;

‫חוֹמה‬
ָ

F

‫ֲחמוֹר‬

M

donkey

‫ָח ָמס‬

M

violence

‫ָק ַבר‬

Q PI

‫ָל ַקח‬

Q

take, receive

‫ָקנָ ה‬

Q

buy, acquire

‫ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬

F

family, clan

‫ָשׁ ֵלם‬

Q

be whole; PI reward, pay back

‫עוֹד‬

ADV

still, yet, again

HI

make successful

bury

Lesson 15

102

Exercises
1. Write out the full paradigm for ‫ ָק ַדשׁ‬in the passive-reflexive conjugations.

NIFAL

PERF

3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

3CP
2MP
2FP
1CP

IMPF

3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

PUAL

HITPAEL

HOFAL

Lesson 15
NIFAL
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP

IMPV

2MS
2FS
2MP
2FP

INF

CST
ABS

PTCP

MS

FS

MP

FP

PUAL

103
HITPAEL

HOFAL

‫‪Lesson 15‬‬

‫‪104‬‬

‫‪2. Parse and translate the following verb forms.‬‬

‫‪ִ (a‬ה ְת ַק ְדּשׁוּ‬

‫‪ְ (f‬מ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬

‫‪ (b‬נִ ְשׁ ְבּרוּ‬

‫‪ִ (g‬מ ְת ַפּ ְלּ ִלים‬

‫‪ (c‬וְ נִ ְס ְת ָרה‬

‫‪ִ (h‬ה ָשּׁ ֵחת‬

‫‪ (d‬יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫‪ (i‬נִ ְכ ָבּד‬

‫‪ְ (e‬תּ ֻכ ַפּר‬

‫יָמ ַלְך‬
‫‪ְ (j‬‬

‫‪3. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫‪ Gen 34:19 (a‬וְ הוּא נִ ְכ ָבּד ִמכֹּל ֵבּית ָא ִביו‬
‫יהם׃‬
‫‪ Gen 44:3 (b‬וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ ֵ֫ה ָמּה וַ ֲחמ ֵֹר ֶ‬
‫רוּח ַהיּוֹם‬
‫ֹלהים ִמ ְת ַה ֵלְּך ַבּגָּ ן ְל ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 3:8 (c‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְמעוּ ֶאת־קוֹל יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬
‫חוֹמה‬
‫ל־יוֹאב ‪ִ PN‬הנֵּ ה רֹאשׁוֹ ֻמ ְשׁ ָלְך ֵא ֶלי֫ ָך ְבּ ַעד ַה ָ‬
‫ָ‬
‫‪ II Sam 20:21 (d‬וַ תּ ֹ֫א ֶמר ָה ִא ָשּׁה ֶא‬
‫וּב ָשׂר ִמ ְבּ ָשׂ ִרי ְלזֹאת יִ ָקּ ֵרא ִא ָשּׁה‬
‫‪ Gen 2:23 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר ָה ָא ָדם זֹאת ַה ֫ ַפּ ַעם ֫ ֶע ֶצם ֵמ ֲע ָצ ַמי ָ‬
‫ִכּי ֵמ ִאישׁ ֻל ֳק ָחה־זֹּאת‬
‫אֹלהים י ְֹד ֵעי‬
‫יתם ֵכּ ִ‬
‫יכם וִ ְהיִ ֶ‬
‫ֹלהים ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְל ֶכם ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ וְ נִ ְפ ְקחוּ ֵעינֵ ֶ‬
‫‪ִ Gen 3:5 (f‬כּי י ֵֹד ַע ֱא ִ‬
‫טוֹב וָ ָרע‬
‫‪ְ Prov 16:6 (g‬בּ ֶ֫ח ֶסד וֶ ֱא ֶמת יְ ֻכ ַפּר ָעו ֹן‬

‫‪105‬‬

‫‪Lesson 15‬‬

‫יהם וַ יֵּ ְדעוּ ִכּי ֵע ֻיר ִמּם ‪ֵ GL‬הם‬
‫‪ Gen 3:7 (h‬וַ ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְחנָ ה ‪ֵ GL‬עינֵ י ְשׁנֵ ֶ‬
‫חוֹטא‬
‫י־ר ָשׁע וְ ֵ‬
‫‪ֵ Prov 11:31 (i‬הן ַצ ִדּיק ָבּ ָ֫א ֶרץ יְ ֻשׁ ָלּם ַאף ִכּ ָ‬
‫ֹלהים‬
‫ל־ה ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 20:17 (j‬וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא ָ‬
‫ל־פּנֵ י ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה‬
‫‪ Ezek 16:5 (k‬וַ ֻתּ ְשׁ ְל ִכי ֶא ְ‬
‫ֹלהים‬
‫ת־ה ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 5:24 (l‬וַ יִּ ְת ַה ֵלְּך ֲחנוְֹך‪ֶ PN‬א ָ‬
‫ֹלהים וַ ִתּ ָמּ ֵלא ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ָח ָמס‬
‫‪ Gen 6:11 (m‬וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵחת ָה ָ֫א ֶרץ ִל ְפנֵ י ָה ֱא ִ‬
‫י־חת ‪ָ֫ PN‬שׁ ָמּה ֻק ַבּר ַא ְב ָר ָהם וְ ָשׂ ָרה‬
‫ר־קנָ ה ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֵמ ֵאת ְבּנֵ ֵ‬
‫‪ַ Gen 25:10 (n‬ה ָשּׂ ֶדה ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬
‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ‬

‫‪4. From the items in your cumulative vocabulary create five sentences with at least‬‬
‫‪one construct phrase each.‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪a‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪b‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪c‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪d‬‬
‫____________________________________________________________ )‪e‬‬

Note to student: from this chapter onward word stress ( ֫

) will rarely be marked for you.

Lesson 16
Lesson Summary:

• Using the Lexicon
• Dynamic and Stative Verbs
16.1 Using a Lexicon
At this point in your study of Biblical Hebrew, you should begin to
transition from using our glossary to using a full-scale lexicon.
Unlike dictionaries, which provide definitions of words and rules of
usage, lexica provide glosses from one language to another. In
addition, lexica for ancient languages often provide attested forms of
words as well as examples taken from ancient texts.
In this section, you will be introduced to the basic steps for using a
lexicon for Biblical Hebrew. Following this discussion are sample
pages from the Hebrew lexicon edited by Brown, Driver, and Briggs
(BDB) with sidebar notes explaining the layout of the entries.
Step 1: Identify the three-letter root and look it up in the lexicon.
Step 2a: If the word is a verb, identify the binyan (see the
Parsing Flow Chart in the Appendix B for help).
Step 2b: If multiple meanings are listed for the binyan,
determine which meaning best fits the context for your
passage. The lexicon may reference the verse on which
you are working; this is the editors’ opinion of which
meaning best suits the passage.
Step 3a: If the word is a noun, look for its entry after the entry
for the verbal root.
Step 3b: Same as Step 2b.

Lesson 16

Verbs
• Verbs are listed in
3MS Perfect form.

• The most
common meanings
are given in bold.

• In parentheses are
attestations and
basic meanings of
the root in other
Semitic languages.
• Entries are
arranged by binyan
as follows: Qal,
Niph., Pi., Pu.,
Hithp., Hiph.,
Hoph.

• A partial listing of
conjugated forms is
provided for each
binyan.

• Multiple
meanings are given
in outline form–
A.1.a.–with
italicized glosses.

107

Lesson 16

108

Nouns
• Nouns are listed
after the related
verbal root.

• Identification as
noun
(n.)
and
gender (m. or f.)
follow the form.

• Then the most
common meanings
are listed in bold.

• A partial listing of
declined forms is
given.

Multiple
meanings
are
arranged in outline
form—2.a.—with
italicized glosses.

16.2 Dynamic and Stative Verbs
Dynamic
and
Stative

The semantic distinction between dynamic and stative forms a basic
division among verbs. Dynamic verbs refer to events or
movements. Stative verbs refer to states or qualities.
In English, stative verbs are distinguished from dynamic verbs not
only by their basic meaning (i.e., state versus event), but in their

Lesson 16

109

semantic limitations: stative verbs do not usually appear in
progressive conjugations (*He was knowing) or as imperatives
(*Know!).
In Biblical Hebrew, statives not only have semantic limitations
(statives are usually used intransitively, i.e., without an object), but
are also distinguished from dynamics morphologically.

• The vowel patterns in dynamic and stative verbs usually
contrast with each other in both the Suffix Pattern and Prefix
Pattern.
Dynamic Suffix Pattern

= ‫‘ ָפּ ַקד‬he attended’

Stative Suffix Pattern

= ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬he is/was heavy’

‫‘ ָקטֹן‬he is/was small’
Dynamic Prefix Pattern

= ‫‘ יִ ְפקֹד‬he will attend’

Stative Prefix Pattern

= ‫‘ יִ ְכ ַבּד‬he will be heavy’

‫‘ יִ ְק ַטן‬he will be small’
Note: All III-Gutturals verbs have a Prefix Pattern like the
statives, whether they are semantically dynamic or stative (see
17.3): ‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬.

• Stative verbs do not have an active Participle form, but often
have an adjective form equivalent to the 3MS Perfect form.
3MS Perfect
MSA

adjective

= ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬he is/was heavy’
= ‫‘ ָכּ ֵבד‬heavy’

• Stative verbs in the Perfect Conjugation may express a present
state or a past state.

‫אתם ִכּי ָכ ְב ָדה ְמאֹד‬
ָ ‫וְ ַח ָטּ‬
‘(and) their sin, indeed, is very heavy (= serious)’ (Gen 18:20)

‫וְ ֵעינֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ָכּ ְבדוּ ִמ ֫זּ ֹ ֶקן‬
‘(and) Israel’s eyes were heavy (= dim) from age’ (Gen 48:10)

Lesson 16

110

• Stative verbs may express either a state or the inception of or
entrance into a state (i.e., became).

‫ת־פּנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬
ְ ‫ִכּי־גָ ְד ָלה ַצ ֲע ָק ָתם ֶא‬
‘for their outcry has become great before the YHWH’ (Gen 19:13)

16.3 Vocabulary #16
‫ָדּ ַרְך‬

Q

tread, march

‫ָח ַכם‬

Q

be wise

‫ָחנֵ ף‬

Q

‫זָ ַרח‬
‫אכה‬
ָ ‫ְמ ָל‬

‫נָ ִקי‬

ADJ

clean, innocent, exempt

‫ָקטֹן‬

Q

be small, insignificant

be polluted, profane

‫ָשׂ ַמח‬

Q

rejoice, be glad

Q

rise, come forth, appear

‫ָשׁכֹל‬

Q

be bereaved, childless

F

work

‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶמשׁ‬

M/F

sun

Exercises
1. Translate the following verses. Look up in BDB and identify/parse the boxed
words. Determine the best meaning for the word in the context.

‫ת־ה ֻח ִקּים‬
ַ ‫ת־ה ִמּ ְצו ֹת וְ ֶא‬
ַ ‫א־שׁ ַמ ְרנוּ ֶא‬
ָ ֹ ‫ ֲחבֹל ָח ַב ְלנוּ ָלְך וְ ל‬Neh 1:7 (a

‫סוּסיָך ח ֶֹמר ַמיִ ם ַר ִבּים‬
ֶ ‫ ָדּ ַר ְכ ָתּ ַביָּ ם‬Hab 3:15 (b

GL

‫ֵמאוֹת‬

‫ ֶא ֶלף וַ ֲח ֵמשׁ‬GL‫ וְ ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים‬GL‫אוּבן ִשׁ ָשּׁה‬
ֵ ‫יהם ְל ַמ ֵטּה ְר‬
ֶ ‫ ְפּ ֻק ֵד‬Num 1:21 (c

GL

‫מוֹע׃‬
ַ ‫א־כ ְב ָדה ָאזְ נוֹ ִמ ְשּׁ‬
ָ ֹ ‫יע וְ ל‬
ַ ‫הוֹשׁ‬
ִ ‫א־ק ְצ ָרה יַ ד־יְ הוָ ה ֵמ‬
ָ ֹ ‫ ל‬GL‫ ֵהן‬Isa 59:1 (d

PN

‫יהם ֶדּ ֶרְך ַהיַּ ְר ֵדּן‬
ֶ ‫ וְ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ָר ְדפוּ ַא ֲח ֵר‬Josh 2:7 (e

‫‪Lesson 16‬‬

‫‪111‬‬

‫ם־אין לוֹ וְ נִ ְמ ַכּר ‪ִ GL‬בּגְ נֵ ָבתוֹ‬
‫‪ִ Exod 22:2 (f‬אם־זָ ְר ָחה ַה ֶשּׁ ֶמשׁ ָע ָליו ָדּ ִמים לוֹ ַשׁ ֵלּם יְ ַשׁ ֵלּם ִא ֵ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪2. Parse and translate the following verbs and indicate whether each verb is‬‬
‫‪dynamic or stative.‬‬

‫‪ (a‬יֶ ְח ַכּם‬

‫‪ (f‬יִ ְק ַדּשׁ‬

‫‪ָ (b‬שׁכ ְֹל ִתּי‬

‫‪ (g‬וַ יִּ ְקבֹּר‬

‫‪ִ (c‬תּ ְדר ְֹך‬

‫‪ָ (h‬קטֹנְ ִתּי‬

‫‪ֲ (d‬חזַ ק‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪ (e‬וַ ֶתּ ֱחנַ ף‬

‫‪ָ (i‬מ ַשׁ ְל ָתּ‬
‫‪ִ (j‬תּ ְשׂ ַמ ְחנָ ה‬

‫‪3. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence (also‬‬
‫‪indicate whether the verbs are dynamic or stative).‬‬

‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם ַבּכֹּל‬
‫‪ Gen 24:1* (a‬וְ ַא ְב ָר ָהם זָ ֵקן ַבּיָּ ִמים וַ יהוָ ה ֵבּ ַרְך ֶא ַ‬
‫יכם יוֹם ֶא ָחד‬
‫ם־שׁנֵ ֶ‬
‫אוֹתָך ִמ ָשּׁם ָל ָמה ֶא ְשׁ ַכּל גַּ ְ‬
‫וּל ַק ְח ִתּי ְ‬
‫‪ Gen 27:45* (b‬וְ ָשׁ ַל ְח ִתּי ְ‬
‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ‬
‫י־חזַ ק ָה ָר ָעב ְבּ ָכ ָ‬
‫ל־יוֹסף ִכּ ָ‬
‫ֵ‬
‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ ָבּאוּ ְל ִמ ְצ ַריִ ם ִל ְשׁבֹּר ‪ֶ GL‬א‬
‫‪ Gen 41:57 (c‬וְ ָכ ָ‬

‫יכם‬
‫יכם וְ ַע ְב ֵד ֶ‬
‫וּבנ ֵֹת ֶ‬
‫יכם ְ‬
‫וּבנֵ ֶ‬
‫יכם ַא ֶתּם ְ‬
‫ֹלה ֶ‬
‫וּשׂ ַמ ְח ֶתּם ִל ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬
‫‪ְ Deut 12:12 (d‬‬
‫יכם ִכּי ֵאין לוֹ ֵח ֶלק ‪ GL‬וְ נַ ֲח ָלה ‪ִ GL‬א ְתּ ֶכם‬
‫יכם וְ ַה ֵלּוִ י ‪ֲ PN‬א ֶשׁר ְבּ ַשׁ ֲע ֵר ֶ‬
‫וְ ַא ְמה ֵֹת ֶ‬
‫ית־ע ְב ְדָּך ְל ֵמ ָרחוֹק‬
‫ל־בּ ַ‬
‫‪ II Sam 7:19‬וַ ִתּ ְק ַטן עוֹד זֹאת ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך ֲאד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה וַ ְתּ ַד ֵבּר גַּ ם ֶא ֵ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪112‬‬

‫‪Lesson 16‬‬

‫אכה ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ְשֹׁלמֹה ‪ֵ PN‬בּית יְ הוָ ה וַ יָּ ֵבא ְשֹׁלמֹה‬
‫ל־ה ְמּ ָל ָ‬
‫‪ I Kgs 7:51‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַלם ָכּ ַ‬
‫ת־ה ֵכּ ִלים נָ ַתן ְבּא ְֹצרוֹת ‪ֵ GL‬בּית יְ הוָ ה‬
‫ת־הזָּ ָהב וְ ֶא ַ‬
‫ת־ה ֶכּ ֶסף וְ ֶא ַ‬
‫ת־ק ְד ֵשׁי ָדּוִ ד ָא ִביו ֶא ַ‬
‫ֶא ָ‬
‫יהם ֲא ֶשׁר זִ ְבּחוּ ַל ֲע ַצ ֵבּי ‪ְ GL‬כנָ ַען וַ ֶתּ ֱחנַ ף‬
‫נוֹת ֶ‬
‫וּב ֵ‬
‫יהם ְ‬
‫ם־בּנֵ ֶ‬
‫‪ Ps 106:38‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ְפּכוּ ָדם ‪ GL‬נָ ִקי ַדּ ְ‬
‫‪GL‬‬
‫ָה ָא ֶרץ ַבּ ָדּ ִמים‬
‫ח־אב‬
‫‪ֵ Prov 15:20‬בּן ָח ָכם יְ ַשׂ ַמּ ָ‬
‫ם־אנִ י‬
‫ם־ח ַכם ִל ֶבָּך יִ ְשׂ ַמח ִל ִבּי גַ ָ‬
‫‪ְ Prov 23:15‬בּנִ י ִא ָ‬

Lesson 17
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Guttural Verbs
• I-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָחזַ ק ָע ַמד‬
• II-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָשׁ ַחט‬

‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬

• III-Guttural Verbs: ‫ָשׁ ַלח‬

Guttural
Verbs

17.1 Introduction to Guttural Verbs
You should remember from Lesson 2 (2.5) that the guttural
consonants (‫א‬, ‫ה‬, ‫ ח‬and ‫ )ע‬have three main characteristics.

• Characteristic #1: Gutturals (and ‫ )ר‬cannot be lengthened (i.e.,
they cannot have a dagesh chazaq).

Characteristic #2: Gutturals prefer a-class vowels (placed
both before and after).

• Characteristic #3: Gutturals usually have a compound sheva
instead of a simple sheva.
In this lesson, we will study how these three characteristics affect
verbs that have guttural consonants for their first (I-Guttural),
second (II-Guttural), or third (III-Guttural) radicals.
17.2 I-Guttural Verbs
I-Guttural
Verbs

• #1: Nifal Imperfect has a ֵ (tsere) prefix vowel instead of the
normal ִ (chiriq) to ‘compensate’ for the fact that the
guttural consonant cannot take a dagesh chazaq.
‫ יֵ ָע ֵמד‬instead of *‫( יִ ּ ָע ֵמד‬compare to ‫)יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

• #2: Qal Imperfect Dynamic verbs have a ַ (patach) prefix
vowel instead of ִ (chiriq). Qal Imperfect Stative verbs
have a ֶ (segol) prefix vowel instead of ִ (chiriq).

Lesson 17

114

‫ יַ ֲעמֹד‬instead of *‫( יִ ְעמֹד‬compare ‫)יִ ְפקֹד‬
‫ יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬instead of *‫( יִ ְחזַ ק‬compare ‫)יִ ְכ ַבּד‬
Note: Both dynamic and stative 1CS Qal Impf. Have ֶ (segol) as
the prefix vowel: ‫ ֶא ֱעמֹד‬and ‫ֶא ֱחזַ ק‬

• #3: Qal Imperative and Infinite Construct will have ֲ (chatef
patach) under the first radical.
‫ ֲעמֹד‬instead of *‫( ְעמֹד‬compare ‫)פּקֹד‬
ְ
Note: In I-Guttural verbs, the chatef vowel will always be the
same class as that of the preceding vowel (where there is one).
‫( יַ ֲע ִמיד ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬Hifil 3MS Perfect and Imperfect)
Note: The chatef vowel may change to a full vowel if the vowel
in the following syllable is reduced to a sheva.
‫( יַ ֲעמֹד‬Qal 3MS Imperfect) BUT ‫( יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬Qal 3MP Imperfect)

I-Guttural: Representative Forms
QAL
DYNAMIC STATIVE
PERF
IMPF
PAST
IMPV
INF CST
INF ABS
PTCP

‫ָחזֵ ק ָע ַמד‬
‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק יַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫וַ יֶּ ֱחזַ ק וַ יַּ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ֲעמֹד‬
‫ֲחזַ ק‬
‫ֲעמֹד‬
‫ֲחזַ ק‬
‫ָחזוֹק ָעמוֹד‬
‫עוֹמד‬
ֵ
‫ָחזֵ ק‬

NIFAL

‫נֶ ֱע ַמד‬
‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬
‫וַ יֵּ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵה ָעמֹד נַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫נֶ ֱע ָמד‬

PI, PU, HITP

R
E
G
U
L
A
R

HIFIL

‫ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬
‫יַ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֵמד‬
‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬
‫ַה ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬
‫ַמ ֲע ִמיד‬

HOFAL

‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬
‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬
‫וַ יָּ ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָה ֳע ֵמד‬
‫ָמ ֳע ָמד‬

17.3 II-Guttural Verbs
II-Guttural
Verbs

#1: The Piel, Pual, and Hitpael binyanim do not have their
characteristic dagesh chazaq in R2. The preceding vowel
may lengthen.
Before ‫ ר‬the vowel always lengthens:
‫ ֵבּ ַרְך‬instead of *‫( ִבּ ֵרְּך‬compare ‫)פּ ֵקּד‬
ִ

Lesson 17

115

Before ‫ א‬the vowel usually lengthens:
‫ ֵבּ ֵאר‬instead of *‫ִבּ ֵאּר‬

Before ‫ה‬, ‫ח‬, or ‫ ע‬the vowel usually does not lengthen:
‫ נִ ַחם‬instead of *‫נֵ ַחם‬

#2: Qal Imperfect and Imperative have an a-class theme
vowel with both stative and dynamic roots.
Stative: ‫( יֶ ֱא ַהב‬expected)
Dynamic: ‫ יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬instead of *‫( יִ ְשׁחֹט‬compare ‫)יִפקֹד‬
ְ

• #3: R2 has a compound sheva instead of a simple sheva when
the verb ends in a vocalic inflectional suffix in all
binyanim except for the Hifil.
‫ ָבּ ֲח ָרה‬instead of *‫( ָבּ ְח ָרה‬compare ‫)פּ ְק ָדה‬
ָ
‫ ָבּ ֲחרוּ‬instead of *‫( ָבּ ְחרוּ‬compare ‫)פּ ְקדוּ‬
ָ
Note: ‫ ר‬does not always require a compound sheva: ‫ֵבּ ְרכוּ‬

II-Guttural: Representative Forms
(two different roots appear in this paradigm since none appears in all binyanim)

QAL
PERF
IMPF
PAST
IMPV
INF CST
INF ABS
PTCP

‫ָשׁ ַחט‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫ְשׁחֹט‬
‫ָשׁחוֹט‬
‫שׁוֹחט‬
ֵ

NIFAL

‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫נִ ְשׁחֹט‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ָחט‬

PIEL

PUAL

‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬
‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬
‫וַ יְ ָב ֵרְך‬
‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ָבּ ֵרְך ָבּרוֹך‬
‫ְמ ָב ֵרְך‬

‫בּ ַֹרְך‬
‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬
‫וַ יְ ב ַֹרְך‬

‫ְמב ָֹרְך‬

Note: The Hifil and Hofal binyanim are regular.

17.4 III-Guttural Verbs
III-Guttural
Verbs

• #1: There is often no effect on III-Guttural verbs
‫יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ ָשׁ ְלחוּ‬

HITPAEL

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫וַ יִּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

Lesson 17

116

• #2: Some forms have an a-class theme vowel.
‫ יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬instead of *‫( יִ ְשֹׁלח‬compare ‫)יִ ְפקֹד‬
‫( ַה ְשׁ ַלח‬HIF 2MS IMV) instead of *‫( ַה ְשׁ ֵלח‬compare ‫)ה ְפ ֵקד‬
ַ
BUT, some non-a-class theme vowels remain. In these cases, a
furtive patach appears before R3.
‫יח‬
ַ ‫ ִ‌ה ְשׁ ִל‬instead of *‫( ִה ְשׁ ִליח‬compare ‫)ה ְפ ִקיד‬
ִ

• #3: When III-Guttural verbs have object suffixes (discussed in
Lesson 18), the linking vowel is often a compound sheva
instead of a simple sheva.
‫ ֶא ְשׁ ָל ֲחָך‬instead of *‫( ֶא ְשׁ ָל ְחָך‬compare ‫)א ְפ ָק ְדָך‬
ֶ

III-Guttural: Representative Forms
PERF
IMPF
PAST
IMPV
INF
CST
INF
ABS
PTCP

QAL

NIFAL

PIEL

PUAL

HITPAEL

HIFIL

HOFAL

‫ָשׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬

‫ִשׁ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬
‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬

‫ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫וַ יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫יח‬
ַ ‫ִה ְשׁ ִל‬
‫יח‬
ַ ‫יַ ְשׁ ִל‬
‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬

‫ָה ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫וַ יָּ ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫ֹלח‬
ַ ‫ְשׁ‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬

‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫יח‬
ַ ‫ַה ְשׁ ִל‬

‫לוֹח‬
ַ ‫ָשׁ‬

‫נִ ְשֹׁלח‬

‫ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬

‫ָה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬

‫שׁוֹל ַח‬
ֵ

‫נִ ְשׁ ָלח‬

‫ְמ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬

‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ָלּח‬

‫יח‬
ַ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל‬

‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלח‬

‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬

Note: The infixed ‫ ת‬of the Hitpael and R1 of roots that begin with a
sibilant undergo metathesis, i.e., the ‫ ת‬switches places with a ‫ז‬, ‫ס‬, ‫ צ‬, ‫שׂ‬
or ‫שׁ‬.

Lesson 17

117

17.5 Vocabulary #17
‫ָא ַמן‬

Q

support; HI believe

‫ָכּ ַבשׁ‬

Q

subdue, dominate

‫ָא ָשׁם‬

M

guilt, guilt offering

‫מוֹעד‬
ֵ

M

meeting, appointed time

‫ָבּ ַחר‬

Q

choose

‫ָחזַ ק‬

Q

be strong; PI strengthen; HI

‫ֶמ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬

seize, grasp

F

chariot

‫נָ ַאף‬

Q PI

‫נחם‬

NI

commit adultery

be sorry, regret, comforted; PI

‫ָח ַשׁב‬

Q

think, devise; NI be reckoned

‫יוֹנָ ה‬

F

dove; PN Jonah

‫ֵע ָדה‬

F

‫ֵ֫י ַשׁע‬

M

deliverance, rescue, salvation

‫֫ ֶפּ ַתח‬

M

opening

‫ָשׁ ַחט‬

Q

slaughter

comfort, console
congregation

Exercises
1. Parse the following Guttural verbs.

‫( וַ יַּ ֲעזֹב‬f

‫( ְמנָ ֵאף‬a

‫( ָבּ ֳח ִרי‬g

‫( וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬b

‫( יֵ ָח ֵשׁב‬h

‫( ַה ֲא ִמינוּ‬c

‫( ָשׁ ַכנְ נוּ‬i

‫( יְ נַ ֲחמוּ‬d

‫( נַ ֲחמוּ‬j

‫( ְבּט ַֹח‬e

2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫אוֹתהּ ְלט ָֹבה‬
ָ ‫ֹלהים ָח ַשׁב‬
ִ ‫ וְ ַא ֶתּם ֲח ַשׁ ְב ֶתּם ָע ַלי ָר ָעה ֱא‬Gen 50:20* (a
‫ת־בּנֵ י יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
ְ ‫ת־לב ַפּ ְרעֹה וְ לֹא ִשׁ ַלּח ֶא‬
ֵ ‫ וַ יְ ַחזֵּ ק יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬Exod 10:20 (b

‫‪Lesson 17‬‬

‫‪118‬‬

‫‪ I Kgs 22:35 (c‬וְ ַה ֶמּ ֶלְך ָהיָ ה ָמ ֳע ָמד ַבּ ֶמּ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬
‫אוֹתהּ וַ יִּ נָּ ֵחם יִ ְצ ָחק ַא ֲח ֵרי ִאמּוֹ‬
‫‪ Gen 24:67* (d‬וַ ְתּ ִהי־לוֹ ְל ִא ָשּׁה וַ יֶּ ֱא ַהב ָ‬
‫‪Exod 17:9 (e‬‬

‫ר־לנוּ ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬
‫הוֹשׁ ַע ְבּ ַח ָ‬
‫אמר מ ֶֹשׁה ֶאל־יְ ֻ‬
‫וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫ת־ה ָא ָשׁם‬
‫ת־הע ָֹלה יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ִ Lev 7:2 (f‬בּ ְמקוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ ֶא ָ‬
‫מוֹעד וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ‬
‫ל־ע ַדת ְבּנֵ י־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ִשֹׁלה ‪ PN‬וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִכּינוּ ָשׁם ֶאת־א ֶֹהל ֵ‬
‫‪ Josh 18:1 (g‬וַ יִּ ָקּ ֲהלוּ ָכּ ֲ‬
‫יהם‬
‫נִ ְכ ְבּ ָשׁה ִל ְפנֵ ֶ‬
‫יכם‬
‫ֹלה ֶ‬
‫אמר ֱא ֵ‬
‫‪ Isa 40:1 (h‬נַ ֲחמוּ נַ ֲחמוּ ַע ִמּי י ֹ ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 5:18 (i‬וְ לֹא ִתּנְ ָאף‬
‫ת־בּנָ יו‬
‫ֹלהים ֶאת־נ ַֹח וְ ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 9:1 (j‬וַ יְ ָב ֶרְך ֱא ִ‬
‫ת־היּוֹנָ ה ֵמ ִאתּוֹ‬
‫‪ Gen 8:8 (k‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח ֶא ַ‬
‫אוֹתָך ְבּ ָשׁלוֹם‬
‫‪ Gen 26:29* (l‬וַ נְּ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח ְ‬
‫ה־בן ְל ָשׂ ָרה ִא ְשׁ ֶתָּך וְ ָשׂ ָרה שׁ ַֹמ ַעת ֶפּ ַתח ָהא ֶֹהל‬
‫‪ Gen 18:10 (m‬וְ ִהנֵּ ֵ‬
‫אמר ַפּ ְרעֹה ִמי יְ הוָ ה ֲא ֶשׁר ֶא ְשׁ ַמע ְבּקֹלוֹ ְל ַשׁ ַלּח ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל לֹא יָ ַד ְע ִתּי‬
‫‪ Exod 5:2 (n‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה וְ גַ ם ֶאת־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל לֹא ֲא ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬

‫‪119‬‬

‫‪Lesson 17‬‬

‫ם־שֹׁלמֹה ‪ֵ PN‬לאמֹר ֲהלוֹא ָשׁ ַמ ַע ְתּ ִכּי ָמ ַלְך‬
‫ת־שׁ ַבע ‪ֵ PN‬א ְ‬
‫ל־בּ ֶ‬
‫אמר נָ ָתן ‪ֶ PN‬א ַ‬
‫‪ I Kgs 1:11 (o‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ן־חגִּ ית ‪ PN‬וַ ֲאד ֹנֵ ינוּ ָדוִ ד לֹא יָ ָדע‬
‫ֲאד ֹנִ יָּ הוּ‪ֶ PN‬ב ַ‬
‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׁ ֵעְך‬
‫‪ִ Isa 17:10 (p‬כּי ָשׁ ַכ ַח ְתּ ֱא ֵ‬

Lesson 18
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Weak Verbs
• Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs

Weak Verbs

18.1 Introduction to Weak Verbs
The paradigms in this book use the root ‫ פקד‬because it has regular
consonants (i.e., no gutturals or glides). It is a strong verb. Biblical
Hebrew, however, contains many more weak verbs than strong.
Weak verbs have one or more “weak” (e.g., glide) consonants in the
root that may affect the form’s vowel pattern.
Weak verbs fall into one of four main classes (Roman numerals are
used to refer to the position of the weak letter in the root):

• Roots that begin or end with ‫א‬: I-Alef, III-Alef
• Roots that begin with ‫נ‬: I-Nun
• Roots with ‫ ו‬or ‫( י‬i.e., glides): I-Vav/Yod, II-Vav/Yod, III-He
(originally III-Vav/Yod)

• Roots with an identical consonant in second and third positions:
II-III
The chart below lists all the classes of weak verbs:
Class

Traditional
Name

I-Alef

Pe Alef

III-Alef

Lamed Alef

I-Nun

Pe Nun

I-Vav/Yod

Pe Vav/Yod

III-He

Lamed He

II-Vav/Yod

Ayin Vav/Yod

II-III

Ayin Ayin

Examples

‫ָא ַמר‬
‫ָמ ָצא‬
‫נָ ַפל‬
‫יָ ַשׁב יָ ַרשׁ‬
‫גָּ ָלה‬
‫קוּם ִשׂים‬
‫ָס ַבב‬

Lesson Studied
19
19
20
21
22
23
24

Biblical Hebrew also has doubly-weak roots (Lesson 25). These
roots have more than one weak consonant. Some frequently

Lesson 18

121

occurring doubly-weak roots are listed here.

‫ ָא ָבה‬I-Alef, III-He

‫נָ ָטה‬

‫ יָ ָרה‬I-Vav/Yod, III-He

‫ בּוֹא‬II-Vav/Yod, III-Alef

I-Nun, III-He

‫ יָ ָצא‬I-Vav/Yod, III-Alef ‫ ָהיָ ה‬II-Vav/Yod, III-He
‫ נָ ָשׂא‬I-Nun, III-Alef
Suffixed
Object
Pronouns

18.2 Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs
Lesson 7 introduced suffixed pronouns that express objects when
added to prepositions or the direct object marker (‫את־‬/‫ת‬
ֶ ‫) ֵא‬.
Suffixed object pronouns can also be added directly to verbs. When
added to finite verbs these pronouns express the object of the verb
(just as suffixes that are added to the direct object marker).

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוֹ = ָפּ ַקד אוֹתוֹ‬He visited him’
Suffixes added
to a verb
ending in a
vowel

1) Suffixes added to any verb ending in a Vowel
3MS
‫הוּ‬- ֫ / ‫ו‬‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ הוּ‬they visited him’
(‫)פּ ַק ְד ִתּיו‬
ְ
(‘I visited him’)
3FS

‫ה‬ָ

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ ָה‬they visited her’

2MS

‫ָך‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ ָך‬they visited you’

2FS

‫ְך‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוְּך‬they visited you’

1CS

‫נִ י‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ נִ י‬they visited me’

3MP

‫ם‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּם‬they visited them’

3FP

‫ן‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּן‬they visited them’

2MP

‫כם‬ֶ

‫דוּכם‬
ֶ ‫‘ ָפּ ְק‬they visited you’

2FP

‫כן‬ֶ

‫דוּכן‬
ֶ ‫‘ ָפּ ְק‬they visited you’

1CP

‫נוּ‬-

‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוּ֫ נוּ‬they visited us’

Note: Several verb forms are altered before suffixed pronouns:
2FS Suff
‫ ְתּ ← ִתּי ← ְפּ ַק ְד ִתּיו‬- “you (FS)/I visited him”
2MP/2FP Suff
‫תּוּ ← ְפּ ַק ְדתּוּם‬- ← ‫ ֶתּם‬-, ‫ ֶתּן‬- “you (MP/FP) visited them”

Lesson 18

122

3FP/2FP Prefix
‫וּ ← ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ֫ ָה‬- ← ‫נָ ה‬- “they (FP)/you (MP/FP) will visit her”

Suffixes added
to a Suffix
pattern verb
ending in a
consonant

2) Suffixes added to a Suffix pattern verb ending in a Consonant
3MS
ֹ‫ו‬
‫‘ ְפּ ָקדוֹ‬he visited him’
3FS

‫ָהּ‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדהּ‬he visited her’

2MS

‫ְ ָך‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ְדָך‬he visited you’

2FS

‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ֵדְך‬he visited you’

1CS

‫ַ֫ נִ י‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ַ ֫דנִ י‬he visited me’

3MP

‫ָם‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדם‬he visited them’

3FP

‫ָן‬

‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָדן‬he visited them’

2MP

‫ְ ֶכם‬

‫‘ ְפּ ַק ְד ֶכם‬he visited you’

2FP

‫ְ ֶכן‬

‫‘ ְפּ ַק ְד ֶכן‬he visited you’

1CP
‫ָ֫ נוּ‬
‫‘ ְפּ ָק ָ ֫דנוּ‬he visited us’
Note: This chart applies only to the 3MS and 3FS (‫ה‬- becomes ‫ת‬- before
suffixes).

3) Suffixes added to an Prefix pattern verb (e.g., Imperfect,
Imperative) ending in a Consonant
Suffixes on a
Prefix pattern
verb ending in
a consonant

3MS

‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬

‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דהוּ‬
ְ
(‫) ָפּ ְק ֵ ֫דהוּ‬

‘he will visit him’
(‘visit him!’)

3FS

‫ֶ֫ ָה‬

‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫ד ָה‬
ְ

‘he will visit her’

2MS

‫ְ ָך‬

‫יִפ ָק ְדָך‬
ְ

‘he will visit you’

2FS

‫ֵ ְך‬

‫יִפ ְק ֵדְך‬
ְ

‘he will visit you’

1CS

‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬

‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דנִ י‬
ְ

‘he will visit me’

3MP

‫ֵם‬

‫יִפ ְק ֵדם‬
ְ

‘he will visit them’

3FP

‫ֵן‬

‫יִפ ְק ֵדן‬
ְ

‘he will visit them’

2MP

‫ְ ֶכם‬

‫יִפ ָק ְד ֶכם‬
ְ

‘he will visit you’

2FP

‫ְ ֶכן‬

‫יִפ ָק ְד ֶכן‬
ְ

‘he will visit you’

1CP
‘he will visit us’
‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬
‫יִפ ְק ֵ ֫דנוּ‬
ְ
Note: The u-class vowel between R2 and R3 is ָ (qamets chatuf).

Lesson 18

Suffixes on the
3FS Perfect

123

4) The 3FS Perfect verb replaces the ‫ ה‬ending with a ‫ ת‬before
suffixes.
+ 3MS suff ‫)– ְתהוּ( ← ְפּ ָק ַ ֫דתוּ‬
+ 3MP suff ‫ְפּ ָק ָ ֫ד ַתם‬
+ 3FS suff ‫)– ְת ָה( ← ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ָתּה‬

+ 3FP suff

‫ְפּ ָק ָ ֫ד ַתן‬

+ 1CP suff

‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתנוּ‬

+ 2MS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתָך‬
+ 2FS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ֶתְך‬
+ 1CS suff ‫ְפּ ָק ַ ֫ד ְתנִ י‬

5) Suffixes added with an ‘energic’ nun:
Sometimes there is an “extra nun” between the suffixes listed
below and an imperfect verb. (Usually the nun is assimilated.)
+3MS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶדנּוּ‬
ְ ← ‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬

‘Energic’ Nun

+3FS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דנָּ ה‬
ְ ← ‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬
+2MS suff ָ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דךּ‬
ְ ← ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ֶ֫ ךּ‬
+1CS suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶ ֫דנִּ י‬
ְ ← ‫נְ נִ י* ← ֶ֫ נִּ י‬
+1CP suff ‫יִפ ְק ֶדנּוּ‬
ְ ← ‫נְ נוּ* ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬

Summary of Suffixed Object Pronouns on Verbs
Following
Vowel
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP

‫הוּ‬- ֫ / ‫ו‬‫ה‬ָ
‫ָך‬‫ְך‬‫נִ י‬‫ם‬‫ן‬‫כם‬ֶ
‫כן‬ֶ
‫נוּ‬-

FOLLOWING CONSONANT
SUFFIX VERB
Prefix Verb

ֹ‫ו‬
‫ָהּ‬
‫ְ ָך‬
‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ַ֫ נִ י‬
‫ָם‬
‫ָן‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ָ֫ נוּ‬

‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬
‫ֶ֫ ָה‬
‫ְ ָך‬
‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬
‫ֵם‬
‫ֵן‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬

With
Energic Nun

‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬
‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬
ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ךּ‬
‫נִּ י‬

← *‫נְ נִ י‬

‫נְ נוּ* ← נּוּ‬

Note: Generally speaking, Suffix pattern/Perfect verbs use an a-class
vowel (usually ַ ) before a suffixed pronoun, while Prefix pattern verbs
use an i-class vowel (usually ֵ ).

Lesson 18

124

18.3 Vocabulary #18
‫גָּ ַרשׁ‬

Q

cast out, thrust out; PI drive

‫נכר‬

NI

out, away

‫ֵהן‬

INTJ

be recognized; HI recognize,
regard

‫ֶשׁ‬

behold, see!

