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Core Java

Q) Opps concepts

Ability to take more than one form, In java we achieve this using Method Overloading (compile time
polymorphism), Method overriding (runtime polymorphism)

Is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object.

Wrapping of data and function into a single unit called encapsulation. Ex:- all java programs.

Nothing but representing the essential futures without including background details.

Code associated with a given procedural call is not known until the time of the call at runtime. Dynamic
binding is nothing but late binding.

Q) class & object?

class  class is a blue print of an object component means u can use a piece of code like an
independent servlet,EJB...etc
Object  instance of class u can reuse it in any application

Q) System.out.println()
 println() is a methd of
 “out” is an instance variable of java.lang.System class.

Q) Transient & volatile

Transient --> the object or variable will not persist.

Volatile --> value will be changed unexpectedly by the other part of the program.

Q) Access Specifiers & Access modifiers?

Access Specifiers  A.S gives access privileges to outside of application (or) others, they are Public, Protected,
Private, Defaults  A.M which gives additional meaning to data, methods and classes, final cannot be modified
at any point of time.

Private Public Protected No modifier

Same class No Yes Yes Yes
Same package Subclass No Yes Yes Yes
Same package non-subclass No Yes Yes Yes
Different package subclass No Yes Yes No
Different package non-subclass No Yes No NO

Q) Default Values
long  -2^63 to 2^63 –1  0L
Int  -2^31 to 2^31 –1  0
Short  -2^15 to 2^15 –1  0
Byte  -2^7 to 2^7 –1  0
char  0 to 2^7 –1  null character (or) ‘\u 0000’
double  0.0d
float  0.0f
Boolean  false
Character -> ‘\u0000’

Q) Byte code & JIT compiler

Byte code is a highly optimized set of instructions. JVM is an interpreter for byte code. Translating a java
program into byte code helps makes it much easier to run a program in a wide variety of environment.

JIT is a part of JVM, it compiles byte code into executable code in real time, will increase the performance
of the interpretations.

Q) Diff Access Specifier & Access Modifiers

Access Specifier

Access Modifiers

Q) Wrapper classes

Primitive data types can be converted into objects by using wrapper classes. These are java.lang.package.

Q) Does Java pass method arguments by value or by reference?

A) Java passes all arguments by value, not by reference

Q) Arguments & Parameters

While defining method, variable passed in the method are called parameters. While using those methods, values
passed to those variables are called arguments.

Q) Public static void main (String [] args)

 What if the main method is declared as private?

The program compiles properly but at runtime it will give "Main method not public." Message

 What if the static modifier is removed from the signature of the main method?
Program compiles. But at runtime throws an error "NoSuchMethodError".

 We can write “static public void” instead of “public static void” but not “public void static”.

 If I do not provide the String array as the argument to the method?

Program compiles but throws a runtime error "NoSuchMethodError".

 If no arguments on the command line, String array of Main method will be empty of null?
It is empty. But not null.
 Variables can have the same name as a method or a class

Q) Can an application have multiple classes having main method?

A) Yes it is possible. While starting the application we mention the class name to be run. The JVM will look for the
Main method only in the class whose name you have mentioned. Hence there is not conflict amongst the multiple
classes having main method.

Q) Can I have multiple main methods in the same class?

A) No the program fails to compile. The compiler says that the main method is already defined in the class.

Q) Constructor

The automatic initialization is performed through the constructor, constructor has same name has class
name. Constructor has no return type not even void. We can pass the parameters to the constructor. this() is used
to invoke a constructor of the same class. Super() is used to invoke a super class constructor. Constructor is
called immediately after the object is created before the new operator completes.

 Constructor can use the access modifiers public, protected or private or have no access modifier (package
 Constructor can not use the modifiers abstract, static, final, native, synchronized or strictfp
 Constructor can be overloaded, we cannot override.
 You cannot use this() and Super() in the same constructor.

Class A(

Class B extends A {

Class print {
Public static void main (String args []){
B b = new B();

o/p:- Hello

Q) Diff Constructor & Method

Constructor Method
Use to instance of a class Grouping java statement
No return type Void (or) valid return type
Same name as class name As a name except the class method name, begin
with lower case.
“This” refer to another constructor in the same Refers to instance of class
“Super” to invoke the super class constructor Execute an overridden method in the super class
“Inheritance” cannot be inherited Can be inherited
We can overload but we cannot overridden Can be inherited
Will automatically invoke when an object is Method has called explicitly

Q) Garbage collection

G.C is also called automatic memory management as JVM automatically removes the unused
variables/objects (value is null) from the memory. User program cann't directly free the object from memory,
instead it is the job of the garbage collector to automatically free the objects that are no longer referenced by a
program. Every class inherits finalize() method from java.lang.Object, the finalize() method is called by garbage
collector when it determines no more references to the object exists. In Java, it is good idea to explicitly assign
null into a variable when no more in use. I Java on calling System.gc() and Runtime.gc(), JVM tries to recycle
the unused objects, but there is no guarantee when all the objects will garbage collected.

