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拉岡講座222

II
ANALYSIS AND TRUTH OR
THE CLOSURE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS
精神分析與真理 或無意識的封閉

Telling the truth, lying, being wrong•


說實話、說謊話、說錯誤的話

Last time, I introduced the concept of the transference. I did so in a rather problematic way, from the
standpoint of the difficulties it presented to the analyst. I took the opportunity offered me by an article
published in a recent number of the most official organ of psycho-analysis, The International Journal
of Psycho-Analysis, which went so far as to question the use in analysis of the notion of transference. I
now intend to return to this article.

上一次,我介紹移情的觀念。從它呈現給精神分析師的困境的觀點而言,我介紹得相當具有爭議
性。國際精神分析雜誌是精神分析的官方喉舌,最近剛出版的一期有一篇文章,囂張地質疑移情
在精神分析學的用途。我利用人家送給我看的機會,借題發揮。

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According to the author, the analyst is supposed to point out to the patient the effects of more or less
manifest discordances that occur with regard to the reality of the analytic situation, namely, the two real
subjects who are present in it.

依照作者,精神分析師應該對病人指出,在精神分析的情境現況中,多多少少會發生一些明顯
不協調的印象,換言之,出現在現場的是兩位生命的主體。

First, there are the cases in which the effect of discordance is very obvious. It is illustrated, in a
humorous way, by Spitz, one of the old guard, and no fool, by way of amusing his public. He takes as
an example one of his patients, who, in a dream that is called a transference dream—that is to say, a
dream involving the realization of erotic desires with one's analyst, with Spitz himself; as it happens—
sees him sporting a head of luxuriant blond hair—which, for anyone who has seen
the bald pate of the character in question, and it is well enough known to be regarded as famous, would
seem to be a case in which the analyst could quite easily show the subject just how far the effects of the
unconscious can give rise to distortion.

首先,有些情形,不協調的印象甚為顯著。史匹茲是捍衛精神分析學的前輩,不是泛泛之輩。他

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幽默地舉出一個例子博君一笑。他取他的一位病人當例子。這位病人在所謂移情之夢中,換言之
這個夢的內容是跟她的精神分析師,也就是史匹茲他自己,實現性慾望的滿足。她在夢中偶然地
看到他展現一頭蓬勃的金髮。對於曾見過史匹茲光禿頭頂的人,知道那個禿頂還鼎鼎大名,這個
夢會讓人詼諧失笑。精神分析師能夠很輕易地告訴病人,無意識的情懷會產生多大的扭曲。

But when it is a question of qualifying a patient's behavior as uncomplimentary to the analyst, You
have the choice of two things, says Szasz—the analyst's view is correct and is considered
'reality'; the patient's view is incorrect, and is considered 'transference'. This brings us back to that at
once mythical and idealizing pole that Szasz calls the integrity of the analyst.

但是病人的行為若是貶抑精神分析師,要如何處理?薩茲說你有兩種選擇:一是精神分析師的
觀點正確,而且是「真實」所在,二是病人的觀點不正確,並且被認為是一種「移情」。這讓我們又
回到,薩茲所稱為的精神分析師的尊嚴,扮演既神秘又理想化的角色。

What can this mean, if it is not a recall to the dimension of truth? 1 can only situate this article, then, in
the perspective in which its author himself places it, considering him as operating not in a heuristic, but
in an eristic way, manifesting, in the impasse into which his reflection has led him, the presence of a
true crisis of conscience in the function of the analyst. This crisis of conscience concerns us only in an
incidental way, since I have shown that a certain one-sided way of theorizing the practice of the
analysis of the transference would necessarily lead to it. It is a slippery slope that I myself have been
denouncing for a long time.

這難道不是意味著真理向度的被撤銷?因此,我只能將這篇文章定位為作者自己身陷僵局,進
退維谷時的自白,文章的開展不是啟發探索,而是辯解自道,因為精神分析師的功能,在良心
的煎熬中危急存亡。這個良心的危機,我們只是偶然遭遇。我曾說過,一廂情願地建構移情在精
神分析的理論,必然會導致這樣的窘困。

To bring us back to the almost phenomenological data that enable us to resituate the problem where it
actually is, I showed you last time that in the relation of the one with the other that is set up in analysis,
one dimension is eluded.