‫לוּח‬
ַ

M

tablet, board, plank, plate

‫ִמ ְשׁ ָכּב‬

M

couch, place of lying

‫ָתּ ַפשׂ‬

CONJ
Q

that, which, who

lay hold of, wield

Exercises
1. Identify the class of the following weak roots (e.g., ‫ אמר‬I-Alef)

‫( נָ ַפל‬g

‫( ָמ ֵלא‬d

‫( גָּ ָלה‬a

‫( ָא ַכל‬h

‫( מוּת‬e

‫( רוּם‬b

‫( בּוֹשׁ‬i

‫( ָבּ ָכה‬f

‫( ָא ַבד‬c

2. Find a weak root in BDB that fits the following criteria. List the basic
meaning(s) of the root (i.e., the meanings listed in bold in BDB).
a) II-III weak root that begins with ‫ד‬:
b) III-He weak root that has a middle ‫ר‬:
c) I-Nun weak root that ends with ‫ק‬:
d) I-Vav/Yod weak root that ends with ‫ק‬:
e) I-Alef and II-Vav/Yod weak root:

‫‪Lesson 18‬‬

‫‪125‬‬

‫‪3. Parse and translate the following verbs (be sure to fully parse the suffixes).‬‬

‫‪ִ (a‬תּ ְשׁ ָכּ ֵחנוּ‬

‫‪ (f‬וַ יְ ַשׁ ְלּ ֵחנוּ‬

‫‪ִ (b‬ק ְדּשׁוּהוּ‬

‫‪ֲ (g‬א ַכ ֶבּ ְדָך‬

‫‪ֲ (c‬ה ָרגוּם‬

‫‪ִ (h‬ק ַדּ ְשׁתּוֹ‬
‫ֲא ַל ֶמּ ְד ֶכם‬

‫‪ (d‬זְ ַכ ְר ַתּנִ י‬

‫‪(i‬‬

‫‪ (e‬יִ ְשׁ ְמ ֶרנוּ‬

‫‪ֲ (j‬ה ָרגָ ְתהוּ‬

‫‪4. Translate the following. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫י־אנִ י‬
‫ן־ה ֲא ָרצוֹת ַא ְשׁ ִמ ְידָך וְ יָ ַד ְע ָתּ ִכּ ֲ‬
‫ן־ה ַע ִמּים וְ ַה ֲא ַב ְד ִתּיָך ִמ ָ‬
‫‪ Ezek 25:7 (a‬וְ ִה ְכ ַר ִתּיָך ִמ ָ‬
‫יְ הוָ ה‬
‫י־היוּ יָ ָדיו ִכּ ֵידי ֵע ָשׂו ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיו ְשׂ ִער ֹת ‪ GL‬וַ יְ ָב ְר ֵכהוּ‬
‫‪ Gen 27:23 (b‬וְ לֹא ִה ִכּירוֹ ִכּ ָ‬
‫יכם‬
‫‪ Deut 9:17 (c‬וָ ֶא ְתפּ ֹשׂ ִבּ ְשׁנֵ י ַה ֻלּחֹת וָ ַא ְשׁ ִל ֵכם ֵמ ַעל ְשׁ ֵתּי יָ ָדי וָ ֲא ַשׁ ְבּ ֵרם ְל ֵעינֵ ֶ‬
‫א־ב ְקשׁוּ ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה וְ לֹא ְד ָר ֻשׁהוּ‬
‫‪ Zeph 1:6 (d‬ל ֹ ִ‬
‫אתיו‬
‫ל־מ ְשׁ ָכּ ִבי ַבּ ַלּ ָילה ִבּ ַקּ ְשׁ ִתּי ֵאת ֶשׁ ָא ֲה ָבה נַ ְפ ִשׁי ִבּ ַקּ ְשׁ ִתּיו וְ לֹא ְמ ָצ ִ‬
‫‪ַ Song 3:1* (e‬ע ִ‬
‫אמר ֲאח ִֹתי ִהוא ִכּי יָ ֵרא ֵלאמֹר ִא ְשׁ ִתּי ֶפּן־‬
‫‪ Gen. 26:7 (f‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ֲאלוּ ַאנְ ֵשׁי ַה ָמּקוֹם ְל ִא ְשׁתּוֹ וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫י־טוֹבת ַמ ְר ֶאה ִהיא‬
‫ַ‬
‫ל־ר ְב ָקה ‪ִ PN‬כּ‬
‫יַ ַה ְרגֻ נִ י ַאנְ ֵשׁי ַה ָמּקוֹם ַע ִ‬
‫וּשׁ ַמ ְר ִתּיָך ִכּי לֹא ֶא ֱעזָ ְבָך‬
‫‪ Gen 28:15* (g‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ָאנ ִֹכי ִע ָמְּך ְ‬
‫אמר ֶא ֱע ָב ְדָך ֶשׁ ַבע ָשׁנִ ים ְבּ ָר ֵחל ִבּ ְתָּך ַה ְקּ ַטנָּ ה‬
‫ת־ר ֵחל ‪ PN‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 29:18 (h‬וַ יֶּ ֱא ַהב יַ ֲעקֹב ֶא ָ‬

‫‪126‬‬

‫‪Lesson 18‬‬

‫ת־דּ ָב ָרי ֲא ֶשׁר יִ ְל ְמדוּ ְליִ ְר ָאה א ִֹתי ָכּל־‬
‫ת־ה ָעם וְ ַא ְשׁ ִמ ֵעם ֶא ְ‬
‫ל־לי ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ַ Deut 4:10 (i‬ה ְק ֶה ִ‬
‫יהם יְ ַל ֵמּדוּן‬
‫ת־בּנֵ ֶ‬
‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה וְ ֶא ְ‬
‫ַהיָּ ִמים ֲא ֶשׁר ֵהם ַחיִּ ים ַע ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:20* (j‬וְ ַע ָתּה וְ נַ ַה ְרגֵ הוּ וְ נַ ְשׁ ִל ֵכהוּ ְבּ ַא ַחד ַהבֹּרוֹת וְ ָא ַמ ְרנוּ ַחיָּ ה ָר ָעה ֲא ָכ ָל ְתהוּ‬

‫יכהוּ ַא ְר ָצה‬
‫יכהוּ ַא ְר ָצה וַ יַּ ְשׁ ִל ֵ‬
‫אמר ַה ְשׁ ִל ֵ‬
‫‪ Exod 4:3 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫וּמ ָפּנֶ יָך ֶא ָסּ ֵתר וְ ָהיָ ה ָכל־מ ְֹצ ִאי‬
‫‪ֵ Gen 4:14* (l‬הן גֵּ ַר ְשׁ ָתּ א ִֹתי ַהיּוֹם ֵמ ַעל ְפּנֵ י ָה ֲא ָד ָמה ִ‬
‫יַ ַה ְרגֵ נִ י‬

Lesson 19
Lesson Summary:

• I-Alef Weak Verbs: ‫ָא ַכל‬
• III-Alef Weak Verbs: ‫ָמ ֵלא ָמ ָצא‬

I-Alef Weak
Verbs

19.1 I-Alef Weak Verbs
The majority of verbs that begin with ‫ א‬are classified as I-Guttural
weak verbs, and follow the I-Guttural pattern outlined in Lesson 17.
Qal 3MS Imperfect (dynamic) Gl‫ ָאזַ ר‬is ‫יֶ ֱאז ֹר‬
Qal 3MS Imperfect (stative) ‫ ָא ֵהב‬is ‫יֶ ֱא ַהב‬

However, there are five verbs that are classified as I-Alef weak verbs
because they have a unique vocalization in the Qal Imperfect and
Past Narrative conjugations. In all the other conjugations and
binyanim these roots behave exactly as I-Gutturals.
The five I-Alef roots can be remembered by a mnemonic device:

‫‘ ָא ַמר‬he said’
‫‘ ָא ָבה‬he was willing’
‫‘ ָא ַכל‬he ate’
‫‘ ָא ַבד‬he perished’
‫‘ ָא ָפה‬he baked’
Quiescent
Alef

Mnemonic: ‘He said: I am willing
to eat what I bake
even if I perish!’

In the Qal Imperfect and Past Narrative conjugations the initial ‫ א‬in
these five roots becomes quiescent; in other words, it loses its
consonantal status. The following changes take place in these verb
forms:

• An R2 BeGaD KeFaT lacks a dagesh qal.
‫אכל‬
ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יִ ְכתֹּב‬
• The prefix vowel becomes a ֹ .
‫אכל‬
ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יֶ ֱא ַהב‬

Lesson 19

128

• The theme vowel (the vowel between R2 and R3) becomes ַ .
‫אכל‬
ַ ֹ ‫( י‬compare ‫)יֶ ֱאזֹר‬
Note: The theme vowel also appears as ֵ in pausal forms, as in
‫אכל‬
ֵ֫ ֹ ‫י‬, and as ֶ in the Past Narrative of ‫ אמר‬as ‫וַ יּ ֹ ֫א ֶמר‬.

• Often the R1 ‫ א‬is not written in the 1CS form.
‫ א ַֹכל‬instead of *‫אכל‬
ַ ֹ‫א‬
19.2 III-Alef Weak Verbs
A similar phenomenon takes place in III-Alef verbs as in I-Alef: the
‫ א‬becomes quiescent. When the ‫ א‬becomes quiescent it cannot close
a syllable.

‫ ָמ ָצאת‬instead of *‫ָמ ַצ ְא ְתּ‬
• The quiescent ‫ א‬cannot be vocalized with a sheva.
• a BeGaD KeFaT letter following the quiescent ‫ א‬never has a
dagesh qal.

• The vowel preceding the quiescent ‫ א‬lengthens.
Here are the other characteristics to note about the III-Alef verbs.

• ֶ appears before ‫ א‬in the 3FP/2FP Imperfect in all binyanim.
Qal
Piel
Hitpael
Hifil

‫ִתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬

Pual

‫ִתּ ָמּ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֻמ ֶצּ ֫אנָ ה‬

Hofal

‫ֻתּ ְמ ֶצ ֫אנָ ה‬

Nifal

• Only Qal Perfect shows a distinction in vowel pattern between
dynamic and stative.
Perfect ‫( ָמ ָצא‬dynamic) versus ‫( ָמ ֵלא‬stative)
Imperfect ‫יִמ ָצא‬
ְ (dynamic) like ‫יִמ ָלא‬
ְ (stative)

‫‪Lesson 19‬‬

‫‪129‬‬

‫‪• Nifal, Piel, and Hifil Perfect have a ֵ theme vowel instead of‬‬
‫‪ַ before consonantal inflectional suffixes.‬‬
‫‪Hifil‬‬

‫‪Piel‬‬

‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫א ָת‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצאת‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫א ִתי‬
‫אתם‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֫אנוּ‬

‫‪Nifal‬‬

‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫א ָת נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫א ָת‬
‫ִמ ֵצּאת נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫א ִתי נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫א ִתי‬
‫אתם‬
‫אתם נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫אתן נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֫אנוּ נִ ְמ ֵצ ֫אנוּ‬

‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪• Hofal has a ֻ instead of ָ (short) under the prefix.‬‬
‫ָה ְמ ָצא* ‪ֻ instead of‬ה ְמ ָצא‬
‫יֻמ ָצא‬
‫יָ ְמ ָצא* ‪ְ instead of‬‬
‫‪III-Alef: Representative Forms‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬
‫יֻמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫וַ יֻּ ְמ ָצא‬

‫ִה ְמ ִציא‬
‫יַמ ִציא‬
‫ְ‬
‫וַ יַּ ְמ ֵצא‬
‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫וַ יִּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬

‫ַה ְמ ִציא‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ַמצֹּא‬

‫נִ ְמצֹא‬

‫ַמ ְמ ִציא‬

‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬

‫ֻמ ְמ ָצא‬

‫ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫יְמ ָצּא‬
‫ֻ‬
‫וַ יְ ֻמ ָצּא‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּא‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫ִמ ֵצּא‬
‫יְמ ֵצּא‬
‫ַ‬
‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬
‫יִמּ ֵצא‬
‫ָ‬
‫וַ יִּ ָמּ ֵצא‬
‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬

‫ָמ ָצא‬
‫יִמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא‬
‫ְמ ָצא‬

‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬

‫ְמצֹא‬
‫ָמצוֹא‬
‫מוֹצא‬
‫ֵ‬

‫‪PERF‬‬
‫‪IMPF‬‬
‫‪PAST‬‬
‫‪IMPV‬‬
‫‪INF‬‬
‫‪CST‬‬
‫‪INF‬‬
‫‪ABS‬‬
‫‪PTCP‬‬

Lesson 19

130

19.3 Vocabulary #19
‫ָא ָבה‬

Q

be willing, consent

‫ָא ָמה‬

F

maid, handmaid

‫ָא ָפה‬

Q

bake

‫ָצ ֵמא‬

Q

be thirsty

‫בּשׁל‬

PI

boil

‫ָק ָהל‬

M

assembly, congregation

‫זָ ָכר‬

M

male

‫ָקרוֹב‬

sin

‫ַ ֫ר ַהט‬

‫ֲח ָט ָאה‬

F

‫ְמ ַעט‬

ADV

‫ָס ַלח‬

Q

‫פּלא‬

NI HIT

be difficult, extraordinary; HI do

an extraordinary thing

‫ָרחוֹק‬

little, few

forgive

ADJ
M

water-trough

ADJ

‫ָר ָפא‬

Q

‫שׁקה‬

HI

near
far

heal
water, give drink

Exercises
1. Parse the following I- and III-Alef verbs.

‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫( וַ יּ‬a

‫( ְר ָפא‬f

‫אב ָדה‬
ְ ֹ ‫( נ‬b

‫את‬
ָ ‫( ָמ ֵל‬g

‫אכ ֶלנּוּ‬
ְ ֹ ‫( י‬c
(two possible parsings)

‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬

(h

‫( א ֵֹבד‬d

‫( ָצ ֵמאת‬i

‫( וָ א ֵֹכל‬e

‫יאהוּ‬
ֵ ‫יַמ ִצ‬
ְ (j

2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫אכל‬
ֵ ֹ ‫ץ־הגָּ ן ָאכֹל תּ‬
ַ ‫ ִמכֹּל ֵע‬Gen 2:16 (a

‫ ְשׁכֹן ָבּ ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר א ַֹמר ֵא ֶליָך‬Gen 26:2 (b

‫‪131‬‬
‫‪Exod 16:23 (c‬‬

‫‪Lesson 19‬‬

‫ר־תּ ַב ְשּׁלוּ ַבּ ֵשּׁלוּ‬
‫ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁר־תֹּאפוּ ֵאפוּ וְ ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ ְ‬

‫אכ ֶלנָּ ה‬
‫‪ָ Lev 6:11 (d‬כּל־זָ ָכר ִבּ ְבנֵ י ַא ֲהר ֹן י ֹ ֲ‬

‫אבדוּ ִמתּוְֹך ַה ָקּ ָהל‬
‫‪ Num 16:33 (e‬וַ יּ ֹ ְ‬

‫אבדוּן‬
‫יכם ֵכּן ת ֹ ֵ‬
‫‪ַ Deut 8:20 (f‬כּגּוֹיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר יְ הוָ ה ַמ ֲא ִביד ִמ ְפּנֵ ֶ‬

‫ֹלח לוֹ‬
‫אבה יְ הוָ ה ְס ַ‬
‫‪ Deut 29:19 (g‬לֹא־י ֹ ֶ‬

‫אתי ֵחן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך ַאל־נָ א ַת ֲעבֹר ֵמ ַעל ַע ְב ֶדָּך‬
‫אמר ֲאד ֹנָ י ִאם־נָ א ָמ ָצ ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 18:3 (h‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬

‫ת־א ְשׁתּוֹ‬
‫ימ ֶלְך וְ ֶא ִ‬
‫ת־א ִב ֶ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ֲ‬
‫ֹלהים וַ יִּ ְר ָפּא ֱא ִ‬
‫ל־ה ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 20:17 (i‬וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא ָ‬
‫וְ ַא ְמה ָֹתיו‬

‫אתם א ִֹתי וַ ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּחוּנִ י ֵמ ִא ְתּ ֶכם‬
‫‪ Gen 26:27 (j‬וְ ַא ֶתּם ְשׂנֵ ֶ‬

‫אתם ֲח ָט ָאה גְ ד ָֹלה‬
‫ל־ה ָעם ַא ֶתּם ֲח ָט ֶ‬
‫אמר מ ֶֹשׁה ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Exod 32:30 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫ת־א ִחיָך ִבּ ְל ָב ֶבָך‬
‫א־ת ְשׂנָ א ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Lev 19:17 (l‬ל ֹ ִ‬

‫‪Judg 4:19 (m‬‬

‫אתי‬
‫ט־מיִ ם ִכּי ָצ ֵמ ִ‬
‫יה ַה ְשׁ ִקינִ י־נָ א ְמ ַע ַ‬
‫אמר ֵא ֶל ָ‬
‫וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫‪132‬‬

‫‪Lesson 19‬‬

‫‪ָ Isa 57:19 (n‬שׁלוֹם ָשׁלוֹם ָל ָרחוֹק וְ ַל ָקּרוֹב ָא ַמר יְ הוָ ה‬

‫י־ה ַמר ַשׁ ַדּי ִלי‬
‫ל־תּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ִלי נָ ֳע ִמי ‪ְ PN‬ק ֶראן ָ ִלי ָמ ָרא ‪ִ PN‬כּ ֵ‬
‫יהן ַא ִ‬
‫ֹאמר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:20 (o‬וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ְמאֹד‬

Lesson 20
Lesson Summary:

• I-Nun Weak Verbs: ‫נָ ַפל נָ גַ שׁ‬
• ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬

I-Nun Verbs

20.1 I-Nun Weak Verbs
I-Nun weak verbs undergo two changes that make them weak:
1) When the ‫ נ‬closes a syllable (i.e., it does not have a vowel and
is preceded by a verbal prefix), it assimilates to the following
consonant.

‫( יִ פֹּל‬instead of *‫)יִ נְ פֹל‬
Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫( נִ גַּ שׁ‬instead of *‫)נִ נְ גַ שׁ‬
Hifil MS Participle ‫( ַמגִּ ישׁ‬instead of *‫) ַמנְ גִ ישׁ‬
Qal 3MS Imperfect

BUT, ‫ נ‬does not assimilate to gutturals – ‫יִ נְ ַהג‬.
2) When the ‫ נ‬occurs at the beginning of a form and it does not
have a vowel, it may undergo aphaeresis (i.e., the initial ‫נ‬
drops out). Aphaeresis only occurs in the Qal Imperative and
Infinitive.
Qal 2MS Imperative ‫( גַּ שׁ‬instead of *‫)נְ גַ שׁ‬
Qal Infinitive Construct ‫ ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬, from *‫גַּ ְשׁ ְת‬, (instead of *‫)נְ גַ שׁ‬
Note: the Infinitive Construct forms that undergo aphaeresis also
add a ‫ ת‬to the end of the form.

BUT, the ‫ נ‬remains with a few roots:
Qal Infinitive Construct/2MS Imperative ‫נְ פֹל‬

Lesson 20

134

I-Nun: Representative Forms
QAL

PI, PU, HIT

IMPV
INF
CST
INF
ABS

‫נָ ַפל נָ גַ שׁ‬
‫יִ פֹּל יִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫וַ יִּ פֹּל וַ יִּ גַּ שׁ‬
‫נְ פֹל גַּ שׁ‬

‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫וַ יִּ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫נְ פֹל ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬

‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫נָ פוֹל נָ גוֹשׁ‬

PTCP

‫נוֹפל נוֹגֵ שׁ‬
ֵ

PERF
IMPF
PAST

‫ לָ ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬

NIFAL

HIFIL

HOFAL

‫ִהגִּ ישׁ‬
‫יַ גִּ ישׁ‬
‫וַ יַּ גֵּ שׁ‬
‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬
‫יֻ גַּ שׁ‬
‫וַ יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬

L

‫ַהגִּ ישׁ‬

‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬

‫ִהנָּ ג ֹשׁ נִ גּ ֹשׁ‬

A

‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫ֻהגֵּ שׁ‬

‫נִ גָּ שׁ‬

R

‫ַמגִּ ישׁ‬

‫ֻמגָּ שׁ‬

R
E
G
U

20.2 ‫ ָל ַקח‬and ‫נָ ַתן‬
The verb ‫ ָל ַקח‬follows the I-Nun pattern:
1) The ‫ ל‬assimilates (just like a ‫ נ‬would) to the ‫ק‬.
Qal 3MS Imperfect
Qal 3FS Imperfect

‫יִ ַקּח‬
‫ִתּ ַקּח‬

In addition, the ‫ ל‬undergoes aphaeresis in the imperative and
infinitive construct forms.

‫ַקח‬
Qal Infinitive Construct ‫ַ ֫ק ַחת‬
Qal 2MS Imperative

However, the ‫ ל‬does not assimilate in the Nifal.
Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫נִ ְל ַקח‬

2) The verb ‫ נָ ַתן‬is not only a I-Nun verb, it also has a ‫ נ‬as the
final consonant of the root. When inflectional endings are
added and the final ‫ נ‬in ‫ נָ ַתן‬does not have a full vowel, it
assimilates to the following consonant (just like the initial ‫נ‬
does in the same environment). Note that this does not happen
in other roots that end in ‫נ‬.
Qal 2MS Perfect
Qal 2FS Perfect
Qal 1CS Perfect

‫( נָ ַ֫ת ָתּ‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ָתּ‬
‫( נָ ַת ְתּ‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ְתּ‬
‫( נָ ַ֫ת ִתּי‬from *‫)נָ ַתנְ ִתּי‬

Qal Infinitive Construct ‫( ֵתּת‬with suffixes, -‫תּת‬,
ִ from *‫)תּנְ ְת‬
ִ

Lesson 20

135

20.3 Vocabulary #20
‫ָבּ ָרא‬

Q

create

‫נָ גַ שׁ‬

Q

draw near, approach

‫ֶ֫ז ַרע‬

M

seed

‫נָ ַסע‬

Q

pull up (tent pegs), set out, journey

‫נָ ַפל‬

Q

fall

‫נצל‬

NI

‫ ֫ ָל ָמּה‬/ ‫ָל ָמה‬
‫ָמ ָחה‬
‫נבט‬

INTER
Q

why?

blot out, wipe away

PI, HI

look, gaze

be delivered, deliver oneself; HI
snatch away, deliver

‫ֶ֫נגֶ ב‬

M

south; PN Negeb

‫נגד‬

HI

declare

‫נָ גַ ע‬

Q

touch, reach, strike (often

‫ְפּ ִרי‬

M

fruit

‫ֶ ֫ק ֶדם‬

M

front, east; ADV anciently

‫ִשׁ ְפ ָחה‬

F

maidservant

takes ‫ ;)ב‬HI touch, arrive

Exercises
1. Parse the following I-Nun weak verbs.

‫( וַ יִּ ְסעוּ‬f

‫( ַמגִּ יד‬a

‫( נִ ַתּן‬g

‫( ִהגַּ ְע ִתּיהוּ‬b

‫סוֹע‬
ַ ַ‫( נ‬h

‫( נִ ֵתּן‬c

‫( יַ גִּ ֶיד ָה‬i

‫( ָל ַק ַחת‬d

‫( ַקח‬j

‫( וַ ַתּ ֵפּל‬e

2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫אכלוּ ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ לֹא ִתגְּ עוּ בּוֹ‬
ְ ֹ ‫ֹלהים לֹא ת‬
ִ ‫תוְֹך־הגָּ ן ָא ַמר ֱא‬
ַ
‫וּמ ְפּ ִרי ָה ֵעץ ֲא ֶשׁר ְבּ‬
ִ Gen 3:3 (a
‫אכל‬
ַ ֹ ‫ישׁהּ ִע ָמּהּ וַ יּ‬
ָ ‫ם־ל ִא‬
ְ ַ‫ֹאכל וַ ִתּ ֵתּן גּ‬
ַ ‫ וַ ִתּ ַקּח ִמ ִפּ ְריוֹ וַ תּ‬Gen 3:6 (b

‫‪136‬‬

‫‪Lesson 20‬‬

‫אמר ִמי ִהגִּ יד ְלָך ִכּי ֵעיר ֹם ָא ָתּה‬
‫‪ Gen 3:11 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 11:2 (d‬וַ יְ ִהי ְבּנָ ְס ָעם ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם וַ יִּ ְמ ְצאוּ ִב ְק ָעה ְבּ ֶא ֶרץ ִשׁנְ ָער‬
‫סוֹע ַהנֶּ גְ ָבּה‬
‫‪ Gen 12:9 (e‬וַ יִּ ַסּע ַא ְב ָרם ָהלוְֹך וְ נָ ַ‬
‫‪ָ Gen 12:19 (f‬ל ָמה ָא ַמ ְר ָתּ ֲאח ִֹתי ִהוא וָ ֶא ַקּח א ָֹתהּ ִלי ְל ִא ָשּׁה וְ ַע ָתּה ִהנֵּ ה ִא ְשׁ ְתָּך ַקח‬
‫ל־כּ ַכּר ַהיַּ ְר ֵדּן וַ יִּ ַסּע לוֹט ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם‬
‫‪ Gen 13:11 (g‬וַ יִּ ְב ַחר־לוֹ לוֹט ֵאת ָכּ ִ‬
‫ד־עוֹלם‬
‫ָ‬
‫וּלזַ ְר ֲעָך ַע‬
‫ר־א ָתּה ר ֶֹאה ְלָך ֶא ְתּנֶ נָּ ה ְ‬
‫ל־ה ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬
‫ת־כּ ָ‬
‫‪ִ Gen 13:15 (h‬כּי ֶא ָ‬
‫ֹלהים‬
‫ל־פּנָ יו וַ יְ ַד ֵבּר ִאתּוֹ ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 17:3 (i‬וַ יִּ פֹּל ַא ְב ָרם ַע ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 19:26 (j‬וַ ַתּ ֵבּט ִא ְשׁתּוֹ ֵמ ַא ֲח ָריו‬
‫‪ Gen 22:20 (k‬וַ יְ ִהי ַא ֲח ֵרי ַה ְדּ ָב ִרים ָה ֵא ֶלּה וַ יֻּ גַּ ד ְל ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֵלאמֹר ִהנֵּ ה יָ ְל ָדה ִמ ְל ָכּה ‪ PN‬גַ ם־‬
‫ִהוא ָבּנִ ים ְלנָ חוֹר ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיָך‬
‫ת־מי ַא ְתּ ַהגִּ ִידי נָ א ִלי‬
‫אמר ַבּ ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 24:23 (l‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫‪ַ Gen 32:12 (m‬ה ִצּ ֵילנִ י נָ א ִמיַּ ד ָא ִחי ִמיַּ ד ֵע ָשׂו ִכּי־יָ ֵרא ָאנ ִֹכי אֹתוֹ‬
‫יהן‬
‫‪ Gen 33:6 (n‬וַ ִתּגַּ ְשׁן ָ ַה ְשּׁ ָפחוֹת ֵהנָּ ה וְ יַ ְל ֵד ֶ‬

Lesson 21
Lesson Summary:

• I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs: ‫יָ ַשׁב יָ ַרשׁ‬
• ‫ָה ַלְך‬

I-Vav/Yod
Verbs

21.1 I-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs
I-Vav/Yod weak verbs undergo two changes:
1) The ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬contracts with the preceding vowel.
Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫( יֵ ֵשׁב‬from *‫)יַ יְ ֵשׁב‬
Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫( יִ ַירשׁ‬from *‫)יִ יְ ַרשׁ‬
Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫הוֹשׁיב‬
ִ (from *‫) ַהוְ ִשׁיב‬
Hofal 3MS Perfect ‫הוּשׁב‬
ַ (from *‫) ֻהוְ ַשׁב‬

2) The ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬undergoes aphaeresis when it lacks a full vowel at
the beginning of the word (only in Qal Imperative and
Infinitive Construct of some I-Vav roots). This is similar to
the form of I-Nun weak verbs.
2MS Imperative ‫ ֵשׁב‬, instead of *‫יְ ֵשׁב‬
Infinitive Construct ‫( ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬from *‫) ֵשׁ ְב ְת‬, instead of *‫יְ ֵשׁב‬
(Morphologically, the ‫ ת‬is a feminine ending—with no semantic
value—that was added after the ‫ י‬underwent aphaeresis.)
BUT, ‫ ירא‬is an example of a root which retains the initial ‫ י‬in the
Imperative (‫ )יְ ָרא‬and Infinitive Construct (‫)יְ רֹא‬.

There are three different types of I-Vav/Yod weak verbs:
1) Original I-Vav verbs – these verbs originally began with ‫ו‬.
The ‫ ו‬is replaced with a ‫ י‬in Qal, Piel, Pual, and Hitpael.
Qal 3MS Perfect ‫ יָ ַשׁב‬and Imperfect ‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬

Lesson 21

138

The original ‫ ו‬appears (as a consonant or vowel marker) in
Nifal, Hifil, and Hofal.
Nifal 3MS Perfect ‫נוֹשׁב‬
ַ and Imperfect ‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬
Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫הוֹשׁיב‬
ִ and Imperfect ‫יוֹשׁיב‬
ִ

Qal Prefix verbs of dynamic I-Vav/Yod roots have an a-i
pattern.
Dynamic (a-i) ‫ יֵ ֵשׁב‬from *‫יַ יְ ִשׁב‬

Qal Prefix verbs of stative I-Vav/Yod roots have an i-a
pattern.
Stative (i-a) ‫ יִ ַירשׁ‬from *‫יִ יְ ַרשׁ‬

2) Original I-Yod verbs – these verbs originally began with ‫י‬.
The ‫ י‬appears in all forms (as a consonant or a vowel marker).
Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫יבשׁ‬
ַ ִ‫ י‬and Infinitive Construct ‫יְב ֹשׁ‬
Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫יטיב‬
ִ ‫ ֵה‬and 3MS Imperfect ‫יטיב‬
ִ ֵ‫י‬

There are only seven I-Yod roots (all with the stative i-a
vowel pattern in the Prefix pattern).

‫ ֵיָבשׁ‬Q ‘it was dry’
‫ ימן‬HI ‘he chose/used the right arm’
‫ יָ ַטב‬Q ‘he was good’ ‫ יָ נַ ק‬Q ‘he suckled’
‫ ילל‬HI ‘he howled’ *‫ יָ ַקץ‬Q ‘he awoke’
‫ יָ ַשׁר‬Q ‘it was straight, upright’
3) I-Yod-Tsade verbs – these roots begin with –‫ יצ‬and undergo
changes like I-Nun weak verbs.
The ‫ י‬assimilates to the ‫ צ‬when it closes a syllable (this is
similar to the assimilation of the ‫ נ‬in I-Nun verbs).
Hifil 3MS Perfect ‫( ִה ִצּיב‬from *‫) ִהיְ ִציב‬

Lesson 21

139

There are only six I-Yod-Tsade roots (all with the stative i-a
pattern in the Prefix pattern).

‫ יצב‬HIT ‘he stationed himself’ ‫ יָ ַצק‬Q ‘he poured’
‫ יצג‬HI ‘he set, placed’
‫ יָ ַצר‬Q ‘he formed, fashioned’
‫ יצע‬HI ‘he spread, lay’
‫ יָ ַצת‬Q ‘it kindled, burned
I-Vav/Yod: Representative Forms
Original I-Vav
QAL
PERF

‫יָ ַשׁב‬

‫נוֹשׁב‬
ַ

IMPF

‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬

‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬

PAST

‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֵשׁב וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶשׁב‬

PI, PU, HIT

R
E

HIFIL

HOFAL

QAL

HIFIL

‫יָ ַטב‬

‫יטיב‬
ִ ‫ֵה‬

‫יוּשׁב‬
ַ

‫יטב‬
ַ ִ‫י‬

‫יטיב‬
ִ ֵ‫י‬

‫יּוּשׁב וַ ֫יּוֹ ֶשׁב‬
ַ ַ‫ו‬

‫יטב‬
ַ ִ‫וַ יּ‬

‫וַ יֵּ י֫ ֶטב‬

‫יטב‬
ַ ִ‫י‬

‫יטב‬
ֵ ֵ‫י‬

‫הוֹשׁיב‬
ִ
‫הוּשׁב‬
ַ
‫יוֹשׁיב‬
ִ

‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬

G

‫יוֹשׁב‬
ֵ

‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב ֵשׁב‬

U

‫הוֹשׁב‬
ֵ

INF
CST

‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬

L

‫הוֹשׁיב‬
ִ
‫הוּשׁב‬
ַ

‫יְ טֹב‬

‫יטיב‬
ִ ‫ֵה‬

INF
ABS

‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב יָ שׁוֹב‬

A

‫הוֹשׁב‬
ֵ
‫הוּשׁב‬
ֵ

‫יָ טוֹב‬

‫יטב‬
ֵ ‫ֵה‬

PTCP

‫יוֹשׁב‬
ֵ

R

‫מוֹשׁיב‬
ִ
‫מוּשׁב‬
ָ

‫יוֹטב‬
ֵ

‫יטיב‬
ִ ‫ֵמ‬

JUSS
IMPV

‫ָהלַ ְך‬

NIFAL

Original I-Yod

‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬

‫נוֹשׁב‬
ָ

‫יוּשׁב‬
ַ

‫יטב‬
ֵ ‫ֵה‬

21.2 ‫ָה ַלְך‬
The verb ‫ ָה ַלְך‬follows the original I-Vav pattern:
Qal 3MS Perfect
Qal 3MS Imperfect
Qal 3MS Past Narrative
Qal 2MS Imperative
Qal Infinitive Construct
Hifil 3MS Perfect
Hifil 3MS Imperfect

‫ָה ַלְך‬
‫יֵ ֵלְך‬
‫וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶלְך‬
‫ֵלְך‬
‫֫ ֶל ֶכת‬
‫הוֹליְך‬
ִ
‫וֹליְך‬
ִ ‫י‬

Lesson 21

140

21.3 Vocabulary #21
‫א ַרח‬
ֹ֫

M

way, path

‫ישׁע‬

NI

‫ֵיָבשׁ‬

Q

be(come) dry; HI cause to be dry

‫יָ ַשׁר‬

Q

‫ָיַבּ ָשׁה‬

F

dry land

‫יָ ַטב‬

Q

be good, pleasing; HI do

be saved; HI save
be smooth, right; PI make even,
smooth

‫ַמ ֲע ָלל‬

M

deed, practice

(something) well, deal well

‫ָפּ ָרשׁ‬

M

horseman

with

‫ֶ ֫ק ֶשׁת‬

F

bow

‫ַ֫ייִ ן‬

M

wine

‫רחם‬

PI

have compassion on

‫יָ ַקץ‬

Q

awake

‫ָר ָעה‬

Q

shepherd, tend, pasture

‫יַ ְר ֵדּן‬

PN

‫ר ֶֹעה‬

M

shepherd (Q PTCP)

Jordan River

‫ָתּ ִמים‬

ADJ

complete, sound

Exercises
1. Parse the following I-Vav/Yod weak verbs.

‫אוֹבישׁ‬
ִ (f

‫( וַ יֵּ ֶלְך‬a

‫( ֵצאת‬g

‫נוֹרא‬
ָ (b

‫( וַ יִּ ֶיקץ‬h

‫תּוֹסף‬
ֵ (c

‫נוֹשׁ ְענוּ‬
ַ (i

‫יט ִבי‬
ְ ‫( ִתּ‬d

‫ישׁר‬
ַ ‫( ִתּ‬j

‫יעם‬
ָ ‫מוֹד‬
ִ (e

2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.
GL

‫ ָאנ ִֹכי וָ ֵא ָח ֵבא‬GL ‫י־עיר ֹם‬
ֵ ‫ ֶאת־ק ְֹלָך ָשׁ ַמ ְע ִתּי ַבּגָּ ן וָ ִא ָירא ִכּ‬Gen 3:10 (a

‫ֹלהים ֵהן ָה ָא ָדם ָהיָ ה ְכּ ַא ַחד ִמ ֶמּנּוּ ָל ַד ַעת טוֹב וָ ָרע‬
ִ ‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 3:22 (b

‫‪Lesson 21‬‬

‫‪141‬‬

‫ת־קיִ ן‬
‫ת־חוָּ ה ‪ִ PN‬א ְשׁתּוֹ וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 4:1* (c‬וְ ָה ָא ָדם יָ ַדע ֶא ַ‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫י־ה ֶבל ר ֵֹעה צֹאן וְ ַקיִ ן ‪ָ PN‬היָ ה ע ֵֹבד‬
‫ת־ה ֶבל ‪ PN‬וַ יְ ִה ֶ‬
‫ת־א ִחיו ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 4:2 (d‬וַ תּ ֶֹסף ‪ָ GL‬ל ֶל ֶדת ֶא ָ‬
‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬
‫ר־ע ָשׂה־לוֹ ְבּנוֹ ַה ָקּ ָטן‬
‫‪ Gen 9:24 (e‬וַ יִּ ֶיקץ נ ַֹח‪ִ PN‬מיֵּ ינוֹ וַ יֵּ ַדע ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬
‫ְך־לָך ֶאל־‬
‫ר־א ַה ְב ָתּ ֶאת־יִ ְצ ָחק וְ ֶל ְ‬
‫ת־בּנְ ָך ֶאת־יְ ִח ְידָך‪ֲ GL‬א ֶשׁ ָ‬
‫אמר ַקח־נָ א ֶא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 22:2 (f‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫‪PN‬‬
‫ֶא ֶרץ ַהמּ ִֹריָּ ה‬
‫ֹלהים ַל ְמיַ ְלּד ֹת‬
‫יטב ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Exod 1:20 (g‬וַ יֵּ ֶ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫יטב ְבּ ֵעינָ יו‬
‫‪ Lev 10:20 (h‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע מ ֶֹשׁה וַ יִּ ַ‬
‫ת־מי יַ ם־סוּף‬
‫ר־הוֹבישׁ יְ הוָ ה ֶא ֵ‬
‫ִ‬
‫‪ִ Josh 2:10 (i‬כּי ָשׁ ַמ ְענוּ ֵאת ֲא ֶשׁ‬
‫ִמ ִמּ ְצ ָריִ ם‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫את ֶכם‬
‫יכם ְבּ ֵצ ְ‬
‫ִמ ְפּנֵ ֶ‬

‫ת־היַּ ְר ֵדּן ַהזֶּ ה‬
‫יכם ֵלאמֹר ַבּיַּ ָבּ ָשׁה ָע ַבר יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ֶא ַ‬
‫ת־בּנֵ ֶ‬
‫הוֹד ְע ֶתּם ֶא ְ‬
‫‪ Josh 4:22 (j‬וְ ַ‬
‫יעם ְבּ ֶק ֶשׁת‬
‫אוֹשׁ ֵ‬
‫יהם וְ לֹא ִ‬
‫ֹלה ֶ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְע ִתּים ַבּיהוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬
‫הוּדה ֲא ַר ֵחם וְ ַ‬
‫ת־בּית יְ ָ‬
‫‪ Hos 1:7 (k‬וְ ֶא ֵ‬
‫וּב ָפ ָר ִשׁים‬
‫סוּסים ְ‬
‫וּב ִמ ְל ָח ָמה ְבּ ִ‬
‫וּב ֶח ֶרב ְ‬
‫ְ‬
‫ל־דּ ָר ֶכיָך ָד ֵעהוּ וְ הוּא יְ יַ ֵשּׁר א ְֹרח ֶֹתיָך‬
‫‪ְ Prov 3:6 (l‬בּ ָכ ְ‬
‫ץ־מ ְד ָבּר ֵמ ֵא ֶשׁת ְמדוֹנִ ים ‪ GL‬וָ ָכ ַעס‬
‫‪ Prov 21:19 (m‬טוֹב ֶשׁ ֶבת ְבּ ֶא ֶר ִ‬
‫הוֹלְך ָתּ ִמים יִ וָּ ֵשׁ ַע‬
‫‪ֵ Prov 28:18 (n‬‬

‫‪GL‬‬

Lesson 22
Lesson Summary:

• III-He Weak Verbs: ‫ָבּנָ ה גָּ ָלה‬
22.1 III-He Weak Verbs
III-He Verbs

Most III-He weak verbs originally had a ‫( י‬or ‫ )ו‬as their R3. The ‫ ה‬in
the 3MS Perfect form is only a vowel letter marking the long final
vowel. This vowel letter was added after the final ‫ י‬or ‫ ו‬was lost.
The original R3 ‫ י‬or ‫ ו‬shows up only rarely in some forms.
Qal Passive Participle (‫)פּקוּד‬
ָ exhibits the original ‫י‬:

‫‘ גָּ לוּי‬uncovered’
Qal 3MS Perfect of some verbs shows the original ‫ו‬:

‫‘ ָשׁ ֵלו‬he was at ease’
Note: the few roots that actually have a ‫ ה‬as their original R3 have a
mappiq in the ‫ה‬, i.e., ‫הּ‬. This signifies that the ‫ הּ‬is a consonant rather
than a vowel letter:

‫‘ גָּ ַבהּ‬it was high/lofty/tall’
• All forms without an inflectional suffix end in ‫ה‬:
Perfect – 3MS ‫גָּ ָלה‬
Imperfect – 3MS ‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬
Imperative – 2MS ‫גְּ ֵלה‬
Infinitive Construct – ‫גְּ לוֹת‬
Infinitive Absolute – ‫גָּ ֹלה‬
Participle – MS ABS ‫ ;גּ ֶֹלה‬MS CST ‫גּ ֵֹלה‬

Lesson 22

143

Forms with a vocalic inflectional suffix or a object suffix
with a linking vowel drop the R3 ‫ה‬:
Qal Perfect 3CP ‫גָּ לוּ‬
Qal Perfect 3MS + 1CS suffix ‫גָּ ֫ ַלנִ י‬

• In all forms with a consonantal suffix, the R3 contracts:
1) into ‫_ִ י‬in the active binyanim (Qal, Piel, Hitpael, and Hifil).
Qal Perfect 2MS ‫גָּ ִלי֫ ָת‬
2) into ‫ ֵ י‬in the passive binyanim (Nifal, Pual, and Hofal).
Nifal Perfect 2MS ‫נִ גְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬
3) into ‫ ֶ י‬in Prefix verb 3FP/2FP in all binyanim.
Qal Imperfect 3FP/2FP ‫ִתּגְ ֶלי֫ נָ ה‬

• In Past and Jussive forms without an inflectional suffix, the R3
‫ ה‬drops.

‫‘ ִ֫יגֶ ל‬let him uncover’
‫‘ וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬he uncovered’
III-He: Representative Forms
PERF
IMPF
PAST
IMPV
INF
CST
INF
ABS
PTCP
(FSA)

QAL

NIFAL

PIEL

PUAL

HITPAEL

HIFIL

HOFAL

‫גָּ ָלה‬
‫גָּ ִלי֫ ָת‬
‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬
‫וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬
‫גְּ ֵלה‬

‫נִ גְ ָלה‬
‫נִ גְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬
‫יִ גָּ ֶלה‬
‫וַ יִּ גָּ ל‬
‫ִהגָּ ֵלה‬

‫גִּ ָלּה‬
‫גִּ ִלּי֫ ָת‬
‫יְ גַ ֶלּה‬
‫וַ יְ גַ ל‬
‫גַּ ֵלּה‬

‫גֻּ ָלּה‬
‫גֻּ ֵלּי֫ ָת‬
‫יְ גֻ ֶלּה‬
*‫וַ יְ גֻ ל‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ָלּה‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּי֫ ָת‬
‫יִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫וַ יִּ ְתגַּ ל‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ֵלּה‬

‫ִהגְ ָלה‬
‫ִהגְ ִלי֫ ָת‬
‫יַ גְ ֶלה‬
‫וַ ֶ֫יּגֶ ל‬
‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬

‫ָהגְ ָלה‬
‫ָהגְ ֵלי֫ ָת‬
‫יָ גְ ֶלה‬

‫גְּ לוֹת‬

‫ִהגָּ לוֹת‬

‫גַּ לּוֹת‬

‫גֻּ לּוֹת‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬

‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬

‫ָהגְ לוֹת‬

‫גָּ ֹלה‬

‫נִ גְ ֹלה‬

‫גַּ ֹּלה‬

‫גֻּ ֹּלה‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ֹּלה‬

‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬

‫ָהגְ ֵלה‬

‫גּ ֶֹלה‬
‫גּ ָֹלה‬

‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬
‫נִ גְ ָלה‬

‫ְמגַ ֶלּה‬
‫ְמגַ ָלּה‬

‫ְמגֻ ֶלּה‬
‫ְמגֻ ָלּה‬

‫ִמ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫ִמ ְתגַּ ָלּה‬

‫ַמגְ ֶלה‬
‫ַמגְ ָלה‬

‫ָמגְ ֶלה‬
‫מגְ ָלה‬

Lesson 22

144

22.2 Vocabulary #22
‫אוֹר‬

M

light

‫ָענָ ה‬

Q

answer, respond

‫ַאף‬

M

nose, face, anger

‫ַפּר‬

M

young bull, steer; ‫ ָפּ ָרה‬F heifer, cow

‫בּדל‬

HI

divide, separate

‫ָפּ ָרה‬

Q

bear fruit, be fruitful

‫ָבּנָ ה‬

Q

build

‫ָר ָאה‬

Q

see, look; NI show oneself, appear; HI

‫גָּ ָלה‬

Q

uncover, reveal

‫גָּ ָמל‬

M

camel; P ‫גְּ ַמ ִלּים‬

‫ָח ָרה‬

Q

burn, be kindled

‫֫ח ֹ ֶשְׁך‬

M

darkness

‫ֵכּן‬
‫נָ ָטה‬

ADV, CONJ
Q

show, exhibit

‫ָר ָבה‬

Q

be(come) many, multiply; HI make
much/many, make multiply

so, thus

‫ָר ָדה‬

Q

have dominion, rule

‫ָשׁ ַבת‬

Q

cease, desist, rest; HI put an end to,

stretch out, extend; HI turn,

destroy

‫ָשׁ ָתה‬

incline (something)

Q

drink

Exercises
1. Parse the following III-He verbs.