Q) Final, Finally, Finalize

Final: - When we declare a sub class a final the compiler will give error as “cannot subclass final class” Final to
prevent inheritance and method overriding. Once to declare a variable as final it cannot occupy memory per
instance basis.

 final class cannot have static methods

 final class cannot have abstract methods
 final class can have a final method.
Finally: - Finally create a block of code that will be executed after try catch block has completed. Finally block will
execute whether or not an exception is thrown. If an exception is thrown, the finally block will execute even if no
catch statement match the exception. Any time a method is about to return to the caller from inside try/catch
block, via an uncaught exception or an explicit return statement, the finally clause is also execute.

Using System.exit(); in try block will not allow finally code to execute

Finalize: - some times an object need to perform some actions when it is going to destroy, if an object holding
some non-java resource such as file handle (or) window character font, these resources are freed before the
object is going to destroy.Any cleanup processing before the object is garbage collected.

Q) Superclass & Subclass

A super class is a class that is inherited whereas subclass is a class that does the inheriting

Q) Diff forms of Polymorphism? Method overloading, Method overriding?

A) Method overloading, Method overriding through inheritance

Q) Method Overloading & Method Overriding?

Method Overloading (Compile time polymorphism)

Define two or more methods within the same class (or) subclass that share the same name and their
parameter declarations are different then the methods are said to be overloaded. Overloaded methods must
differ in number of parameters & return type.

• Overloaded methods are not required to have the same return type or the list of thrown exceptions.
• Overloading is particularly used while implementing several methods that implement similar behavior but for
different data types.

Method Overriding (Runtime polymorphism)

When a method in a subclass has the same name, return type and parameters as the method in the
super class then the method in the subclass is override the method in the super class.

 The access modifier for the overriding method may not be more restrictive than the access modifier of the
superclass method

• If the super class method is public, the overriding method must be public
• If the superclass method is protected, the overriding method may be protected or public
• If the superclass method is package, the overriding method may be packagage, protected, or public
• If the superclass methods is private, it is not inherited and overriding is not an issue
• Methods declared as final cannot be overridden.

 The throws clause of the overriding method may only include exceptions that can be thrown by the
superclass method, including it's subclasses

 Only member method can be overriden, not member variable

class Parent{
int i = 0;
void amethod(){
System.out.println("in Parent");
class Child extends Parent{
int i = 10;
void amethod(){
System.out.println("in Child");
class Test{
public static void main(String[] args){
Parent p = new Child();
Child c = new Child();
System.out.print("i="+p.i+" ");
System.out.print("i="+c.i+" ");
o/p:- i=0 in Child
i=10 in Child

Q) Static
Static variables and methods are instantiated only once per class. In other words they are class variables,
not instance variables. If you change the value of a static variable in a particular object, the value of that variable
changes for all instances of that class. Static methods can be referenced with the name of the class.

 When a member is declared a static it can be accessed before any object of its class are created.
 Instance variables declared as static are essentially global variables.
 If you do not specify an initial value to an instance & Static variable a default value will be assigned
 Methods declared as static have some restrictions they can access only static data, they can only call other
static data, they cannot refer this or super.
 Static methods cant be overriden to non-static methods.
 Static methods is called by the static methods only, an ordinary method can call the static methods, but static
methods cannot call ordinary methods.
 Static methods are implicitly "final", because overriding is only done based on the type of the objects
 They cannot refer “this” or “super” in any way.

Q) Class variable & Instance variable & Instance methods & class methods

Instance variable  variables defined inside a class are called instance variables with multiple instance of class,
each instance has a variable stored in separate memory location.

Class variables  you want a variable to be common to all classes then we crate class variables. To create a
class variable put the “static” keyword before the variable name.

Class methods  we create a class methods to allow us to call a method without creating a instance of the class.
To declare a class method use the “static” key word.

Instance methods  we define a method in a class, in order to use that methods we need to first create objects of
the class.