我們再回到近乎現象學的資訊,我們才能夠將此難題放置回原來位置。上一次,我說過,我們跟
它者在精神分析所建立的關係,有一個向度被閃躲掉。

It is clear that this relation is established on a plane that is not reciprocal, not symmetrical. This much
Szasz observes, only, quite wrongly, to deplore it—in this relation of the one with the other, there is
established a search for truth in which the one is supposed to know, or at least to know more than the
other.

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顯而易見,這個關係不是被建立於互惠或平衡的基準上。薩茲已經觀察到,卻只是痛心疾首:在
我們跟它者的關係,建立的基礎是對於真理的追尋。在追尋真理的過程,有一方應該知道,至少
應該知道得比另一方多。

From the latter, the thought immediately arises that not only must he not make a mistake (se trompa) ,
but also that he can be misled (on pent le tromper). The making a mistake (se tromper) is, by the same
token, thrown back upon the subject. It is not simply that the subject is, in a static way, lacking, in
error. It is that, in a moving way, in his discourse, he is essentially situated in the dimension of the
making a mistake (se tromper).

就後者而言,他立刻會浮起這樣的念頭:他不但一定不要犯錯誤,而且他有被誤導的可能。同樣
地,犯錯誤在前者也會發生。並不僅是因為主體本身的欠缺,犯錯誤本是家常便飯,而且因為在
他極力表述真理時,他基本的位置就是錯誤頻仍的國度。

I have found a description of this from yet another analyst. I am referring to Nunberg, who, in the
International Journal of Psycho-analysis, published, in 1926, an article entitled The Will of Recovery.
By recovery, he means not so much guérison (cure), as restauration (restoration), retour (return). The
word is very well chosen and poses a question well worth our attention. What, in the last resort, can
drive the patient to have recourse to the analyst, to ask him for something he calls health, when his
symptom—so the theory says—is created in order to bring him certain satisfactions?

我曾經從另外一位精神分析師找到這樣的描述。我指的是任伯格。在1926年出版的國際精神分析
雜誌,他發表一篇文章,標題是「康復的意志」。所謂康復,他的意思不是治療,而是恢復健康。
他精挑細選的這個字詞,暴露一個值得我們注意的問題。依據理論的說法,病徵的出現是為了讓
病人得到心理的補償。那追根究底,是什麼動機驅使病人尋求精神分析師的幫助,要求給予他所
謂的健康?

With a great many examples, many of them humorous, Nunberg has no difficulty in showing that one
doesn't have to have gone very far in analysis to see, sometimes with great clarity, that what motivated
the patient in his search for health, for balance, is precisely his unconscious aim, in its most immediate
implications. What shelter, for example, does recourse to analysis have to offer him, in order to re-
establish peace in his home, when some hitch has occurred in his sexual function, or some extra-marital
desire!

用許多幽默的例子,任伯格輕而易舉地顯示,我們甚至不需要是精神分析的行家,有時也會很
明白地看出,病人尋求恢復健康及平衡的動機,確實就是他的無意識的目標,他當下的起心動
念。若是這樣,例如,萬一病人的起心動念發生在性欲望的蠢動,外遇或劈腿的念頭,精神分析

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有什麼方法給予求助者庇護,可以讓他重新建立他在家裡的平靜?

From the outset, the patient admits to a desire, in the form of a temporary suspension of his presence at
home, the opposite of what he came to propose as the first aim of his analysis—not the restoration of
his marriage, but a break with it.

從一開頭,病人就坦白承認,他的欲望,跟他來尋求精神分析的首要目的相反,只是暫時擺脫
處在家中的困境。他的欲望不是要恢復他的婚姻,而是要終止它。

We now find ourselves at last—in the very act of the commitment to analysis and certainly, therefore,
in its first stages —in maximum contact with the profound ambiguity of any assertion on the part of the
patient, and the fact that it is, of itself; double-sided. In the first instance, it is as establishing itself in,
and even by, a certain lie, that we see set up the dimension of truth, in which respect it is not, strictly
speaking, shaken, since the lie as such is itself posited in this dimension of truth.

我們現在發現,當我們還在精神分析的前面幾個階段努力從事,我們自己最後大量接觸到的是,
病人方面的主張極端曖昧,以及精神分析本身就是雙邊互動的事實。在第一個情形,精神分析的
立場就是謊言,及根據謊言。我們看到某些的謊言建立了真理的國度。在這一方面,嚴格說,謊
言並沒有受到動搖,因為謊言本身就被定位在真理的國度。

雄伯譯
32hsiung@pchome.com.tw