‫טּוֹתהּ‬
ָ ‫( ְל ַה‬f

‫( יִ ֶרב‬a

‫( ר ֵֹדם‬g

‫( וָ ֵא ָרא‬b

‫( ֵתּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬h

‫( ָענָ הוּ‬c

‫( ִה ְר ַאנִ י‬i

‫( ֲחרוֹת‬d

‫( וַ יִּ גָּ לוּ‬j

‫( נִ ְבנֵ ית‬e

‫‪Lesson 22‬‬

‫‪145‬‬

‫‪2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫וּבין ַהח ֶֹשְׁך‬
‫ֹלהים ֵבּין ָהאוֹר ֵ‬
‫ת־האוֹר ִכּי־טוֹב וַ יַּ ְב ֵדּל ֱא ִ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 1:4 (a‬וַ יַּ ְרא ֱא ִ‬
‫וּבין ַה ַמּיִ ם‬
‫יע ֵ‬
‫יע‪ GL‬וַ יַּ ְב ֵדּל ֵבּין ַה ַמּיִ ם ֲא ֶשׁר ִמ ַתּ ַחת ָל ָר ִק ַ‬
‫ת־ה ָר ִק ַ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 1:7 (b‬וַ יַּ ַעשׂ ֱא ִ‬
‫י־כן‬
‫יע וַ יְ ִה ֵ‬
‫ֲא ֶשׁר ֵמ ַעל ָל ָר ִק ַ‬
‫ת־ה ַמּיִ ם ַבּיַּ ִמּים‬
‫וּמ ְלאוּ ֶא ַ‬
‫ֹלהים ֵלאמֹר ְפּרוּ ְוּרבוּ ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 1:22 (c‬וַ יְ ָב ֶרְך א ָֹתם ֱא ִ‬
‫מוּתנוּ‬
‫ֹלהים נַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָא ָדם ְבּ ַצ ְל ֵמנוּ‪ִ GL‬כּ ְד ֵ‬
‫אמר ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 1:26 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫וּב ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬
‫וּבעוֹף ‪ַ GL‬ה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם ַ‬
‫ְ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫וְ יִ ְרדּוּ ִב ְדגַ ת‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ַהיָּ ם‬

‫ל־צ ָב ָאם‬
‫‪ Gen 2:1 (e‬וַ יְ ֻכלּוּ ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ וְ ָכ ְ‬
‫יעי ִמ ָכּל־‬
‫אכתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה וַ יִּ ְשׁבֹּת ַבּיּוֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬
‫יעי ְמ ַל ְ‬
‫ֹלהים ַבּיּוֹם ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 2:2 (f‬וַ יְ ַכל ֱא ִ‬
‫אכתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂה׃‬
‫ְמ ַל ְ‬
‫ית זֹּאת ָארוּר ‪ַ GL‬א ָתּה ִמ ָכּל־‬
‫ל־הנָּ ָחשׁ‪ִ GL‬כּי ָע ִשׂ ָ‬
‫ֹלהים ֶא ַ‬
‫אמר יְ הוָֹ ה ֱא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 3:14 (g‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫אכל ָכּל־יְ ֵמי ַחיֶּ יָך‬
‫וּמכֹּל ַחיַּ ת ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ַעל־גְּ חֹנְ ָך‪ֵ GL‬ת ֵלְך וְ ָע ָפר ‪ GL‬תּ ֹ ַ‬
‫ַה ְבּ ֵה ָמה ִ‬
‫הוֹרה‬
‫‪ Gen 8:20 (h‬וַ יִּ ֶבן נ ַֹח ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח ַליהוָ ה וַ יִּ ַקּח ִמכֹּל ַה ְבּ ֵה ָמה ַה ְטּ ָ‬
‫וַ יַּ ַעל עֹֹלת ַבּ ִמּזְ ֵבּ ַח‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫וּמכֹּל ָהעוֹף ַה ָטּהֹר‬
‫ִ‬

‫אמר ֵא ָליו‬
‫ל־א ְב ָרם וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ן־תּ ְשׁ ִעים ָשׁנָ ה וְ ֵת ַשׁע ָשׁנִ ים וַ יֵּ ָרא יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 17:1 (i‬וַ יְ ִהי ַא ְב ָרם ֶבּ ִ‬
‫י־אל ַשׁ ַדּי ‪ִ PN‬ה ְת ַה ֵלְּך ְל ָפנַ י וֶ ְהיֵ ה ָת ִמים‬
‫ֲאנִ ֵ‬
‫י־חת‬
‫‪ Gen 23:5 (j‬וַ יַּ ֲענוּ ְבנֵ ֵ‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫ת־א ְב ָר ָהם ֵלאמֹר לוֹ ‪...‬‬
‫ֶא ַ‬

‫ת־דּ ְב ֵרי ִא ְשׁתּוֹ ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ְבּ ָרה ֵא ָליו ֵלאמֹר ַכּ ְדּ ָב ִרים‬
‫‪ Gen 39:19 (k‬וַ יְ ִהי ִכ ְשׁמ ַֹע ֲאד ֹנָ יו ֶא ִ‬
‫ָה ֵא ֶלּה ָע ָשׂהּ ִלי ַע ְב ֶדָּך וַ יִּ ַחר ַאפּוֹ‬

Lesson 23
Lesson Summary:

• II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs: ‫ִשׂים בּוֹא קוּם‬
II-Vav/Yod
Verbs

23.1 II-Vav/Yod Weak Verbs
II-Vav/Yod weak verbs have a ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as R2. They are classified as
weak verbs because the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬undergoes one of two changes:
1) elides (i.e., drops out)
Qal 3MS Perfect/MS Participle ‫ָקם‬

‫ָשׂם ָבּא‬

2) contracts with a preceding or following vowel—the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬in
these forms is merely a vowel letter, not a remnant of the
original ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬consonant.
Qal 3MS Imperfect ‫יָ קוּם‬

‫יָ ִשׂים יָבוֹא‬

Note: several common roots retain their R2 ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬as a consonant
(and thus the ‫ ו‬or ‫ י‬does not disappear or contract).
‫‘ ָהיָ ה‬he is’; ‫‘ ָחיָ ה‬he is alive’; ‫‘ ָקוָ ה‬he waited’

Lexicon Tip #1: The II-Vav/Yod weak verbs are listed in your
lexicons by their Infinite Construct form because this form
(unlike the 3MS Perfect as in other verbs) better reflects the
three root consonants of these weak verbs.
Lexicon Tip #2: A few roots are listed as both II-Vav and II-Yod
roots because they exhibit two infinitive construct forms: an
R2 ‫ ו‬and an R2 ‫י‬.

‫ שׂוּם‬and ‫ִשׂים‬
‫ לוּן‬and ‫ִלין‬
Though these roots should be classified as II-Yod forms, some older
lexicons list them as II-Vav roots

Lesson 23

147

II-Vav/Yod: Representative Forms
QAL II-VAV DYNAMIC
PERF
(3FS)
IMPF
PAST
JUSS
IMPV
INF CST
INF ABS
PTCP
(FS)

‫ָקם‬
‫ָ ֫ק ָמה‬
‫יָ קוּם‬
‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם‬
‫יָ קֹם‬
‫קוּם‬
‫קוּם‬
‫קוֹם‬
‫ָקם‬
‫ָק ָמה‬
NIFAL

PERF
(3FS)
IMPF
PAST
JUSS
IMPV
INF CST
INF ABS
PTCP (MS)
(FS)

QAL II-VAV STATIVE

‫ָבּא‬
‫ָ֫בּ ָאה‬
‫יָבוֹא‬
‫וַ יָּ בֹא‬
‫יָבֹא‬
‫בּוֹא‬
‫בּוֹא‬
‫בּוֹא‬
‫ָבּא‬
‫ָבּ ָאה‬

‫בּוֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹ ָשׁה‬
֫
‫יֵבוֹשׁ‬
‫וַ יֵּ ב ֹשׁ‬
‫יֵב ֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹשׁ‬
‫בּוֹשׁה‬
ָ

POLEL (≈POLAL, HITP)

‫נָ קוֹם‬
‫קוֹ ָמה‬
֫ ָ‫נ‬
‫יִ קּוֹם‬
‫וַ יִּ קּוֹם‬
‫יִ קּוֹם‬
‫ִהקּוֹם‬
‫ִהקּוֹם‬
‫ִהקּוֹם‬
‫נָ קוֹם‬
‫קוֹמה‬
ָ ְ‫נ‬

‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ
‫קוֹמ ָמה‬
ְ
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ְ‫י‬
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ְ‫וַ י‬
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ְ‫י‬
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ‫ְמ‬
‫קוֹמ ָמה‬
ְ ‫ְמ‬

‫ֵמת‬
‫ֵ֫מ ָתה‬
‫יָ מוּת‬
‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָמת‬
‫יָ מֹת‬
‫מוּת‬
‫מוּת‬
‫מוֹת‬
‫ֵמת‬
‫ֵמ ָתה‬
HIFIL

‫ֵה ִקים‬
‫ֵה ִקי֫ ָמה‬
‫יָ ִקים‬
‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶקם‬
‫יָ ֵקם‬
‫ָה ֵקם‬
‫ָה ִקים‬
‫ָה ֵקם‬
‫ֵמ ִקים‬
‫ימה‬
ָ ‫ְמ ִק‬

QAL II-YOD

‫ָשׂם‬
‫ָ֫שׂ ָמה‬
‫יָ ִשׂים‬
‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬
‫יָ ֵשׂם‬
‫ִשׂים‬
‫ִשׂים‬
‫שׂוֹם‬
‫ָשׂם‬
‫ָשׂ ָמה‬
HOFAL

‫הוּקם‬
ַ
‫הוּק ָמה‬
ְ
‫יוּקם‬
ַ
‫יּוּקם‬
ַ ַ‫ו‬

‫הוּקם‬
ַ
‫הוּקם‬
ֵ
‫מוּקם‬
ָ
‫מוּק ָמה‬
ָ

• Some roots exhibit a distinction between dynamic and stative
vowel patterns in the Qal.
‫( ָקם‬dynamic) versus ‫( ֵמת‬stative)

• Instead of Piel, Pual, and Hitpael, most II-Vav/Yod roots have
Polel, Polal, and Hitpolel binyanim.
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ‫קוֹמם‬
ָ
‫קוֹמם‬
ֵ ‫ ִה ְת‬but Piel ‫ ִצוָּ ה‬and Pual ‫ֻצוָּ ה‬

• Linking vowels often connect the consonantal inflectional
suffixes to the roots: ֹ ‫ ו‬in Nifal and Hifil Perfect, ‫ ֶ י‬in Qal and

Lesson 23

148

Hifil Imperfect.

‫קוּמוֹ ָת‬
֫ ְ‫נ‬
‫ימוֹ ָת‬
֫ ‫ֲה ִק‬
‫קוּמי֫ נָ ה‬
ֶ ‫ְתּ‬
‫ימי֫ נָ ה‬
ֶ ‫( ְתּ ִק‬sometimes ‫) ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬

Nifal 2MS Perfect
Hifil 2MS Perfect
Qal 3FP/2FP Imperfect
Hifil 3FP/2FP Imperfect

23.2 Vocabulary #23
‫בּוֹא‬

Q

come, enter; HI bring, make

‫ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬

F

kingdom, rule

‫נָ ַטע‬

Q

plant

enter

‫בּוֹשׁ‬

Q

be ashamed

‫נֵ ָכר‬

M

foreign thing

‫ְבּכוֹר‬

M

first-born

‫סוּר‬

Q

turn aside, depart; HI cause

‫יָ ַצר‬

Q

form, fashion, shape

‫כּון‬

NI

to depart, remove

be set up, established, fixed;
HI

establish, set up, make

‫ָע ָפר‬

M

dust, dirt, dry earth

‫קוּם‬

Q

rise, stand up; PI confirm,

firm

establish; HI raise, erect

‫ִכּ ֵסּא‬

M

throne; P ‫ִכּ ְסאוֹת‬

‫מוֹפת‬
ֵ

M

wonder, sign, portent

‫מוּת‬

Q

die; HI kill

‫ שׂוּם‬/ ‫ִשׂים‬

Q

put, place, set

‫שׁוּב‬

Q

turn back, return; HI return
(something)

Exercises
1. Parse the following II-Vav/Yod verbs.

‫( וַ יָּ ֶקם‬f

‫בּוֹשׁי‬
ִ (a

‫( וַ יָּ ֶשׂם‬g

‫מוּבאוֹת‬
ָ (b

‫( שׁוּב‬h

‫( ֵה ִכינוּ‬c

‫ימי‬
ִ ‫( ָתּ ִשׂ‬i

‫( ֲה ִכינוֹנוּ‬d

‫( נָ כוֹנָ ה‬j

‫( וַ יָּ ָמת‬e

(hint: II-Yod verb)

‫‪149‬‬

‫‪Lesson 23‬‬

‫‪2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫ת־ה ָא ָדם ֲא ֶשׁר יָ ָצר‬
‫ן־בּ ֵע ֶדן ִמ ֶקּ ֶדם וַ יָּ ֶשׂם ָשׁם ֶא ָ‬
‫ֹלהים גַּ ְ‬
‫‪ Gen 2:8 (a‬וַ יִּ ַטּע יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬
‫ל־ה ִא ָשּׁה לֹא־מוֹת ְתּ ֻמתוּן‬
‫אמר ַהנָּ ָחשׁ‪ֶ GL‬א ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 3:4 (b‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ִכּי ִמ ֶמּנָּ ה ֻל ָקּ ְח ָתּ ִכּי־‬
‫שׁוּבָך ֶא ָ‬
‫אכל ֶל ֶחם ַעד ְ‬
‫‪ְ Gen 3:19 (c‬בּזֵ ַעת ‪ַ GL‬א ֶפּיָך תּ ֹ ַ‬
‫ל־ע ָפר ָתּשׁוּב‬
‫ָע ָפר ַא ָתּה וְ ֶא ָ‬
‫ל־ה ֶבל ָא ִחיו‬
‫יוֹתם ַבּ ָשּׂ ֶדה וַ יָּ ָקם ַקיִ ן ֶא ֶ‬
‫ל־ה ֶבל ‪ָ PN‬א ִחיו וַ יְ ִהי ִבּ ְה ָ‬
‫אמר ַקיִ ן ‪ֶ PN‬א ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 4:8 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫וַ יַּ ַה ְרגֵ הוּ‬
‫ל־ה ֵתּ ָבה‬
‫את ֶא ַ‬
‫וּב ָ‬
‫יתי ִא ָתְּך ָ‬
‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 6:18 (e‬וַ ֲה ִקמ ִֹתי ֶא ְ‬
‫ָבנֶ יָך ִא ָתְּך‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫וּבנֶ יָך וְ ִא ְשׁ ְתָּך וּנְ ֵשׁי־‬
‫ַא ָתּה ָ‬

‫יכם‬
‫יתי ִא ְתּ ֶכם וְ ֶאת־זַ ְר ֲע ֶכם ַא ֲח ֵר ֶ‬
‫ת־בּ ִר ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 9:9 (f‬וַ ֲאנִ י ִהנְ נִ י ֵמ ִקים ֶא ְ‬
‫ימנּוּ‬
‫י־לגוֹי גָּ דוֹל ֲא ִשׂ ֶ‬
‫יקי ֶאת־יָ ֵדְך בּוֹ ִכּ ְ‬
‫ת־הנַּ ַער וְ ַה ֲחזִ ִ‬
‫קוּמי ְשׂ ִאי ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ִ Gen 21:18 (g‬‬
‫ם־יוּכל‬
‫ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 13:16 (h‬וְ ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי ֶאת־זַ ְר ֲעָך ַכּ ֲע ַפר ָה ָא ֶרץ ֲא ֶשׁר ִא‬
‫יִמּנֶ ה‬
‫ֲע ַפר ָה ָא ֶרץ גַּ ם־זַ ְר ֲעָך ָ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ִאישׁ ִל ְמנוֹת‬

‫ת־ה ִאישׁ ִכּי־נָ ִביא הוּא וְ יִ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל ַבּ ַע ְדָך וֶ ְחיֵ ה‬
‫‪ Gen 20:7 (i‬וְ ַע ָתּה ָה ֵשׁב ֵא ֶשׁ ָ‬
‫ר־לְך‬
‫ל־א ֶשׁ ָ‬
‫ֵמ ִשׁיב ַדּע ִכּי־מוֹת ָתּמוּת ַא ָתּה וְ ָכ ֲ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ֶאת־‬

‫ם־אינְ ָך‬
‫וְ ִא ֵ‬

‫ֹלהי ַהנֵּ ָכר ֲא ֶשׁר‬
‫ת־א ֵ‬
‫ל־א ֶשׁר ִעמּוֹ ָה ִסרוּ ֶא ֱ‬
‫ל־בּיתוֹ וְ ֶאל ָכּ ֲ‬
‫אמר יַ ֲעקֹב ֶא ֵ‬
‫‪ Gen 35:2 (j‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ְבּת ְֹכ ֶכם‬

‫‪150‬‬

‫‪Lesson 23‬‬

‫ל־המּ ְֹפ ִתים ֲא ֶשׁר־‬
‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־מ ֶֹשׁה ְבּ ֶל ְכ ְתָּך ָלשׁוּב ִמ ְצ ַריְ ָמה ְר ֵאה ָכּ ַ‬
‫‪ Exod 4:21 (k‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ת־ה ָעם‬
‫ת־לבּוֹ וְ לֹא יְ ַשׁ ַלּח ֶא ָ‬
‫יתם ִל ְפנֵ י ַפ ְרעֹה וַ ֲאנִ י ֲא ַחזֵּ ק ֶא ִ‬
‫ַשׂ ְמ ִתּי ְביָ ֶדָך וַ ֲע ִשׂ ָ‬
‫ד־עוֹלם‬
‫ָ‬
‫ת־כּ ֵסּא ַמ ְמ ַל ְכתּוֹ ַע‬
‫ה־בּיִ ת ִל ְשׁ ִמי וְ כֹנַ נְ ִתּי ֶא ִ‬
‫‪ II Sam 7:13 (l‬הוּא ְיִבנֶ ַ‬

Lesson 24
Lesson Summary:

• II-III Weak Verbs: ‫קלל סבב‬
24.1 II-III Weak Verbs
II-III Verbs

II-III weak verbs are roots with identical second (R2) and third (R3)
root letters. They have the following characteristics:

• The identical root letters may assimilate.
Qal 3CP Perfect ‫ ַ֫סבּוּ‬or ‫ָס ֲבבוּ‬
Note: When the doubled (from assimilation) consonant is at the
end of the word, the dagesh chazaq drops out.
Qal 3MS Perfect ‫( ַסב‬from *‫) ַסבּ‬
Sometimes instead of R2 assimilating forward to R3, it
assimilates back to R1.
Qal 3MP Imperfect ‫ יָ ֫סֹבּו‬but also ‫יִ ֫סֹּבוּ‬

• Instead of Piel, Pual, and Hitpael, most II-III weak verbs have
Po‘el, Po‘al, and Hitpo‘el.
Po‘el ‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ BUT Piel ‫ִק ֵלּל‬

• Linking vowels often appear before consonantal inflectional
suffixes in some forms: Qal, Nifal, Hifil, and Hofal Suffix
patterns have ֹ ‫ו‬, and Qal, Nifal, Hifil, and Hofal Prefix patterns
have ‫ י‬.ֶ
2MS PERF:

Q

‫וֹת‬
ָ ‫ַס ֫בּ‬

2/3FP IMPF: Q ‫ְתּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
FP IMV:

Q

‫ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

NI

‫וֹת‬
ָ ‫נְ ַס ֫בּ‬

HI

‫וֹת‬
ָ ‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ‬

NI

‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

HI

‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

NI

‫ִה ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

HI

‫ֲה ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

Lesson 24

152

II-III: Representative Forms
QAL DYNAMIC

QAL STATIVE

NIFAL

POEL

HIFIL

HOFAL

‫ ַסב‬/ ‫ָס ַבב‬
‫ַ֫ס ָבּה‬

‫ַקל‬
‫ַק ָלּה‬

‫נָ ַסב‬
‫נָ ַ֫ס ָבּה‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
ְ

‫ֵה ֵסב‬
‫ֵה ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬

‫הוּסב‬
ַ
‫הוּס ָבּה‬
ַ֫

IMPF

‫ יָ סֹב‬/ ‫יִ סֹּב‬

‫יֵ ַקל‬

‫יִ ַסּב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ ְ‫י‬

‫יָ ֵסב‬

‫יוּסב‬
ַ

PAST

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָסב‬

‫וַ יֵּ ַקל‬

‫וַ יִּ ַסּב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ ְ‫וַ י‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶסב‬

‫יּוּסב‬
ַ ַ‫ו‬

JUSS

‫יָ סֹב‬

‫יֵ ַקל‬

‫יִ ַסּב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ ְ‫י‬

‫יָ ֵסב‬

‫יוּסב‬
ַ

IMPV

‫סֹב‬

‫ִה ַסּב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ

‫ָה ֵסב‬

INF CST

‫סֹב‬

‫ִה ַסּב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ

‫ָה ֵסב‬

‫הוּסב‬
ַ

INF ABS

‫ָסבוֹב‬

‫ִהסּוֹב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ

‫ָה ֵסב‬

‫הוּסב‬
ֵ

‫נָ ָסב‬
‫נָ ַס ָבּה‬

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ ‫ְמ‬
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
ְ ‫ְמ‬

‫ֵמ ֵסב‬
‫ְמ ִס ָבּה‬

‫מוּסב‬
ָ
‫מוּס ָבּה‬
ַ

PERF
(FS)

‫סוֹבב‬
ֵ
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
ְ

PTCP
(FS)

‫קֹל‬
‫ַקל‬
‫ַק ָלּה‬

24.2 Vocabulary #24
‫ֲארוֹן‬

M

chest, ark

‫ֶ֫ט ֶרם‬

‫ָה ָרה‬

Q

conceive, become pregnant

‫יָ ַרשׁ‬

Q

take possession, inherit

‫ָס ַבב‬

Q

turn about, go around, surround

oneself

‫פּרר‬

HI

‫חוה‬

HISHTAFEL

bow down, prostrate

ADV

not yet, before

break, frustrate

‫ֵחיק‬

M

bosom, lap

‫ָצ ַרר‬

Q

show hostility

‫חלל‬

NI

be defiled; PI pollute, defile; HI

‫ָק ַלל‬

Q

be slight, trifling; be quick

‫ר ֹב‬

M

multitude, greatness, abundance

‫ָרנַ ן‬

Q, PI

begin

‫ָחנַ ן‬

Q

show favor, be gracious

‫ָח ַתת‬

Q

be shattered, dismayed

‫ָתּ ַמם‬

Q

give a ringing cry

be complete, finished

‫‪Lesson 24‬‬

‫‪153‬‬

‫‪Exercises‬‬
‫‪1. Parse the following II-III verbs.‬‬

‫‪ (a‬נָ ָסב‬

‫‪ (f‬וַ יָ ָחן‬

‫‪ (b‬יָ ֵקל‬

‫‪ (g‬יְ ִח ֵתּנִ י‬

‫‪ (c‬וַ יָּ ֶפר‬

‫‪ (h‬צ ֲֹר ַרי‬

‫‪ִ (d‬תּתֹּם‬

‫‪ (i‬יָ ר ֹנּוּ‬

‫‪ (e‬וָ ֵא ַחל‬

‫מוּסבּוֹת‬
‫‪ַ (j‬‬

‫‪2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.‬‬

‫וּבנוֹת יֻ ְלּדוּ ָל ֶהם‬
‫ל־פּנֵ י ָה ֲא ָד ָמה ָ‬
‫י־ה ֵחל ָה ָא ָדם ָלר ֹב ‪ַ GL‬ע ְ‬
‫‪ Gen 6:1 (a‬וַ יְ ִהי ִכּ ֵ‬
‫ל־א ְב ָרם ֲח ָמ ִסי ָע ֶליָך ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ַת ִתּי ִשׁ ְפ ָח ִתי ְבּ ֵח ֶיקָך וַ ֵתּ ֶרא‬
‫ֹאמר ָשׂ ַרי ‪ֶ PN‬א ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 16:5 (b‬וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫וּבינֶ יָך‬
‫יה יִ ְשׁפֹּט יְ הוָ ה ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬
‫ִכּי ָה ָר ָתה וָ ֵא ַקל ְבּ ֵעינֶ ָ‬
‫יכם ‪ GL‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֲחוֶ ין ָ ַל ֲא ֻל ָמּ ִתי‬
‫‪ Gen 37:7 (c‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ְת ֻס ֶבּינָ ה ֲא ֻלמּ ֵֹת ֶ‬
‫יהם‬
‫ל־פּנֵ ֶ‬
‫ל־ה ָעם וַ יָּ ר ֹנּוּ וַ יִּ ְפּלוּ ַע ְ‬
‫‪ Lev 9:24 (d‬וַ יַּ ְרא ָכּ ָ‬
‫ת־ע ְב ְדָּך ֶאת־גָּ ְד ְלָך‬
‫לּוֹת ְל ַה ְראוֹת ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ֲ Deut 3:24 (e‬אד ֹנָ י יְ הוִ ה ַא ָתּה ַה ִח ָ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫‪Josh 4:1 (f‬‬

‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬
‫אמר יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יְ ֻ‬
‫ת־היַּ ְר ֵדּן וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫ל־הגּוֹי ַל ֲעבוֹר ֶא ַ‬
‫ר־תּמּוּ ָכ ַ‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬

‫‪Josh 4:11 (g‬‬

‫ל־ה ָעם ַל ֲעבוֹר וַ יַּ ֲעבֹר ֲארוֹן־יְ הוָ ה וְ ַהכּ ֲֹהנִ ים ִל ְפנֵ י ָה ָעם‬
‫ר־תּם ָכּ ָ‬
‫וַ יְ ִהי ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁ ַ‬

‫‪Lesson 24‬‬

‫‪154‬‬

‫ת־ה ִעיר‬
‫‪ Josh 6:3 (h‬וְ ַסבּ ֶֹתם ֶא ָ‬
‫‪Josh 6:11 (i‬‬

‫‪Judg 2:1 (j‬‬

‫ת־ה ִעיר‬
‫וַ יַּ ֵסּב ֲארוֹן־יְ הוָ ה ֶא ָ‬
‫עוֹלם‬
‫יתי ִא ְתּ ֶכם ְל ָ‬
‫א־א ֵפר ְבּ ִר ִ‬
‫וָ א ַֹמר ל ֹ ָ‬

‫יוֹד ַע יְ ָחנַּ נִ י יְ הוָ ה וְ ַחי ַהיָּ ֶלד‬
‫‪ִ II Sam 12:22 (k‬כּי ָא ַמ ְר ִתּי ִמי ֵ‬
‫‪II Kgs 13:23 (l‬‬

‫וַ יָּ ָחן יְ הוָ ה א ָֹתם וַ יְ ַר ֲח ֵמם‬

Lesson 25
Lesson Summary:

• Doubly-Weak Verbs
• Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs

Doubly-Weak
Verbs

25.1 Doubly-Weak Verbs
At this point, you have studied all of the major categories of weak
roots in Biblical Hebrew. However, many verb roots contain more
than one weak consonant. Thus, such roots are referred to as
“doubly-weak.” This is the final category of weak roots that you will
study. Below are listed some common doubly-weak roots:

‫ָא ָבה‬

I-Alef, III-He

‫נָ ָטה‬

I-Nun, III-He

‫יָ ָרה‬

I-Vav/Yod, III-He

‫בּוֹא‬

II-Vav/Yod, III-Alef

‫יָ ָצא‬

I-Vav/Yod, III-Alef

‫ָהיָ ה‬

II-Vav/Yod, III-He

‫נָ ָשׂא‬

I-Nun, III-Alef

25.2 Identifying the Roots of Doubly-Weak Verbs
Although most of these roots are still relatively simple to identify,
other roots become more difficult to identify since it is possible that
up to two of their three root consonants may not be apparent, as in
the verb ‫וַ יַּ ְך‬.
The key to correctly identifying and parsing these doubly weak
verbs is to use a three step process of elimination.
STEP 1: Identify what parts of the verb form are inflectional
affixes and what parts are remnants of the root.
‫וַ יַּ ְך‬: the ַ‫ ו‬and ַ‫ יּ‬are clearly inflectional affixes for the Past Narrative
conjugation; thus ‫ ְך‬is the only remaining consonant from the root of
this verb.

Lesson 25

156

STEP 2: Rule out which weak consonants cannot be part of the
verbal root, or vice versa, and identify which weak consonants
can account for what is left of the verbal root in the verb form.
‫ְך‬: Since we have only one consonant of the root left, the other two
consonants must be ones that disappear in some way.

• Of the weak consonants (the gutturals, ‫ ו‬,‫ נ‬and ‫)י‬, only ‫ו‬, ‫ה‬, and
‫ י‬elide, and ‫ נ‬assimilates. Hence, the remaining consonants
of this verb’s root cannot be ‫ע‬, ‫ ח‬, ‫א‬, or ‫ר‬.

• ‫ נ‬only assimilates at the beginning of a root (except in ‫)נתן‬, so
we can rule out a root that ends in ‫נ‬.

• ‫ ה‬only elides at the end of a root, so we can rule out a root that
begins with ‫ה‬.

• ‫ ו‬and ‫ י‬often elide in II-Vav/Yod verbs; however, these weak
verbs never have a final ‫ ה‬which elides or an initial ‫ נ‬which
assimilates. Thus we can conclude that this verb is not a IIVav/Yod.

For the verb ‫ וַ יַּ ְך‬we are left with two logical possibilities after the
first two steps: the root is either ‫ נכה‬or ‫יכה‬.
STEP 3: Use your lexicon to identify which of your logical
roots actually exists in the Hebrew Bible. If both exist, then
scan through the existing forms in each root to aid you in
identifying which is your verb’s root.
In the case of ‫ וַ יַּ ְך‬the the lexicon should tell you that the root ‫יכה‬
does not exist. Therefore, the root for this verb is ‫ נכה‬HI ‘smite,
strike’.

‫וַ יַּ ְך‬:

Hifil 3MS Past √‫( נכה‬from *‫)וַ יַּ נְ ֶכה‬

Lesson 25

157

25.3 Vocabulary #25
‫ָ֫אנָ ה‬

INTER

‫ִבּ ְל ִתּי‬

ADV

‫ָח ַבשׁ‬

Q

where?, to where?

not, except

bind, bind on, bind up; PI bind,

‫ידה‬

HI

‫יָ ָרה‬

Q, HI

‫נוּח‬
ַ

Q

‫ָח ַלק‬

M

down; let remain, leave

new moon, month

Q, PI

throw, cast, shoot (arrows)

rest; HI cause to rest, make quiet; set

restrain; PU be bound up

‫֫חֹ ֶדשׁ‬

give thanks, praise, confess

divide, distribute; NI divide

‫נכה‬

HI

‫נָ ַקם‬

Q

oneself

smite, strike
avenge, take vengeance; NI avenge
oneself; HO be avenged

‫ָחנָ ה‬

Q

incline, bend down, camp

‫ַָפּ ַתר‬

Q

interpret

‫ָט ַרף‬

Q

tear, rend, pluck

‫ֵתּ ָבה‬

F

ark

‫ָתּ ָלה‬

Q

hang

Exercises
1. Parse the following Doubly-Weak verbs.

‫( וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂאנָ ה‬f

‫את‬
ָ ‫( ָבּ‬a

‫יפי‬
ִ ‫( וַ ִתּ‬g

‫( ֵתּ ֶרא‬b

‫את‬
ָ ‫( נִ ֵבּ‬h

‫( יֹאבוּ‬c

‫אתם‬
ֶ ‫( ֲה ֵב‬i

‫יע‬
ַ ‫הוֹד‬
ִ (d

‫( וַ יּוֹר‬j

‫( יֵ אֹתוּ‬e

2. Translate the following verses. Identify and parse the verbs in each sentence.

‫אמר לוֹ יְ הוָ ה ָל ֵכן ָכּל־ה ֵֹרג ַקיִ ן ִשׁ ְב ָע ַתיִ ם יֻ ָקּם וַ יָּ ֶשׂם יְ הוָ ה ְל ַקיִ ן אוֹת‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 4:15 (a
‫ְל ִב ְל ִתּי ַהכּוֹת־אֹתוֹ ָכּל־מ ְֹצאוֹ‬

‫‪158‬‬

‫‪Lesson 25‬‬

‫־ע ָשׂר ‪ GL‬יוֹם ַלח ֶֹדשׁ ַעל ָה ֵרי‬
‫יעי ‪ְ GL‬בּ ִשׁ ְב ָעה ‪ָ GL‬‬
‫‪ Gen 8:4 (b‬וַ ָתּנַ ח ַה ֵתּ ָבה ַבּח ֶֹדשׁ ַה ְשּׁ ִב ִ‬
‫‪PN‬‬
‫ֲא ָר ָרט‬
‫יהם ַליְ ָלה הוּא וַ ֲע ָב ָדיו וַ יַּ ֵכּם‬
‫‪ Gen 14:15 (c‬וַ יֵּ ָח ֵלק ֲע ֵל ֶ‬
‫י־מזֶּ ה ָבאת וְ ָאנָ ה ֵת ֵל ִכי‬
‫אמר ָהגָ ר ‪ִ PN‬שׁ ְפ ַחת ָשׂ ַרי ֵא ִ‬
‫‪ Gen 16:8 (d‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬
‫‪ Gen 26:17 (e‬וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ִמ ָשּׁם יִ ְצ ָחק וַ יִּ ַחן ְבּנַ ַחל ‪GL‬־גְּ ָרר ‪ PN‬וַ יֵּ ֶשׁב ָשׁם‬
‫ל־כּן ָק ְר ָאה ְשׁמוֹ‬
‫אוֹדה ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה ַע ֵ‬
‫אמר ַה ַפּ ַעם ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 29:35 (f‬וַ ַתּ ַהר עוֹד וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֵבּן וַ תּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫הוּדה וַ ַתּ ֲעמֹד ִמ ֶלּ ֶדת‬
‫יְ ָ‬
‫אמר לֹא נַ ֶכּנּוּ נָ ֶפשׁ‬
‫אוּבן וַ יַּ ִצּ ֵלהוּ ִמיָּ ָדם וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 37:21 (g‬וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַמע ְר ֵ‬
‫יוֹסף‬
‫‪ Gen 40:22 (h‬וְ ֵאת ַשׂר ָהא ִֹפים ָתּ ָלה ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ָפּ ַתר ָל ֶהם ֵ‬
‫הוּדה ַא ָתּה יוֹדוָּך ַא ֶחיָך‬
‫‪ Gen 49:8 (i‬יְ ָ‬
‫אוֹדָך יְ הוָ ה‬
‫‪ Isa 12:1 (j‬וְ ָא ַמ ְר ָתּ ַבּיּוֹם ַההוּא ְ‬
‫שׁוּבה ֶאל־יְ הוָ ה‬
‫‪ְ Hos 6:1 (k‬לכוּ וְ נָ ָ‬
‫נוֹדה‬
‫עוֹלם ֶ‬
‫ל־היּוֹם וְ ִשׁ ְמָך ְל ָ‬
‫אֹלהים ִה ַלּ ְלנוּ ָכ ַ‬
‫‪ֵ Ps 44:9 (l‬בּ ִ‬

Lesson 26
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1
• Complements and Adjuncts
• Argument Structure
26.1 Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 1
Syntax

Throughout the last 25 lessons, we primarily discussed the
morphology of Biblical Hebrew words. In this lesson, we will begin
our discussion of syntax—the system of relationships among
constituents.

Constituent

‘Constituent’ is the label used for the individual words or phrases
(e.g., nouns / noun phrases, verbs / verb phrases, prepositions /
prepositional phrases) that relate to each other to form a larger, more
complex unit called a clause.

Clause

A basic definition of a clause is that it is the combination of at least
two constituents: a subject and a predicate.

‫( וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים‬Jon 1:5)
The sailors
subject

were afraid
predicate

Subject

Subjects are usually nouns, noun phrases, or some other nominal
constituent (such as a substantive adjective).

Predicate

Predicates may be verbal (e.g., a Perfect verb, Imperfect verb,
Participle) or nominal (e.g., an adjective / adjective phrase, or a
prepositional phrase).

Verbal and
Verbless
Clauses

Clauses with verbal predicates are called verbal clauses; clauses
with nominal predicates are called verbless clauses (the copula, or
‘be’ verb, must be supplied).

Lesson 26

160

Verbal (Imperfect) Clause:

‫ֹלהים ָלנוּ‬
ִ ‫אוּלי יִ ְת ַע ֵשּׁת ָה ֱא‬
ַ
‘perhaps God will think about us’ (Jon 1:6)
Verbless Clause:

‫ִע ְב ִרי ָאנ ִֹכי‬
Complements
and
Adjuncts

‘a Hebrew (am) I’ (Jon 1:9)

26.2 Complements and Adjuncts
When we consider the relationship between constituents, a major
issue is the relationship between a verb and its modifiers. An
important distinction is between complements and adjuncts.
Complements are obligatory constituents following the verb in a
clause; if such constituents were omitted, the clause would be
incomplete. In other words, a verb may require a constituent(s),
such as a noun phrase or a prepositional phrase, or both, to fulfill it
(i.e., to function as its object or to specify location, manner, etc.).
The boldfaced, underlined constituents in the following examples
are complements—their presence is required by the verbs in order
for the clauses to be grammatical (i.e., to make sense).

‫ל־היָּ ם‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬
‘YHWH cast a great wind to the sea’ (Jon 1:4)

‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח‬
ִ ‫ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬
‘Because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH’ (Jon
1:10)

‫ֹלע ֶאת־יוֹנָ ה‬
ַ ‫וַ יְ ַמן יְ הוָ ה ָדּג גָּ דוֹל ִל ְב‬
‘YHWH appointed a big fish to swallow Jonah’ (Jon 2:1)

The presence and number of complements are generally determined
by the valency of the verb, whether it is intransitive, transitive, or
ditransitive.
In contrast to complements, adjuncts are optional constituents

Lesson 26

161

following the verb in a clause; such constituents may be omitted
without affecting the basic grammaticality of the clause. The
boldfaced, italicized constituents in the following clauses are
adjuncts.

‫ֹלהיו ִמ ְמּ ֵעי ַה ָדּגָ ה‬
ָ ‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵלּל יוֹנָ ה ֶאל־יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
‘Jonah prayed to YHWH his God from the belly of the fish’ (Jon
2:2)

‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֶ ה ִכּ ְד ַבר יְ הוָ ה‬
‘Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of
YHWH’ (Jon 3:3)

26.3 Argument Structure
Another way of analyzing syntax is in terms of argument structure.
An argument is a constituent that is a participant involved in the
event or action denoted by the predicate.
An analogy might help: we can think of a predicate as the script of a
play in which there are a number of roles, which correspond to the
constituents. Each and every role must be filled for the play to
work. In the same way, each predicate specifies the number of
arguments needed to complete its argument structure.
‘One-place predicates’ (e.g., intransitive verbs) take just one
argument, a subject.

‫( וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים‬Jon 1:5)
The sailors were afraid
external
predicate
argument

‘Two-place predicates’ (e.g., transitive verbs), in contrast, take two
arguments, a subject and another obligatory constituent that
modifies the verb—objects, adverbs, prepositional phrases, etc.

‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫ת־מ ֲע ֵשׂ‬
ַ ‫ֹלהים ֶא‬
ִ ‫( וַ יַּ ְרא ָה ֱא‬Jon 3:10)
their deeds
internal
argument

God
external
argument

saw
predicate

Lesson 26

162

Some predicates (e.g., ditransitive verbs) may take more than two
arguments, such as a subject and two direct objects or a subject, a
direct object (e.g., an object), and an oblique object (e.g., a
prepositional phrase.

‫ל־היָּ ם‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫( וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬Jon 1:4)
to the sea a great wind cast YHWH
internal internal
pred. external
argument argument
argument

26.4 Vocabulary #26
‫ָבּ ָכה‬

Q

weep, bewail; PI lament

‫ָל ַקט‬

‫ָדּ ַבק‬

Q

cling, cleave, keep close

‫דּוּע‬
ַ ‫ַמ‬

INTER

‫ָח ַדל‬

Q

cease, come to an end

‫נַ ֲח ָלה‬

F

‫ָחמוֹת‬

F

mother-in-law

‫נָ ְכ ִרי‬

favor, grace

‫נָ ַשׁק‬

‫ֵחן‬
‫ַכּ ָלּה‬

M
F

‫ֵעד‬

daughter-in-law, bride

Q

glean, pick up, gather
why

possession, property,
inheritance

ADJ

foreign, alien; F ‫נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬

Q, PI
M

kiss

witness

Exercises
1. Translate the following verses and identify all of the constituents by their lexical
category: mark each one as a noun/pronoun (N), verb (V; include infinitives and
participles), preposition (P), adjective (Adj), adverb (Adv), or other
grammatical word (GW; such as interrogatives, negatives, or conjunctions).
PN

‫וְ ֵשׁ ם ַה ֵשּׁנִ ית רוּת‬

PN

‫ֵשׁ ם ָה ַא ַח ת ָע ְר ָפּה‬

‫י־פ ַקד‬
ָ ‫מוֹאב ִכּ‬
ָ ‫ִכּי ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדה‬

PN

PN

‫ וַ יִּ ְשׂאוּ ָל ֶה ם נָ ִשׁים מ ֲֹא ִביּוֹת‬Ruth 1:4
‫ ָשׁנִ ים‬GL ‫וַ יֵּ ְשׁבוּ ָשׁם ְכּ ֶע ֶשׂר‬

(a

‫מוֹאב‬
ָ ‫יה וַ ָתּ ָשׁב ִמ ְשּׂ ֵדי‬
ָ ‫ֹּלת‬
ֶ ‫ וַ ָתּ ָקם ִהיא וְ ַכ‬Ruth 1:6 (b
‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬
ַ ‫יְ הוָ ה ֶא‬

‫‪163‬‬

‫‪Lesson 26‬‬

‫ל־תּ ְל ִכי ִל ְלקֹט ְבּ ָשׂ ֶדה ַא ֵחר וְ גַ ם‬
‫אמר בּ ַֹעז ‪ֶ PN‬אל־רוּת ֲהלוֹא ָשׁ ַמ ַע ְתּ ִבּ ִתּי ַא ֵ‬
‫‪ Ruth 2:8 (c‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫בוּרי ִמזֶּ ה וְ כֹה ִת ְד ָבּ ִקין ִעם־נַ ֲער ָֹתי‬
‫לֹא ַת ֲע ִ‬

‫‪Ruth 3:16 (d‬‬

‫ָה ִאישׁ‬

‫ה־להּ‬
‫ל־א ֶשׁר ָע ָשׂ ָ‬
‫ד־להּ ֵאת ָכּ ֲ‬
‫י־א ְתּ ִבּ ִתּי וַ ַתּגֶּ ָ‬
‫ֹאמר ִמ ַ‬
‫מוֹתהּ וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ל־ח ָ‬
‫וַ ָתּבוֹא ֶא ֲ‬

‫‪2. Translate the following verses and identify the syntactic relationships between‬‬
‫‪the constituents—mark each subject (S), verb (V), complement (Comp), and‬‬
‫‪adjunct (Adt) that you find.‬‬

‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬
‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה ָ‬

‫י־פ ַקד‬
‫מוֹא ב ִכּ ָ‬
‫מוֹא ב ִכּ י ָשׁ ְמ ָע ה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵד ה ָ‬
‫יה וַ ָתּ ָשׁ ב ִמ ְשּׂ ֵד י ָ‬
‫ֹּלת ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:6 (b‬וַ ָתּ ָק ם ִהיא וְ ַכ ֶ‬
‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬
‫יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬

‫‪(c‬‬

‫את י ֵח ן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך‬
‫דּוּע ָמ ָצ ִ‬
‫ֹאמ ר ֵא ָליו ַמ ַ‬
‫יה וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּחוּ ָא ְר ָצ ה וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ל־פּנֶ ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 2:10‬וַ ִתּפֹּל ַע ָ‬
‫ְל ַה ִכּ ֵירנִ י וְ ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬

‫ם־ה ֵמּת‬
‫יתי ִלי ְל ִא ָשּׁה ְל ָה ִקים ֵשׁ ַ‬
‫‪ Ruth 4:10 (d‬וְ גַ ם ֶאת־רוּת ַהמּ ֲֹא ִביָּ ה ֵא ֶשׁת ַמ ְחלוֹן ‪ָ PN‬קנִ ִ‬
‫וּמ ַשּׁ ַער ְמקוֹמוֹ ֵע ִדים ַא ֶתּם ַהיּוֹם‬
‫ם־ה ֵמּת ֵמ ִעם ֶא ָחיו ִ‬
‫ַעל־נַ ֲח ָלתוֹ וְ לֹא־יִ ָכּ ֵרת ֵשׁ ַ‬

‫‪3. Translate the following verses and identify the argument structure—mark each‬‬
‫‪predicate (Pred), external argument (EA), and internal argument (IA).‬‬

‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬
‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה ָ‬

‫‪164‬‬

‫‪Lesson 26‬‬

‫יה‬
‫י־מ ְת ַא ֶמּ ֶצת ִהיא ָל ֶל ֶכת ִא ָתּהּ וַ ֶתּ ְח ַדּל ְל ַד ֵבּר ֵא ֶל ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:18 (b‬וַ ֵתּ ֶרא ִכּ ִ‬

‫אתי ֵחן ְבּ ֵעינֶ יָך‬
‫דּוּע ָמ ָצ ִ‬
‫ֹאמר ֵא ָליו ַמ ַ‬
‫יה וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּחוּ ָא ְר ָצה וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ל־פּנֶ ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 2:10 (c‬וַ ִתּפֹּל ַע ָ‬
‫ְל ַה ִכּ ֵירנִ י וְ ָאנ ִֹכי נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬

‫‪(d‬‬

‫אמר‬
‫ת־ר ֵעהוּ וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬
‫יַכּיר ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬
‫ד־הבּ ֶֹק ר וַ ָתּ ָק ם ְבּ ֶט ֶר ם ִ‬
‫לוֹתיו ַע ַ‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:14‬וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ַכּ ב ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬
‫‪GL‬‬
‫י־ב ָאה ָה ִא ָשּׁה ַהגּ ֶֹרן‬
‫ַאל־יִ וָּ ַדע ִכּ ָ‬

Lesson 27
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2
• Main and Subordinate Clauses
• Biblical Hebrew Word Order
27.1 Introduction to Syntax in Biblical Hebrew: Part 2
In the last lesson, syntax was introduced as the system of
relationships between constituents and a clause was defined as a
subject and a predicate. This lesson will introduce you to two further
important aspects of Biblical Hebrew syntax: the relationships
between clauses, and the basic order of constituents within clauses.
27.2 Main and Subordinate Clauses
Main and
Subordinate
Clauses

One way to classify clauses is by how they relate to each other.
There are two basic types: main clauses and subordinate clauses. A
main clause is one that can stand on its own; that is, it is not
grammatically controlled by another clause. In contrast, a
subordinate clause is one that is grammatical controlled by another
clause.
Related to this classification is the distinction between the two ways
that clauses relate to each other: coordination and subordination.