Q) Static block
Static block which exactly executed exactly once when the class is first loaded into JVM. Before going to
the main method the static block will execute.

Q) Static methods cannot access instance variables why?

A) Static methods can be invoked before the object is created, Instance variables are created only when the new
object is created. Since there is no possibility to the static method to access the instance variables. Instance
variables are called called as non-static variables.

Q) String & StringBuffer

String is a fixed length of sequence of characters, String is immutable.

StringBuffer represent growable and writeable character sequence, StringBuffer is mutable which means
that its value can be changed. It allocates room for 16 addition character space when no specific length is
specified. Java.lang.StringBuffer is also a final class hence it cannot be sub classed. StringBuffer cannot be
overridden the equals() method.

Q) Conversions
String to Int Conversion :-
int I = integer.valueOf(“24”).intValue();
int x = integer.parseInt(“433”);
float f = float.valueOf(23.9).floatValue();

Int to String Conversion :-

String arg = String.valueOf(10);

Q) Super()
Super() always calling the constructor of immediate super class, super() must always be the first
statements executed inside a subclass constructor.

Q) How will u implement 1) polymorphism 2) multiple inheritance 3) multilevel inheritance in java?

A) Polymorphism – overloading and overriding
Multiple inheritance – interfaces.
Multilevel inheritance – extending class.

Q) What are different types of inner classes?

A) Nested top-level classes- If you declare a class within a class and specify the static modifier, the compiler
treats the class just like any other top-level class. Any class outside the declaring class accesses the nested class
with the declaring class name acting similarly to a package. e.g., outer.inner. Top-level inner classes implicitly
have access only to static variables. There can also be inner interfaces. All of these are of the nested top-level

Member classes - Member inner classes are just like other member methods and member variables and access
to the member class is restricted, just like methods and variables. This means a public member class acts
similarly to a nested top-level class. The primary difference between member classes and nested top-level
classes is that member classes have access to the specific instance of the enclosing class.

Local classes - Local classes are like local variables, specific to a block of code. Their visibility is only within the
block of their declaration. In order for the class to be useful beyond the declaration block, it would need to
implement a more publicly available interface. Because local classes are not members the modifiers public,
protected, private and static are not usable.

Anonymous classes - Anonymous inner classes extend local inner classes one level further. As anonymous
classes have no name, you cannot provide a constructor.

 Inner class inside method cannot have static members or blocks

Q) Which circumstances you use Abstract Class & Interface?

--> If you need to change your design make it an interface.
--> Abstract class provide some default behaviour, A.C are excellent candidates inside of application frame work.
A.C allow single inheritance model which should be very faster.

Q) Abstract Class
Any class that contain one are more abstract methods must also be declared as an abstract, there can be
no object of an abstract class, we cannot directly instantiate the abstract classes. A.C can contain concrete
Any sub class of an Abstract class must either implement all the abstract methods in the super class or be
declared itself as Abstract.

 Compile time error occur if an attempt to create an instance of an Abstract class.

 You cannot declare “abstract constructor” and “abstract static method”.
 Abstract class can have static, final method.
 An abstract method also declared private, native, final, synchronized, or strictfp.
 An abstract method declared in a non-abstract class
 A class can be declared abstract even if it does not actually have any abstract methods. Declaring such a
class abstract indicates that the implementation is somehow incomplete and is meant to serve as a super class
for one or more subclasses that will complete the implementation.
Abstract class A{
Public abstract callme();
Void callmetoo(){

class B extends A(
void callme(){

class AbstractDemo{
public static void main(string args[]){
B b = new B();

Q) Interface
Interface is similar to class but they lack instance variable, their methods are declared with out any body.
Interfaces are designed to support dynamic method resolution at run time. All methods in interface are implicitly
abstract, even if the abstract modifier is omitted. Interface methods have no implementation;

 Interface can be extended, Interface can be implemented.

 An interface body may contain constant declarations, abstract method declarations, inner classes and inner
 All methods of an interface are implicitly Abstract, Public, even if the public modifier is omitted.
 An interface methods cannot be declared protected, private, strictfp, native or synchronized.
 All Variables are implicitly final, public, static fields
 A compile time error occurs if an interface has a simple name the same as any of it's enclosing classes or
 top-level interfaces may only be declared public, inner interfaces may be declared private and protected but
only if they are defined in a class.

 A class can only extend one other class.

 A class may implements more than one interface.
 Interface can extend more than one interface.