Coordination

Coordination is the linking of two or more clauses that are of equal
syntactic status, i.e. there is no syntactic hierarchical relationship
between the two or more clauses.

‫וַ יִּ ֵתּן ְשׂ ָכ ָרהּ וַ יֵּ ֶרד ָבּהּ‬...‫וַ יֵּ ֶרד יָ פוֹ וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא ָאנִ יָּ ה‬...‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה‬
‘(and) Jonah rose . . . and went down (to) Joppa and found a ship
. . . and gave its fare and went down in it’ (Jon 1:3)

Coordination in Biblical Hebrew is most often marked with
coordinating conjunctions: ְ‫‘ ו‬and’, ‫‘ אוֹ‬or’, ‫‘ ֲא ָבל‬but’, ‫אוּלם‬
ָ
‘but’.
(See 3.6 for further discussion of ְ‫ ו‬and why it is not always

Lesson 27

166

appropriate to translate it.)
Asyndesis

However, it is not uncommon for the coordinating conjunction to be
absent, resulting in asyndesis, or unmarked coordination. Compare
the two clauses below:

‫גוֹרלוֹת‬
ָ ‫ל־ר ֵעהוּ ְלכוּ וְ נַ ִפּ ָילה‬
ֵ ‫אמרוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬
ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬
‘(and) they said to each other: come and let us cast lots’ (Jon 1:7)

‫דוֹלה‬
ָ ְ‫קוּם ֵלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֵ ה ָה ִעיר ַהגּ‬
‘Rise, Go to Nineveh, the great city’ (Jon 1:2)

Subordination

Subordination is the linking of two or more clauses with the result
that they have different syntactic status, i.e. one clause is
syntactically dependent on the other.

‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י‬
ִ ‫ית ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬
ָ ‫אמרוּ ֵא ָליו ַמה־זֹּאת ָע ִשׂ‬
ְ ֹ ‫וַ יּ‬
‫יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח ִכּי ִהגִּ יד ָל ֶהם‬
‘(and) they said to him, “What is this (that) you have done?”
Because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH because
he had told them’ (Jon 1:10)
Subordinating
Conjunctions

Subordination in English is most often marked with subordinating
conjunctions: when, if, although, since, because, while, after, before,
etc. The list below provides the most commonly used Biblical
Hebrew subordinating conjunctions:

‫ִל ְפנֵ י‬
‘because, when, if, that, though’ ‫ִכּי‬
‘just as, when’ ‫ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬
‘if not’ ‫לוּלי‬
ֵ
‘while, until’ ‫ַעד‬
‘in order to, so that’ ‫ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬
‘before’

‫ַא ֲח ֵרי‬
‘if, though’ ‫ִאם‬
‘who/which, that’ ‫ֲא ֶשׁר‬
‘if’ ‫לוּ‬
‘therefore’ ‫ָל ֵכן‬
‘lest, so that not’ ‫ֶפּן‬
‘after’

Traditionally, clauses in coordinate relationship are said to form a
compound sentence, whereas those in subordinate relationship form
a complex sentence.

Lesson 27

167

Note: Biblical Hebrew, in contrast to English as well as IndoEuropean languages in general, has a few coordinating
conjunctions, but very few subordinating conjunctions. As a
result, often times clauses which are syntactically coordinate in
Biblical Hebrew may in fact be semantically subordinate. An
accurate translation from Biblical Hebrew to English will reflect
this semantic subordination despite the syntactical coordination
of the clauses. Consider the following segments from parallel
material in Kings and Chronicles.

‫ֲע ֵלה וּנְ ַת ִתּים ְבּיָ ֶדָך‬
‘Go up and (= so that, or because) I will place them in your
hand’ (1 Chr. 14:10)

‫ת־ה ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים ְבּיָ ֶדָך‬
ַ ‫ֲע ֵלה ִכּי־נָ תֹן ֶא ֵתּן ֶא‬
‘Go up because I will surely place the Philistines in your hand’
(2 Sam. 5:19)

Word Order
BH =
Subj-Pred
(in indicative
clauses)

27.3 Biblical Hebrew Word Order
Like English, Hebrew is primarily a Subject-Predicate word order
language. This means that in normal (“without emphasis”)
indicative clauses, the subject precedes the predicate (regardless of
whether the predicate is a verb, adjective, etc.). For instance:

‫ל־היָּ ם‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬
‘YHWH cast a great wind upon the sea’ (Jon 1:4)

However, you will have noticed by now that many clauses in
Biblical Hebrew are not Subject-Predicate in order.

‫י־מ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה הוּא ב ֵֹר ַח‬
ִ ‫ִכּי־יָ ְדעוּ ָה ֲאנָ ִשׁים ִכּ‬
‘because the men knew that he was fleeing from YHWH (Jon
1:10)
Inversion =
X-Pred-Subj

As illustrated in Jonah 1:10, whenever a grammatical word like ‫ִכּי‬
‘because, that’ stands at the front of the clause, the word order of the
remaining clause is inverted, i.e., it becomes predicate-subject.
The words, like ‫כּי‬,
ִ that trigger this inversion include the relatives
‫ ֲא ֶשׁר‬and ‫שׁ‬,
ֶ the interrogatives ‫ ָמה‬, ‫ ֫ ָל ָמּה‬, ‫ ֲה‬, etc., negatives ‫לֹא‬, ‫ ַאל‬, and
most other grammatical words, e.g., ‫ ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬, ‫ ָאז‬, ‫ ִאם‬, ‫ ֶפּן‬.

Lesson 27

168

The only two grammatical words in Biblical Hebrew that do not
generally trigger Predicate-Subject word order are ‫ ִהנֵּ ה‬and ‫ע ָתּה‬.
ַ
Past Narr.
verb =
Pred-Subj

Finally, Subject-Predicate word order is not present in the most
common type of clause in the Hebrew Bible, the clause in which the
Past Narrative verb is used. For instance:

‫ישׁה ִמ ִלּ ְפנֵ י יְ הוָ ה‬
ָ ‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה ִל ְבר ַֹח ַתּ ְר ִשׁ‬
‘Jonah arose to flee to Tarshish from before YHWH’ (Jon 1:3)

In the case of Jonah 1:3, the Past Narrative verb ‫ וַ יָּ ָקם‬precedes the
subject ‫יוֹנָ ה‬. This is the case with every Past Narrative verb—the
verb precedes the subject.
One possible explanation for this is that the dagesh chazaq in the
prefix of the Past Narrative verb (e.g., ‫ )וַ יָּ ָקם‬represents a
grammatical word that has been assimilated into the prefix
consonant. Thus, because of that “little grammatical word”
represented by the dagesh, any clause including a Past Narrative
verb is predicate-subject in order.
Modal Clause
=
Pred-Subj

All of the clauses we have discussed to this point have contained
indicative verbs. Unlike indicative verbs, which exist primarily in
Subject-Predicate clauses, modal verbs exist in inverted clauses.
Thus, when we examine the Jussives given below, we see the
Predicate-Subject order.

‫וְ יִ ְשׁתֹּק ַהיָּ ם ֵמ ָע ֵלינוּ‬
‘(so that) the sea may be quiet from upon us’ (Jon 1:11)

‫וְ יָ ֻשׁבוּ ִאישׁ ִמ ַדּ ְרכּוֹ ָה ָר ָעה‬
‘let (each) man turn from his evil way’ (Jon 3:8)

The Modal Perfect (Lesson 7) also has a modal value; thus, it too
stands in inverted clauses. Notice the Predicate-Subject order of the
following Modal Perfect examples:

‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫י־יוֹד ַע יָ שׁוּב וְ נִ ַחם ָה ֱא‬
ֵ ‫ִמ‬
‘Who knows? Maybe God shall turn back and repent’ (Jon 3:9)

Lesson 27

169

In Jonah 3:9, the Predicate-Subject word order for the clause ‫וְ נִ ַחם‬
‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫ ָה ֱא‬reflects the normal word order for modal clauses. Also
notice how the Modal Perfect follows a Jussive. This is a common
verb sequence for Modal Perfects (i.e., that they follow other modal
forms, such as Imperatives and Jussives).
Participles
&
Verbless =
Subj-Pred

Our final discussion focuses on Participles and verbless clauses.
Like the indicative finite verbal clauses presented above, clauses
with participial and adjectival (i.e., verbless) predicates exhibit
primarily Subject-Predicate order.

‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫הוֹלְך וְ ס ֵֹער ֲע ֵל‬
ֵ ‫ִכּי ַהיָּ ם‬
‘because the sea was growing stormier upon them’ (Jon 1:13)

‫יאה ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי דּ ֵֹבר ֵא ֶליָך‬
ָ ‫ת־ה ְקּ ִר‬
ַ ‫יה ֶא‬
ָ ‫וּק ָרא ֵא ֶל‬
ְ
‘call to her the proclamation that I am speaking to you’ (Jon 3:2)

From the examples in Jonah 1:13 and 3:2, we can also notice that,
unlike the finite verbal clauses above, function words do not invert
the word order of participial or verbless clauses.
Summary:
• Biblical Hebrew is a Subject-Predicate language.

In clauses with finite indicative verbs, the order becomes
inverted (Predicate-Subject) when there is a function word at
the beginning of the clause.

• In modal clauses, the order is Predicate-Subject.

Lesson 27

170

27.4 Vocabulary #27
‫ֵאיְך‬
‫ָא ֵרְך‬

ADV, INTER

how; INTJ How!

‫ָח ָסה‬

Q

seek refuge
sister-in-law

Q

be long; HI prolong, lengthen

‫ֶ֫יְב ֶמת‬

F

Q

perceive, observe, have insight;

‫ְל ָפנִ ים‬

ADV

‫ִבּין‬

HI

understand, give

‫ַמ ְרגְּ לוֹת‬

understanding, teach

FP

formerly, previously

place of feet

‫מרר‬

Q

be bitter; PI HI make bitter
sandal, shoe

‫גּוּר‬

Q

to sojourn, abide

‫֫ ַנ ַעל‬

F

‫֫גּ ֹ ֶרן‬

M

threshing floor

‫צוה‬

PI

command

‫ָחיָ ה‬

Q

live, be alive

‫ָשׁ ַלף‬

Q

draw out, off

Exercises
1. Translate the following verses and identify which clauses are main and which
are subordinate. Also, identify any coordination.

‫ יִ ְחיֶ ה ְל ָפנֶ יָך‬PN ‫ יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֵעאל‬GL‫ֹלהים לוּ‬
ִ ‫ל־ה ֱא‬
ָ ‫אמר ַא ְב ָר ָהם ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Gen 17:18 (a

‫יטב ְלָך‬
ַ ִ‫ת־מ ְצו ָֹתיו ֲא ֶשׁר ָאנ ִֹכי ְמ ַצוְּ ָך ַהיּוֹם ֲא ֶשׁר י‬
ִ ‫ת־ח ָקּיו וְ ֶא‬
ֻ ‫ וְ ָשׁ ַמ ְר ָתּ ֶא‬Deut 4:40 (b
‫ֹלהיָך נ ֵֹתן ְלָך ָכּל־‬
ֶ ‫ל־ה ֲא ָד ָמה ֲא ֶשׁר יְ הוָ ה ֱא‬
ָ ‫יָמים ַע‬
ִ ‫וּל ַמ ַען ַתּ ֲא ִריְך‬
ְ ‫וּל ָבנֶ יָך ַא ֲח ֶריָך‬
ְ
‫ַהיָּ ִמים‬

‫וּק ַב ְר ֶתּם א ִֹתי ַבּ ֶקּ ֶבר‬
ְ ‫מוֹתי‬
ִ ‫ל־בּנָ יו ֵלאמֹר ְבּ‬
ָ ‫אמר ֶא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יְ ִהי ַא ֲח ֵרי ָק ְברוֹ אֹתוֹ וַ יּ‬I Kgs 13:31 (c
‫ת־ע ְצמ ָֹתי‬
ַ ‫ ַע ְצמ ָֹתיו ַהנִּ יחוּ ֶא‬GL ‫ֹלהים ָקבוּר בּוֹ ֵא ֶצל‬
ִ ‫ ֲא ֶשׁר ִאישׁ ָה ֱא‬GL

‫ל־צ ָבא‬
ְ ‫ל־כּ ְסאוֹ וְ ָכ‬
ִ ‫יתי ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה י ֵֹשׁב ַע‬
ִ ‫אמר ָל ֵכן ְשׁ ַמע ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ָר ִא‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬I Kgs 22:19 (d
GL
‫וּמ ְשּׂמֹאלוֹ‬
ִ GL‫ימינוֹ‬
ִ ‫ַה ָשּׁ ַמיִ ם ע ֵֹמד ָע ָליו ִמ‬

‫‪171‬‬

‫‪Lesson 27‬‬

‫הוֹתיר ‪ָ GL‬לנוּ ָשׂ ִריד ‪ִ GL‬כּ ְמ ָעט ִכּ ְסד ֹם ‪ָ PN‬היִ ינוּ ַל ֲעמ ָֹרה‬
‫לוּלי ‪ GL‬יְ הוָ ה ְצ ָבאוֹת ִ‬
‫‪ֵ Isa 1:9 (e‬‬
‫‪GL‬‬
‫ָדּ ִמינוּ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫וּב ָאזְ נָ יו‬
‫ב־ה ָעם ַהזֶּ ה וְ ָאזְ נָ יו ַה ְכ ֵבּד וְ ֵעינָ יו ָה ַשׁע ‪ֶ GL‬פּן־יִ ְר ֶאה ְב ֵעינָ יו ְ‬
‫‪ַ Isa 6:10 (f‬ה ְשׁ ֵמן ‪ֵ GL‬ל ָ‬
‫וּל ָבבוֹ ִיָבין וָ ָשׁב וְ ָר ָפא לוֹ׃‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ָמע ְ‬

‫י־ה ַמר ַשׁ ַדּי ִלי‬
‫ל־תּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ִלי נָ ֳע ִמי ‪ְ PN‬ק ֶראן ָ ִלי ָמ ָרא ‪ִ PN‬כּ ֵ‬
‫יהן ַא ִ‬
‫ֹאמר ֲא ֵל ֶ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:20 (g‬וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ְמאֹד‬

‫‪2. Translate the following clauses. For each clause with an explicit subject indicate‬‬
‫‪whether the word order is Subject-Predicate or Predicate-Subject. If the order is‬‬
‫‪Predicate-Subject, identify why.‬‬

‫מוֹאב‬
‫הוּדה ‪ָ PN‬לגוּר ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדי ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:1 (a‬וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ִאישׁ ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם ‪ PN‬יְ ָ‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫ת־עמּוֹ ָל ֵתת ָל ֶהם ָל ֶחם‬
‫י־פ ַקד יְ הוָ ה ֶא ַ‬
‫מוֹאב ִכּ ָ‬
‫‪ִ Ruth 1:6 (b‬כּי ָשׁ ְמ ָעה ִבּ ְשׂ ֵדה ָ‬

‫ם־ה ֵמּ ִתים וְ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬
‫יתם ִע ַ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:8 (c‬יַ ַעשׂ יְ הוָ ה ִע ָמּ ֶכם ֶח ֶסד ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ֲע ִשׂ ֶ‬

‫‪ Ruth 2:4 (d‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה־ב ַֹעז ָבּא ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫וּת ִהי ַמ ְשׂ ֻכּ ְר ֵתְּך‬
‫‪ Ruth 2:12 (e‬יְ ַשׁ ֵלּם יְ הוָ ה ָפּ ֳע ֵלְך‪ְ GL‬‬
‫‪GL‬‬
‫ת־כּנָ ָפיו‬
‫ר־בּאת ַל ֲחסוֹת ַתּ ַח ְ‬
‫ֲא ֶשׁ ָ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ֹלהי יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫ְשׁ ֵל ָמה ֵמ ִעם יְ הוָ ה ֱא ֵ‬

‫‪172‬‬

‫‪Lesson 27‬‬

‫מוֹתהּ‬
‫ר־צוַּ ָתּה ֲח ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:6 (f‬וַ ַתּ ַעשׂ ְכּכֹל ֲא ֶשׁ ִ‬

‫ֹלתיו‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:8 (g‬וְ ִהנֵּ ה ִא ָשּׁה שׁ ֶֹכ ֶבת ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬

‫ת־ר ֵעהוּ‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:14 (h‬וַ ָתּ ָקם ְבּ ֶט ֶרם יַ ִכּיר ִאישׁ ֶא ֵ‬

‫י־ב ָאה ָה ִא ָשּׁה ַהגּ ֶֹרן‬
‫אמר ַאל־יִ וָּ ַדע ִכּ ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:14 (i‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫ֹאמר ְשׁ ִבי ִב ִתּי ַעד ֲא ֶשׁר ֵתּ ְד ִעין ֵאיְך יִ פֹּל ָדּ ָבר‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:18 (j‬וַ תּ ֶ‬

‫ל־דּ ָבר ָשׁ ַלף ִאישׁ‬
‫מוּרה ְל ַקיֵּ ם ָכּ ָ‬
‫ל־ה ְתּ ָ‬
‫אוּלּה וְ ַע ַ‬
‫ל־הגְּ ָ‬
‫‪ Ruth 4:7 (k‬וְ זֹאת ְל ָפנִ ים ְבּיִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל ַע ַ‬
‫נַ ֲעלוֹ וְ נָ ַתן ְל ֵר ֵעהוּ‬

Lesson 28
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Semantics
• Lexical Semantics
• Case Roles

Semantics

28.1 Introduction to Semantics
Semantics is concerned with meaning in language. It deals with
various meaning issues, both at the word and phrase level (e.g.,
ambiguity, polysemy, synonymy, and semantic overlap) and at the
clause level (e.g., truth values, communicative potential, and
entailment). Lexical semantics and case roles are examined in the
following sections.
The treatment of the Biblical Hebrew verbal system in this grammar
illustrates the main concerns of semantics. In 13.2 the verbs in
Biblical Hebrew were examined as a system in which certain forms
contrast with each other and others overlap in meaning. This is
illustrated by the following diagram.

Venn Diagram
of a
Semantic
Model
of
BH Verbal
System

‫וַ יִּ ְקטֹל‬

‫קוֹטל‬
ֵ

Past Tense

Progressive Aspect

(narrative verb)

expected future

simple past
gnomic
past
habitual

‫ָק ַטל‬

commissive
contingent

Perfective Aspect
perfect
immediate future
performative

present progressive
past progressive

‫ִי ְקטֹל‬
Imperfective Aspect
general future
future in the past

directive
volitive

‫ ְקטֹל‬/‫( ַי ְק ֵטל‬H)
Deontic Modality

Lesson 28
Lexical
Semantics

174

28.2 Lexical Semantics
Lexical semantics is concerned with discerning semantic contrast
and overlap between words in terms of their lexical meaning (as
opposed to grammatical meanings such as tense, aspect, modality,
definiteness, etc.).
In 11.1 you were introduced to the binyanim. Depending on which
binyan a verb appears in, it may have a different number of
arguments (see 26.3). Semantics is also interested in analyzing the
case roles of these arguments.
Lexical semantics involves two areas of study: multiple meanings
for the same word, and related meanings between words. You have
noticed that the lexicon gives numbered entries of the various
meanings a word may have. The crucial task in reading a passage is
deciding which meaning best fits the context in which it occurs.
Every meaning of a word is not represented by each instance where
it occurs.
For instance, the lexicon lists six different meanings for the verb
‫ ָק ָרא‬in Qal: (1) call, cry aloud; (2) call to (someone); (3) proclaim;
(4) read aloud; (5) summon; (6) name. However, generally the
context will limit an occurrence of ‫ ָק ָרא‬to one of these meanings.
Thus, the eight occurrences of this root in Jonah appear to have one
of two meanings: call, cry aloud (1:6; 1:14; 2:3; 3:8), or proclaim
(1:2; 3:2, 4, 5)
Examining the interrelated meanings of words helps sharpen
understanding of the range of meanings of a particular word.
instance, by looking at other color terms related to ‘red’ we
more precisely define the allowable range of meaning of red.
instance, at one point is a color no longer ‘red’ but ‘maroon’?

our
For
can
For

We can sharpen the range of meaning of ‫ ָק ָרא‬by comparing it to
semantically related words like ‫ זָ ַעק‬and ‫צ ַעק‬.
ָ Although they all have
the basic meaning ‘cry out,’ they often differ in nuance. For
instance, only ‫ ָק ָרא‬is used as ‘to read aloud’, and only ‫ זָ ַעק‬is used
explicitly as ‘to make a cry of horror/alarm/distress/sorrow’.

Lesson 28

175

‫ל־ה ִעיר‬
ָ ‫וְ ָה ִאישׁ ָבּא ְל ַהגִּ יד ָבּ ִעיר וַ ִתּזְ ַעק ָכּ‬
‘(when) the man came to the report in the city [that the ark had
been captured], all of the city cried out (in alarm)’ (1 Sam 4:13)

‫ֹלהים יוֹם ְבּיוֹם‬
ִ ‫תּוֹרת ָה ֱא‬
ַ ‫וַ יִּ ְק ָרא ְבּ ֵס ֶפר‬
‘(and) they read in the book of the law of God daily’ (Neh 8:18)

Case Roles

28.3 Case Roles in Biblical Hebrew
Case involves morphology, syntax, and semantics. Cases indicate
the particular syntactic role or relationship between words in an
expression, often by morphological distinctions (e.g., Latin,
German). The role of each case can also be analyzed semantically
(e.g., nominative is syntactically the subject but semantically the
agent of a dynamic verb but the patient of a stative verb).
In English, morphological case marking is preserved only in the
personal pronouns.
Nominative I

he

she

we

they

Accusative

me

him

her

us

them

Genitive

my

his

her

our

their

Similarly, Hebrew at one time distinguished these cases
morphologically. However, by the period of Biblical Hebrew cases
are mostly abstract, and the Genitive case has been replaced by the
construct relationship (see 6.1).
The Nominative case includes the agent of a dynamic verb or the
patient of a stative or passive verb. An agent is the entity that
performs an action or brings about a change of state. A patient is an
entity in a state or undergoing change.

‫ל־היָּ ם‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬
‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea’ (Jon 1:4)

‫עוֹד ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים יוֹם וְ נִ ינְ וֵ ה נֶ ְה ָפּ ֶכת‬
‘yet forty days and Nineveh will be destroyed’ (Jon 3:4)

The Accusative case includes all the nouns governed by the verb—
whether complements or adjuncts. Although accusative is most

Lesson 28

176

often associated with the direct object of a verb, it is also associated
with nouns expressing nuances such as location, source, path, or
manner.

‫ל־היָּ ם‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬
‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea’ (Jon 1:4)

‫וַ יָּ ֶחל יוֹנָ ה ָלבוֹא ָב ִעיר ַמ ֲה ַלְך יוֹם ֶא ָחד‬
‘(and) Jonah began to enter into the city a journey of one day’
(Jon 3:4)
Note: Often verbs take a direct object headed by a preposition.
Sometimes different prepositions signal different meanings of
the predication.
‫יכל ָק ְד ֶשָׁך‬
ַ ‫ל־ה‬
ֵ ‫אוֹסיף ְל ַה ִבּיט ֶא‬
ִ ‫ַאְך‬
‘Surely I will again look at/to your holy temple’ (Jon 2:5)

The Genitive case has been replaced in Biblical Hebrew by the
construct. In a construct relationship the noun in the absolute can
modify the noun in construct in a number of ways. Most often the
absolute noun represents the agent or possessor of the activity
behind the construct noun or simply modifies the construct noun
adjectivally.

‫ן־א ִמ ַתּי‬
ֲ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יוֹנָ ה ֶב‬
‘the word of YHWH came to Jonah, son of Amitai’ (Jon 1:1)

‫יָמים‬
ִ ‫ֹלשׁת‬
ֶ ‫ַמ ֲה ַלְך ְשׁ‬
‘. . . a journey of three days (= a three day’s journey)’ (Jon 3:3)

28.4 Vocabulary #28
‫אוֹ‬

CONJ

or

‫ָקדוֹשׁ‬

ADJ

sacred, holy

‫ֵאל‬

M

god, God, mighty one

‫ָק ֶצה‬

M

end, extremity

‫֫בֹּ ֶקר‬

M

morning

‫ָק ַצר‬

Q

reap, harvest

‫יָ ַסף‬

Q

add; HI multiply, do again,

‫שׁאר‬

NI

be left over, behind, remain; HI

continue

‫ַמ ֲע ֶשׂה‬

M

deed, work

‫נצב‬

NI

take one’s stand; be stationed,
appointed

leave over, behind

‫ָשׁ ֵכן‬
‫ָשׁ ַקט‬

ADJ
Q

inhabitant, neighbor

be quiet, undisturbed; HI show
quietness, cause quietness

Lesson 28

177

Exercises
1. Examine the range of meanings for ‫ ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬using the lexicon, and determine the
best meaning(s) for the word in its occurrences in Ruth.

2. Determine the degree of overlap between these related words (use a diagram like
the one given for the verbal system in the lesson to show the overlap).

‫ָא ָדם ִאישׁ גִּ בּוֹר‬

3. Translate the following clauses and identify the case roles of the nouns in each –
nominative (Nom), genitive (Gen), or accusative (Acc).

‫יה‬
ָ ֶ‫וּשׁנֵ י ָבנ‬
ְ ‫וַ ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵאר ִהיא‬

PN

‫ ִאישׁ נָ ֳע ִמי‬PN‫ימ ֶלְך‬
ֶ ‫ וַ יָּ ָמת ֱא ִל‬Ruth 1:3 (a

‫יה ֵל ְכנָ ה שּׁ ְֹבנָ ה ִא ָשּׁ ה ְל ֵבית ִא ָמּ הּ יַ ַע שׂ יְ הוָ ה‬
ָ ‫ֹּלת‬
ֶ ‫ֹאמ ר נָ ֳע ִמ י ִל ְשׁ ֵתּ י ַכ‬
ֶ ‫ וַ תּ‬Ruth 1:8
‫ם־ה ֵמּ ִתים וְ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬
ַ ‫יתם ִע‬
ֶ ‫ִע ָמּ ֶכם ֶח ֶסד ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר ֲע ִשׂ‬

(b

‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬
ָ ‫קוֹלן וַ ִתּ ְב ֶכּינָ ה עוֹד וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח‬
ָ ‫ וַ ִתּ ֶשּׂנָ ה‬Ruth 1:14 (c

‫ ֶאל־נָ ֳע ִמ י ֵא ְל ָכה־נָּ א ַה ָשּׂ ֶד ה וַ ֲא ַל ֳק ָט ה ַב ִשּׁ ֳבּ ִלים‬PN‫מּוֹא ִביָּ ה‬
ֲ ‫ֹאמ ר רוּת ַה‬
ֶ ‫ וַ תּ‬Ruth 2:2 (d
‫ֹאמר ָלהּ ְל ִכי ִב ִתּי‬
ֶ ‫א־חן ְבּ ֵעינָ יו וַ תּ‬
ֵ ‫ַא ַחר ֲא ֶשׁר ֶא ְמ ָצ‬

GL

‫קּוֹצ ִרים ְל ִמי ַהנַּ ֲע ָרה ַהזֹּאת‬
ְ ‫ל־ה‬
ַ ‫אמר בּ ַֹעז ְלנַ ֲערוֹ ַהנִּ ָצּב ַע‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וַ יּ‬Ruth 2:5 (e

‫‪178‬‬
‫‪(f‬‬

‫‪Lesson 28‬‬

‫יט ב ִלבּוֹ וַ יָּ ב ֹא ִל ְשׁ ַכּ ב ִבּ ְק ֵצ ה ָה ֲע ֵר ָמה‪ GL‬וַ ָתּב ֹא ַב ָלּט‬
‫אכ ל בּ ַֹע ז וַ יֵּ ְשׁ ְתּ וַ יִּ ַ‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:7‬וַ יּ ֹ ַ‬
‫ֹלתיו וַ ִתּ ְשׁ ָכּב‬
‫וַ ְתּגַ ל ַמ ְרגְּ ָ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫ֹאמר ְשׁ ִבי ִב ִתּי ַעד ֲא ֶשׁר ֵתּ ְד ִעין ֵאיְך יִ פֹּל ָדּ ָבר ִכּי ל ֹא יִ ְשׁקֹט ָה ִאישׁ ִכּי־‬
‫‪ Ruth 3:18 (g‬וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫ם־כּ ָלּה ַה ָדּ ָבר ַהיּוֹם‬
‫ִא ִ‬

‫‪Ruth 4:13 (h‬‬

‫יה וַ יִּ ֵתּ ן יְ הוָ ה ָל הּ ֵה ָריוֹן‬
‫וַ יִּ ַקּ ח בּ ַֹע ז ֶאת־רוּת וַ ְתּ ִהי־לוֹ ְל ִא ָשּׁ ה וַ יָּ ב ֹא ֵא ֶל ָ‬

‫‪GL‬‬

‫וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֵבּן‬

‫עוֹבד‬
‫ד־בּ ן ְלנָ ֳע ִמ י וַ ִתּ ְק ֶראנָ ה ְשׁמוֹ ֵ‬
‫‪ Ruth 4:17 (i‬וַ ִתּ ְק ֶראנָ ה לוֹ ַה ְשּׁ ֵכנוֹת ֵשׁ ם ֵלאמֹר יֻ ַלּ ֵ‬
‫‪PN‬‬
‫הוּא ֲא ִבי־יִ ַשׁי‪ֲ PN‬א ִבי ָדוִ ד‬

‫‪PN‬‬

Lesson 29
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Pragmatics
• Information Structure
• Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information
Structure

29.1 Introduction to Pragmatics
Pragmatics

Pragmatics is the study of how the relationship between an
utterance, the speaker, the addressee, and any other aspect of the
context/discourse are encoded (e.g., by means of prosody, word
order, or use of discourse markers).
Unlike syntax, which is the study of the relationship of constituents
or clauses to each other, pragmatics incorporates the notion of the
larger linguistic and extra-linguistic context.
Also, unlike semantics, which is the study of the relationship
between linguistic expressions and the objects to which they refer,
pragmatics is the study of the use of linguistic expressions and
includes such issues as deixis, theme, rheme, and focus.
Pragmatics is a broad field of study; in what follows, the discussion
and definitions will reflect our focus on the application of pragmatic
analysis to written texts.
The linguistic context that is the object of pragmatic study ranges
from the level of the clause (e.g., how the word order of constituents
reflects pragmatic concerns) to the levels of discourse beyond the
clause (i.e., how pragmatic concerns affect the structure of an entire
text).
In this lesson we will focus on clause-level pragmatics (discourselevel pragmatics will be discussed in Lesson 30).

Lesson 29
Information
Structure

180

29.2 Information Structure
One of the common ways to study the pragmatics of a language is
by analyzing what is called the information structure of that
language.
Information structure refers to the interface between the linguistic
content of a text and how the reader cognitively processes that
linguistic information. Information structure is concerned with
studying why, when two or more possible linguistic options may
express the same propositional information, one is chosen over the
others.
Central concepts to the study of information structure are the
concepts of theme, rheme, and focus.
The Theme is that piece of information that anchors the added
information to the existing information state; it is the presupposed
information in a discourse. Thus, the Theme is a known, active
entity within the discourse and stands in contrast to the Rheme.
The Rheme represents that information which has been added to a
discourse situation (i.e., it is the non-presupposed information),
often marked in languages by word order, prosody, or both. While
the Rheme may often mark “new” discourse items, it may also mark
“old” discourse items that are being “re-added” to the discourse.
Consider the following example.

‫נוֹשׁע‬
ַ ‫יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‘Israel
Rheme
Theme
Rheme

was victorious’ (Isa 45:17)
Rheme
(All the constituents are new)
Rheme
(Israel is not new to the context)
Theme
(Israel is new, was victorious is not)

There are at least three basic contexts that we can supply to
understand how the clause Israel was victorious can signal different
states of information. If all the material is new to the discourse, it is
all considered to be the Rheme. If we supply a context in which
Israel has already been introduced, then we could consider Israel as
the Theme and was victorious as the Rheme. Finally, if we supply a
context that is discussing the various people who were victorious but
Israel has not yet been mentioned, then Israel is the Rheme and was

Lesson 29

181

victorious is the Theme.
The final information structure concept that we must discuss is
Focus. Focus represents a constituent that is highlighted for some
sort of emphasis within the discourse (e.g., for contrast,
identification).
Israel was victorious (not its enemies).

29.3 Biblical Hebrew Word Order and Information Structure
In Lesson 27, Biblical Hebrew was described as a Subject-Verb
language. In other words, the basic order of constituents in a clause
has the subject preceding the verb. However, many clauses in the
Hebrew Bible contain a focused constituent.
Focused constituents are usually placed at the front of the clause
(this is sometimes referred to as “fronting”). The fronting of a
focused constituent almost always results in Verb-Subject order.
There are numerous examples in which the Verb-Subject (or
Predicate-Subject in a verbless clause) order is triggered by a
fronted focused constituent. Consider the following four examples:
Genesis 31:42 contains the focusing of an object phrase: ‫ת־ענְ יִ י‬
ָ ‫ֶא‬
‫יע ַכּ ַפּי‬
ַ ִ‫וְ ֶאת־יְ ג‬.

‫וּפ ַחד יִ ְצ ָחק ָהיָ ה ִלי‬
ַ ‫ֹלהי ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬
ֵ ‫ֹלהי ָא ִבי ֱא‬
ֵ ‫לוּלי ֱא‬
ֵ
‫יע ַכּ ַפּי‬
ַ ִ‫ת־ענְ יִ י וְ ֶאת־יְ ג‬
ָ ‫ִכּי ַע ָתּה ֵר ָיקם ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ָתּנִ י ֶא‬
‫יּוֹכח ָא ֶמשׁ‬
ַ ַ‫ֹלהים ו‬
ִ ‫ָר ָאה ֱא‬
‘if the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the
Fear of Isaac had not been for me, indeed now you would
have sent me away empty. My affliction and the labor of
my hands God has seen and he judged last night’ (Gen
31.42)

The fronting of this focused phrase also results in the inversion of
ִ ‫) ָר ָאה ֱא‬.
the word order for the rest of the clause: Verb-Subject (‫ֹלהים‬
Jonah 1:9 illustrates Predicate-Subject inversion in a verbless clause.

Lesson 29

182

‫ִע ְב ִרי ָאנ ִֹכי‬
‘A Hebrew am I’ (Jon 1:9)

The predicate ‫ ִע ְב ִרי‬is in the initial position because Jonah is telling
the sailors who he is.
Genesis 3:5 illustrates Verb-Subject inversion with the participle
‫י ֵֹד ַע‬.

‫ֹלהים ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְל ֶכם ִמ ֶמּנּוּ וְ נִ ְפ ְקחוּ‬
ִ ‫ִכּי י ֵֹד ַע ֱא‬
‫אֹלהים י ְֹד ֵעי טוֹב וָ ָרע‬
ִ ‫יתם ֵכּ‬
ֶ ִ‫יכם וִ ְהי‬
ֶ ֵ‫ֵעינ‬
‘because God knows that on the day you eat from it, your
eyes will be opened and you will become like gods . . .’
(Gen 3:5)

In this case, the serpent in Genesis 3 wants Eve to believe that God
is well aware of the effects of eating the forbidden fruit and that He
is trying to keep Eve and Adam from something desirable.
When we turn our attention to modal clauses (in which the normal
word order is Verb-Subject), it only makes sense that the focusing
and fronting of a constituent triggers inversion back to Subject-Verb
order. In Genesis 44:33, the subject noun ‫ ַהנַּ ַער‬is focused and thus
fronted.

‫וְ ַע ָתּה יֵ ֶשׁב־נָ א ַע ְב ְדָּך ַתּ ַחת ַהנַּ ַער ֶע ֶבד ַלאד ֹנִ י‬
‫ם־א ָחיו‬
ֶ ‫וְ ַהנַּ ַער יַ ַעל ִע‬
‘Now, please let your servant stay instead of the lad as a
servant to my lord; and let the lad go up with his
brothers’ (Gen 44:33)

The result of the focusing and fronting of the subject noun, is that it
now precedes the modal verb ‫יַ ַעל‬, producing Subject-Verb order in a
modal clause (which is normally Verb-Subject order).
Summary:
• Words (such as objects, prepositional phrases, etc.) may be
focused (for contrast or some other kind of emphasis); a
focused constituent is almost always fronted, that is, placed at
the front of the Biblical Hebrew clause.

Lesson 29

183

Such fronted words trigger Predicate-Subject (i.e., inverted)
word order in indicative clauses.

• In modal clauses, which have Predicate-Subject order as their
basic word order, the Subject-Predicate word order is
triggered when a focused constituent is fronted.
29.4 Vocabulary #29
‫ָא ַמץ‬

‫ַ ֫דּ ַעת‬
‫ַ֫חיִ ל‬

Q

F/M
M

‫ָ֫מוֶ ת‬

M

death

(something); HIT make oneself

‫ָמ ַכר‬

Q

sell

bold, obstinate

‫ָפּ ַרד‬

Q

separate; HI divide, separate

be strong, bold; PI strengthen

knowledge

(something)

strength, wealth, valor; army

‫ְצ ָד ָקה‬

F

righteousness

‫ֶח ְל ָקה‬

F

portion

‫ֵר ָיקם‬

ADV

‫יָ ַרד‬

Q

go down, descend

‫ְשׁאוֹל‬

F

‫ְתּהוֹם‬

M/F

emptily, vainly

underworld, Sheol
deep, sea, abyss

Exercises
1. Translate the following clauses. Identify the Theme, Rheme, and Focus (if there
is one) for each clause in the following verses. (If necessary, consult the
context of each for help in identifying the information structure.)
GL

‫ֹלהים ְמ ַר ֶח ֶפת‬
ִ ‫רוּח ֱא‬
ַ ְ‫ל־פּנֵ י ְתהוֹם ו‬
ְ ‫ וְ ח ֶֹשְׁך ַע‬GL‫ וָ בֹהוּ‬GL‫ וְ ָה ָא ֶרץ ָהיְ ָתה תֹהוּ‬Gen 1:2 (a
‫ל־פּנֵ י ַה ָמּיִ ם‬
ְ ‫ַע‬

‫ֹלהים ִכּי־‬
ִ ‫יַמּים וַ יַּ ְרא ֱא‬
ִ ‫ ַה ַמּיִ ם ָק ָרא‬GL ‫וּל ִמ ְקוֵ ה‬
ְ ‫ֹלהים ַליַּ ָבּ ָשׁה ֶא ֶרץ‬
ִ ‫ וַ יִּ ְק ָרא ֱא‬Gen 1:10 (b
‫טוֹב‬

‫‪Lesson 29‬‬

‫‪184‬‬

‫אכל‬
‫ץ־הגָּ ן ָאכֹל תּ ֹ ֵ‬
‫ל־ה ָא ָדם ֵלאמֹר ִמכֹּל ֵע ַ‬
‫ֹלהים ַע ָ‬
‫‪ Gen 2:16 (c‬וַ יְ ַצו יְ הוָ ה ֱא ִ‬

‫אכל ִמ ֶמּנּוּ ִכּי ְבּיוֹם ֲא ָכ ְלָך ִמ ֶמּנּוּ מוֹת ָתּמוּת‬
‫וּמ ֵעץ ַה ַדּ ַעת טוֹב וָ ָרע לֹא ת ֹ ַ‬
‫‪ֵ Gen 2:17 (d‬‬

‫ת־חוָּ ה‬
‫‪ Gen 4:1 (e‬וְ ָה ָא ָדם יָ ַדע ֶא ַ‬
‫ֶאת־יְ הוָ ה׃‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫ת־קיִ ן‬
‫ִא ְשׁתּוֹ וַ ַתּ ַהר וַ ֵתּ ֶלד ֶא ַ‬

‫‪PN‬‬

‫יתי ִאישׁ‬
‫ֹאמר ָקנִ ִ‬
‫וַ תּ ֶ‬

‫יהם‬
‫ת־ה ְתּ ָר ִפים ‪ GL‬וַ ְתּ ִשׂ ֵמם ְבּ ַכר ‪ַ GL‬הגָּ ָמל וַ ֵתּ ֶשׁב ֲע ֵל ֶ‬
‫‪ Gen 31:34 (f‬וְ ָר ֵחל ָל ְק ָחה ֶא ַ‬
‫ל־הא ֶֹהל וְ לֹא ָמ ָצא׃‬
‫ת־כּ ָ‬
‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵשּׁשׁ ָל ָבן ֶא ָ‬

‫‪2. Translate the following clauses. For each clause indicate whether the word‬‬
‫‪order is Subject-Predicate or Predicate-Subject and explain why the word order‬‬
‫‪is that way (i.e., indicate whether the word order is “basic,” or triggered due to‬‬
‫‪syntactic or pragmatic reasons).‬‬

‫מוֹתהּ וְ רוּת ָדּ ְב ָקה ָבּהּ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:14 (a‬וַ ִתּ ַשּׁק ָע ְר ָפּה ַל ֲח ָ‬
‫יה‬
‫ֹלה ָ‬
‫ל־א ֶ‬
‫ל־ע ָמּהּ וְ ֶא ֱ‬
‫ֹאמר ִהנֵּ ה ָשׁ ָבה ִיְב ְמ ֵתְּך ֶא ַ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:15 (b‬וַ תּ ֶ‬
‫וּבינֵ ְך‬
‫‪ִ Ruth 1:17 (c‬כּי ַה ָמּוֶ ת יַ ְפ ִריד ֵבּינִ י ֵ‬
‫י־מ ְת ַא ֶמּ ֶצת ִהיא ָל ֶל ֶכת ִא ָתּהּ‬
‫‪ Ruth 1:18 (d‬וַ ֵתּ ֶרא ִכּ ִ‬
‫‪ֲ Ruth 1:21 (e‬אנִ י ְמ ֵל ָאה ָה ַל ְכ ִתּי וְ ֵר ָיקם ֱה ִשׁ ַיבנִ י יְ הוָ ה‬

‫‪185‬‬

‫‪Lesson 29‬‬

‫ל־שׁ ַער ַע ִמּי ִכּי ֵא ֶשׁת ַחיִ ל ָא ְתּ‬
‫יוֹד ַע ָכּ ַ‬
‫‪ִ Ruth 3:11 (f‬כּי ֵ‬

‫ימ ֶלְך‪ָ PN‬מ ְכ ָרה נָ ֳע ִמי‬
‫אמר ַלגּ ֵֹאל ‪ֶ GL‬ח ְל ַקת ַה ָשּׂ ֶדה ֲא ֶשׁר ְל ָא ִחינוּ ֶל ֱא ִל ֶ‬
‫‪ Ruth 4:3 (g‬וַ יּ ֹ ֶ‬

Lesson 30
Lesson Summary:

• Introduction to Discourse Linguistics
• The Foreground and Background of Narrative
• Discourse Topic

Discourse
Linguistics

30.1 Introduction to Discourse Linguistics
Discourse linguistics, in contrast to traditional, sentence-based,
linguistics, takes a discourse or text as the object of linguistic
analysis. The study of discourse linguistics is still developing.
The following presentation represents just one approach out of
many. We shall approach discourse linguistics as the study of
information structure beyond the level of individual clauses (as
opposed to Lesson 29, in which we focused on ‘clause-level’
pragmatics and information structure). In this way, we may describe
discourse linguistics as the linguistic counterpart to traditional
literary analysis.
Some elements that shape discourse include the genre or type of
discourse (e.g., a narrative, a poem), how speech is incorporated
into the discourse (e.g., direct or indirect speech), how the saliency
of events are marked (e.g., foreground or background).
In the next two sections we will examine two areas of discourse
analysis on the Hebrew Bible that have proven quite fruitful: 1)
foreground and background of narrative, and 2) discourse topic.