Interface A
final static float pi = 3.14f;

class B implements A
public float compute(float x, float y)

class test{
public static void main(String args[])
A a = new B();
Q) Diff Interface & Abstract Class?
 Abstract classes may have some executable methods and methods left unimplemented. Interface contains no
implementation code.
 An abstract class can have nonabstract methods. All methods of an Interface are abstract.
 An abstract class can have instance variables. An Interface cannot.
 An abstract class can define constructor. An Interface cannot.
 An abstract class can have any visibility: public, private, protected. An Interface visibility must be public (or)

Q) What are some alternatives to inheritance?

A) Delegation is an alternative to inheritance. Delegation means that you include an instance of another class as
an instance variable, and forward messages to the instance. It is often safer than inheritance because it forces
you to think about each message you forward, because the instance is of a known class, rather than a new class,
and because it doesn’t force you to accept all the methods of the super class: you can provide only the methods
that really make sense. On the other hand, it makes you write more code, and it is harder to re-use (because it is
not a subclass).

Q) When we use Abstract class?

A) Let us take the behaviour of animals, animals are capable of doing different things like flying, digging,
Walking. But these are some common operations performed by all animals, but in a different way as well. When
an operation is performed in a different way it is a good candidate for an abstract method.

Public Abstarctclass Animal{

Public void eat(food food)
public void sleep(int hours)
public abstract void makeNoise()

public Dog extends Animal

public void makeNoise()
System.out.println(“Bark! Bark”);

public Cow extends Animal

public void makeNoise()
System.out.println(“moo! moo”);

Q) Serializable & Externalizable

Serializable --> is an interface that extends serializable interface and sends data into streams in
compressed format. It has 2 methods writeExternal(objectOutput out), readExternal(objectInput in).

Externalizable  is an Interface that extends Serializable Interface. And sends data into Streams in
Compressed Format. It has two methods, writeExternal(ObjectOuput out) and readExternal(ObjectInput in).

Q) Internalisation & Localization

Internalisation -- Making a programme to flexible to run in any locale called internalisation.
Localization -- Making a programme to flexible to run in a specific locale called Localization.
Q) Serialization
Serialization is the process of writing the state of the object to a byte stream, this is useful when ever you
want to save the state of your programme to a persistence storage area.

Q) Synchronization
Synchronization is a process of controlling the access of shared resources by the multiple threads in
such a manner that only one thread can access one resource at a time. (Or) When 2 are more threads need to
access the shared resources they need to some way ensure that the resources will be used by only one thread at
a time. This process which is achieved is called synchronization.

(i) Ex: - Synchronizing a function:

public synchronized void Method1 () {
// Appropriate method-related code.

(ii) Ex: - Synchronizing a block of code inside a function:

public myFunction (){
synchronized (this) {
// Synchronized code here.

(iii) Ex:- public Synchronized void main(String args[])

But this is not the right approach because it means servlet can handle one request at a time.

Q) Different level of locking using Synchronization?

A) Class level, Object level, Method level, Block level

Q) Monitor
A monitor is a mutex, once a thread enter a monitor , all other threads must wait until that thread exist the

Q) Diff = = and .equals()?

A) ==  Compare object references whether they refer to the sane instance are not.
equals ()  method compare the characters in the string object.

Q) Marker Interfaces (or) Tagged Interfaces :-

An Interface with no methods. Is called marker Interfaces, eg., Serializable, SingleThread Model,

Q) URL Encoding & URL Decoding

URL Encoding is the method of replacing all the spaces and other extra characters into their
corresponding Hex Characters and URL Decoding is the reverse process converting all Hex Characters back their
normal form.

Q) URL & URLConection

URL is to identify a resource in a network, is only used to read something from the network.
URL url = new URL(protocol name, host name, port, url specifier)

URLConnection can establish communication between two programs in the network.

URL hp = new URL(“”);
URLConnection con = hp.openConnection();

Q) Runtime class
Runtime class encapsulate the run-time environment. You cannot instantiate a Runtime object. You can
get a reference to the current Runtime object by calling the static method Runtime.getRuntime()

Runtime r = Runtime.getRuntime()
Long mem1;
Mem1 = r.freeMemory();
Mem1 = r.totalMemory();

Q) Execute other programs

You can use java to execute other heavy weight process on your multi tasking operating system, several
form of exec() method allow you to name the programme you want to run.
Runtime r = Runtime.getRuntime();
Process p = null;
p = r.exce(“notepad”);

Q) System class
System class hold a collection of static methods and variables. The standard input, output, error output of
the java runtime are stored in the in, out, err variables.