Foreground
and
Background

30.2 The Foreground and Background of Narrative
The majority of the Hebrew Bible is narrative. Because Biblical
Hebrew has a Past Narrative verb form, this discourse type is readily
identifiable. The main thread or foreground of narrative discourse
features the Past Narrative verb.

‫ן־א ִמ ַתּי‬
ֲ ‫וַ יְ ִהי ְדּ ַבר־יְ הוָ ה ֶאל־יוֹנָ ה ֶב‬
‘(and) the word of YHWH came to Jonah, son of Amitai’
(Jon 1:1)

Lesson 30

187

Whenever the narrator chooses to communicate something that is
not part of the development or progression of the plot action, he
avoids using the Past Narrative verb.
For instance, in Jonah 3:3 the Perfect ‫ ָהיְ ָתה‬is used instead of the
Past Narrative form because the clause provides the reader with
background information regarding an important element in the plot
—the city of Nineveh.

‫וַ יָּ ָקם יוֹנָ ה וַ יֵּ ֶלְך ֶאל־נִ ינְ וֶ ה ִכּ ְד ַבר יְ הוָ ה וְ נִ ינְ וֵ ה ָהיְ ָתה‬
‫אֹלהים‬
ִ ‫דוֹלה ֵל‬
ָ ְ‫ִעיר־גּ‬
‘(and) Jonah rose and went to Nineveh according to the
word of YHWH. Now Ninevah was a great city to God’
(Jon 3:3)

In addition to communicating background information, the narrator
also avoids using the Past Narrative verb to portray events in an
order other than their occurrence in the narrative.
Thus, in Jonah 1:5, the Perfect verb ‫ יָ ַרד‬indicates that, prior to the
storm being sent and the sailors’ emergency measures, Jonah had
gone down into the ship.

‫ֹלהיו וַ יָּ ִטלוּ ֶאת־‬
ָ ‫ל־א‬
ֱ ‫וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים וַ יִּ זְ ֲעקוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬
‫יהם וְ יוֹנָ ה‬
ֶ ‫ל־היָּ ם ְל ָה ֵקל ֵמ ֲע ֵל‬
ַ ‫ַה ֵכּ ִלים ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּ ֳאנִ יָּ ה ֶא‬
‫יָ ַרד ֶאל־יַ ְר ְכּ ֵתי ַה ְסּ ִפינָ ה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב וַ יֵּ ָר ַדם‬
‘(and) the sailors were afraid and each cried out to his
god, and they cast the vessels that were on the ship into
the sea in order to lighten (the ship) of them. Now Jonah
had gone down into the recesses of the ship and laid
down and fallen asleep.’ (Jon 1:5)

Similarly, in Genesis 2:6, the narrator uses the Imperfect and Modal
Perfect verbs to report events that contribute to the setting (the state
of creation) rather than the main plot line of the narrative, which
begins with God creating man in verse 7.

‫י־ה ֲא ָד ָמה‬
ָ ֵ‫ל־פּנ‬
ְ ‫ת־כּ‬
ָ ‫ן־ה ָא ֶרץ וְ ִה ְשׁ ָקה ֶא‬
ָ ‫וְ ֵאד יַ ֲע ֶלה ִמ‬
‘(and) mist would come up from the earth and would
water the entire surface of the ground’ (Gen 2:6)

Lesson 30

188

Summary:
Discourse material that is presented with the Past Narrative verb is
called foreground material. Foreground events are the most salient
or important for the development of the plot line and very frequently
occur in succession (i.e., this happened, then this happened, etc.).
Discourse material is presented with other predicates (e.g., verbless
clause, Participle, Perfect, Imperfect) is generally background
material. Background material describes the narrative setting or
reports simultaneous or out-of-sequence events relative to the
narrative plot.
30.2 Discourse Topic
In Lesson 29 when we examined Biblical Hebrew word order, we
discussed the fact that the basic word order in Biblical Hebrew is
Subject-Verb.
Clearly, however, Hebrew narrative is typically Verb-Subject
because of the predominant use of the Past Narrative verb. Thus,
when the narrator wants to introduce a new character in the
narrative or signal an important change in which character is doing
the action, the Focus on the character is signaled by the use of
Subject-Verb word order. Consider the following examples:
In Jonah 1:4 the narrator avoids the Past Narrative to introduce an
important new agent into the sequence of events.

‫ל־היָּ ם וַ יְ ִהי ַס ַער־גָּ דוֹל‬
ַ ‫דוֹלה ֶא‬
ָ ְ‫רוּח־גּ‬
ַ ‫וַ יהוָ ה ֵה ִטיל‬
‫ַבּיָּ ם וְ ָה ֳאנִ יָּ ה ִח ְשּׁ ָבה ְל ִה ָשּׁ ֵבר‬
‘(and) YHWH cast a great wind onto the sea and there was
a great storm in the sea (so that) the ship threatened to
break apart’ (Jon 1:4)

‫ יְ הוָ ה‬is not necessarily new to the narrative (it was his word which
came to Jonah in the first place). However, in verse 3 the narrator
focuses entirely on what Jonah does. The use of a non-Past
Narrative verb in verse 4 signals the switch from Jonah as the
primary agent to ‫יְ הוָ ה‬.
In Jonah 1:5 we have a related use of a non-Past Narrative verb.

Lesson 30

189

‫ֹלהיו וַ יָּ ִטלוּ ֶאת־‬
ָ ‫ל־א‬
ֱ ‫וַ יִּ ְיראוּ ַה ַמּ ָלּ ִחים וַ יִּ זְ ֲעקוּ ִאישׁ ֶא‬
‫יהם וְ יוֹנָ ה‬
ֶ ‫ל־היָּ ם ְל ָה ֵקל ֵמ ֲע ֵל‬
ַ ‫ַה ֵכּ ִלים ֲא ֶשׁר ָבּ ֳאנִ יָּ ה ֶא‬
‫יָ ַרד ֶאל־יַ ְר ְכּ ֵתי ַה ְסּ ִפינָ ה וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַכּב וַ יֵּ ָר ַדם‬
‘The sailors were afraid and each cried out to his gods.
They cast the vessels that were on the ship into the sea in
order to lessen (the load) upon them. (However), Jonah
had gone down to the recesses of the ship and laid
down and fallen asleep.’ (Jon 1:5)

As we noted above, in the case of Jonah 1:5, the non-Narrative Past
clause ‫ יוֹנָ ה יָ ַרד‬presents information that both is background
(because the narrator had already informed the audience that Jonah
had gone down into the ship in verse 3) and includes a focused
subject. Jonah is focused in order to contrast Jonah’s actions with
those of the sailors. In the case of narrative, this focus is signalled
by the non-use of the Narrative Past verb.
This means, of course, that Subject-Verb order can represent either a
basic clause, or one with a focused subject. Also, since both
backgrounded material as well as character or topic changes avoid
the use of the Past Narrative verb, it is necessary to identify which is
occurring (i.e., whether the non-Past Narrative clause is signaling
backgrounded material or a character change or both).
This can only be determined based on the context. Keep in mind,
however, that a character change is not necessarily backgrounded
information (see Ruth 4:1). Thus, there is not a one-to-one
correspondence between non-Past Narrative clauses and any
particular discourse function.

Lesson 30

190

Exercises
(Since we have now come to the end of this grammar, and we have been focusing on the book of
Ruth in the exercises of the last five lessons, the exercises for this final lesson presume a
familiarity with the entire book of Ruth.)

1. Translate the following clauses. Identify any non-Past Narrative clauses and
specify their discourse function.

‫י־בנָ יו ַמ ְחלוֹן וְ ִכ ְליוֹן ֶא ְפ ָר ִתים‬
ָ ֵ‫ימ ֶלְך וְ ֵשׁם ִא ְשׁתּוֹ נָ ֳע ִמי וְ ֵשׁם ְשׁנ‬
ֶ ‫ וְ ֵשׁם ָה ִאישׁ ֱא ִל‬Ruth 1:2
‫יוּ־שׁם‬
ָ ‫י־מוֹאב וַ יִּ ְה‬
ָ
‫הוּדה וַ יָּ בֹאוּ ְשׂ ֵד‬
ָ ְ‫ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם י‬

‫ וַ יִּ ְשׂאוּ ָל ֶהם נָ ִשׁים מ ֲֹא ִביּוֹת ֵשׁם ָה ַא ַחת ָע ְר ָפּה וְ ֵשׁם ַה ֵשּׁנִ ית רוּת וַ יֵּ ְשׁבוּ ָשׁם‬Ruth 1:4
‫ְכּ ֶע ֶשׂר ָשׁנִ ים‬

‫וּשׁמוֹ בּ ַֹעז‬
ְ ‫ימ ֶלְך‬
ֶ ‫ישׁהּ ִאישׁ גִּ בּוֹר ַחיִ ל ִמ ִמּ ְשׁ ַפּ ַחת ֱא ִל‬
ָ ‫מוֹדע ְל ִא‬
ַ ‫וּלנָ ֳע ִמי‬
ְ Ruth 2:1

‫אמרוּ לוֹ ָיְב ֶר ְכָך‬
ְ ֹ ‫קּוֹצ ִרים יְ הוָ ה ִע ָמּ ֶכם וַ יּ‬
ְ ‫אמר ַל‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וְ ִהנֵּ ה־ב ַֹעז ָבּא ִמ ֵבּית ֶל ֶחם וַ יּ‬Ruth 2:4
‫יְ הוָ ה‬

‫סוּרה‬
ָ ‫אמר‬
ֶ ֹ ‫ וּב ַֹעז ָע ָלה ַה ַשּׁ ַער וַ יֵּ ֶשׁב ָשׁם וְ ִהנֵּ ה ַהגּ ֵֹאל ע ֵֹבר ֲא ֶשׁר ִדּ ֶבּר־בּ ַֹעז וַ יּ‬Ruth 4:1
‫ְשׁ ָבה־פֹּה ְפֹּלנִ י ַא ְלמֹנִ י וַ יָּ ַסר וַ יֵּ ֵשׁב‬

Appendix A
Noun, Adjective, and Pronoun Paradigms
1a. Noun Inflection (6.1)
Singular

Plural

Dual

Absolute

‫ָדּ ָבר‬

‫ְדּ ָב ִרים‬

‫ְדּ ָב ַ ֫ריִ ם‬

Construct

‫ְדּ ַבר‬

‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬

‫ִדּ ְב ֵרי‬

Absolute

‫ֲא ָד ָמה‬

‫ֲא ָדמוֹת‬

‫ַא ְד ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬

Construct

‫ַא ְד ַמת‬

‫ַא ְדמוֹת‬

‫ַא ְד ָמ ֵתי‬

Masculine

Feminine

1b. Adjective Inflection (6.1)
Singular

Plural

Dual

Absolute

‫ָח ָכם‬

‫ֲח ָכ ִמים‬

‫ֲח ָכ ַ֫מיִ ם‬

Construct

‫ֲח ַכם‬

‫ַח ְכ ֵמי‬

‫ַח ְכ ֵמי‬

Absolute

‫ֲח ָכ ָמה‬

‫ַח ְכ ָמ ַ֫תיִ ם‬

Construct

‫ַח ְכ ַמת‬

‫ֲח ָכמוֹת‬
‫ַח ְכמוֹת‬

Masculine

Feminine

‫ַח ְכ ָמ ֵתי‬

2. Frequent Irregular Nouns (6.2)
Singular Absolute
‘father’ M
‘brother’ M
‘sister’ F
‘man’ M
‘woman’ F
‘house’ M
‘son’ M
‘daughter’ F
‘day’ M
‘city’ F
‘head’ M

‫ָאב‬
‫ָאח‬
‫ָאחוֹת‬
‫ִאישׁ‬
‫ִא ָשּׁה‬
‫ַ֫בּיִ ת‬
‫ֵבּן‬
‫ַבּת‬
‫יוֹם‬
‫ִעיר‬
‫רֹאשׁ‬

Singular Construct

‫ ֲא ִבי‬, ‫ַאב‬
‫ֲא ִחי‬
‫ֲאחוֹת‬
‫ִאישׁ‬
‫ֵ֫א ֶשׁת‬
‫ֵבּית‬
‫ֶבּן‬
‫ַבּת‬
‫יוֹם‬
‫ִעיר‬
‫רֹאשׁ‬

Plural Absolute

‫ָאבוֹת‬
‫ַא ִחים‬
‫ֲא ָחיוֹת‬
‫ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬
‫נָ ִשׁים‬
‫ָבּ ִתּים‬
‫ָבּנִ ים‬
‫ָבּנוֹת‬
‫יָמים‬
ִ
‫ָע ִרים‬
‫אשׁים‬
ִ ‫ָר‬

Plural Construct

‫ֲאבוֹת‬
‫ַא ֵחי‬
‫ַא ְחיוֹת‬
‫ַאנְ ֵשׁי‬
‫נְ ֵשׁי‬
‫ָבּ ֵתּי‬
‫ְבּנֵ י‬
‫ְבּנוֹת‬
‫יְמי‬
ֵ
‫ָע ֵרי‬
‫אשׁי‬
ֵ ‫ָר‬

Appendix A

192

3. Personal Pronouns (10.1)

‫הוּא‬
‫ִהיא‬
‫ַא ָתּה‬
‫ַא ְתּ‬
‫ ָאנ ִֹכי‬/ ‫ֲאנִ י‬

3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS

‘he’

3MP

‘she’

3FP

‘you’

2MP

‘you’

2FP

‘I’

1CP

‫ֵהם‬
‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬/ ‫ֵהן‬
‫ַא ֶתּם‬
‫ַא ֶתּן‬
‫ֲאנָ ְחנוּ‬

‘they’
‘they’
‘you’
‘you’
‘we’

4. Demonstrative Pronouns (9.2)
Near

Far

M

this

F

this

‫זֶ ה‬
‫זֹאת‬

M

that

F

that

F

} these

‫הוּא‬

M

those

‫ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬

‫ִהיא‬

F

those

‫ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬

M

‫ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬

Appendix A

193

5a. Suffixed Pronouns on Nouns
Added to Masculine Singular Added to Feminine Singular

3MS

ֹ‫ו‬

3FS

‫ָהּ‬

2MS ‫ְ ָך‬
2FS

‫ֵ ְך‬

1CS

‫ִי‬

3MP ‫ָ ם‬
3FP

‫ָן‬

2MP ‫ְ ֶכם‬
2F

‫ְ ֶכן‬

1CP ‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬

‫‘ ְדּ ָברוֹ‬his word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרהּ‬her word’
ֽ ָ ‫‘ ְדּ‬your word’
→ ‫ב ְרָך‬
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵרְך‬your word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ִרי‬my word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרם‬their word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָרן‬their word’
→‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכם‬your word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ַב ְר ֶכן‬your word’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ֫רנוּ‬our word’

‫תּוֹרתוֹ‬
ָ ‘his law’
ָ ‘her law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ָתהּ‬
ֽ ָ ‘your law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ְתָך‬
ָ ‘your law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ֵתְך‬
ָ ‘my law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ִתי‬
ָ ‘their law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ָתם‬
ָ ‘their law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ָתן‬
ַ ‘your law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכם‬
ַ ‘your law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ְת ֶכן‬
ָ ‘our law’
→ ‫תּוֹר ֵ֫תנוּ‬

Added to Masculine Plural

3MS

‫ָ יו‬

3FS

‫יה‬
ָ ֶ֫

‫‘ ְדּ ָב ָריו‬his words’
ָ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ֫ר‬her words’
→ ‫יה‬
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֶ֫ריָך‬your words’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַ֫ריִ ְך‬your words’
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ַרי‬my words’
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’
→ ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬their words’
→ ‫יהן‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’
→ ‫יכם‬
ֶ ‫‘ ִדּ ְב ֵר‬your words’
→ ‫יכם‬
→ ‫‘ ְדּ ָב ֵ֫רינוּ‬our words’

2MS ‫ֶ֫ יָך‬
2FS

‫ַ֫ יִ ְך‬

1CS

‫ַי‬

3MP ‫יהם‬
ֶ ֵ
3FP ‫יהן‬
ֶ ֵ
2MP ‫יכם‬
ֶ ֵ
2FP ‫יכן‬
ֶ ֵ
1CP ‫ֵ֫ ינוּ‬

Added to Feminine Plural

‫תּוֹרוֹתיו‬
ָ
‘his laws’
ָ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֶ֫
‘her laws’
→ ‫יה‬
ֶ֫
‘your laws’
→ ‫תּוֹרוֹתיָך‬
ַ֫
‘your laws’
→ ‫תּוֹרוֹתיְך‬
‫תּוֹרוֹתי‬
ַ
‘my laws’

ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘their laws’
→ ‫יהם‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘their laws’
→ ‫יהן‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ
‘your laws’
→ ‫יכם‬
ֶ ‫תּוֹרוֹת‬
ֵ֫
‘your laws’
→ ‫יכן‬
ֵ֫
‘our laws’
→ ‫תּוֹרוֹתינוּ‬

5b. Suffixed Pronouns on Prepositions ‫ל‬, ‫ ְכּ‬/‫ ָכּ‬/‫ ָכּמוֹ‬and ‫ ִמן‬and the Direct Object Marker -‫את‬/‫אוֹת‬
ֶ
.
3MS

ֹ‫ו‬

3FS

‫ָהּ‬

2MS

‫ְ ָך‬

2FS

‫ָ ְך‬

1CS

‫ִי‬

3MP ‫ ָ ם‬/‫ָ ֶהם‬

3FP

‫ָ ֶהן‬

2MP

‫ָ ֶכם‬

2FP

‫ָ ֶכן‬

1CP

‫ָ֫ נוּ‬

‫‘ לוֹ‬for him’
‫‘ ָלהּ‬for her’
‫‘ ְלָך‬for you’
‫‘ ָלְך‬for you’
‫‘ ִלי‬for me’
‫‘ ָל ֶהם‬for them’
‫‘ ָל ֶהן‬for them’
‫‘ ָל ֶכם‬for you’
‫‘ ָל ֶכן‬for you’
‫‘ ֫לנוּ‬for us’










‫‘ ָכּ ֫מֹהוּ‬like him’
‫וֹה‬
ָ ‫‘ ָכּ ֫מ‬like her’
‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוָֹך‬like you’
‫‘ ָכּמוְֹך‬like you’
‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוֹנִ י‬like me’
‫‘ ָכּ ֶהם‬like them’
‫‘ ָכּ ֵהן‬like them’
‫‘ ָכּ ֶכם‬like you’
‫‘ ָכּ ֶכן‬like you’
‫‘ ָכּ ֫מוֹנוּ‬like us’










‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬from him’
‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנָ ה‬from her’
‫‘ ִמ ְמָּך‬from you’
‫‘ ִמ ֵמְּך‬from you’
‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנִ י‬from me’
‫‘ ֵמ ֶהם‬from them’
‫‘ ֵמ ֶהן‬from them’
‫‘ ִמ ֶכּם‬from you’
‫‘ ִמ ֶכּן‬from you’
‫‘ ִמ ֶ֫מּנּוּ‬from us’










‫‘ אוֹתוֹ‬him’
‫אוֹתהּ‬
ָ
‘her’
‫אוֹתָך‬
ְ
‘you’
‫אוֹתְך‬
ָ
‘you’
‫אוֹתי‬
ִ
‘me’
‫אוֹתם‬
ָ
‘them’
‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶהן‬them’
‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכם‬you’
‫‘ ֶא ְת ֶכן‬you’
‫אוֹתנוּ‬
ָ֫
‘us’

‫‪Appendix B‬‬
‫‪Strong Verb Paradigms‬‬
‫)‪ ‘attend to’ (4.3, 5.2, 8.1-2, 10.2, 11.1-2, 12.1-3, 13.1, 14.1-2, 15.2-6‬פּקד ‪1.‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫ִה ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ִה ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬
‫ֻפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ֻפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ֻפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ֻפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬

‫ִפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ִפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ִפּ ַקּ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ִפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנוּ‬

‫נִ ְפ ַקד‬
‫נִ ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫נִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫נִ ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫נִ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬

‫ָפּ ַקד‬
‫ָפּ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ְפּ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬

‫יָ ְפ ַקד‬

‫יַ ְפ ִקיד‬

‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יִ ְפקֹד‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫ָתּ ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬
‫ָא ְפ ַקד‬
‫יָ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נָ ְפ ַקד‬

‫ַתּ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬
‫ַא ְפ ִקיד‬
‫יַ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ְפ ִקיד‬

‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫יִ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ְתּ ֻפ ַקּד‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֲא ֻפ ַקּד‬
‫יְ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֻפ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫ְתּ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּ ִדי‬
‫ֲא ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫יְ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ְקּדוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַפ ֵ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫ִתּ ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ְק ִדי‬
‫ֶא ָפּ ֵקד‬
‫יִ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ָפּ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִת ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫ִתּ ְפקֹד‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬

‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬
‫ָה ְפ ְק ָדה‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָה ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ְפ ַק ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָה ְפ ַ ֫ק ְדנוּ‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫ִתּ ְפ ְק ִדי‬
‫ֶא ְפקֹד‬
‫יִ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ְקדוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְפ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְפקֹד‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪PERF‬‬

‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms‬‬

‫‪195‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫וַ יָּ ְפ ַקד‬

‫וַ יַּ ְפ ֵקד‬

‫וַ יִּ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫וַ יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫וַ יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫וַ יִּ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יָ ְפ ַקד‬

‫יַ ְפ ֵקד‬

‫יִ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫יְ ֻפ ַקּד‬

‫יְ ַפ ֵקּד‬

‫יִ ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫יִ ְפקֹד‬

‫ַא ְפ ִ֫ק ָידה‬

‫ֶא ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֲא ֻפ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֲא ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬

‫ֶא ָפּ ְק ָדה‬

‫ֶא ְפ ְק ָדה‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫ְפּקֹד‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ַה ְפ ִ֫ק ִידי‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬

‫ַפּ ְקּ ִדי‬

‫ִה ָפּ ְק ִדי‬

‫ִפּ ְק ִדי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ַה ְפ ִ֫קידוּ‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬

‫ַפּ ְקּדוּ‬

‫ִה ָפּ ְקדוּ‬

‫ִפּ ְקדוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ַה ְפ ֵ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬

‫ַפּ ַ ֫קּ ְדנָ ה‬

‫ִה ָפּ ַ ֫ק ְדנָ ה‬

‫ְפּ ֫ק ְֹדנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ָה ְפ ַקד‬

‫ַה ְפ ִקיד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ִה ָפּ ֵקד‬

‫ְפּקֹד‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬

‫ָה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ַה ְפ ֵקד‬

‫ִה ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ֻפּ ַקּד‬

‫ַפּ ֵקּד‬

‫ָמ ְפ ָקד‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫ָמ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫ָמ ְפ ָקדוֹת‬

‫ַמ ְפ ִקיד‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ָידה‬
‫ַמ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִק ִידים‬
‫ַמ ְפ ִקידוֹת‬

‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֵקּד‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ִמ ְת ַפּ ְקּדוֹת‬

‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּד‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ֻפ ָקּדוֹת‬

‫ְמ ַפ ֵקּד‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ָדה‬
‫ְמ ַפ ֶ ֫קּ ֶדת‬
‫ְמ ַפ ְקּ ִדים‬
‫ְמ ַפ ַקּדוֹת‬

‫נִ ְפקֹד‬
‫ִה ָפּקֹד‬
‫נִ ְפ ָקד‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ָדה‬
‫נִ ְפ ֶ ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫נִ ְפ ָק ִדים‬
‫נִ ְפ ָקדוִ ת‬

‫ָפּקוֹד‬

‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫וַ יִּ ְפקֹד‬

‫‪3MS‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫פּ ֵֹקד‬
‫פּ ְֹק ָדה‬
‫פּ ֶ ֹ֫ק ֶדת‬
‫פּ ְֹק ִדים‬
‫פּ ְֹקדוֹת‬

‫‪PAST‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms

196

2. Object Pronouns Suffixed to Verbs (18.2)
FOLLOWING
VOWEL
3MS
3FS
2MS
2FS
1CS
3MP
3FP
2MP
2FP
1CP

‫הוּ‬- / ‫ו‬‫ה‬ָ
‫ָך‬‫ְך‬‫נִ י‬‫ם‬‫ן‬‫כם‬ֶ
‫כן‬ֶ
‫נוּ‬-

FOLLOWING CONSONANT
SUFFIX VERB
PREFIX VERB

ֹ‫ו‬
‫ָהּ‬
‫ְ ָך‬
‫ ְֶך‬/ ‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ַ֫ נִ י‬
‫ָם‬
‫ָן‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ָ֫ נוּ‬

‫ֵ֫ הוּ‬
‫ֶ֫ ָה‬
‫ְ ָך‬
‫ֵ ְך‬
‫ֵ֫ נִ י‬
‫ֵם‬
‫ֵן‬
‫ְ ֶכם‬
‫ְ ֶכן‬
‫ֵ֫ נוּ‬

WITH
ENERGIC NUN

‫נְ הוּ ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬
‫נְ ָה* ← ֶ֫ נָּ ה‬
ָ‫נְ ָך* ← ֶ֫ ךּ‬
‫נְ נִ י* ← ֶ֫ נִּ י‬

‫נְ נוּ* ← ֶ֫ נּוּ‬

Note: Suffix Pattern (Perfect) verbs have an a-class linking vowel (i.e., the vowel
between the verb form and the suffixed pronoun). Prefix Pattern
(Imperfect, Past Narrative, and Imperative) have an i-class linking vowel.

Appendix B: Strong Verb Paradigms

197

‫‪Appendix C‬‬
‫‪Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬
‫)‪ָ ‘stand’ (17.2‬ע ַמד ‪1. I-Guttural Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָה ָע ְמ ָדה‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָה ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָה ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫ֶה ֱע ִמיד‬
‫ֶה ֱע ִ֫מ ָידה‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ֶה ֱע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ֶה ֱע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָתּ ָע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ָא ֳע ַמד‬
‫יָ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ָתּ ֳע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נָ ֳע ַמד‬

‫יַ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִ֫מ ִידי‬
‫ֲא ֲע ִמיד‬
‫יַ ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ֲע ִמיד‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪R‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪G‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫נֶ ֱע ַמד‬
‫נֶ ֶע ְמ ָדה‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַ֫מ ְד ָתּ‬
‫נֶ ֳע ַמ ְד ְתּ‬
‫נֶ ֳע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫נֶ ֶע ְמדוּ‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫נֶ ֱע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫)‪QAL (STATIVE‬‬

‫ָחזֵ ק‬
‫ָחזְ ָקה‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְק ָתּ‬
‫ָחזַ ְק ְתּ‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְק ִתּי‬
‫ָחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֲחזַ ְק ֶתּם‬
‫ֲחזַ ְק ֶתּן‬
‫ָח ַ֫ז ְקנוּ‬

‫)‪QAL (DYNAMIC‬‬

‫ָע ַמד‬
‫ָע ְמ ָדה‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָע ַמ ְד ְתּ‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְד ִתּי‬
‫ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֲע ַמ ְד ֶתּם‬
‫ְע ַמ ְד ֶתּן‬
‫ָע ַ֫מ ְדנוּ‬

‫‪I-Guttural‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪U‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ֵא ָע ֵמד‬
‫יֵ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ַמ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ְמדוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ָע ַמ ְדנָ ה‬
‫נֵ ָע ֵמד‬

‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫ֶתּ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫ֶתּ ֶחזְ ִקי‬
‫ֶא ֱחזַ ק‬
‫יֶ ֶחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֶתּ ֱח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬
‫ֶתּ ֱחזְ קוּ‬
‫ֶתּ ֱח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬
‫נֶ ֱחזַ ק‬

‫יַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ַתּ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ַתּ ַע ְמ ִדי‬
‫ֶא ֱעמֹד‬
‫יַ ַע ְמדוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ְמדוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬
‫נַ ֲעמֹד‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪199‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫וַ יָּ ֳע ַמד‬
‫יָ ֳע ַמד‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫וַ יַּ ֲע ֵמד‬
‫יַ ֲע ֵמד‬
‫ַא ֲע ִמ ָידה‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪R‬‬
‫‪E‬‬

‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬
‫ַה ֲע ִ֫מ ִידי‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫ַה ֲע ִ֫מידוּ‬
‫ַה ֲע ֵ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬
‫ָה ֳע ַמד‬
‫ָה ֳע ֵמד‬

‫ָה ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַה ֲע ֵמד‬

‫ָמ ֳע ָמד‬
‫ָמ ֳע ָמ ָדה‬
‫ָמ ֳע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬

‫ַמ ֲע ִמיד‬
‫ַמ ֲע ִמ ָידה‬
‫ַמ ֲע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬

‫ָמ ֳע ָמ ִדים‬
‫ָמ ֳע ָמדוֹת‬

‫ַמ ֲע ִמ ִידים‬
‫ַמ ֲע ִמידוֹת‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL (STATIVE‬‬

‫)‪QAL (DYNAMIC‬‬

‫וַ יֵּ ָע ֵמד‬
‫יֵ ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵא ָע ְמ ָדה‬

‫וַ יֶּ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫יֶ ֱחזַ ק‬
‫ֶא ֶחזְ ָקה‬

‫וַ יַּ ֲעמֹד‬
‫יַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫ֶא ֶע ְמ ָדה‬

‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬

‫ֲחזַ ק‬

‫ֲעמֹד‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ֵה ָע ְמ ִדי‬

‫ִחזְ ִקי‬

‫ִע ְמ ִדי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ֵה ָע ְמדוּ‬

‫ִחזְ קוּ‬

‫ִע ְמדוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ֵה ָע ַ֫מ ְדנָ ה‬

‫ֲח ַ֫ז ְקנָ ה‬

‫ֲע ֫מ ְֹדנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ֵה ָע ֵמד‬
‫ֵה ָעמֹד‬
‫נַ ֲעמֹד‬
‫נֶ ֱע ָמד‬
‫נֶ ֱע ָמ ָדה‬
‫נֶ ֱע ֶ֫מ ֶדת‬

‫ֲחזַ ק‬
‫ָחזוֹק‬

‫ֲעמֹד‬
‫ָעמוֹד‬

‫ָחזֵ ק‬
‫ֲחזֵ ָקה‬

‫ע ֵֹמד‬
‫ע ְֹמ ָדה‬
‫ע ֶֹ֫מ ֶדת‬

‫ֲחזֵ ִקים‬
‫ֲחזֵ קוֹת‬

‫ע ְֹמ ִדים‬
‫ע ְֹמדוֹת‬

‫נֶ ֱע ָמ ִדים‬
‫נֶ ֱע ָמדוֹת‬

‫‪I-Guttural‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪200‬‬

‫)‪ ‘bless’ (17.3‬בּרְך ‪ָ ‘slaughter’ and‬שׁ ַחט ‪2. II-Guttural Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫בּ ַֹרְך‬

‫ֵבּ ַרְך‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬

‫בּ ְֹר ָכה‬

‫ֵבּ ְר ָכה‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ֲח ָטה‬

‫ָשׁ ַחט‬
‫ָשׁ ֲח ָטה‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵר ְכ ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנוּ‬

‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬
‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ְתּ‬
‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬
‫בּ ְֹרכוּ‬
‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ֶתּם‬
‫בּ ַֹר ְכ ֶתּן‬
‫בּ ַֹ֫ר ְכנוּ‬

‫ֵבּ ַ֫ר ְכ ָתּ‬
‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ְתּ‬
‫ֵבּ ַ ֫ר ְכ ִתּי‬
‫ֵבּ ְרכוּ‬
‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ֶתּם‬
‫ֵבּ ַר ְכ ֶתּן‬
‫ֵבּ ַ֫ר ְכנוּ‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ָתּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ְתּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ִתּי‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּם‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּן‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנוּ‬

‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ָתּ‬
‫ָשׁ ַח ְט ְתּ‬
‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְט ִתּי‬
‫ָשׁ ֲחטוּ‬
‫ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּם‬
‫ְשׁ ַח ְט ֶתּן‬
‫ָשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנוּ‬

‫‪II‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬
‫ֶא ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬
‫ְתּ ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬

‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬
‫ְתּב ַֹרְך‬
‫ְתּב ְֹר ִכי‬
‫ֲאב ַֹרְך‬
‫יְ ב ְֹרכוּ‬
‫ְתּב ַֹ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬
‫ְתּב ְֹרכוּ‬

‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬
‫ְתּ ָב ֵרְך‬
‫ְתּ ָב ֲר ִכי‬
‫ֲא ָב ֵרְך‬
‫ָיְב ֲרכוּ‬
‫ְתּ ָב ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ָב ֲרכוּ‬

‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֲח ִטי‬
‫ֶא ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬

‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֲח ִטי‬
‫ֶא ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֲחטוּ‬

‫ְתּ ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬

‫ְתּב ַֹ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬

‫ְתּ ָב ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬

‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬

‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬

‫‪2FP‬‬

‫נִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫נְ ב ַֹרְך‬

‫נְ ָב ֵרְך‬

‫נִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ַחט‬

‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪201‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫וַ יִּ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫יִ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ֶא ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬
‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪U‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫וַ יְ ָ֫ב ֶרְך‬
‫ָיְב ֵרְך‬
‫ֲא ָב ֲר ָכה‬
‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ֵחט‬
‫ֶא ָשּׁ ֲח ָטה‬
‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬

‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַחט‬
‫ֶא ְשׁ ֲח ָטה‬
‫ְשׁ ַחט‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬

‫ָבּ ֲר ִכי‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ֲח ִטי‬

‫ַשׁ ֲח ִטי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬

‫ָבּ ֲרכוּ‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ֲחטוּ‬

‫ַשׁ ֲחטוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬

‫ָבּ ֵ ֫ר ְכנָ ה‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬

‫ְשׁ ַ֫ח ְטנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ֵחט‬

‫ְשׁחֹט‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫ִה ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬

‫ָבּר ְֹך ‪ָ ,‬בּ ֵרְך‬

‫נִ ְשׁחֹט‬

‫ָשׁחוֹט‬

‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫‪A‬‬

‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֵרְך‬
‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲר ָכה‬
‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֶ֫ר ֶכת‬

‫ְמ ָב ֵרְך‬
‫ְמ ָב ֲר ָכה‬
‫ְמ ָב ֶ֫ר ֶכת‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ָחט‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ָח ָטה‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֶ֫ח ֶטת‬

‫ַשׁ ֵחט‬
‫שׁ ֲֹח ָטה‬
‫שׁ ֶֹ֫ח ֶטת‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫ְמ ָב ֲר ִכים‬
‫ְמ ָב ֲרכוֹת‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ָח ִטים‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ָחטוֹת‬

‫שׁ ֲֹח ִטים‬
‫שׁ ֲֹחטוֹת‬

‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲר ִכים‬
‫ִמ ְת ָבּ ֲרכוֹת‬

‫וַ יְ ב ַֹרְך‬
‫יְ ב ַֹרְך‬
‫ֲאב ֲֹר ָכה‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪II‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫ְמב ָֹרְך‬
‫ְמב ָֹר ָכה‬
‫ְמב ֶֹ֫ר ֶכת‬
‫ְמב ָֹר ִכים‬
‫ְמב ָֹרכוֹת‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪202‬‬

‫)‪ָ ‘send’ (17.4‬שׁ ַלח ‪3. III-Guttural Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫ָה ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ְל ָהה‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ְתּ‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ָה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬

‫יח‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ִל ַ‬
‫יחה‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ִל ָ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ַחה‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ִתּי‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬

‫ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ֻשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ֻשּׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬
‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬
‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ִתּי‬
‫ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ֻשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ֻשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬

‫ִשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ִשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ָתּ‬
‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַח ְתּ‬
‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְח ִתּי‬
‫ִשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ִשׁ ַלּ ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ִשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנוּ‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ִתּי‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬

‫ָשׁ ַלח‬
‫ָשׁ ְל ָחה‬
‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְח ָתּ‬
‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ַח ְתּ‬
‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְה ִתּי‬
‫ָשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּם‬
‫ְשׁ ַל ְח ֶתּן‬
‫ָשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנוּ‬

‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ָתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ָתּ ְשׁ ְל ִחי‬
‫ָא ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יָ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ָתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ָתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫נָ ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫יח‬
‫יַ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬
‫יח‬
‫ַתּ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬
‫יחי‬
‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ִל ִ‬
‫יח‬
‫ַא ְשׁ ִל ַ‬
‫יַ ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬
‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬
‫ַתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫יח‬
‫נַ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬

‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחי‬
‫ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬
‫ֲא ֻשׂ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫נָ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬

‫יְ ְשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬
‫ֲא ַשׁ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬
‫נְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬

‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלה‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫שּׁל ִחי‬
‫ִתּ ְ‬
‫ֶא ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫שּׁלחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְ‬
‫ִתּ ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫נִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬

‫יִ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְל ִחי‬
‫‪ֶ ,‬א ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ְלחוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫‪III‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪203‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫וַ יָּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יָ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫ָא ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬

‫ָה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬
‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלח‬
‫ָמ ְשׁ ָל ָחה‬
‫ָמ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬
‫ָמ ְשׁ ָל ִחים‬
‫ָמ ְשׁ ָלחוֹת‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫וַ יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ֻשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ֲא ֻשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪III‬‬‫‪Guttural‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫וַ יַּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יַ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יחה‬
‫ַא ְשׁ ִל ָ‬
‫ַה ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫יִ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ֶא ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫יחי‬
‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ִל ִ‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחי‬

‫ַשׁ ְלּ ִחי‬

‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ִליחוּ‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוּ‬

‫ַשׁ ְלּחוּ‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ְלחוּ‬

‫ַה ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬

‫ַשּׁ ֫ ַלּ ְחנָ ה‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬

‫ְשׁ ֫ ַל ְחנָ ה‬

‫יח‬
‫ַה ְשׁ ִל ַ‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬

‫ֹלח‬
‫ְשׁ ַ‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬

‫ַה ְשׁ ֵל ַח‬
‫יח‬
‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ַ‬
‫יחה‬
‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ָ‬
‫ַמ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬
‫יחים‬
‫ַמ ְשׁ ִל ִ‬
‫ַמ ְשׁ ִליחוֹת‬

‫ִה ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬

‫ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬

‫נִ ְשֹׁלח‬

‫לוֹח‬
‫ָשׁ ַ‬

‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫ְמ ַשׁ ֵלּ ַח‬
‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ְמ ַשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ָלח‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ָל ָחה‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ֫ ַל ַחת‬

‫שׁ ֵֹל ַח‬
‫שׁ ְֹל ָחה‬
‫שׁ ֫ ַֹל ַחת‬

‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּ ִחים‬
‫ְמ ַשׁ ְלּחוֹת‬

‫נִ ְשׁ ָל ִחים‬
‫נִ ְשׁ ָלחוֹת‬

‫שׁ ְֹל ִחים‬
‫שׁ ְֹלחוֹת‬

‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ַלּח‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּ ִחים‬
‫ִמ ְשׁ ַתּ ְלּחוֹת‬

‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּח‬
‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּ ָחה‬
‫ְמ ֻשׁ ֫ ַלּ ַחת‬
‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּ ִחים‬
‫ְמ ֻשׁ ָלּחוֹת‬

‫וַ יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬
‫יְ ַשׁ ַלּח‬
‫ֲא ַשׁ ְלּ ָחה‬
‫ַשׁ ַלּח‬

‫וַ יִּ ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ָשּׁ ַלח‬
‫ֶא ָשּׁ ְל ָחה‬
‫ִה ָשּׁ ַלח‬

‫וַ יִּ ְשׁ ַלח‬
‫יִ ַשׁ ַלח‬
‫ֶא ְשׁ ְל ָחה‬
‫ְשׁ ַלח‬

‫ִה ָשּׁ ְל ִחי‬

‫ִשׁ ְל ִחי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ִשׁ ְלחוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬
‫‪FP‬‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪204‬‬

‫)‪ָ ‘bake’) (19.1‬א ָפה ‪ָ ‘eat’, and‬א ַכל ‪ָ ‘be willing’,‬א ָבה ’‪ָ ‘perish‬א ַבד ‪ָ ‘say’ (also‬א ַמר ‪4a. I-Alef Verb:‬‬
‫‪*These five roots behave differently only in the Qal Imperfect and‬‬
‫‪Past Narrative; all other conjugations are as I-Guttural verbs.‬‬

‫‪PAST‬‬

‫אמר‬
‫וַ ֫יּ ֹ ֶ‬

‫‪IMPF 1CS‬‬

‫א ַֹמר‬

‫‪IMPF 3MS‬‬

‫אמר‬
‫יֹ ַ‬

‫‪I-Alef‬‬
‫‪QAL‬‬

‫)‪ָ ‘find’ (19.2‬מ ָצא ‪4b. III-Alef Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬
‫ֻה ְמ ְצ ָאה‬
‫את‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵצאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬
‫ֻה ְמ ְצאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫ֻה ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬

‫ִה ְמ ִציא‬
‫יאה‬
‫ִה ְמ ִ֫צ ָ‬
‫את‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬
‫ִה ְמ ִ֫צאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫ִה ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬
‫את‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬

‫ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫ֻמ ְצּ ָאה‬
‫את‬
‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬
‫ֻמ ֵצּאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬
‫ֻמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ֻמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ֻמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫ֻמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬

‫ִמ ֵצּא‬
‫צּאה‬
‫ִמ ָ‬
‫את‬
‫ִמ ֵ֫צּ ָ‬
‫ִמ ֵצּאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫ִמ ֵ֫צּ ִ‬
‫ִמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ִמ ֵצּ ֶ‬
‫ִמ ֵ֫צּאנוּ‬

‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬
‫נִ ְמ ְצ ָאה‬
‫את‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צ ָ‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬
‫אתי‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צ ִ‬
‫נִ ְמ ְצאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵצ ֶ‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵ֫צאנוּ‬

‫ָמ ָצא‬
‫ָמ ְצ ָאה‬
‫את‬
‫ָמ ָ֫צ ָ‬
‫ָמ ָצאתּ‬
‫אתי‬
‫ָמ ָ֫צ ִ‬
‫ָמ ְצאוּ‬
‫אתם‬
‫ְמ ָצ ֶ‬
‫אתן‬
‫ְמ ָצ ֶ‬
‫ָמ ָ֫צאנוּ‬

‫יֻמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫ֻתּ ְמ ָצא‬
‫ֻתּ ְמ ְצ ִאי‬
‫ֻא ְמ ָצא‬
‫יֻמ ְצאוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫ֻתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬
‫ֻתּ ְמ ְצאוּ‬
‫נֻ ְמ ָצא‬

‫יַמ ִציא‬
‫ְ‬
‫ַתּ ְמ ִציא‬
‫יאי‬
‫ַתּ ְמ ִ֫צ ִ‬
‫ַא ְמ ִציא‬
‫יַמ ִ֫ציאוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫ַתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ְמ ִ֫ציאוּ‬
‫נַ ְמ ִציא‬

‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬
‫ֶא ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫יִ ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫נִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫יְמ ָצּא‬
‫ֻ‬
‫ְתּ ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫ְתּ ֻמ ְצּ ִאי‬
‫ֲא ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫יְמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫ֻ‬
‫ְתּ ֻמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֻמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫נְ ֻמ ָצּא‬

‫יְמ ֵצּא‬
‫ַ‬
‫ְתּ ַמּ ֵצּא‬
‫ְתּ ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬
‫ֲא ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫יְמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫ְתּ ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַמ ְצּאוּ‬
‫נְ ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫יִמּ ֵצא‬
‫ָ‬
‫ִתּ ָמּ ֵצא‬
‫ִתּ ָמּ ְצ ִאי‬
‫ֶא ָמּ ֵצא‬
‫יִמּ ְצאוּ‬
‫ָ‬
‫ִתּ ָמּ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ָמּ ְצאוּ‬
‫נִ ָמּ ֵצא‬

‫יִמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫ִתּ ְמ ָצא‬
‫ִתּ ְמ ְצ ִאי‬
‫ֶא ְמ ָצא‬
‫יִמ ְצאוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫ִתּ ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְמ ְצאוּ‬
‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬

‫‪III-Alef‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP/2FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪205‬‬

‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫וַ יֻּ ְמ ָצא‬
‫יֻמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫וַ יַּ ְמ ֵצא‬
‫יַמ ֵצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫יאה‬
‫ַא ְמ ִצ ָ‬

‫וַ יִּ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫יִ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ֶא ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫וַ יְ ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫יְמ ָצּא‬
‫ֻ‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪III-ALEF‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫וַ יְ ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫יְמ ֵצּא‬
‫ַ‬
‫ֲא ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬

‫וַ יִּ ָמּ ֵצא‬
‫יִמּ ֵצא‬
‫ָ‬
‫ִא ָמּ ְצ ָאה‬

‫וַ יִּ ְמ ָצא‬
‫יִמ ָצא‬
‫ְ‬
‫ֶא ְמ ְצ ָאה‬

‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬

‫ְמ ָצא‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫יאי‬
‫ַה ְמ ִצ ִ‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬

‫ַמ ְצּ ִאי‬

‫ִה ָמּ ְצ ִאי‬

‫ִמ ְצ ִאי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ַה ְמ ִציאוּ‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ְצּאוּ‬

‫ַמ ְצּאוּ‬

‫ִה ָמּ ְצאוּ‬

‫ִמ ְצאוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ַה ְמ ֶ֫צאנָ ה‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬

‫ַמ ֶ֫צּאנָ ה‬

‫ִה ָמּ ֵ֫צאנָ ה‬

‫ְמ ֫צ ֶאנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ֻה ְמ ָצא‬

‫ַה ְמ ִציא‬
‫ַה ְמ ֵצא‬

‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִה ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬

‫ֻמ ָצּא‬

‫ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ַמצֹּא‬

‫ִה ָמּ ֵצא‬
‫נִ ְמצֹא‬

‫ְמצֹא‬
‫ָמצוֹא‬

‫ֻמ ְמ ָצא‬
‫ֻמ ְמ ָצ ָאה‬
‫ֻמ ְמ ֵצאת‬

‫ַמ ְמ ִציא‬
‫יאה‬
‫ַמ ְמ ִצ ָ‬
‫ַמ ְמ ֵצאת‬

‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬
‫ִמ ְת ַמ ֵצּאת‬

‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּא‬
‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּ ָאה‬
‫ְמ ֻמ ֵצּאת‬

‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּא‬
‫ְמ ַמ ְצּ ָאה‬
‫ְמ ַמ ֵצּאת‬

‫נִ ְמ ָצא‬
‫נִ ְמ ָצ ָאה‬
‫נִ ְמ ֵצאת‬

‫מ ֵֹצא‬
‫מ ְֹצ ָאה‬
‫מ ֵֹצאת‬

‫ֻמ ְמ ָצ ִאים‬
‫ֻמ ְמ ָצאוֹת‬

‫יאים‬
‫ַמ ְמ ִצ ִ‬
‫ַמ ְמ ִציאוֹת‬

‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּ ִאים‬
‫ִמ ְת ַמ ְצּאוֹת‬

‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּ ִאים‬
‫ְמ ֻמ ָצּאוֹת‬

‫ְמ ַמ ְצּ ִאים‬
‫ְמ ַמ ְצּאוֹת‬

‫נִ ְמ ָצ ִאים‬
‫נִ ְמ ָצאוֹת‬

‫מ ְֹצ ִאים‬
‫מ ְֹצאוֹת‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬
‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪206‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬
‫)‪ ‘draw near’ (20.1‬נָ גַ שׁ ‪ ‘fall’,‬נָ ַפל ‪5. I-Nun Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬
‫ֻהגְּ ָשׁה‬
‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬
‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬
‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ִתּי‬
‫ֻהגְּ שׁוּ‬
‫ֻהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬
‫ֻהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬
‫ֻה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬

‫ִהגִּ ישׁ‬
‫ישׁה‬
‫ִה ֫ ִגּ ָ‬
‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬
‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ְתּ‬
‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ִתּי‬
‫ִה ֫גּישׁוּ‬
‫ִהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬
‫ִהגַּ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬
‫ִה ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬

‫יֻ גַּ שׁ‬
‫ֻתּגַּ שׁ‬
‫ֻתּגְּ ִשׁי‬
‫ֻאגַּ שׁ‬
‫יֻ גְּ שׁוּ‬
‫ֻתּגַּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ֻתּגְּ שׁוּ‬
‫ֻתּגַּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫נֻ גַּ שׁ‬

‫יַ גִּ ישׁ‬
‫ַתּגִּ ישׁ‬
‫ישׁי‬
‫ַתּ ֫ ִגּ ִ‬
‫ַאגִּ ישׁ‬
‫יַ ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ַתּ ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬
‫ַתּ ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫נַ גִּ ישׁ‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪R‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪G‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫נִ גְּ ָשׁה‬
‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁ ָתּ‬
‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׂ ְתּ‬
‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׂ ִתּי‬
‫נִ גְּ שׁוּ‬
‫נִ גַּ ְשׂ ֶתּם‬
‫נִ גַּ ְשׂ ֶתּן‬
‫נִ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנוּ‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫נָ גַ שׁ‬
‫נָ גְ ָשׁה‬
‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ָתּ‬
‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ְתּ‬
‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁ ִתּי‬
‫נָ גְ שׁוּ‬
‫נְ גַ ְשׁ ֶתּם‬
‫נְ גַ ְשׁ ֶתּן‬
‫נָ ֫ ַג ְשׁנוּ‬

‫נָ ַפל‬
‫נָ ְפ ָלה‬
‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְל ָתּ‬
‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְל ְתּ‬
‫נָ ַפ ְל ִתּי‬
‫נָ ְפלוּ‬
‫נְ ַפ ְל ֶתּם‬
‫נְ ַפ ְל ֶתּן‬
‫נָ ֫ ַפ ְלנוּ‬

‫‪I-NUN‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪PERF‬‬

‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪U‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ִתּנָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ִתּנָּ גְ ִשׁי‬
‫ֶאנָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫יִ נָּ גְ שׁוּ‬
‫ִתּנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ִתּנָּ גְ שׁוּ‬
‫ִתּנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫נִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫יִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫ִתּגַּ שׁ‬
‫ִתּגְּ ִשׁי‬
‫ֶאגַּ שׁ‬
‫יִ גְּ שׁוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ִתּגְּ שׁוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫נִ גַּ שׁ‬

‫יִ פֹּל‬
‫ִתּפֹּל‬
‫ִתּ ְפּ ִלי‬
‫ֶאפֹּל‬
‫יִ ְפּלוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫פּ ְֹלנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְפּלוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫פּ ְֹלנָ ה‬
‫נִ פֹּל‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪207‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫וַ יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬
‫יֻּ גַּ שׁ‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫וַ יַּ גֵּ שׁ‬
‫יַ גֵּ שׁ‬
‫ישׁה‬
‫ַא ֫ ִגּ ָ‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪R‬‬
‫‪E‬‬

‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬
‫ישׁי‬
‫ַה ֫ ִגּ ִ‬

‫‪G‬‬

‫ַה ֫ ִגּישׁוּ‬
‫ַה ֫ ֵגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ֻהגַּ שׁ‬
‫ֻהגֵּ שׁ‬
‫ֻמגָּ שׁ‬
‫ֻמגָּ ָשׁה‬
‫ֻמ ֫ ָגּ ֶשׁת‬

‫ַהגִּ ישׁ‬
‫ַהגֵּ שׁ‬
‫ַמגִּ ישׁ‬
‫ישׁה‬
‫ַמגִּ ָ‬
‫ַמ ֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬

‫ֻמגָּ ִשׁים‬
‫ֻמגָּ שׁוֹת‬

‫ישׁים‬
‫ַמגִּ ִ‬
‫ישׁים‬
‫ַמגִּ ִ‬

‫‪U‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪I-NUN‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫וַ יִּ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫יִ נָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ֵאנָּ גְ ָשׁה‬

‫וַ יִּ גַּ שׁ‬
‫יִ גַּ שׁ‬
‫ֶאגְּ ָשׁה‬

‫וַ יִּ פֹּל‬
‫יִ פֹּל‬
‫ֶא ְפּ ָלה‬

‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬

‫גַּ שׁ‬

‫נְ פֹל‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ִהנָּ גְ ִשׁי‬

‫גְּ ִשׁי‬

‫נִ ְפ ִלי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ִהנָּ גְ שׁוּ‬

‫גְּ שׁוּ‬

‫נִ ְפלוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ִהנָּ ֫ ַג ְשׁנָ ה‬

‫֫ ַגּ ְשׁנָ ה‬

‫נְ ֫פ ְֹלנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫ִהנָּ גֵ שׁ‬
‫נִ גָּ שׁ‬
‫נִ גָּ ָשׁה‬
‫נִ ֫ ָגּ ֶשׁת‬

‫֫ ֶגּ ֶשׁת‬
‫נָ גוֹשׁ‬
‫נֹגֵ שׁ‬
‫נֹגְ ָשׁה‬
‫נ ֫ ֶֹג ֶשׁת‬

‫נְ פֹל‬
‫נָ פוֹל‬
‫נ ֵֹפל‬
‫נ ְֹפ ָלה‬
‫נ ֫ ֶֹפ ֶלת‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬

‫נִ גָּ ִשׁים‬
‫נִ גָּ שׁוִ ת‬

‫נֹגְ ִשׁים‬
‫נֹגְ שׁוֹת‬

‫נ ְֹפ ִלים‬
‫נ ְֹפלוֹת‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪208‬‬

‫)‪ ‘be good’ (21.1‬יָ ַטב ;’‪ ‘possess‬יָ ַרשׁ ‪ ‘sit’,‬יָ ַשׁב ‪6. I-Vav/Yod Verb:‬‬
‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫יטיב‬
‫ֵה ִ‬
‫יבה‬
‫יט ָ‬
‫ֵה ִ֫‬
‫יט ְב ָתּ‬
‫ֵה ַ֫‬
‫יט ְב ְתּ‬
‫ֵה ַ‬
‫יט ְב ִתּי‬
‫ֵה ַ֫‬
‫יטיבוּ‬
‫ֵה ִ֫‬
‫יט ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ֵה ַ‬
‫יט ְב ֶתּן‬
‫ֵה ַ‬
‫יט ְבנוּ‬
‫ֵה ַ֫‬

‫יָ ַטב‬
‫יָ ְט ָבה‬
‫יָ ַ֫ט ְב ָתּ‬
‫יָ ַט ְב ְתּ‬
‫יָ ַ֫ט ְב ִתּי‬
‫יָ ְטבוּ‬
‫יְ ַט ְב ֶתּם‬
‫יְ ַט ְב ֶתּן‬
‫יָ ַ֫ט ְבנוּ‬

‫הוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּשׁ ָבה‬
‫ְ‬
‫הוּשׁ ְב ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוּשׁ ְב ְתּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּשׁ ְב ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוּשׁבוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫הוּשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּשׁ ְבנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫הוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫יבה‬
‫הוֹשׁ ָ‬
‫ִ֫‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְב ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְב ְתּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְב ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוֹשׁיבוּ‬
‫ִ֫‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוֹשׁ ְבנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫יטיב‬
‫יֵ ִ‬
‫יטיב‬
‫ֵתּ ִ‬
‫יבי‬
‫יט ִ‬
‫ֵתּ ִ֫‬
‫יטיב‬
‫ֵא ִ‬
‫יטיבוּ‬
‫יֵ ִ֫‬
‫יט ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ַ֫‬
‫יטיבוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ִ֫‬
‫יט ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ַ֫‬
‫יטיב‬
‫נֵ ִ‬

‫יטב‬
‫יִ ַ‬
‫יטב‬
‫ִתּ ַ‬
‫יט ִבי‬
‫ִתּ ְ‬
‫יטב‬
‫ִא ַ‬
‫יטבוּ‬
‫יִ ְ‬
‫יט ְבנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫‬
‫יטבוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְ‬
‫יט ְבנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫‬
‫יטב‬
‫נִ ַ‬

‫יוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּשׁ ִבי‬
‫ְ‬
‫אוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫יוּשׁבוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫תּוּשׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫תּוּשׁבוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫תּוּשׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫נוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬

‫יוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫תּוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫יבי‬
‫תּוֹשׁ ִ‬
‫ִ֫‬
‫אוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫יוֹשׁיבוּ‬
‫ִ֫‬
‫תּוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵ֫‬
‫תּוֹשׁיבוּ‬
‫ִ֫‬
‫תּוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵ֫‬
‫נוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪R‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪G‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫נוֹשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬
‫ְ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְב ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְב ְתּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְב ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫נוֹשׁבוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ְבנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫יָ ַרשׁ‬
‫יָ ְר ָשׁה‬
‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁ ָתּ‬
‫יָ ַר ְשׁ ְתּ‬
‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁ ִתּי‬
‫יָ ְרשׁוּ‬
‫יְ ַר ְשׁ ֶתּם‬
‫יְ ַר ְשׁ ֶתּן‬
‫יָ ַ֫ר ְשׁנוּ‬

‫יָ ַשׁב‬
‫יָ ְשׁ ָבה‬
‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְב ָתּ‬
‫יָ ַשׁ ְב ְתּ‬
‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְב ִתּי‬
‫יָ ְשׁבוּ‬
‫יְ ַשׁ ְב ֶתּם‬
‫יְ ַשׁ ְב ֶתּן‬
‫יָ ַ֫שׁ ְבנוּ‬

‫‪I-VAV/YOD‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪U‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫ִתּוָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫ִתּוָּ ְשׁ ִבי‬
‫ֶאוָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫יוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬
‫ִתּוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ִתּוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬
‫ִתּוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫נִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬

‫יִ ַירשׁ‬
‫ִתּ ַירשׁ‬
‫ִתּ ְיר ִשׁי‬
‫ִא ַירשׁ‬
‫יִ ְירשׁוּ‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫יר ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְירשׁוּ‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫יר ְשׁנָ ה‬
‫נִ ַירשׁ‬

‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬
‫ֵתּ ֵשׁב‬
‫ֵתּ ְשׁ ִבי‬
‫ֵא ֵשׁב‬
‫יֵ ְשׁבוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ְשׁבוּ‬
‫ֵתּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫נֵ ֵשׁב‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪209‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫יּוּשׁב‬
‫וַ ַ‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫וַ יֵּ ֵטב‬
‫יטב‬
‫יֵ ֵ‬

‫יטב‬
‫וַ יִּ ַ‬
‫יטב‬
‫יִ ַ‬

‫יבה‬
‫יט ָ‬
‫ֵא ִ֫‬

‫יט ָבה‬
‫ִא ְ‬

‫יבה‬
‫אוֹשׁ ָ‬
‫ִ֫‬

‫יטב‬
‫ֵה ֵ‬

‫יְ ַטב‬

‫הוֹשׁב‬
‫ֵ‬

‫יבי‬
‫יט ִ‬
‫ֵה ִ֫‬

‫יִ ְט ִבי‬

‫יבי‬
‫הוֹשׁ ִ‬
‫ִ֫‬

‫יטיבוּ‬
‫ֵה ִ֫‬

‫יִ ְטבוּ‬

‫הוֹשׁיבוּ‬
‫ִ֫‬

‫יט ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵה ֵ֫‬

‫יְ ַ֫ט ְבנָ ה‬

‫הוֹשׁ ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵ֫‬

‫‪PI/PU/HIT‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪I-VAV/YOD‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫וַ ֫י ֹ ֶשׁב‬
‫יוֹשׁב‬
‫ֵ‬

‫‪R‬‬

‫וַ יִּ וָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫יִ וָּ ֵשׁב‬

‫וַ יִּ ַרשׁ‬
‫יִ ַירשׁ‬

‫וַ ֵ֫יּ ֶשׁב‬
‫יֵ ֵשׁב‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫ֶאוָּ ְשׁ ָבה‬

‫ִא ְיר ָשׁה‬

‫ֵא ְשׁ ָבה‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬

‫ֵרשׁ‬

‫ֵשׁב‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ִהוָּ ְשׁ ִבי‬

‫ְר ִשׁי‬

‫ְשׁ ִבי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ִהוָּ ְשׁבוּ‬

‫ְרשׁוּ‬

‫ְשׁבוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ִהוָּ ַ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬

‫ַ֫ר ְשׁנָ ה‬

‫ֵ֫שׁ ְבנָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫ִהוָּ ֵשׁב‬
‫נוֹשׁב‬
‫ָ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ָבה‬
‫ָ‬
‫נוֹשׁ ֶבת‬
‫ֶ֫‬

‫ֶ֫ר ֶשׁת‬
‫יָ רוֹשׁ‬
‫י ֵֹרשׁ‬
‫י ְֹר ָשׁה‬
‫י ֶֹ֫ר ֶשׁת‬

‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת‬
‫יָ שׁוֹב‬
‫י ֵֹשׁב‬
‫י ְֹשׁ ָבה‬
‫י ֶֹ֫שׁ ֶבת‬

‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬

‫נוֹשׁ ִבים‬
‫ָ‬
‫נוֹשׁבוֹת‬
‫ָ‬

‫י ְֹר ִשׁים‬
‫י ְֹרשׁוֹת‬

‫י ְֹשׁ ִבים‬
‫י ְֹשׁבוֹת‬

‫יטיב‬
‫ֵה ִ‬
‫יטב‬
‫ֵה ֵ‬
‫יטיב‬
‫ֵמ ִ‬
‫יבה‬
‫יט ָ‬
‫ֵמ ִ‬
‫יט ֶבת‬
‫ֵמ ֶ֫‬

‫יְ טֹב‬
‫יָ טוֹב‬
‫י ֵֹטב‬
‫י ְֹט ָבה‬
‫י ֶֹ֫ט ֶבת‬

‫הוּשׁב‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּשׁב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫מוּשׁב‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּשׁ ָבה‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּשׁ ֶבת‬
‫ֶ֫‬

‫הוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫הוֹשׁב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫מוֹשׁיב‬
‫ִ‬
‫יבה‬
‫מוֹשׁ ָ‬
‫ִ‬
‫מוֹשׁ ֶבת‬
‫ֶ֫‬

‫יבים‬
‫יט ִ‬
‫ֵמ ִ‬
‫יטיבוֹת‬
‫ֵמ ִ‬

‫י ְֹט ִבים‬
‫י ְֹטבוֹת‬

‫מוּשׁ ִבים‬
‫ְ‬
‫מוּשׁבוֹת‬
‫ְ‬

‫מוֹשׁ ִבים‬
‫ְ‬
‫מוֹשׁבוֹת‬
‫ְ‬

‫‪G‬‬
‫‪U‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬

‫‪FSA‬‬

‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪210‬‬

‫)‪ ‘reveal’ (22.1‬גָּ ָלה ‪7. III-He Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫ָהגְ ָלה‬
‫ָהגְ ְל ָתה‬
‫ית‬
‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵל ָ‬
‫ָהגְ ֵלית‬
‫יתי‬
‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵל ִ‬
‫ָהגְ לוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫ָהגְ ֵל ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫ָהגְ ֵל ֶ‬
‫ָהגְ ֫ ֵלינוּ‬

‫ִהגְ ָלה‬
‫ִהגְ ְל ָתה‬
‫ית‬
‫ִהגְ ֫ ִל ָ‬
‫ִהגְ ִלית‬
‫יתי‬
‫ִהגְ ֫ ִל ִ‬
‫ִהגְ לוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫ִהגְ ִל ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫ִהגְ ִל ֶ‬
‫ִהגְ ֫ ִלינוּ‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ָלּה‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ְלּ ָתה‬
‫יתּ‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּ ְ‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּית‬
‫יתי‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּ ִ‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּ ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּ ֶ‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ִלּינוּ‬

‫גֻּ ָלה‬
‫גֻּ ְלּ ָתה‬
‫ית‬
‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּ ָ‬
‫גֻּ ֵלּית‬
‫יתי‬
‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּ ִ‬
‫גֻּ לּוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫גֻּ ֵלּ ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫גֻּ ֵלּ ֶ‬
‫גֻּ ֫ ֵלּינוּ‬

‫גִּ ָלּה‬
‫גִּ ְלּ ָתה‬
‫ית‬
‫גִּ ֫ ִלּ ָ‬
‫גִּ ִלּית‬
‫יתי‬
‫גִּ ֫ ִלּ ִ‬
‫גִּ לּוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫גִּ ִלּ ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫גִּ ִלּ ֶ‬
‫גִּ ֫ ִלּינוּ‬

‫נִ גְ ָלה‬
‫נִ גְ ְל ָתה‬
‫ית‬
‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵל ָ‬
‫נִ גְ ֵלית‬
‫יתי‬
‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵל ִ‬
‫נִ גְ לוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫נִ גְ ֵל ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫נִ גְ ֵל ֶ‬
‫נִ גְ ֫ ֵלינוּ‬

‫גָּ ָלה‬
‫גּל ָתה‬
‫ְ‬
‫ית‬
‫גָּ ֫ ִל ָ‬
‫ית‬
‫גָּ ִל ְ‬
‫יתי‬
‫גָּ ֫ ִל ִ‬
‫גָּ לוּ‬
‫יתם‬
‫גְּ ִל ֶ‬
‫יתן‬
‫גְּ ִל ֶ‬
‫גָּ ֫ ִלינוּ‬

‫יָ גְ ֶלה‬
‫ָתּגְ ֶלה‬
‫ָתּגְ ִלי‬
‫ָאגְ ֶלה‬
‫יָ גְ לוּ‬
‫ָתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫ָתּגְ לוּ‬
‫ָתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫נָ גְ ֶלה‬

‫יַ גְ ֶלה‬
‫ַתּגְ ֶלה‬
‫ַתּגְ ִלי‬
‫ַאגְ ֶלה‬
‫יַ גְ לוּ‬
‫ַתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫ַתּגְ לוּ‬
‫ַתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫נַ גְ ֶלה‬

‫יִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫ִתּ ְתגְּ ִלּי‬
‫ִא ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫יִ ַתגְּ לּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְתגַּ לּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫נִ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬

‫יְ גֻ ֶלּה‬
‫ְתּגֻ ֶלּה‬
‫ְתּגֻ ִלּי‬
‫ֲאגֻ ֶלּה‬
‫יְ גֻ לּוּ‬
‫ְתּגֻ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫ְתּגֻ לּוּ‬
‫ְתּגֻ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫נְ גֻ ֶלּה‬

‫יְ גַ ֶלּה‬
‫ְתּגַ ֶלּה‬
‫ְתּגַ ִלּי‬
‫ֲאגַ ֶלּה‬
‫יְ גַ לּוּ‬
‫ְתּגַ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫ְתּגַ לּוּ‬
‫ְתּגַ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫נְ גַ ֶלּה‬

‫יִ גָּ ֶלה‬
‫ִתּגָּ ֶלה‬
‫ִתּגָּ ִלי‬
‫ֶאגָּ ֶלה‬
‫יִ גָּ לוּ‬
‫ִתּגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫ִתּגָּ לּוּ‬
‫ִתּגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫נִ גָּ ֶלה‬

‫יִ גְ ֶלה‬
‫ִתּגְ ֶלה‬
‫ִתּגְ ִלי‬
‫ֶאגְ ֶלה‬
‫יִ גְ לוּ‬
‫ִתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫ִתּגְ לוּ‬
‫ִתּגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬
‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬

‫‪III-He‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪PERF‬‬

‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪211‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬
‫ָהגְ ֵלה‬
‫ָמגְ ֶלה‬
‫ָמגְ ָלה‬
‫ָמגְ ִלים‬
‫ָמגְ לוֹת‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪HITPAEL‬‬

‫‪PUAL‬‬

‫‪PIEL‬‬

‫‪QAL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪III-HE‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬

‫וַ ֶ֫יּגֶ ל‬

‫וַ יִּ ְתגַּ ל‬

‫וַ יְ גַ ל‬

‫וַ יִּ גָּ ל‬

‫וַ ִ֫יּגֶ ל‬

‫ֶ֫יגֶ ל‬

‫יִ ְתגַּ ל‬

‫יְ גַ ל‬

‫יִ גָּ ל‬

‫ִ֫יגֶ ל‬

‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪NO DISTINCT 1CS JUSSIVE FORM – IDENTICAL WITH 1CS IMPERFECT‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ֵלּה‬

‫גַּ ֵלּה‬

‫ִהגָּ ֵלה‬

‫גְּ ֵלה‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ַהגְ ִלי‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ִלּי‬

‫גַּ ִלּי‬

‫ִהגָּ ִלי‬

‫גְּ ִלי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ַהגְ לוּ‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוּ‬

‫גַּ לּוּ‬

‫ִהגָּ לוּ‬

‫גְּ לוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ַהגְ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬

‫גַּ ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬

‫ִהגָּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬

‫גְּ ֫ ֶלינָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ַהגְ לוֹת‬
‫ַהגְ ֵלה‬
‫ַמגְ ֶלה‬
‫ַמגְ ָלה‬
‫ַמגְ ִלים‬
‫ַמגְ לוֹת‬

‫ִה ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬
‫ִה ְתגַּ ֹּלה‬
‫ִמ ְתגַּ ֶלּה‬
‫ִמ ְתגַּ ָלּה‬
‫ִמ ְתגַּ ִלּים‬
‫ִמ ְתגַּ לּוֹת‬

‫גַּ לּוֹת‬
‫גַּ ֹּלה‬
‫ְמגַ ֶלּה‬
‫ְמגַ ָלּה‬
‫ְמגַ ִלּים‬
‫ְמגַ לּוֹת‬

‫ִהגָּ לוֹת‬
‫נִ גְ ֹלה‬
‫נִ גְ ֶלה‬
‫נִ גְ ָלה‬
‫נִ גְ ִלים‬
‫נִ גְ לוֹת‬

‫גְּ לוֹת‬
‫גָּ ֹלה‬
‫גּ ֶֹלה‬
‫גּ ָֹלה‬
‫גּ ִֹלים‬
‫גֹּלוֹת‬

‫גֻּ לּוֹת‬
‫גֻּ ֹּלה‬
‫ְמגֻּ ֶלּה‬
‫ְמגֻּ ָלּה‬
‫ְמגֻ ִלּים‬
‫ְמגֻ לּוֹת‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬
‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬
‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪212‬‬

‫)‪ִ ‘set’ (23.1‬שׂים ‪ ‘die’,‬מוּת ‪ ‘arise’,‬קוּם ‪8. II-Vav/Yod Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪POLEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL II-YOD‬‬

‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬

‫‪QAL II-VAV‬‬

‫הוּקם‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּק ָמה‬
‫ְ‬
‫הוּק ְמ ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוּק ְמ ְתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוּק ְמ ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫הוּקמוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫הוּק ְמ ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּק ְמ ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּק ְמנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫ֵה ִקים‬
‫ימה‬
‫ֵה ִ֫ק ָ‬
‫וֹת‬
‫ימ ָ‬
‫ֲה ִק ֫‬
‫ימוֹת‬
‫ֲה ִק ֫‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫ימ ִ‬
‫ֲה ִק ֫‬
‫ֵה ִ֫קימוּ‬
‫ימוֹתם‬
‫ֲה ִק ֶ‬
‫ימוֹתן‬
‫ֲה ִק ֶ‬
‫ימוֹנוּ‬
‫ֲה ִק ֫‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫ֵ‬
‫קוֹמ ָמה‬
‫ְ‬
‫קוֹמ ְמ ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫קוֹמ ְמ ְתּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫קוֹמ ְמ ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫קוֹממוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫קוֹמ ְמ ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫קוֹמ ְמ ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫קוֹמ ְמנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫נָ ֽקוֹם‬
‫וֹמה‬
‫נָ ֫ק ָ‬
‫וֹת‬
‫קוּמ ָ‬
‫נְ ֫‬
‫נְ קוּמוֹת‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫קוּמ ִ‬
‫נְ ֫‬
‫נָ ֫קוֹמוּ‬
‫קוּמוֹתם‬
‫ֶ‬
‫נְ‬
‫קוּמוֹתן‬
‫ֶ‬
‫נְ‬
‫קוּמוֹנוּ‬
‫נְ ֫‬

‫ָשׂם‬
‫ָ֫שׂ ָמה‬
‫ַ֫שׂ ְמ ָתּ‬
‫ַשׂ ְמ ְתּ‬
‫ַ֫שׂ ְמ ִתּי‬
‫ָ֫שׂמוּ‬
‫ַשׂ ְמ ֶתּם‬
‫ַשׂ ְמ ֶתּן‬
‫ַ֫שׂ ְמנוּ‬

‫ֵמת‬
‫ֵ֫מ ָתה‬
‫ַ֫מ ָתּה‬
‫ַמ ְתּ‬
‫ַ֫מ ִתּי‬
‫ֵ֫מתוּ‬
‫ַמ ֶתּם‬
‫ַמ ֶתּן‬
‫ַ֫מ ְתנוּ‬

‫ָקם‬
‫ָ ֫ק ָמה‬
‫ַ ֫ק ְמ ָתּ‬
‫ַק ְמ ְתּ‬
‫ַ ֫ק ְמ ִתּי‬
‫ָ ֫קמוּ‬
‫ַק ְמ ֶתּם‬
‫ַק ְמ ֶתּן‬
‫ַ ֫ק ְמנוּ‬

‫יוּקם‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּקם‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּק ִמי‬
‫ְ‬
‫אוּקם‬
‫ַ‬
‫יוּקמוּ‬
‫ַ‬

‫יָ ִקים‬
‫ָתּ ִקים‬
‫ימי‬
‫ָתּ ִ֫ק ִ‬
‫ָא ִקים‬
‫ימוּ‬
‫יָ ִ֫ק ִ‬
‫ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬
‫ימנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ִק ֶ֫‬
‫ימוּ‬
‫ָתּ ִ֫ק ִ‬
‫ָתּ ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬
‫ימנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ִק ֶ֫‬
‫נָ ִקים‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫יְ ֵ‬
‫קוֹמם‬
‫ְתּ ֵ‬
‫קוֹמ ִמי‬
‫ְתּ ֲ‬
‫קוֹמם‬
‫ֲא ֵ‬
‫קוֹממוּ‬
‫יְ ֲ‬

‫יִ קּוֹם‬
‫ִתּקּוֹם‬
‫וֹמי‬
‫ִתּ ֫קּ ִ‬
‫ֶאקּוֹם‬
‫יִ ֫קּוֹמוּ‬

‫יָ ִשׂים‬
‫ָתּ ִשׂים‬
‫ימי‬
‫ָתּ ִ֫שׂ ִ‬
‫ָא ִשׂים‬
‫יָ ִ֫שׂימוּ‬

‫יָמוּת‬
‫ָתּמוּת‬
‫וּתי‬
‫ָתּ ֫מ ִ‬
‫ָאמוּת‬
‫יָמוּתוּ‬
‫֫‬

‫יָ קוּם‬
‫ָתּקוּם‬
‫וּמי‬
‫ָתּ ֫ק ִ‬
‫ָאקוּם‬
‫יָ ֫קוּמוּ‬

‫קוֹמ ְמנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬

‫וֹמנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ֫קּ ְ‬

‫ימינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ִשׂ ֶ֫‬

‫מוּתינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬

‫קוּמינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬

‫קוֹממוּ‬
‫ְתּ ֲ‬

‫ִתּ ֫קּוֹמוּ‬

‫ָתּ ִ֫שׂימוּ‬

‫ָתּ ֫מוּתוּ‬

‫ָתּ ֫קוּמוּ‬

‫קוֹמ ְמנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬

‫וֹמנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ֫קּ ְ‬

‫ימינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ִשׂ ֶ֫‬

‫מוּתינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬

‫קוּמינָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֶ֫‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫נְ ֵ‬

‫נִ קּוֹם‬

‫נָ ִשׂים‬

‫נָ מוּת‬

‫נָ קוּם‬

‫תּוּק ְמנָ ה‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫תּוּקמוּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּק ְמנָ ה‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫נוּקם‬
‫ַ‬

‫‪II-Vav/Yod‬‬
‫‪PERF 3MS‬‬
‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬

‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬

‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪213‬‬

‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL II-YOD‬‬

‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶקם‬
‫יָ ֵקם‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫וַ יְ ֵ‬
‫קוֹמם‬
‫יְ ֵ‬

‫וַ יִּ קּוֹם‬
‫יִ קּוֹם‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶשׂם‬
‫יָ ֵשׂם‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָמת‬
‫יָ מֹת‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָקם‬
‫יָ קֹם‬

‫ימה‬
‫ָא ִ֫ק ָ‬

‫קוֹמ ָמה‬
‫ֲא ֲ‬

‫וֹמה‬
‫ֶא ֫קּ ָ‬

‫ימה‬
‫ָא ִ֫שׂ ָ‬

‫וּתה‬
‫ָא ֫מ ָ‬

‫וּמה‬
‫ָא ֫ק ָ‬

‫‪1CS‬‬

‫ָה ֵקם‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫ֵ‬

‫ִהקּוֹם‬

‫ִשׂים‬

‫מוּת‬

‫קוּם‬

‫‪MS‬‬

‫ימי‬
‫ָה ִ֫ק ִ‬

‫קוֹמ ִמי‬
‫ֲ‬

‫וֹמי‬
‫ִה ֫קּ ִ‬

‫ימי‬
‫ִ֫שׂ ִ‬

‫וּתי‬
‫֫מ ִ‬

‫וּמי‬
‫֫ק ִ‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ָה ִ֫קימוּ‬

‫קוֹממוּ‬
‫ֲ‬

‫ִה ֫קּוֹמוּ‬

‫ִ֫שׂימוּ‬

‫֫מוּתוּ‬

‫֫קוּמוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫הוּקם‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּקם‬
‫ֵ‬

‫ָה ֵ ֫ק ְמנָ ה‬
‫ָה ִקים‬
‫ָה ֵקם‬

‫ֵקו ֵֹ֫מ ְמנָ ה‬
‫קוֹמם‬
‫ֵ‬
‫קוֹמם‬
‫ֵ‬

‫וֹמנָ ה‬
‫ִה ֫קּ ְ‬
‫ִהקּוֹם‬
‫ִהקּוֹם‬

‫ֵ֫שׂ ְמנָ ה‬
‫ִשׂים‬
‫שׂוֹם‬

‫֫מ ְֹתנָ ה‬
‫מוּת‬
‫מוֹת‬

‫֫ק ְֹמנָ ה‬
‫קוּם‬
‫קוֹם‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫מוּקם‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּק ָמה‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּק ִמים‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּקמוֹת‬
‫ָ‬

‫ֵמ ִקים‬
‫ימה‬
‫ְמ ִק ָ‬
‫ימים‬
‫ְמ ִק ִ‬
‫ְמ ִקימוֹת‬

‫קוֹמם‬
‫ְמ ֵ‬
‫קוֹמ ָמה‬
‫ְמ ְ‬
‫קוֹמ ִמים‬
‫ְמ ְ‬
‫קוֹממוֹת‬
‫ְמ ְ‬

‫נָ קוֹם‬
‫קוֹמה‬
‫נְ ָ‬
‫קּוֹמים‬
‫נְ ִ‬
‫נְ קוֹמוֹת‬

‫ָשׂם‬
‫ָשׂ ָמה‬
‫ָשׂ ִמים‬
‫ָשׂמוֹת‬

‫ֵמת‬
‫ֵמ ָתה‬
‫ֵמ ִתים‬
‫ֵמתוֹת‬

‫ָקם‬
‫ָק ָמה‬
‫ָק ִמים‬
‫ָקמוֹת‬

‫יּוּקם‬
‫וַ ַ‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪POLEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL II-VAV‬‬

‫‪II-VAV/YOD‬‬
‫‪PAST 3MS‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬
‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬

‫‪FSA‬‬
‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪214‬‬

‫)‪ַ ‘be slight’ (24.1‬קל ‪ָ ‘surround’,‬ס ַבב ‪9. II-III Verb:‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪POEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬

‫‪QAL DYNAMIC‬‬

‫הוּסב‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּס ָבּה‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫וֹת‬
‫הוּס ֫בּ ָ‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּסבּוֹת‬
‫ַ‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫הוּס ֫בּ ִ‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּסבּוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫בּוֹתם‬
‫הוּס ֶ‬
‫ַ‬
‫בּוֹתן‬
‫הוּס ֶ‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬
‫ַ‬

‫ֵה ֵסב‬
‫ֵה ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬
‫וֹת‬
‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ ָ‬
‫ֲה ִסבּוֹת‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫ֲה ִס ֫בּ ִ‬
‫ֵה ֵ֫סבּוּ‬
‫בּוֹתּם‬
‫ֲה ִס ֶ‬
‫בּוֹתן‬
‫ֲה ִס ֶ‬
‫ֲה ִס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬

‫סוֹבב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
‫ְ‬
‫סוֹב ְב ָתּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫סוֹב ְב ְתּ‬
‫ַ‬
‫סוֹב ְב ִתּי‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫סוֹבבוּ‬
‫ְ‬
‫סוֹב ְב ֶתּם‬
‫ַ‬
‫סוֹב ְב ֶתּן‬
‫ַ‬
‫סוֹב ְבנוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬

‫נָ ַסב‬
‫נָ ַ֫ס ָבּה‬
‫וֹת‬
‫נְ ַס ֫בּ ָ‬
‫נְ ַסבּוֹת‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫נְ ַס ֫בּ ִ‬
‫נָ ַ֫סבּוּ‬
‫בּוֹתם‬
‫נְ ַס ֶ‬
‫בּוֹתן‬
‫נְ ַס ֶ‬
‫נְ ַס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬

‫ַקל‬
‫ַ ֫ק ָלּה‬
‫וֹת‬
‫ַק ֫לּ ָ‬
‫ַקלּוֹת‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫ַק ֫לּ ִ‬
‫ַ ֫קלּוּ‬
‫לּוֹתם‬
‫ַק ֶ‬
‫לּוֹתן‬
‫ַק ֶ‬
‫ַק ֫לּוֹנוּ‬

‫ָס ַבב ‪ָ /‬סב‬
‫ַ֫ס ָבּה ‪ָ /‬ס ְב ָבה‬
‫וֹת‬
‫ַס ֫בּ ָ‬
‫ַסבּוֹת‬
‫וֹתי‬
‫ַס ֫בּ ִ‬
‫ַ֫סבּוּ ‪ָ /‬ס ְבבוּ‬
‫בּוֹתם‬
‫ַס ֶ‬
‫בּוֹתן‬
‫ַס ֶ‬
‫ַס ֫בּוֹנוּ‬

‫יוּסב ‪ /‬יֻ ַסּב‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּסב‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּס ִבּי‬
‫֫‬
‫אוּסב‬
‫ַ‬
‫יוּסבּוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫תוּס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫ַ‬
‫תּוּסבּוּ‬
‫ַ֫‬
‫תוּס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫ַ‬
‫נוּסב‬
‫ַ‬

‫יָ ֵסב‬
‫ָתּ ֵסב‬
‫ָתּ ֵ֫ס ִבּי‬
‫ָא ֵסב‬
‫יָ ֵ֫סבּוּ‬
‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫ָתּ ֵ֫סבּוּ‬
‫ְתּ ִס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫נָ ֵסב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
‫יְ ֵ‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫ְתּ ֵ‬
‫סוֹב ִבי‬
‫ְתּ ְ‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫ֲא ֵ‬
‫סוֹבבוּ‬
‫יְ ְ‬
‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬
‫סוֹבבוּ‬
‫ְתּ ְ‬
‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬
‫ְתּ ֵ֫‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫נְ ֵ‬

‫יִ ַסּב‬
‫ִתּ ַסּב‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫סּ ִבּי‬
‫ֶא ַסּב‬
‫יִ ַ֫סּבּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ַ֫סּבּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫נִ ַסּב‬

‫יֵ ַקל‬
‫ֵתּ ַקל‬
‫ֵתּ ַ ֫ק ִלי‬
‫ֵא ַקל‬
‫יֵ ַ ֫קלּוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַק ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫ֵתּ ַ ֫קלּוּ‬
‫ְתּ ַק ֫ ֶלּינָ ה‬
‫נֵ ַקל‬

‫יִ סֹּב‪ /‬יָ סֹב‬
‫ִתּסֹּב ‪ָ /‬תּסֹב‬
‫ִתּ ְסּ ִבי ‪ָ /‬תּ ֫סֹ ִבּי‬
‫ֶאסֹּב ‪ָ /‬אסֹב‬
‫יִ ְסּבוּ ‪ /‬יָ ֫סֹבּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫סֹּ ְבנָ ה ‪ְ /‬תּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְסּבוּ‪ָ /‬תּ ֫סֹבּוּ‬
‫ִתּ ֫סֹּ ְבנָ ה ‪ְ /‬תּ ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬
‫נִ סֹּב ‪ /‬נָ סֹב‬

‫‪II-III‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪PERF‬‬

‫‪3FS‬‬
‫‪2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3CP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫‪IMPF‬‬

‫‪3FS/2MS‬‬
‫‪2FS‬‬
‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪3MP‬‬
‫‪3FP‬‬
‫‪2MP‬‬
‫‪2FP‬‬
‫‪1CP‬‬

‫‪Appendix C: Weak Verb (and Guttural Verb) Paradigms‬‬

‫‪215‬‬
‫‪HOFAL‬‬

‫יּוּסב‬
‫וַּ ַ‬
‫יוּסב‬
‫ַ‬

‫הוּסב‬
‫ַ‬
‫הוּסב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫מוּסב‬
‫ָ‬
‫מוּס ָבּה‬
‫ַ‬
‫מוּס ִבּים‬
‫ַ‬
‫מוּסבּוֹת‬
‫ַ‬

‫‪HIFIL‬‬

‫‪POEL‬‬

‫‪NIFAL‬‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ֶסב‬
‫יָ ֵסב‬
‫ָא ֵ֫ס ָבּה‬

‫סוֹבב‬
‫וַ יְ ֵ‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫יְ ֵ‬
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
‫ֲא ְ‬

‫וַ יִּ ַסּב‬
‫יִ ַסּב‬
‫ֶא ַ֫סּ ָבּה‬

‫‪QAL STATIVE‬‬

‫וַ יֵּ ַקל‬
‫יֵ ַקל‬
‫ֵא ַ ֫ק ָלּה‬

‫‪QAL DYNAMIC‬‬

‫וַ ָ֫יּ ָסב‬
‫יָ סֹב‬
‫ָא ֫סֹ ָבּה‬

‫‪II-III‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬
‫‪3MS‬‬

‫ָה ֵסב‬

‫סוֹבב‬
‫ֵ‬

‫ִה ַסּב‬

‫סֹב‬

‫ָה ֵ֫ס ִבּי‬

‫סוֹב ִבי‬
‫ֲ‬

‫ִה ַ֫סּ ִבּי‬

‫֫סֹ ִבּי‬

‫‪FS‬‬

‫ָה ֵ֫סבּוּ‬

‫סוֹבבוּ‬
‫ֲ‬

‫ִה ַ֫סּבּוּ‬

‫֫סֹבּוּ‬

‫‪MP‬‬

‫ֲה ִס ֶ֫יבּנָ ה‬

‫סוֹב ְבנָ ה‬
‫ֵ֫‬

‫ִה ַסּ ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

‫ֻס ֶ֫בּינָ ה‬

‫‪FP‬‬

‫ָה ֵסב‬
‫ָה ֵסב‬
‫ֵמ ֵסב‬
‫ְמ ִס ָבּה‬
‫ְמ ִס ִבּים‬
‫ְמ ִסבּוֹת‬

‫סוֹבב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫ֵ‬
‫סוֹבב‬
‫ְמ ֵ‬
‫סוֹב ָבה‬
‫ְמ ְ‬
‫סוֹב ִבים‬
‫ְמ ְ‬
‫סוֹבבוֹת‬
‫ְמ ְ‬

‫ִה ַסּב‬
‫ִהסּוֹב‬
‫נָ ָסב‬
‫נְ ַס ָבּה‬
‫נְ ַס ִבּים‬
‫נְ ַסבּוֹת‬

‫קֹל‬
‫ָקלוֹל‬
‫ַקל‬
‫ַק ָלּה‬
‫ַק ִלּים‬
‫ַקלּוֹת‬

‫‪JUSS‬‬

‫‪1CS‬‬
‫‪MS‬‬

‫סֹב‬
‫ָסבוֹב‬
‫ס ֵֹבב‬
‫ס ְֹב ָבה‬
‫ס ְֹב ִבים‬
‫ס ְֹבבוֹת‬

‫‪PAST‬‬

‫‪IMV‬‬

‫‪INF CST‬‬
‫‪INF ABS‬‬
‫‪PTCP MSA‬‬
‫‪FSA‬‬
‫‪MPA‬‬
‫‪FPA‬‬

216

Appendix D
Numerals
Cardinals
Masculine
Absolute
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

‫ֶא ָחד‬
‫ְשׁ ֫ ַניִם‬
‫ֹלשׁה‬
ָ ‫ְשׁ‬
‫רבּ ָעה‬
ָ ‫ַא‬
‫ֲח ִמ ָשּׁה‬
‫ִשׁ ָשּׁה‬
‫ִשׁ ְב ָעה‬
‫ְשׁמֹנָ ה‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ָעה‬
‫ֲע ָשׂ ָרה‬

Construct

‫ַא ַחד‬
‫ְשׁנֵ י‬
‫ְשׁ ֹ֫ל ֶשׁת‬
‫ַא ְר ַ֫בּ ַעת‬
‫ֲח ֵ֫מ ֶשׁת‬
‫ֵ֫שׁ ֶשׁת‬
‫ִשׁ ְב ַעת‬
‫ְשׁמֹנַ ת‬
‫ִתּ ְשׁ ַעת‬
‫ֲע ֶ֫שׂ ֶרת‬

Ordinals
Feminine

Absolute

‫ַא ַחת‬
‫ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִם‬
‫ָשֹׁלשׁ‬
‫ַא ְר ַבּע‬
‫ָח ֵמשׁ‬
‫ֵשׁשׁ‬
‫ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬
‫ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬
‫ֵ֫תּ ַשׁע‬
‫֫ ֶע ֶשׂר‬

Construct

‫ַא ַחת‬
‫ְשׁ ֵתּי‬
‫ְשֹׁלשׁ‬
‫ַא ְר ַבּע‬
‫ֲח ֵמשׁ‬
‫ֵשׁשׁ‬
‫ְשׁ ַבע‬
‫ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬
‫ְתּ ַשׁע‬
‫֫ ֶע ֶשׂר‬

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th

Masculine

Feminine

‫ִראשׁוֹן‬
‫ֵשׁנִ י‬
‫ישׁי‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ ִל‬
‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ְר ִב‬
‫ישׁי‬
ִ ‫ֲח ִמ‬
‫ִשׁ ִשּׁי‬
‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ ִב‬
‫ְשׁ ִמינִ י‬
‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ְתּ ִשׁ‬
‫ֲע ִשׂ ִירי‬

‫ִראשׁוֹנָ ה‬
‫ֵשׁנִ ית‬
‫ישׁית‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ ִל‬
‫יעית‬
ִ ‫ְר ִב‬
‫ישׁית‬
ִ ‫ֲח ִמ‬
‫ִשׁ ִשּׁית‬
‫יעית‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ ִב‬
‫ְשׁ ִמינִ ית‬
‫יעית‬
ִ ‫ְתּ ִשׁ‬
‫ֲע ִשׂ ִירית‬

• 1 is an adjective, and agrees in gender and number with the noun it modifies.
• 2-10 are nouns which can be in apposition (any order) or construct with a noun.
‫י־אנָ ִשׁים ~ ְשׁנַ יִ ם ֲאנָ ִשׁים ~ ֲאנָ ִשׁים ְשׁנַ יִ ם‬
ֲ ֵ‫‘ ְשׁנ‬two men’
• 3-10 (unlike 1 and 2) take the opposite gender form to the noun they modify.
‫לוֹשׁה ָבּנִ ים‬
ָ ‫‘ ְשׁ‬three sons’ and ‫‘ ָשׁלוֹשׁ ָבּנוֹת‬three daughters’
(contrast ‫‘ ֶבּן ֶא ָחד‬one son’ and ‫‘ ַבּת ַא ַחת‬one daughter’)
11-19 are constructed of the numerals 1-9 followed by 10 (M ‫;ע ָשׂר‬
ָ F ‫)ע ְשׂ ֵרה‬.
ֶ They agree in gender
with the noun they modify (like 1 and 2).
Note: there are alternate forms for 11 and 12
‫‘ ַע ְשׁ ֵתּי ָע ָשׂר ~ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר‬11’
‫‘ ְשׁנֵ י ָע ָשׂר ~ ְשׁנֵ ים ָע ָשׂר‬12’
• 20-90 are the plural forms of 2-9; single integers are conjoined with vav.
‫‘ ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬20’
‫לוֹשׁים וְ ֶא ָחד‬
ִ ‫‘ ְשׁ‬31’
‫‘ ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים וְ ָח ֵמשׁ‬45’
• 100s are based on ‘100’ (FSA ‫;מ ָאה‬
ֵ FSC ‫;מ ַאת‬
ְ P ‫)מאוֹת‬
ֵ
‫אתיִ ם‬
ַ֫ ‫( ָמ‬DU) ‘200’
‫ֹלשׁ־מאוֹת‬
ֵ
‫‘ ָשׁ‬300’, etc.
• Certain nouns appear in the singular even with numerically plural modifiers:
‫‘ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר ָשׁנָ ה‬11 year(s)’
‫‘ ‌ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר יוֹם‬11 day(s)’
‫‘ ַא ַחד ָע ָשׂר ִאישׁ‬11 man (men)’

217

Appendix E
Masoretic Accents
‫ְט ָע ִמים‬
‫ט ָע ִמים‬,
ְ or accents, were added to the Bible by the Masoretes (ca. 500-1000 C.E.), a group of
scholars responsible for the preservation of the Hebrew Bible as well as the addition of accents
and vowels.
The accents serve to break up the text into “sense” units so that when the text is read or chanted,
a pause (or breath) is taken in a logical place. Knowing the accents, therefore, informs the reader
both where to place word stress and how to phrase groups of words.
In addition, accents can also be of consequence for interpretation, as illustrated by Isaiah 40:3. If
the division of the verse by the accents are observed, the prepositional phrase is part of the crier‘s
statement, but the Septuagint, followed by the New Testament, treats the prepositional phrase as
indicating the location of the crier.
‫אֹלהינוּ׃‬
ֽ ֵ ‫רוּ ָבּ ֲע ָר ָ֔בה ְמ ִס ָלּ֖ה ֵל‬
֙ ‫הו֑ה יַ ְשּׁ‬
ָ ְ‫קוֹרא ַבּ ִמּ ְד ָ֕בּר ַפּנּ֖ וּ ֶ ֣דּ ֶרְך י‬
֔ ֵ ‫֣קוֹל‬
A voice cries out: —In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a
highway for our God.“ (Isa 40:3, NRSV)
Compare:
This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke when he said, —The voice of one crying out
inthe wilderness: ”Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.‘“ (Matt 3:3, NRSV)

There are 27 accents used by twenty-one books of the Hebrew Bible as well as a variant 21
accents used exclusively in Psalms, Job, and Proverbs. The accents are categorized as disjunctive
—those which make a sense break with what follows—and conjunctive—those that make a
sense connection with what follows. In addition, the disjunctive accents are of different “levels”
depending on the “strength” of their disjunction. Level 1 accents make the greatest disjunction.
Listed below are the accents of the first three disjunctive levels as well as the two most common
conjunctive accents which function as servi (“servants”), immediately preceding certain
disjunctive accents.
LEVEL ONE
Silluq ֽ
Atnah ֑

‫( ִסילוּֽ ק׃‬always with sof pasuq ‫)סוֹף ָפּסוּק׃‬
‫ַא ְת ָנ֑ח‬

LEVEL TWO
Segolta ֒
Zaqef Qatan ֔
Zaqef Gadol ֕
Tifha ֖

‫א‬
֒ ‫( ְסג ְֹל ָת‬postpositive)
‫זָ ֵקף ָק ָ֔טן‬
‫( זָ ֵקף גָּ ֕דוֹל‬variant of zaqef qatan)
‫ִט ְפ ָ ֖חא‬

LEVEL THREE
Revia ֗
Pashta ֙
Tevir ֛

‫יע‬
ַ ‫ְר ִ֗ב‬
֨ ‫( ַפּ ְשׁ ָתּא‬postpositive)
‫ְתּ ִבי֛ ר‬

Appendix E: Masoretic Accents

218

Note: If two of the same disjunctive accents appear within one clause, most often the first of the
two will mark the more disjunctive “sense” break.

MAJOR CONJUNCTIVE
Munah ֣
‫מוּנ֣ח‬
ָ (servi for atnah, segolta, zaqef, revia, and pashta)
Merka ֥
‫( ֵמ ְר ָ ֥כא‬servi for silluq, tifha, and tevir)
Verse divisions by the accents can be understood as operating on a continuous dichotomy: the
strongest disjunctive divides the verse in half, the next strongest divides each half in half again,
etc.
In the following verses the strength of each disjunction is represented by vertical lines between
the words: one vertical line (|) represents a level one disjunction, two vertical lines (||) a level two
disjunction, and three vertical lines (|||) a level three disjunction.
Genesis 1:1-2

‫ים | ֵ ֥את ַה ָשּׁ ַ ֖מיִ ם‌ ‌|| וְ ֵ ֥את ָה ָ ֽא ֶרץ׃‬
‌ ‫ֹלה‬
֑ ִ ‫אשׁית ‌|| ָבּ ָ ֣רא ֱא‬
֖ ִ ‫ ְבּ ֵר‬1:1
| ‫ל־פּ ֵנ֣י ְת ֑הוֹם‬
ְ ‫הוּ ||| וָ ֔בֹהוּ || וְ ֖ח ֹ ֶשְׁך || ַע‬
֙ ‫ת‬
ֹ ֨ ‫ וְ ָה ָ֗א ֶרץ ||| ָהיְ ָ ֥תה‬1:2
‫ל־פּ ֵנ֥י ַה ָ ֽמּיִם׃‬
ְ ‫ֹלהים || ְמ ַר ֶ ֖ח ֶפת || ַע‬
ִ֔ ‫וּח ֱא‬
ַ ‫וְ ֣ר‬

219
GLOSSARY
Verbs are cited according to the third masculine singular form of the Qal perfect conjugation,
except in the case of hollow roots. The Qal infinitive construct is used as the citation form for
hollow roots. If a citation form is not actually attested, it is placed in parentheses (e.g. [‫)]אוּת‬.
The same principle applies to nouns. Within the body of a lemma, unattested forms are also
placed in parentheses. Homonyms are listed separately.
• Parentheses (L#) indicate the lesson/vocabulary list in which the word is introduced.
• Brackets [] indicate the appendix that supplies further information for that lexical entry (e.g.,
for a paradigm of that weak verb).
• Abbreviations: ADJ adjective; ADV adverb; C common; COMP complementizer; COND conditional;
conjunction; CST construct state; DEM demonstrative pronoun; DET determiner/article; DU
dual; EXST existential; F feminine; HI Hifil; HIT Hitpael; HO Hofal; INF infinitive; INTJ interjection;
INTER interrogative; LOCV locative; M masculine; NI Nifal; NOUN noun; PASS passive; PI Piel; P plural;
PN proper noun; PREP preposition; PRON independent pronoun; PTCP participle; PU Pual; Q Qal; S
singular; VB verb
CONJ

‫א‬
‫( ָאב‬L2) NOUN M father; P ‫[ ָאבוֹת‬A2]
‫( ָא ַבד‬L11) VB Q perish; PI, HI destroy [C4]
‫( ָא ָבה‬L19) VB Q be willing, consent [C4, C7]
‫ימ ֶלְך‬
ֶ֫ ‫ ֲא ִב‬PN Abimelech
‫ ֲא ָבל‬CONJ but
‫( ֶ֫א ֶבן‬L8) NOUN F stone; P ‫ֲא ָבנִ ים‬
‫( ַא ְב ָר ָהם‬L6) PN Abraham
‫( ַא ְב ָרם‬L6) PN Abram
‫ ַא ְב ָשׁלוֹם‬PN Absalom
‫ ֱאדוֹם‬PN Edom
‫( ָא ָדם‬L4) NOUN M man, humankind; PN Adam
‫( ֲא ָד ָמה‬L10) NOUN F ground, land
‫( ָאדוֹן‬L3) NOUN M master, lord
‫( ֲאד ֹנָ י‬L3) PN (EPITHET) the Lord
‫ ֲאד ֹנִ ָ֫יּהוּ‬PN Adonijah
‫( ָא ֵהב‬L7) VB Q love [C1, C2]
‫( ֫א ֶֹהל‬L7) NOUN M tent
‫( ַא ֲהרוֹן‬L6) PN Aaron
‫( אוֹ‬L28) CONJ or
‫אוּלם‬
ָ CONJ but
‫אוֹצר‬
ָ NOUN M treasure, store; treasury,
storehouse
‫( אוֹר‬L22) NOUN M light
[‫ ]אוֹר‬VB Q be(come) light; H give light, shine,
make shine
‫ אוֹת‬NOUN M, F sign; P ‫אוֹתוֹת‬
[‫ ]אוּת‬VB NI consent, agree
‫( ֫אֹזֶ ן‬L5) NOUN F ear; DU ‫ָאזְ ֫ ַניִ ם‬

‫ ָאזַ ר‬VB Q gird, equip [C1, C3]
‫( ָאח‬L4) NOUN M brother; P ‫[ ַא ִחים‬A2]
‫( ֶא ָחד‬L13) NOUN M one, each (one); F ‫ַא ַחת‬
[D]
‫( ָאחוֹת‬L4) NOUN F sister; P [‫]א ָחיוֹת‬
ֲ A2]
‫ ַא ַחר‬, ‫( ַא ֲח ֵרי‬L13) PREP, ADV, CONJ behind, after
‫( ַא ֵחר‬L13) ADJ another
‫ ֵאי‬INTE where?; ‫י־מזֶּ ה‬
ִ ‫ ֵא‬from where?
‫ אוֹיֵב‬NOUN M enemy (Q PTCP)
‫יבה‬
ָ ‫ ֵא‬NOUN F enmity, personal hostility
‫ ַאיֵּ ה‬INTER where?
‫( ֵאיְך‬L27) ADV how; INTJ How!
‫ ַ֫איִ ן‬, ‫( ֵאין־‬L3) EXST ADV there is/are not
‫( ִאישׁ‬L2) NOUN M man; P ‫[ ֲאנָ ִשׁים‬A2]
‫( ַאְך‬L14) ADV only, surely
‫( ָא ַכל‬L7) VB Q eat [C4]
‫ ָא ְכ ָלה‬NOUN F food, eating
‫( ֶאל־‬L2) PREP to, towards [A5]
‫( ַאל‬L9) ADV not (with commands)
‫( ֵאל‬L28) NOUN M god, God, mighty one
‫ ֵ֫א ֶלּה‬CP DEM these [A4]
‫ֹלהים‬
ִ ‫( ֱא‬L2) NOUN M God; gods
‫ימ ֶלְך‬
ֶ֫ ‫ ֱא ִל‬PN Elimelech
‫ ֲא ֻל ָמּה‬NOUN F sheaf
‫ ֶ֫א ֶלף‬NOUN M thousand, clan
[‫]א ֶלף‬
ֶ֫ NOUN M cattle (only in P)
‫( ִאם‬L8) COND if; (also marks an alternative
condition, i.e., or ...)
‫( ֵאם‬L4) NOUN F mother; P ‫[ ִאמּוֹת‬A2]

Glossary
‫( ָא ָמה‬L19) NOUN F maid, handmaid
‫ ַא ָמּה‬NOUN F cubit
[‫]א ַמן‬
ָ (L17) VB Q support; HI believe [C1]
[‫]א ֵמץ‬
ָ (L29) VB Q be strong, bold; PI
strengthen (something); HIT make oneself
bold, obstinate [C1]
‫( ָא ַמר‬L6) VB Q say [C3, C4]
‫ ֵ֫א ֶמר‬NOUN M speech, word
‫( ֱא ֶמת‬L10) NOUN F truth, faithfulness
‫( ָ֫אנָ ה‬L25) INTER where?, to where?
‫ ָ֫אנָּ א‬, ‫ ָ֫אנָּ ה‬INTJ ah!, now!
‫ ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬, ‫ ֲא ַ֫נ ְחנוּ‬PRON 1CP we [A3]
‫ ָאנ ִֹכי‬, ‫ ֲאנִ י‬PRON 1CS I [A3]
‫ ָא ָסא‬PN Asa
‫( ָא ַסף‬L10) VB Q gather, remove [C1]
‫( ַאף‬L15) ADV also, even, moreover
‫( ַאף‬L22) NOUN M nose, face, anger
‫ ַאף ִכּי‬CONJ furthermore; how much more!
‫( ָא ָפה‬L19) VB Q bake [C4, C7]
‫ ֵ֫א ֶצל‬NOUN M proximity; PREP beside
‫ ַא ְר ַבּע‬NOUN FS four; MS ‫;א ְר ָבּ ָעה‬
ַ P ‫ַא ְר ָבּ ִעים‬
forty; ‫ ַא ְר ַבּ ְע ַ֫תּיִ ם‬four-fold; ‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ ְר ִב‬M fourth
[D] ‫ ִר ֵבּ ִעים‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to)
the fourth generation
‫( ֲארוֹן‬L24) NOUN M chest, ark
‫( ֫א ַֹרח‬L21) NOUN M way, path
‫ ֫א ֶֹרְך‬NOUN M length
[‫]א ֵרְך‬
ָ (L27) VB Q be long; HI prolong,
lengthen
‫( ֶא ֶרץ‬L2) NOUN F earth, land
[‫]א ַרר‬
ָ VB Q, PI curse [C1, C9]
‫ ֲא ָר ַרט‬PN Ararat
‫( ִא ָשּׁה‬L3) NOUN F woman, wife; P ‫[ נָ ִשׁים‬A2]
‫ ַאשּׁוּר‬PN Assyria
‫( ָא ָשׁם‬L17) NOUN M guilt (offering)
‫( ֲא ֶשׁר‬L5) CONJ that, which, who; COMP that
‫ ֵאת‬, ‫ ֶאת־‬, with suffix ‫א ִֹתי‬, etc. (L4) direct
object marker (mostly for definite
nouns) [A5]
‫ ֵאת‬, ‫ ֶאת־‬, with suffix ‫א ִתּי‬,
ִ etc. (L7) PREP with
[A5]
‫ ַא ָתּה‬PRON 2MS you [A3]
‫ ַא ְתּ‬PRON 2FS you [A3]
‫ ַא ֶתּם‬PRON 2MP you [A3]
‫ ַא ֶתּן‬, ‫ ַא ֵ֫תּנָ ה‬PRON 2FP you [A3]

220

‫בּ‬
‫( ְבּ‬L3) PREP in, at, with, by [A5]
‫( ְבּ ֵאר‬L10) NOUN M well, cistern, pit
‫( ָבּ ֶבל‬L6) PN Babylon
‫( ֶ֫בּגֶ ד‬L7) NOUN M garment
[‫]בּ ַדל‬
ָ (L22) VB HI divide, separate
‫ ֫בֹּהוּ‬NOUN M emptiness
‫( ְבּ ֵה ָמה‬L4) NOUN F cattle
‫( בּוֹא‬L23) VB Q come, enter; HI bring, make
enter [C4, C8]
‫( בּוֹר‬L10) NOUN M well, cistern, pit
‫( בּוֹשׁ‬L23) VB Q be ashamed [C8]
‫( ָבּ ַחר‬L17) VB Q choose [C2, C3]
‫( ָבּ ַטח‬L10) VB Q trust [C3]
ֵ
[‫]בּיִ ן‬
ַ֫ (L9) PREP between (only in CST ‫)בּין‬
‫ ִבּין‬VB Q perceive, observe, have insight; HI
understand, give understanding, teach
‫ ִבּינָ ה‬NOUN F understanding
‫( ַ֫בּיִ ת‬L2) NOUN M house ‫[ ָ ֽבּ ִתּים‬A2]
‫ית־אל‬
ֵ ‫ ֵבּ‬PN Bethel
‫ית־ל ֶחם‬
ֶ ֫ ‫ ֵבּ‬PN Bethlehem
‫( ָבּ ָכה‬L26) VB Q weep, bewail; PI lament [C7]
‫( ְבּכוֹר‬L23) NOUN M first-born
‫ ִבּ ְל ָהה‬PN Bilhah
‫ ָבּ ָלק‬PN Balak
‫( ִבּ ְל ִתּי‬L25) ADV not, except
‫( ָבּ ָמה‬L12) NOUN F high-place
‫( ֵבּן‬L2) NOUN M son; P ‫[ ָבּנִ ים‬A2]; ‫ ֶבּן־‬number
‫ ָשׁנָ ה‬idiomatic for X years old
‫( ָבּנָ ה‬L22) VB Q build [C7]
‫יָמין‬
ִ ְ‫ ִבּנ‬PN Benjamin
‫( ַ֫בּ ַעד‬L12) PREP behind, on behalf of, away
from; CST ‫ְבּ ַעד‬
‫ ֫בּ ַעז‬PN Boaz
‫ ַ֫בּ ַעל‬NOUN M owner, lord; PN Baal
‫ ָבּ ֵצק‬NOUN M dough
‫ ִבּ ְק ָעה‬NOUN F valley, plain
‫( ָבּ ָקר‬L7) NOUN M cattle, herd, ox
‫( ֫בּ ֶֹקר‬L28) NOUN M morning
[‫]בּ ַקשׁ‬
ָ (L11) VB PI seek
‫ ַבּר‬NOUN M corn
‫( ָבּ ָרא‬L20) VB Q create [C4]
‫ ָבּ ַרח‬VB Q flee [C3]
‫( ְבּ ִרית‬L4) NOUN F covenant
[‫]בּ ַרְך‬
ָ (L13) VB PI bless [C2]
‫( ָבּ ַשׁל‬L19) VB PI boil
‫( ָבּ ָשׂר‬L6) NOUN M flesh

Glossary
‫( ַבּת‬L4) NOUN F daughter; P ‫[ ָבּנוֹת‬A2]
‫ת־שׁ ַבע‬
ֶ֫ ‫ ַבּ‬PN Bathsheba
‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬PREP M in the midst of (only in CST; see
‫)תּוֶ ְך‬
ָ֫
‫גּ‬
‫ גָּ ַאל‬VB Q redeem, act as a kinsman [C2]
‫ גּ ֵֹאל‬Q PTCP kinsman-redeemer, close relative
‫ גָּ ַבהּ‬VB Q be high, lofty, tall; HI make high
‫ גְּ בוּל‬NOUN M border, territory
‫( גָּ דוֹל‬L9) ADJ great
[‫גָּ ַדל‬, ‫( ]גָּ ֵדל‬L11) VB Q be great; PI make great,
grow
‫ ֫גּ ֹ ֶדל‬NOUN M greatness, magnificence
‫ גִּ דעוֹן‬PN Gideon
‫( גּוֹי‬L5) NOUN M nation, people
‫( גּוּר‬L27) VB Q to sojourn, abide [C8]
‫ גָּ חוֹן‬NOUN M belly (of reptiles)
‫( גָּ ָלה‬L22) VB Q uncover, reveal [C7]
‫( גַּ ם‬L7) ADV also, even
‫( גָּ ָמל‬L22) NOUN M camel
‫( גַּ ן‬L15) NOUN M garden
‫ גָּ נַ ב‬VB Q steal; NI be stolen; PI steal away; PU
be stolen away; HIT go by stealth
‫ גְּ נֵ ָבה‬NOUN F stolen item
‫( גֵּ ר‬L14) NOUN M resident alien, stranger
‫ גַּ ְרגָּ רוֹת‬NOUN FP neck
‫( ֫גּ ֹ ֶרן‬L27) NOUN M threshing floor
‫ גְּ ָרר‬PN Gerar
[‫( ]גָּ ַרשׁ‬L18) VB Q cast out, thrust out; PI drive
out, away [C2]
‫דּ‬
‫( ָדּ ַבק‬L26) VB Q cling, cleave, keep close
‫( ָדּ ָבר‬L2) NOUN M word, thing
[‫( ָ]דּ ַבר‬L11) VB PI speak [C3]
‫ ֶ ֫דּ ֶבר‬NOUN M pestilence, plague
‫ ְדּ ַבשׁ‬NOUN M honey
‫ ָדּג‬NOUN M fish; F ‫ָדּגָ ה‬
‫( ָדּוִ ד‬L3) PN David
‫( דּוֹר‬L13) NOUN M generation
‫ ָדּ ָלה‬VB Q draw (water)
‫ ָדּם‬NOUN M blood; P bloodguilt
‫ ָדּ ָמה‬VB Q be like, resemble [C7]
‫ ְדּמוּת‬NOUN F likeness
‫ ָדּן‬PN Dan
‫( ַ ֫דּ ַעת‬L29) NOUN F/M knowledge

221

‫ ַדּ ְר ַדּר‬NOUN M thistles
‫( ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬L3) NOUN M/F way, road
‫( ָדּ ַרְך‬L16) VB Q tread, march, walk
‫( ָדּ ַרשׁ‬L5) VB Q seek [C2]
[‫ ָ]דּ ָשׁא‬VB Q be green; H cause to sprout
‫ ֶ ֫דּ ֶשׁא‬NOUN M grass
‫ה‬
•‫( ַה‬L3) DET the
‫( ֲה‬L14) INTER (question marker for “yes” and
“no” questions)
‫ ָ֫ ה‬- ADV to, toward (suffixed on nouns)
‫ ֶ֫ה ֶבל‬PN Abel
‫ ָהגָ ר‬PN Hagar
‫ הוּא‬MS PRON he; DEM that [A3, A4]
‫ ִהיא‬FS PRON she; DEM that [A3, A4]
‫( ָהיָ ה‬L5) VB Q become, be [C7]
‫יכל‬
ָ ‫( ֵה‬L10) NOUN M palace, temple
‫( ָה ַלְך‬L7) VB Q walk, go
[‫]ה ַלל‬
ָ (L13) VB PI praise [C9]
‫ ֵ֫ה ָמּה‬, ‫ ֵהם‬MP PRON they; DEM those [A3, A4]
‫( ָהמוֹן‬L15) NOUN M multitude, crowd
‫( ֵהן‬L18) INTJ behold, see!
‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬, ‫ ֵהן‬FP PRON they; DEM those [A3, A4]
‫ ֵ֫הנָּ ה‬ADV here;
‫( ִהנֵּ ה‬L11) INTJ behold, see!
‫( ָה ַפְך‬L14) VB Q overturn, destroy [C1]
‫ ֲה ֵפ ָכה‬NOUN F overthrow, destruction
‫( ַהר‬L5) NOUN M mountain, hill country; P
‫;ה ִרים‬
ָ with article ‫ ֶה ָה ִרים‬, ‫ָה ָהר‬
‫( ָה ַרג‬L10) VB Q kill, slay [C1, C2]
‫( ָה ָרה‬L24) VB Q conceive, become pregnant
[C1, C2, C7]
‫ ֵה ָריוֹן‬NOUN M conception, pregnancy (also
‫)הרוֹן‬
ֵ
‫ו‬
ְ‫( ו‬L3) CONJ and
‫( וַ יּ֫ א ֶֹמר‬L8) VB Q 3MS PAST √‫ אמר‬he said [C2,
C4]
‫ז‬

‫ זֹאת‬FS DEM this [A4]
‫( זָ ַבח‬L7) VB Q, PI slaughter, sacrifice [C3]
‫ זֶ ה‬MS DEM this [A4]
‫( זָ ָהב‬L11) NOUN M gold
‫( זָ ַכר‬L4) VB Q remember

Glossary
‫( זָ ָכר‬L19) NOUN M male
‫ זְ ָ ֑מן‬NOUN M appointed time, time
[‫ ]זֵ ָעה‬NOUN F sweat
‫( זָ ֵקן‬L10) ADJ old
‫ זָ ֵקן‬VB Q be old
‫( זָ ַרח‬L16) VB Q rise, come forth, appear
‫ זָ ַרע‬VB Q sow seed; H produce seed
‫( ֶ֫ז ַרע‬L20) NOUN M seed
‫ח‬
[‫]ח ָבא‬
ָ VB NI, HIT hide (oneself); HI hide
(something) [C1, C4]
[‫]ח ַבל‬
ָ VB Q bind, pledge; NI be pledged; PI
writhe, twist [C1]
‫ ח ֵֹבל‬NOUN M mariner, sailor (Q PTCP)
[‫]ח ַבק‬
ָ VB Q, PI embrace [C1]
[‫]ח ַבשׁ‬
ָ (L25) VB Q bind, bind on, bind up; PI
bind, restrain; PU be bound up [C1]
‫ ַחגִּ ית‬PN Haggit
‫ ֲחגוֹר‬NOUN M belt, girdle
‫( ָח ַדל‬L26) VB Q cease, come to an end [C1]
‫( ֫ח ֶֹדשׁ‬L25) NOUN M new moon, month
[‫]חוָ ה‬
ָ (L24) VB HISHTAFEL bow down,
prostrate oneself [C1, C7]
‫ ַחוָּ ה‬PN Eve
‫חוֹמה‬
ָ (L15) NOUN F wall
‫( ָחזַ ק‬L17) VB Q be strong; HI strengthen,
seize [C1]
‫( ָח ָטא‬L11) VB Q sin [C1, C4]
‫ ֵח ְטא‬NOUN M sin
‫( ֲח ָט ָאה‬L19) NOUN F sin
‫( ַח ָטּאת‬L8) NOUN F sin, sin-offering
‫ ַחי‬ADJ MS alive, living; FS ‫ַחיָּ ה‬
‫( ָחיָ ה‬L27) VB Q live, be alive [C1, C7]
‫( ַחיָּ ה‬L9) NOUN F animal
‫( ַ֫חיִ ל‬L29) NOUN M strength, wealth, valor;
army
‫( ַחיִּ ים‬L6) NOUN MP life
‫( ֵחיק‬L24) NOUN M bosom, lap
‫( ָח ָכם‬L9) ADJ MS wise; FS ‫ֲח ָכ ָמה‬
‫( ָח ַכם‬L16) VB Q be wise [C1]
[‫]ח ַלל‬
ָ (L24) VB NI be defiled; PI he polluted,
defiled; HI begin [C1, C9]
‫( ָח ַלק‬L25) VB Q, PI divide, distribute; NI
divide oneself [C1]
‫ ָח ָלק‬ADJ smooth, slippery
‫ ֵ֫ח ֶלק‬NOUN M portion, share, territory

222

‫( ֶח ְל ָקה‬L29) NOUN F portion
‫ ָח ַמד‬VB Q desire, take pleasure in
‫( ֲחמוֹר‬L15) NOUN M donkey
[‫]חמוֹת‬
ָ (L26) NOUN F mother-in-law
‫( ָח ָמס‬L15) NOUN M violence
‫ ֫ח ֶֹמר‬NOUN M cement, mortar, clay
ֲ P ‫ ֲח ִמ ִשּׁים‬fifty;
‫ ָח ֵמשׁ‬NOUN FS five; MS ‫;ח ִמ ָשּׁה‬
‫ ֲח ִמ ִשּׁי‬fifth [D]
‫( ֵחן‬L26) NOUN M favor, grace
‫( ָחנָ ה‬L25) VB Q incline, bend down, camp
[C1, C7]
‫ ַחנָּ ה‬PN Hannah
‫ ֲחנוְֹך‬PN Enoch
‫( ָחנַ ן‬L24) VB Q show favor, be gracious [C1,
C9]
[‫]חנֵ ף‬
ָ (L16) VB Q be polluted, profane; HI
pollute, make profane [C1]
‫( ֶ֫ח ֶסד‬L7) NOUN M kindness, goodness
‫( ָח ָסה‬L27) VB Q seek refuge [C1, C7]
‫ ֵ֫ח ֶפץ‬NOUN M delight, pleasure
‫חֹק‬, ‫ ָחק־‬, with suffix ‫ ָח ְקָך‬, ‫ ֻח ִקּי‬, etc. (L7) NOUN
M statute
‫( ֶ֫ח ֶרב‬L6) NOUN F sword P ‫ֲח ָרבוֹת‬
‫ ח ֵֹרב‬PN Horeb
‫( ָח ָרה‬L22) VB Q burn, be kindled [C1, C2,
C7]
‫( ָח ַשׁב‬L17) VB Q think, devise; NI be reckoned
[C1]
[‫]ח ָשׁה‬
ָ VB Q be silent; HI exhibit silence, make
still/quiet [C1, C7]
‫( ֫ח ֹ ֶשְׁך‬L22) NOUN M darkness
‫ ֵחת‬PN Heth; ‫ ִח ִתּי‬Hittite; ‫ ִח ִתּים‬Hittites
[‫]ח ַתת‬
ָ (L24) VB Q be shattered, dismayed
[C1, C9]
‫ט‬
‫( טוֹב‬L9) ADJ good, pleasant
‫ ָטהוֹר‬ADJ clean, pure
[‫ ]טוּל‬HI cast, hurl, throw; HO be hurled, cast,
thrown [C8]
‫ ָט ֵמא‬ADJ unclean
‫ ַטף‬NOUN M children
‫( ֶ֫ט ֶרם‬L24) ADV not yet, before
‫( ָט ַרף‬L25) VB Q tear, rend, pluck [C2]
‫י‬
[‫]יְב ֶמת‬
ֵ֫ (L27) NOUN F sister-in-law

Glossary
‫( ֵיָבשׁ‬L21) VB Q be(come) dry; HI cause to be
dry [C6]
‫( ָיַבּ ָשׁה‬L21) NOUN F dry land
‫( יָ ד‬L2) NOUN F hand; DU ‫ ;יָ ַ ֫דיִם‬P ‫יָ דוֹת‬
[‫( ]יָ ָדה‬L25) VB HI give thanks, praise, confess
[C6, C7]
‫( יָ ַדע‬L11) VB Q know [C3, C6]
‫ יֵ הוּא‬PN Jehu
‫הוּדה‬
ָ ְ‫( י‬L5) PN Judah
‫ יְ הוֹנָ ָתן‬PN Jonathan
‫הוֹשׁ ַע‬
ֻ ְ‫ י‬PN Joshua
‫( יהוה‬L1) PN YHWH (personal name of the
Hebrew God)
‫יוֹאב‬
ָ PN Joab
‫יוֹאשׁ‬
ָ PN Joash
ִ ; ‫ ַהיּוֹם‬today; ‫יוֹם‬
‫( יוֹם‬L2) NOUN M day; P ‫יָמים‬
‫ יוֹם‬daily [A2]
‫( יוֹנָ ה‬L17) NOUN F dove
‫ יוֹנָ ה‬PN Jonah
‫יוֹסף‬
ֵ (L14) PN Joseph
‫ יָ ִחיד‬ADJ, SUBST only, only one, solitary
[‫( ]יָ ַטב‬L21) VB Q be good, pleasing; HI do
(something) well, deal well with [C6]
‫( ַ֫ייִ ן‬L21) NOUN M wine
‫ יָ כֹל‬VB Q irregular be able, have power [C6]
‫( יָ ַלד‬L14) VB Q beget, bear (children) [C6]
[‫ ]יָ ַלל‬VB HI howl [C6, C9]
‫( יָ ם‬L13) NOUN M sea; P ‫יַמּים‬
ִ
‫ יַ ם־סוּף‬PN Sea of Reeds (“Red Sea”)
[‫]יָמן‬
ַ VB HI go right, choose the right, use the
right hand [C6]
‫יָמין‬
ִ NOUN F right side, right hand
[‫ ]יָ נַ ק‬VB Q suck; HI suckle, nurse [C6]
‫( יָ ַסף‬L28) VB Q add; HI multiply, do again,
continue [C6]
‫( יַ ֲעקֹב‬L7) PN Jacob
[‫ ]יָ ָפה‬VB Q be fair, beautiful; PI beautify
‫( יָ ָצא‬L13) VB Q go forth [C4, C6]
[‫ ]יָ ַצב‬VB HIT station oneself, take one's stand
[C6]
[‫ ]יָ ַצג‬VB HI set, place, establish; HO be stayed,
stopped, detained [C6]
‫( יִ ְצ ָחק‬L8) PN Isaac
[‫ ]יָ ַצע‬VB HI lay, spread; HO be laid, spread
[C3, C6]

223

‫ יָ ַצק‬VB Q pour, pour out; HI pour (oil); HO be
poured, cast, molten, firmly established
[C6]
‫( יָ ַצר‬L23) VB Q form, fashion, shape [C4, C6]
[‫ ]יָ ַצת‬VB Q kindle, burn; NI be kindled; HI
kindle, set on fire [C6]
[‫( ]יָ ַקץ‬L21) VB Q awake [C6]
‫( יָ ֵרא‬L13) VB Q fear [C4, C6]
‫ יִ ְר ָאה‬NOUN F fear, terror, reverence
‫( יָ ַרד‬L29) VB Q go down, descend [C6]
‫( יַ ְר ֵדּן‬L21) PN Jordan River
‫( יָ ָרה‬L25) VB Q, HI throw, cast, shoot
(arrows) [C6]
‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫( י‬L5) PN Jerusalem
‫ יְ ִריחוֹ‬PN Jericho
‫יִ ְר ְמיָ ה‬, ‫( יִ ְר ְמ ָ֫יהוּ‬L12) PN Jeremiah
‫ ֶ֫י ֶרק‬NOUN M green (thing), greenness
‫( יָ ַרשׁ‬L24) VB Q take possession, inherit [C6]
‫( יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬L2) PN Israel
‫ יֵ שׁ‬EXST there is
‫( יָ ַשׁב‬L11) VB Q sit, dwell; ‫יוֹשׁב‬
ֵ inhabitant,
dweller (Q PTCP) [C6]
‫ יִ ַשׁי‬PN Jesse
‫ יִ ְשׁ ָמ ֵעאל‬PN Ishmael
[‫( ]יָ ַשׂע‬L21) VB NI be saved; HI save, deliver
[C3, C6]
‫( ֵ֫י ַשׁע‬L17) NOUN M deliverance, rescue,
salvation
‫( יָ ַשׁר‬L21) VB Q be smooth, right; PI make
even, smooth [C3, C6]
[‫]יָתר‬
ַ VB NI be left over, remain over; HI leave
over, leave a remnant [C3, C6]
‫כּ‬
‫( ְכּ‬L3) PREP like, as [A5]
‫( ַכּ ֲא ֶשׁר‬L6) CONJ as, just as, when
‫( ָכּ ֵבד‬L9) ADJ heavy
[‫ ָכּ ַבד‬, ‫( ] ָכּ ֵבד‬L11) VB Q be heavy; PI, HI make
heavy, honor
‫( ָכּבוֹד‬L8) NOUN M glory, honor, wealth
‫ ֶ֫כּ ֶבשׁ‬NOUN M lamb
[‫]כּ ַבשׁ‬
ָ (L17) VB Q subdue, dominate
‫( כֹּה‬L6) ADV thus, so
‫( כּ ֵֹהן‬L3) NOUN M priest
‫כּוֹכב‬
ָ NOUN M star
[‫( ]כּוּן‬L23) VB NI be set up, established, fixed;
HI establish, set up, make firm [C8]
‫ כּ ַֹח‬NOUN M strength, power

Glossary
‫( ִכּי‬L2) CONJ because, when, if, though, but;
COMP that; ‫ ִכּי ִאם‬but
‫ ִכּ ָכּר‬NOUN F round district, loaf, weight
‫כּל‬, ‫ ָכּל־‬, with suffix ‫כּ ֵלְּך‬,
ֻ etc. (L2) ADJ all,
every; NOUN M everything
‫( ָכּ ָלה‬L14) VB Q be complete, PI complete,
finish [C7]
‫( ַכּ ָלּה‬L26) NOUN F daughter-in-law, bride
‫( ְכּ ִלי‬L13) NOUN M vessel, utensil; P ‫ֵכּ ִלים‬
‫ ִכּ ְליוֹן‬PN Kilyon
‫( ֵכּן‬L22) ADV so, thus
‫ ָכּנַ ס‬VB Q gather, collect; PI gather together;
HIT gather oneself together
‫ ְכּנַ ֲענִ י‬, ‫( ְכּנ֫ ַען‬L11) PN Canaan, Canaanite
‫ ָכּנָ ף‬NOUN F wing, extremity DU ‫ ְכּנָ ֫ ַפיִ ם‬P [‫]כּנָ פוֹת‬
ְ
‫( ִכּ ֵסּא‬L23) NOUN M throne
‫( ֶ֫כּ ֶסף‬L11) NOUN M silver, money
‫ ַ֫כּ ַעס‬NOUN M vexation, anger
‫( ִכּ ֵפּר‬L13) VB PI appease, atone [C3]
‫ ַכּר‬NOUN M saddlebag
‫ ְכּרוּב‬NOUN M cherub (type of subordinate
divine being)
‫ ֶ֫כּ ֶרם‬NOUN M, F vineyard
‫( ָכּ ַרת‬L4) VB Q cut, cut off, cut down [C2]
‫( ָכּ ַתב‬L8) VB Q write
‫תנֶ ת‬
ֹ ֫ ‫ ְכּ‬, ‫תּנֶ ת‬
ֹ ֫ ‫ ֻכּ‬NOUN F tunic
‫ל‬
‫( ְל‬L3) PREP to, for [A5]
‫( לֹא‬L2) ADV no, not
‫ ֵל ָאה‬PN Leah
‫( ֵלאמֹר‬L12) COMP used to introduce direct
speech; not translated (Q INF CST √‫)אמר‬
[C1, C4]
‫ ֵל ָבב‬, ‫( ֵלב‬L3) NOUN M heart, mind
‫ ָל ָבן‬PN Laban
‫ ְל ָבנוֹן‬PN Lebanon
‫ ָל ַבשׁ‬, ‫( ָל ֵבשׁ‬L12) VB Q wear; HI clothe
‫ ֫ ַל ַהט‬NOUN M flame
‫ לוּ‬COND would that, if (irreal)
‫לוּלי‬
ֵ COND if not (irreal, negative)
‫לוּח‬
ַ (L18) NOUN M tablet, board, plank, plate;
P ‫ֻלחוֹת‬
‫ לוֹט‬PN Lot
‫ ֵלוִ י‬PN Levi
‫( ֫ ֶל ֶחם‬L7) NOUN M bread, food
‫ ָלט‬, ‫ ָלאט‬NOUN M secrecy (always with ‫)בּ‬
ְ

224

‫( ֫ ַליְ ָלה‬L7) NOUN M night
‫( ָל ַכד‬L5) VB Q capture
‫ ָל ֵכן‬CONJ therefore
‫( ָל ַמד‬L12) VB Q learn; PI teach
‫ ָל ָמה‬, ‫( ֫ ָל ָמּה‬L20) INTER why?
‫ ֫ ֶל ֶמְך‬PN Lamech
‫( ְל ַ֫מ ַען‬L13) PREP for the sake of; CONJ in order
that (purpose), so that (result)
‫( ִל ְפנֵ י‬L5) PREP, CONJ before
‫( ְל ָפנִ ים‬L27) ADV formerly, previously
‫( ָל ַקח‬L15) VB Q take, receive [C3, C5]
[‫]ל ַקט‬
ָ (L26) VB Q glean, pick up, gather
‫( ָלשׁוֹן‬L13) NOUN M tongue, language P ‫ְלשׁ ֹנוֹת‬
‫מ‬
‫( ְמאֹד‬L7) NOUN M strength; ADV exceedingly
‫ ֵמ ָאה‬NOUN F hundred [D]
‫ ָמאוֹר‬NOUN M luminary, light, lamp; P ‫ְמאוֹרוֹת‬
‫ ַמ ֲא ָכל‬NOUN M food
‫( ִמ ְד ָבּר‬L10) NOUN M wilderness
‫ ָמדוֹן‬NOUN M strife, contention; P ‫ ִמ ְדוָ נִ ים ְמ ָדנִ ים‬,
and ‫ְמדוֹנִ ים‬
‫דּוּע‬
ַ ‫( ַמ‬L26) INTER why?
‫ ִמ ְדיָ ן‬PN Midian
‫( ָמה‬L10) INTER what? how?
‫הוּמה‬
ָ ‫ ְמ‬NOUN F tumult, confusion
‫מוֹאב‬
ָ PN Moab; ‫מוֹא ִבי‬
ָ Moabite, F ‫מוֹא ִביָּ ה‬
ֲ
‫מוֹעד‬
ֵ (L17) NOUN M meeting, appointed time
‫מוֹפת‬
ֵ (L23) NOUN M wonder, sign, portent
‫( מוּת‬L23) VB Q die; HI kill [C8]
‫( ָ֫מוֶ ת‬L29) NOUN M death
‫( ִמזְ ֵבּ ַח‬L12) NOUN M altar; P ‫ִמזְ ָבּחוֹת‬
‫( ָמ ָחה‬L20) VB Q blot out, wipe away [C2, C7]
‫ ַמ ְחלוֹן‬PN Machlon
‫ ַמ ֲחנֶ ה‬NOUN M encampment, camp P ‫ ַמ ֲחנוֹת‬and
‫ַמ ֲחנִ ים‬
‫ ַמ ֶטּה‬NOUN M staff, rod, branch, tribe P ‫ַמטּוֹת‬
‫( ִמי‬L9) INTER who?
‫ ְמיַ ְלּ ָדה‬NOUN F midwife
‫( ַ֫מיִ ם‬L5) NOUN M water
[‫]מין‬
ִ NOUN M kind, species
‫ ַמ ָכּה‬NOUN F blow, wound
‫( ָמ ַכר‬L29) VB Q sell [C3]
‫( ָמ ֵלא‬L10) ADJ full
‫ ָמ ֵלא‬VB Q be full, fill; PI fill [C4]
‫( ַמ ְל ָאְך‬L6) NOUN M messenger, angel
‫אכה‬
ָ ‫( ְמ ָל‬L16) NOUN F work

Glossary
‫ ֶ֫מ ַלח‬NOUN M salt
‫( ִמ ְל ָח ָמה‬L14) NOUN F war, battle
‫( ֶ֫מ ֶלְך‬L2) NOUN M king
‫( ָמ ַלְך‬L4) VB Q reign, be(come) king
‫ ִמ ְל ָכּה‬PN Milcah
‫ ַמ ְלכוּת‬NOUN F royalty, royal power, reign,
kingdom
‫( ַמ ְמ ָל ָכה‬L23) NOUN F kingdom, rule
‫ ֶמ ְמ ָשׁ ָלה‬NOUN F rule, dominion
‫ ִמן־‬and •‫( ִמ‬L3) PREP from; more than [A5]
‫ ָמנָ ה‬VB Q count, number, assign; PI appoint,
ordain [C7]
‫( ִמנְ ָחה‬L13) NOUN F gift, grain offering
‫( ְמ ַעט‬L19) ADV little, few
[‫]מ ַעל‬
ַ֫ NOUN M higher part (only ‫ ִמ ַ֫מּ ַעל‬above
and LCV ‫ ַ֫מ ְע ָלה‬upwards)
‫( ַמ ֲע ָלל‬L21) NOUN M deed, practice
‫( ַמ ֲע ֶשׂה‬L28) NOUN M deed, work
‫ ִמ ְפּנֵ י‬PREP, CONJ from before (‫ ִמן‬+ ‫)פּנֵ י‬
ְ
‫( ָמ ָצא‬L11) VB Q find [C4]
‫( ִמ ְצוָ ה‬L7) NOUN F commandment; P ‫ִמ ְצו ֹת‬
‫( ִמ ְצ ַ֫ריִ ם‬L5) PN Egypt
[‫]מ ְקוֶ ה‬
ִ NOUN M collection, collected mass
‫( ָמקוֹם‬L6) NOUN M place P ‫ְמקֹמוֹת‬
‫ ָמ ָרא‬PN Mara (‘bitterness’)
‫( ַמ ְר ֶאה‬L10) NOUN M appearance, vision
[‫]מ ְרגָּ לוֹת‬
ַ (L27) NOUN FP place of feet ADV at
[his] feet
‫ מ ִֹריָּ ה‬PN Moriah
‫( ֶמ ְר ָכּ ָבה‬L17) NOUN F chariot
[‫]מ ַרד‬
ָ (L27) VB Q be bitter; PI HI make bitter
[C9]
[‫]מ ְשׂ ֫כּ ֶֹרת‬
ַ NOUN F wages
‫( מ ֶֹשׁה‬L3) PN Moses
‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָכּב‬L18) NOUN M couch, place of lying
‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָכּן‬L13) NOUN M dwelling, tabernacle
‫( ָמ ַשׁל‬L14) VB Q rule
‫ ִמ ְשׁ ֶ֫מ ֶרת‬NOUN F guard, watch; charge,
function
‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָפּ ָחה‬L15) NOUN F family, clan
‫( ִמ ְשׁ ָפּט‬L8) NOUN M judgment, justice; custom
‫ ֵמת‬Q PTCP √‫מוּת‬
‫נ‬
‫( נָ א‬L13) illocutionary signal equivalent to I
tell you ; alternatively, a marker of
politeness, such as please.

225

‫ נְ ֻאם‬NOUN M utterance (always CST)
[‫( ]נָ ַאף‬L17) VB Q, PI commit adultery [C2]
[‫ ]נְ ָא ָקה‬NOUN F groan, groaning
[‫ ]נָ ָבא‬VB NI, HIT prophesy [C4, C5]
[‫( ]נָ ַבט‬L20) VB PI, HI look, gaze [C5]
‫( נָ ִביא‬L4) NOUN M prophet
‫( ֫ ֶנגֶ ב‬L20) NOUN M south
‫ ֫ ֶנגֶ ב‬PN Negeb
[‫( ]נָ גַ ד‬L20) VB HI declare [C5]
‫( ֫ ֶנגֶ ד‬L10) ADV, PREP in front of, in sight of,
opposite to
‫( נָ גַ ע‬L20) VB Q touch, reach, strike [C3, C5]
[‫( ]נָ גַ שׁ‬L20) VB Q draw near, approach [C5]
‫ נוֹד‬PN Nod
‫נוּח‬
ַ (L25) VB Q rest; HI cause to rest, make
quiet; set down; let remain, leave [C3,
C5, C8]
‫ נ ַֹח‬PN Noah
‫ נָ חוֹר‬PN Nahor
‫ ֫ ַנ ַחל‬NOUN M torrent, torrent valley/run-off
ravine (‘wadi’)
‫( נַ ֲח ָלה‬L26) NOUN F possession, property,
inheritance
[‫( ]נָ ַחם‬L17) VB NI be sorry/regret,
comforted; PI comfort, console [C2]
‫ נָ ָחשׁ‬PN Nahash
‫ נָ ָחשׁ‬NOUN M serpent
‫( נָ ָטה‬L22) VB Q stretch out, extend; HI turn,
incline (something) [C5, C7]
‫( נָ ַטע‬L23) VB Q plant [C3, C5]
[‫( ]נָ ָכה‬L25) VB HI smite, strike [C5, C7]
[‫( ]נָ ַכר‬L18) VB NI be recognized; HI
recognize, regard [C3, C5]
‫( נֵ ָכר‬L23) NOUN M foreign thing
‫( נָ ְכ ִרי‬L26) ADJ foreign, alien; F ‫נָ ְכ ִריָּ ה‬
‫( נָ ַסע‬L20) VB Q pull up (tent pegs), set out,
journey [C3, C5]
‫( ַ֫נ ַעל‬L27) NOUN F sandal, shoe DU ‫( נַ ֲע ֫ ַליִ ם‬L5)
‫ נָ ֳע ִמי‬PN Naomi (‘my pleasantness’)
‫( ֫ ַנ ַער‬L4) NOUN M lad, young boy; ‫ נַ ֲע ָרה‬F
maiden, young girl
‫( נָ ַפל‬L20) VB Q fall [C5]
‫ נְ ִפ ִלים‬NOUN MP giants,“fallen ones”
‫( ֫ ֶנ ֶפשׁ‬L3) NOUN F life, self
[‫( ]נָ ַצב‬L28) VB NI take one’s stand, station
oneself; be stationed, appointed
[‫( ]נָ ַצל‬L20) VB NI be delivered, deliver
oneself; HI snatch away, deliver [C5]

Glossary
[‫ ]נָ ַצר‬VB Q watch, guard, keep [C3, C5]
‫ נְ ֵק ָבה‬NOUN F female
‫( נָ ִקי‬L16) ADJ clean, innocent, exempt
[‫( ]נָ ַקם‬L25) VB Q avenge, take vengeance; NI
avenge oneself; HO be avenged [C5]
‫( נָ ָשׂא‬L13) VB Q lift up [C4, C5]; NI be
deceived; HI deceive
‫ נָ ִשׁים‬NOUN FP women; see ‫[ ִא ָשּׁה‬A2]
[‫( ]נָ ַשׁק‬L26) VB Q, PI kiss [C5]
‫ ֶ֫נ ֶשׁר‬NOUN M vulture, eagle
‫( נָ ַתן‬L9) VB Q give, place, set [C5]
‫ נָ ָתן‬PN Nathan
‫ס‬
‫( ָס ַבב‬L24) VB Q turn about, go around,
surround [C9]
‫ ָס ִביב‬ADV/PREP around, about
‫ ְסד ֹם‬PN Sodom
‫( סוּס‬L4) NOUN M horse, stallion; ‫סוּסה‬
ָ F mare
‫ סוּף‬NOUN M reeds, rushes; see ‫יַם־סוּף‬
‫( סוּר‬L23) VB Q turn aside, depart; HI cause to
depart, remove [C8]
‫ ִסינַ י‬PN Sinai
[‫]ס ַלח‬
ָ (L19) VB Q forgive [C3]
‫ ַסנְ ֵח ִריב‬PN Sennacherib
[‫]ס ַער‬
ָ VB Q storm; NI enraged; PI storm [C2,
C3]
[‫]ס ַפד‬
ָ VB Q wail, lament; NI be bewailed
‫ ָס ַפר‬VB Q count, number; PI recount, declare
[C3]
‫( ֵ֫ס ֶפר‬L8) NOUN M scroll, document, book
[‫]ס ַתר‬
ָ (L12) VB NI hide (oneself); HI conceal
[C3]
‫ ֵ֫ס ֶתר‬NOUN M hiding-place, secrecy
‫ע‬
‫( ֶ֫ע ֶבד‬L3) NOUN M servant
‫( ָע ַבד‬L13) VB Q serve, work [C1]
‫ ֲעבוּר‬only as ‫ ַבּ ֲעבוּר‬PREP, CONJ for the sake of,
on account of, in order that
‫( ָע ַבר‬L12) VB Q pass over [C1]
‫ ִע ְב ִרי‬PN Hebrew; P ‫ ִע ְב ִרים‬Hebrews
‫( ַעד‬L5) PREP unto, as far as; CONJ while, until
[A5]
‫( ֵעד‬L26) NOUN M witness
‫( ֵע ָדה‬L17) NOUN F congregation
‫ ָע ָדה‬PN Adah

226

‫ ֵעדוּת‬NOUN F testimony
‫ ֵ֫ע ֶדן‬PN Eden
‫עוֹבד‬
ֵ PN Obed
‫( עוֹד‬L15) ADV still, yet, again
‫עוֹלם‬
ָ (L8) NOUN M forever, long duration,
antiquity
‫( ָעו ֹן‬L13) NOUN M transgression, iniquity
‫ עוּף‬VB Q fly; POLEL fly about
‫ עוֹף‬NOUN M flying creatures, fowl, insects
‫ עוֹר‬NOUN M skin, (animal) hide
‫( ָעזַ ב‬L7) VB Q abandon, forsake [C1]
‫( ַ֫עיִ ן‬L5) NOUN F eye DU ‫ֵע ֫ ַיניִ ם‬
‫( ִעיר‬L2) NOUN F city; P ‫ָע ִרים‬
‫ ֵעיר ֹם‬ADJ naked
‫( ַעל‬L5) PREP upon, over
‫( ָע ָלה‬L14) VB Q go up [C1, C7]
‫( ע ָֹלה‬L12) NOUN F burnt offering
‫ ָע ֶלה‬NOUN M leaf, leafage
‫עם‬,
ִ with suffix ‫ע ִמּי‬,
ִ etc. (L4) PREP with; also
‫ ִע ָמּ ִדי‬with me, at my side
‫( ַעם‬L2) NOUN M people
‫( ָע ַמד‬L6) VB Q stand [C1]
‫ ֲעמ ָֹרה‬PN Gomorrah
‫( ָענָ ה‬L22) VB Q answer, respond [C1, C7]
‫ ֲענָ ק‬PN Anak P ‫ ֲענָ ִקים‬Anakites
‫( ָע ָפר‬L23) NOUN M dust, dirt, dry earth
‫( ֵעץ‬L8) NOUN M tree; P ‫ ֵע ִצים‬wood
[‫]ע ָצב‬
ָ NOUN M idol (always P ‫)ע ַצ ִבּים‬
ֲ
‫ ֶ֫ע ֶצב‬NOUN M pain, hurt, toil
‫ ִע ָצּבוֹן‬NOUN M pain, toil
‫( ֶ֫ע ֶצם‬L14) NOUN F bone
‫ ָע ֵקב‬NOUN M heel, footprint, hinderpart
‫ ָע ַקר‬VB Q pluck, root up [C1, C3]
‫ ֵער‬PN Er
‫ ֫ ֶע ֶרב‬NOUN M evening, sunset
‫ ָער ֹב‬NOUN M swarm (of flies), mixture
‫ ֲע ָר ָבה‬NOUN F desert-plain, steppe; Jordan
valley
‫ ָערוֹם‬ADJ naked
‫ ָערוּם‬ADJ crafty, shrewd, sensible
‫ ֲע ֵר ָמה‬NOUN F heap
‫ ָע ְר ָפּה‬PN Orpah
‫ ֵ֫ע ֶשׂב‬NOUN M herb, herbage
‫( ָע ָשׂה‬L11) VB Q do, make, act [C1, C7]
‫ ֵע ָשׂו‬PN Esau

Glossary
‫ ֶ֫ע ֶשׂר‬NOUN FS ten; MS ‫;ע ָשׂ ָרה‬
ֲ P ‫ ֶע ְשׂ ִרים‬twenty;
‫ ֲע ִשׂ ִירי‬tenth [D]
‫( ֵעת‬L14) NOUN F time; P‫ ִעתּוׄ ֹת עִ ִתּ י ם‬,
‫( ַע ָתּה‬L13) ADV now
‫פּ‬
‫ ֶפּה‬NOUN M mouth; CST ‫ִפּי‬
[‫]פּ ָלא‬
ָ (L19) VB NI HIT be difficult,
extraordinary; HI do an extraordinary
thing [C4]
‫ ִפּ ֫ ֶילגֶ שׁ‬NOUN F concubine
[‫]פּ ַלל‬
ָ (L15) VB HIT pray [C9]
‫( ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּי‬L6) PN Philistine; P ‫ְפּ ִל ְשׁ ִתּים‬
Philistines
‫( ֶפּן‬L10) CONJ lest, so that not (negative
purpose)
[‫]פּנֶ ה‬
ָ (L2) NOUN M (always P ‫ ָפּנִ ים‬face)
‫ ֶ֫פּ ֶסל‬NOUN M idol, image
‫ ֫ ֹפּ ַעל‬NOUN M doing, deed, work
‫( ֫ ַפּ ַעם‬L15) NOUN M step, time
‫( ָפּ ָקד‬L4) VB Q attend to, visit, appoint
‫ ָפּ ַקח‬VB Q open eyes, ears; NI be opened [C3]
‫ ָפּ ִקיד‬NOUN M commissioner, deputy, overseer
‫( ַפּר‬L22) NOUN M young bull, steer; ‫ ָפּ ָרה‬F
heifer, cow
[‫]פּ ַרד‬
ָ (L29) VB Q separate; HI divide,
separate (something) [C2]
[‫]פּ ָרה‬
ָ (L22) VB Q bear fruit, be fruitful [C2,
C7]
‫( ְפּ ִרי‬L20) NOUN M fruit
‫( ַפּ ְרעֹה‬L6) PN Pharaoh
‫ ָפּ ַרץ‬VB Q break through/open/out; NI spread;
PU broken down [C2]
[‫]פּ ַרר‬
ָ (L24) VB HI break, frustrate [C2, C3,
C9]
‫( ָפּ ָרשׁ‬L21) NOUN M horseman
‫( ֶ֫פּ ַתח‬L17) NOUN M opening
‫( ָפּ ַתח‬L15) VB Q open [C3]
‫( ָפּ ַתר‬L25) VB Q interpret [C3]
‫צ‬
‫( צֹאן‬L7) NOUN M, F sheep, flock
[‫]צ ָבא‬
ָ (L6) NOUN M host, army; hard service
[‫ ָצד ֹק‬, ‫( ] ָצ ֵדק‬L12) VB Q be righteous; HI justify
‫( ֶ֫צ ֶדק‬L8) NOUN M righteousness
‫( ְצ ָד ָקה‬L29) NOUN F righteousness
‫( ַצ ִדּיק‬L9) ADJ righteous

227

‫( ִצוָּ ה‬L27) VB PI command [C7]
[‫]צ ַחק‬
ָ VB Q laugh; PI jest [C2]
‫ ְצחֹק‬NOUN M laughter, laughing-stock
‫ ִציוֹן‬PN Zion
‫ ִצ ָלּה‬PN Silah
[‫ ָצ ַלח‬, ‫( ] ָצ ֵל ַח‬L15) VB Q prosper, be
successful; HI make successful, show
experience [C3]
‫ ֶ֫צ ֶלם‬NOUN M image, likeness
‫( ָצ ֵמא‬L19) VB Q be thirsty [C4]
‫ ָצ ַמח‬VB Q sprout, spring up; HI cause to
sprout, grow
‫ ְצ ָע ָקה‬NOUN F cry, outcry
‫( ָצ ַרר‬L24) VB Q show hostility [C2, C3, C9]
‫ק‬
‫( ָק ַבר‬L15) VB Q, PI bury [C3]
‫ ֶ ֫ק ֶבר‬NOUN M grave, sepulchre
‫( ָקדוֹשׁ‬L28) ADJ sacred, holy
‫( ֶ ֫ק ֶדם‬L20) NOUN M front, east, aforetime; ADV
anciently
[‫ ָק ַדשׁ‬, ‫( ] ָק ֵדשׁ‬L11) VB Q be holy; PI
consecrate
‫( ֫ק ֶֹדשׁ‬L10) NOUN M holiness, apartness,
sacredness
[‫]ק ַהל‬
ָ (L12) VB HI congregate [C2]
‫( ָק ָהל‬L19) NOUN M assembly, congregation
[‫]קוָ ה‬
ָ VB NI be collected
‫( קוֹל‬L6) NOUN M voice, sound
‫( קוּם‬L23) VB Q rise, stand up; PI confirm,
establish; HI raise, erect [C8]
‫ קוֹץ‬NOUN M thorns, thorn-bush
‫( ָקטֹן‬L9) ADJ MS small; F, P supplied by ‫ָק ָטן‬
‫( ָק ָטן‬L12) ADJ MS small; FS ‫ְק ַטנָּ ה‬
‫( ָקטֹן‬L16) VB Q be small, insignificant
[‫]ק ַטר‬
ָ (L12) VB PI, HI make sacrifices smoke
[C3]
‫ ַ ֫קיִ ן‬PN Cain
‫( ָק ַלל‬L24) VB Q be slight, trifling; be quick
[C9]
‫ ֵקן‬NOUN M nest
‫ ַקנָּ א‬ADJ jealous
‫( ָקנָ ה‬L15) VB Q buy, acquire [C7]
‫( ָק ֶצה‬L28) NOUN M end, extremity
[‫ ָק ַצר‬, ‫ ] ָק ֵצר‬VB Q be short, impatient; PI HI
shorten [C3]
[‫]ק ַצר‬
ָ (L28) VB Q reap, harvest

Glossary
‫( ָק ָרא‬L9) VB Q call, proclaim, read aloud
[C4]
‫( ָקרוֹב‬L19) ADJ near
[‫ ָק ַרב‬, ‫( ] ָק ֵרב‬L5) VB Q draw near, approach
[C2]
‫ ֶ ֫ק ֶרב‬NOUN M inward part, midst
‫יאה‬
ָ ‫ ְק ִר‬NOUN F proclamation
‫ ָק ַרע‬VB Q tear, rend; NI be rent, split asunder
[C2, C3]
‫ ָק ַשׁר‬VB Q bind, conspire together; NI was
bound, joined together; PI bind on; HIT
conspire [C3]
‫( ֶ ֫ק ֶשׁת‬L21) NOUN F bow
‫ר‬
‫( ָר ָאה‬L22) VB Q see, look; NI show oneself,
appear; HI show, exhibit [C1, C2, C7]
‫אוּבן‬
ֵ ‫ ְר‬PN Reuben
‫( רֹאשׁ‬L5) NOUN M head; P ‫אשׁים‬
ִ ‫[ ָר‬A2]
‫ ִראשׁוֹן‬ADJ first [D]
‫אשׁית‬
ִ ‫ ֵר‬NOUN F beginning or chief (part)
‫( ַרב‬L14) ADJ many, much; MP ‫ַר ִבּים‬
‫( ר ֹב‬L24) NOUN M multitude, greatness,
abundance
[‫ ָ]ר ַבב‬VB Q be(come) many, much
‫( ָר ָבה‬L22) VB Q be(come) many, multiply; HI
make much/ many, make multiply [C1,
C7]
‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ ְר ִב‬NOUN M fourth (see ‫)א ְר ַבּע‬
ַ [D]
[‫ ִר ֵבּ ִעים‬, ‫ ] ִר ֵבּ ַע‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to)
the fourth generation
‫ ִר ְב ָקה‬PN Rebekah
‫( ֶ֫רגֶ ל‬L5) NOUN F foot
‫( ָר ָדה‬L22) VB Q have dominion, rule [C1, C7]
‫ ָר ַדף‬VB Q pursue, chase, persecute; NI are
pursued; PI pursue ardently; PU be
chased away; HI chase [C1]
‫( ַ֫ר ַהט‬L19) NOUN M water-trough
‫רוּח‬
ַ (L5) NOUN F spirit, wind
‫ רוּת‬PN Ruth
‫ ָר ָחב‬ADJ wide, broad
‫ ְר ַח ְב ָעם‬PN Rehoboam
‫( ָרחוֹק‬L19) ADJ far, distant; NOUN M distance;
‫ ֵמ ָרחוֹק‬at a distance
‫ ָר ֵחל‬PN Rachel
‫( רחם‬L21) VB PI have compassion on [C1,
C2]
‫ רחף‬VB PI hover [C2]

228

‫ ָר ַחק‬VB Q be far, distant; PI send far away,
distance; HI cause to be distant, far
away; remove [C1, C2]
‫( ֵר ָיקם‬L29) ADV emptily, vainly
‫ ָר ַמשׂ‬VB Q creep (on the ground), move
lightly
‫ ֶ֫ר ֶמשׂ‬NOUN M creeping things, moving things
‫( ָרנַ ן‬L24) VB Q, PI give a ringing cry [C1, C9]
‫( ַרע‬L9) ADJ MS bad, evil; FS ‫ָר ָעה‬
‫( ֵר ַע‬L12) NOUN M friend
‫( ָר ָעב‬L9) NOUN M famine, hunger
‫( ָר ָעה‬L21) VB Q shepherd, tend, pasture [C1,
C2, C7]
‫( ר ֶֹעה‬L21) NOUN M shepherd (Q PTCP)
‫( ָר ָפא‬L19) VB Q heal [C1, C4]
‫ ָר ַקד‬VB Q skip about; PI dance, leap; HI cause
to skip [C1]
‫יע‬
ַ ‫ ָר ִק‬NOUN M extended surface, expanse,
firmament
‫( ָר ָשׁע‬L9) ADJ wicked
‫( ָר ַשׁע‬L12) VB Q be wicked; HI condemn [C1,
C3]
‫שׂ‬
‫( ָשׂ ֶדה‬L9) NOUN M field; P ‫שׂדוֹת‬
‫( שׂוּם ִשׂים‬L23) VB Q put, place, set [C8]
‫ ָשׂ ַחק‬VB Q laugh, play; PI make sport, jest; HI
utterly mock [C2]
‫ ָשׂ ַכל‬VB Q be prudent; HI look at, ponder; give
insight, teach
‫ ֵ֫שׂ ֶכל‬NOUN M prudence, insight
‫ ְשׂמֹאל‬NOUN M left side, left hand
‫ ָשׂ ֵמ ַח‬, ‫( ָשׂ ַמח‬L16) VB Q rejoice, be glad; PI
make rejoice, glad [C3]
‫( ָשׂנֵ א‬L14) VB Q hate [C4]
‫( ָשׂ ִעיר‬L13) ADJ hairy
‫( ָשׂ ָפה‬L13) NOUN F lip, shore
‫( ַשׂר‬L11) NOUN M official, captain, prince; P
‫ָשׂ ִרים‬
‫ ָשׂ ָרה‬PN Sarah
‫ ָשׂ ָרי‬PN Sarai
‫ ָשׂ ִריד‬NOUN M survivor
‫שׁ‬
•‫( ֶשׁ‬L18) CONJ that, which, who
‫( ָשׁאוּל‬L8) PN Saul
‫( ְשׁאוֹל‬L29) NOUN F underworld, Sheol
‫( ָשׁ ַאל‬L10) VB Q inquire, ask [C2]

Glossary
‫( שׁאר‬L28) VB NI be left over, behind, remain;
HI leave over, behind [C2, C3]
‫ ִשׁ ֫בּ ֶֹלת‬NOUN F ear of grain; P ‫ִשׁ ֳבּ ִלים‬
‫( שׁבע‬L14) VB NI swear (an oath); HI cause to
swear (an oath) [C3]
‫( ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬L10) NOUN FS seven; MS ‫;שׁ ְב ָעה‬
ִ P ‫ִשׁ ְב ִעים‬
seventy; ‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ ְשׁ ִב‬seventh; ‫ ִשׁ ְב ָע ַ֫תּיִם‬sevenfold [D]
‫ ֶ֫שׁ ַבע‬PN Sheba
‫( ָשׁ ַבר‬L12) VB Q break; PI shatter, break [C3]
‫ ָשׁ ַבר‬VB Q buy grain; HI sell grain [C3]
‫( ָשׁ ַבת‬L22) VB Q cease, desist, rest; HI put an
end to, destroy
‫( ַשׁ ָבּת‬L14) NOUN F sabbath, rest
‫ ַשׁ ַדּי‬PN Shaddai, Almighty
‫( שׁוּב‬L23) VB Q turn back, return; HI return
(something) [C8]
‫ שׁוּף‬VB Q bruise
‫( ָשׁ ַחט‬L17) VB Q slaughter [C2]
‫( שׁחת‬L12) VB PI, HI spoil, destroy [C2]
‫ ִשׁ ָירה‬NOUN F song
‫ ִשׁית‬VB Q put, set [C8]
‫( ָשׁ ַכב‬L9) VB Q lie (down)
‫( ָשׁ ַכח‬L10) VB Q forget [C3]
‫( ָשׁכֹל‬L16) VB Q be bereaved, childless; PI
make childless
‫( שׁכם‬L11) VB HI wake early
‫ ְשׁ ֶכם‬PN Shechem
‫( ָשׁ ַכן‬L6) VB Q settle, dwell
‫( ָשׁ ֵכן‬L28) ADJ inhabitant, neighbor
‫ ִשֹׁלה‬PN Shiloh
‫ ָשׁ ֵלו‬VB Q be at ease, prosper
‫( ָשׁלוֹם‬L14) NOUN M peace, well-being
‫( ָשׁ ַלח‬L9) VB Q send [C3]
‫( שׂלְך‬L11) VB HI throw, cast
‫( ָשׁ ֵלם‬L15) VB Q be whole; PI reward, pay
back
‫ ְשׁלמֹה‬PN Solomon
‫( ָשׁ ַלף‬L27) VB Q draw out, off
‫( ָשֹׁלשׁ‬L14) NOUN FS three; MS ‫ֹלשׁה‬
ָ ‫;שׁ‬
ְ P ‫ֹלשׁים‬
ִ ‫ְשׁ‬
thirty, thirtieth [D]
‫ ִשׁ ֵלּ ִשׁים‬ADJ/SUBST (those belonging to) the
third generation
‫( ָשׁם‬L3) ADV there
‫( ֵשׁם‬L9) NOUN M name; P ‫ֵשׁמוׄ ֹת‬
[‫]שׁ ַמד‬
ָ (L11) VB HI annihilate
‫מוּאל‬
ֵ ‫( ְשׁ‬L8) PN Samuel

229

‫( ָשׁ ַ֫מיִם‬L11) NOUN M heavens
‫ ָשׁ ֵמן‬VB Q grow fat; HI make fat
‫ ְשׁמֹנֶ ה‬NOUN FS eight; MS ‫;שׁמֹנָ ה‬
ְ P ‫ ְשׁמֹנִ ים‬eighty;
‫ ְשׁ ִמינִ י‬eighth [D]
‫( ָשׁ ַמע‬L6) VB Q hear, listen; +‫ ְבּקוֹל‬obey [C3]
‫( ָשׁ ַמר‬L4) VB Q keep, guard [C3]
‫( ֶ֫שׁ ֶמשׁ‬L16) NOUN M/F sun
‫( ָשׁנַ ה‬L3) NOUN F year; P ‫ָשׁנִ ים‬
‫( ְשׁ ַ֫ניִ ם‬L8) NOUN M two; F ‫[ ְשׁ ַ֫תּיִם‬D]
‫ ִשׁנְ ָער‬PN Shinar (Babylonia)
‫ שׁען‬VB NI lean, support oneself [C2]
‫ שׁעע‬VB Q be blinded; HI blind [C9]
‫( ַ֫שׁ ַער‬L7) NOUN M gate
‫( ִשׁ ְפ ָחה‬L20) NOUN F maidservant
‫( ָשׁ ַפט‬L4) VB Q judge, govern
‫( ָשׁ ַפְך‬L13) VB Q pour out, shed (blood)
‫( שׁקה‬L19) VB HI water, give drink [C7]
‫( ָשׁ ַקט‬L28) VB Q be quiet, undisturbed,
inactive; HI show quietness, cause
quietness
‫ ָשׁ ַרץ‬VB Q swarm, teem
‫ ֶ֫שׁ ֶרץ‬NOUN M swarmers, swarming things
‫ ֵשׁשׁ‬NOUN FS six; MS ‫;שׁ ָשּׁה‬
ִ P ‫ ִשׁ ִשּׁים‬sixty; ‫ִשׁ ִשּׁי‬
sixth [D]
‫( ָשׁ ָתה‬L22) VB Q drink [C7]
‫( ְשׁ ַתּיִם‬L8) NOUN F two; CST ‫ְשׁ ֵתּי‬
‫ ָשׁ ַתק‬VB Q be quiet
‫תּ‬
‫ ַתּ ֲאוָ ה‬NOUN F desire
‫ ְתּ ֵאנָ ה‬NOUN F fig-tree; fig
‫( ֵתּ ָבה‬L25) NOUN F ark
‫ ֫תֹּהוּ‬NOUN M emptiness, formlessness
‫( ְתּהוֹם‬L29) NOUN M/F deep, sea, abyss
‫( ָ֫תּוֶ ְך‬L13) NOUN M midst (often in the
compound PREP ‫ ְבּתוְֹך‬in the midst of)
‫תּוֹע ָבה‬
ֵ (L12) NOUN F abomination
‫תּוֹרה‬
ָ (L4) NOUN F direction, instruction, law
‫( ַ֫תּ ַחת‬L11) PREP under, beneath
‫( ָתּ ָלה‬L25) VB Q hang [C7]
‫ ְתּמוּנָ ה‬NOUN F likeness, form
‫( ָתּ ִמים‬L21) ADJ complete, sound
‫( ָתּ ַמם‬L24) VB Q be complete, finished [C9]
‫ ַתּנִּ ין‬NOUN M serpent, dragon, sea-monster
‫ ָתּ ַפר‬VB Q sew together [C3]
‫( ָתּ ַפשׂ‬L18) VB Q lay hold of, wield
‫ ִתּ ְקוָ ה‬NOUN F hope

Glossary
‫ ְתּ ָר ִפים‬NOUN M P teraphim (a kind of idol, a
means of divination)
‫ ַתּ ְר ִשׁישׁ‬PN Tarshish
‫שׁוּקה‬
ָ ‫ ְתּ‬NOUN F longing
ִ P ‫ ִתּ ְשׁ ִעים‬ninety;
‫ ֵ֫תּ ַשׁע‬NOUN FS nine; MS ‫;תּ ְשׁ ָעה‬
‫יעי‬
ִ ‫ ְתּ ִשׁ‬ninth [D]

230

Song Lyrics

231

Hinneh Mah Tov (Psalm 133:1)
‫וּמה־נָּ ִעים‬
ַ ‫ִהנֵּ ה ַמה־טּוֹב‬

Behold, how good and how pleasant
(is) the dwelling of brothers together

‫ם־י ַֽחד‬
ָ ַ‫ֶ֫שׁ ֶבת ַא ִחים גּ‬

’Esa ‘Einai (Psalm 121:1-2)
I lift up my eyes to the hills—
from where will my help come?
My help is from Yahweh,
maker of made heaven and earth.

‫ל־ה ָה ִרים ֵמ ַ֫איִ ן יָבֹא ֶעזְ ִרי‬
ֶ ‫ֶא ָשּׂא ֵעינַ י ֶא‬
‫ֶעזְ ִרי ֵמ ִעם יְ הוָ ה ע ֵֹשׂה ָשׁ ַ֫מיִם וָ ָ֫א ֶרץ‬

Mi Ha’ish (Psalm 34:13-15)
Who is the man who desires life, (and) loves
days to see goodness?
Keep your tongue from evil, and your lips
from speaking deceit.
Turn away from evil, and do good; seek
peace, and pursue it.

‫יָמים ִל ְראוֹת טוֹב‬
ִ ‫י־ה ִאישׁ ֶה ָח ֵפץ ַחיִּ ים א ֵֹהב‬
ָ ‫ִמ‬
‫וּשׂ ָפ ֶ֫תיָך ִמ ַדּ ֵבּר ִמ ְר ָמה‬
ְ ‫נְ צֹר ְלשׁוֹנְ ָך ֵמ ָרע‬
‫סוּר ֵמ ָרע וַ ֲע ֵשׂה־טוֹב ַבּ ֵקּשׁ ָשׁלוֹם וְ ָר ְד ֵפהוּ‬

‘Ose Shalom
He who makes peace in his heights,
He will make make for us
And for all Israel.
And say, say: Amen!
He will make peace, he will make peace,
Peace for us and for all Israel

‫רוֹמיו‬
ָ ‫ע ֵֹשׂה ָשׁלוֹם ִבּ ְמ‬
‫הוּא יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם ָע ֫ ֵלינוּ‬
‫וְ ַעל ָכּל יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬
‫וְ ִא ְמרוּ ִא ְמרוּ ָא ֵמן‬
‫יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם יַ ֲע ֶשׂה ָשׁלוֹם‬
‫ָשׁלוֹם ָע ֫ ֵלינוּ וְ ַעל ָכּל־יִ ְשׂ ָר ֵאל‬

Mah Na’vu (Isaiah 52:7)
How beautiful upon the mountains are the
feet of the messenger
Who announces the salvation, who announces
peace.

‫ל־ה ָה ִרים ַרגְ ֵלי ְמּ ַב ֵשּׂר‬
ֶ ‫ַמה־נָּ אווּ ַע‬
‫יע ָשׁלוֹם‬
ַ ‫שׁוּעה ַמ ְשׁ ִמ‬
ָ ְ‫יע ָהי‬
ַ ‫ַמ ְשׁ ִמ‬

Song Lyrics

232

Ufaratzta (Genesis 28:14)
And you shall break out
west and east and north and south

‫וּפ ַר ְצ ָ֫תּ‬
ָ
‫ָ֫י ָמּה וָ ֵ ֫ק ְד ָמה וְ ָצ ֫ ֹפנָ ה וָ ֶ֫נגְ ָבּה‬

veDavid (1 Samuel 16:12; 18:7; Songs 6:3b)
And David is beautiful of eyes,
He pastures among the lilies;
Saul has smote his thousands,
and David his ten-thousands!
Son of Jesse lives and lasts!

‫ה־ע ַ֫יניִ ם‬
ֵ ‫יְפ‬
ֵ ‫וְ ָדוִ ד‬
‫שּׁוֹשׁנַ יִ ם‬
ָ ‫הוּא ר ֶֹעה ַבּ‬
‫ִה ָכּה ָשׁאוּל ַבּ ֲא ָל ָפיו‬
‫וְ ָדוִ ד ְבּ ִר ְבב ָ ֹֽתיו‬
‫ֶבּן־יִ ַשּׁי ַחי וְ ַקיָּ ם‬

Yesh Lanu Tayish
Goat, goat, there is, there is, there is . . .
We have a goat,
and you have a goat,
and he has four feet,
and also a small tail,
la la la la . . .

‫ַ֫תּיִ שׁ ַ֫תּיִ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ יֵ שׁ‬
‫יֵ שׁ ֫ ָלנוּ ַתּיִ שׁ‬
‫וְ ַ֫תּיִ שׁ יֵ שׁ ְלָך‬
‫וְ לוֹ ַא ְר ָבּע ַרגְ ֫ ַליִ ם‬
‫וְ גַ ם זָ נָ ב ָק ָטן‬
. . . ‫ָלה ָלה ָלה ָלה‬

Ush’avtem (Isaiah 12:3)
And you shall draw water with joy
from the wells of salvation

‫ם־מיִם ְבּ ָשׂשׂוֹן‬
ַ֫ ‫וּשׁ ַא ְב ֶתּ‬
ְ
‫שׁוּעה‬
ֽ ָ ְ‫ִמ ַמּ ַעיְ נֵ י ַהי‬

Sisu et-yerushalayim (Isaiah 66:10)
Exult with Jerusalem,
And rejoice in her, all those who love her

‫רוּשׁ ֫ ַל ִם‬
ָ ְ‫ִ֫שׂישׂוּ ֶאת־י‬
‫יה‬
ָ ‫֫ ִגּילוּ ָ ֖בהּ ָכּל־א ֲֹה ֶ֫ב‬

Hava Nagila
Come, let us rejoice and be glad,
Come, let us exult and be glad.

‫ָ֫ה ָבה נָ גִ י֫ ָלה וְ נִ ְשׂ ְמ ָחה‬
‫ָ֫ה ָבה נְ ַרנְּ נָ ה וְ נִ ְשׂ ְמ ָחה‬

Song Lyrics

233

Bashana Haba’ah
Next year we'll sit upon the balcony,
And we'll count migrating birds.
Children on vacation will play tag,
Between the house and the fields.

‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה נֶ ֵשׁב ַעל ַה ִמּ ְר ֫ ֶפּ ֶסת‬
‫נוֹדדוֹת‬
ְ ‫פּוֹרים‬
ִ ‫וְ נִ ְספּוֹר ִצ‬
‫תוֹפ ֶסת‬
ֶ ֫ ‫חוֹפ ָשׁה יְ ַשׂ ֲחקוּ‬
ְ ‫יְ ָל ִדים ְבּ‬
‫ֵבּין ַה ַ֫בּיִ ת ְל ֵבין ַה ָשּׂדוֹת‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

Red grapes will ripen until evening,
And cold water will be brought to the table.
And sleepy breezes will carry to wherever,
old newspapers and clouds.

‫דוּמּים ְיַב ִ֫שׁילוּ ַעד ָה ֫ ֶע ֶרב‬
ִ ‫ֲענָ ִבים ֲא‬
‫שּׁוּל ָחן‬
ְ ‫וְ יוּגְ שׁוּ צוֹנְ נִ ים ַל‬
‫דוּמּים יִ ְשׂאוּ ֶאל ֵאם ַה ֶ ֫דּ ֶרְך‬
ִ ‫וְ רוּחוֹת ְר‬
‫ִעיתּוֹנִ ים יְ ָשׁנִ ים וְ ָענָ ן‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

In this year, in this year, we'll spread palms out,
Before the light, black and white.
A white heron will spread wings out in the light,
And the sun will shine in their midst.

‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה נִ ְפרוֹשׁ ַכּפּוֹת יָ ַ ֫דיִם‬
‫מוּל ָהאוֹר ַהנִּ יגָּ ר ַה ָלּ ָבן‬
‫ֲאנָ ָפה ְל ָבנָ ה ִתּ ְפרוֹשׁ ָבּאוֹר ְכּנָ ַפיִ ם‬
‫תוֹכן‬
ָ ‫וְ ַה ֶ֫שּׁ ֶמשׁ ִתּזְ ַרח ְבּ‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

You'll see yet, you'll see yet,
How good it will be,
In this year, in the coming year.

‫עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה עוֹד ִתּ ְר ֶאה‬
‫ַ֫כּ ָמּה טוֹב יִ ְהיֶ ה‬
‫ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַבּ ָשּׁנָ ה ַה ָבּ ָאה‬

Song Lyrics

234

Halleluya
Praise Yah forever, praise Yah, let everyone sing
With one word, a single one,
The heart if filled with plenty of thanks,
And it also suitable—what a wonderful world.
Praise Yah with the song,
Praise Yah for the day which shines,
Praise Yah for whatever has been,
And whatever has not yet been, Praise Yah.
...
Praise Yah for everything,
Praise Yah tomorrow and yesterday,
Praise Yah and put hand in hand
And sing with one heart: Praise Yah.

‫עוֹלם ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ יָ ִ֫שׁירוּ ֻכ ָלּם‬
ָ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ָל‬
‫בּוֹדָך‬
ְ ‫ְבּ ִמ ָלּה ַא ַחת‬
‫תּוֹדה‬
ָ ‫ַה ֵלּב ָמ ֵלא ְבּ ָהמוֹן‬
‫עוֹלם נִ ְפ ָלא‬
ָ ‫הוֹלם גַּ ם־הוּא ֵאיזֶ ה‬
ֵ ְ‫ו‬
‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ִעם ַה ִשּׁיר‬
‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל יוֹם ֶשׁ ֵמ ִאיר‬
‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל ַמה ֶשׁ ָהיָ ה‬
‫וּמה ֶשׁעוֹד לֹא ָהיָ ה ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬
ַ
...
‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ַעל ַהכֹּל‬
‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ ָמ ָחר וְ ֶאתמוֹל‬
‫וּתנוּ יָ ד ְבּיָ ד‬
ְ ‫ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬
‫וְ ִ֫שׁירוּ ְבּ ֵלב ֶא ָחד ַה ְללוּ֫ יָ הּ‬

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