Q) Class
Class encapsulate the run-time state of a an object or interface. Methods in this class are

static Class forName(String name) throws getClass()

getClassLoader() getConstructor()
getField() getDeclaredFields()
getMethods() getDeclearedMethods()
getInterface() getSuperClass()

Q) Native Methods
Native methods are used to call subroutine that is written in a language other than java, this subroutine
exist as executable code for the CPU.

Q) Cloneable Interface
Any class that implements the cloneable interface can be cloned, this interface defines no methods. It is
used to indicate that a class allow a bit wise copy of an object to be made.

Q) Clone
Generate a duplicate copy of the object on which it is called. Cloning is a dangerous action.

Q) Comparable Interface
Classes that implements comparable contain objects that can be compared in some meaningful manner.
This interface having one method compare the invoking object with the object. For sorting comparable interface
will be used.
Ex:- int compareTo(Object obj)

Q) Class
Encapsulate the run time state of an object (or) interface. You cannot explicitly declare a class object, by
using getClass() method you can do that.
Class a = x.getClass();

Methods>> getClasses(), getConstructor(), getInterface(), getMethods(), getSuperclass(), getName().

Q) java.jlang.Reflect (package)
Reflection is the ability of software to analyse it self, to obtain information about the field, constructor,
methods & modifier of class. You need this information to build software tools that enables you to work with java
beans components.

Q) InstanceOf
Instanceof means by which your program can obtain run time type information about an object.
Ex:- A a = new A();
a.instanceOf A;

Q) java pass arguments by value are by reference?

A) by value

Q) java lack pointers how do I implements classic pointer structures like linked list?
A) using object reference.

Q) java.Exe
Micro soft provided sdk for java, which includes “jexegentool”. This converts class file into a “.Exec” form.
Only disadvantage is user needs a M.S java V.M installed.

Q) bin & Lib in jdk?

bin contains all tools such as javac, appletviewer and awt tool.
Lib contain API and all packages.

Collections Frame Work

Collection classes Collection Interfaces Legacy classes Legacy interface
Abstract collection Collection Dictionary Enumerator
Abstract List List Hash Table
Abstract Set Set Stack
Array List Sorted Set Vector
Linked List Map Properties
Hash set Iterator
Tree Set
Hash Map
Tree Map

Collection Classes

Abstract collection 

Abstract List 

Abstract Set 

Array List  Array List extends AbstractList and implements the List interface. ArrayList is a variable length
of array of object references, ArrayList support dynamic array that grow as needed. A.L allow rapid random
access to element but slow for insertion and deletion from the middle of the list.

 ArrayList is a replacement for Vector.

Linked List  Extends AbstactSequentialList and implements List interface. L.L provide optimal sequence
access, in expensive insertion and deletion from the middle of the list, relatively slow for random access.

Methods>> void addFirst(Object obj), addLast(Object obj), Object getFirst(), Object getLast().

Hash Set  HashSet extends AbstractSet implements Set interface, it creates a collection that uses
HashTable for storage, H.S does not guarantee the order of its elements, if u need storage go for TreeSet

Methods>> add(), remove(), size().

Tree Set  Extends Abstract Set implements Set interface. Objects are stored in sorted, ascending order.
Access and retrial times are quite fast.
Hash Map  Extends Abstract Map and implements Map interface. H.P does not guarantee the order of
elements, so the order in which the elements are added to a H.P is not necessary the order in which they are
ready by the iterate.

 HashMap is similar to Hashtable.

Tree Map  implements Map interface, a TreeMap provides an efficient means of storing key/value pairs in
sorted order and allow rapid retrieval.

Collection Interfaces

Collection  Collection is a group of objects, collection does not allow duplicate elements.

Methods>> boolean add(Object obj), boolean addAll(Collection c), Iterator iterator(),

boolean remove(Object obj), boolean removeAll(Collection c).

List  List will extend collection, list stores a sequence of elements that can contain duplicates, elements
can be accessed their position in the list using a zero based index.

Methods>> void add(int index, Object obj), boolean addAll(int index, Collection c), Object get(int index), int
indexOf(Object obj), int lastIndexOf(Object obj), ListIterator iterator(), Object remove(int index).

Set  Set will extend collection, Set cannot contain duplicate elements.

Sorted Set  Extends Set to handle sorted sets.

Methods>> Object last(), Object first().

Map  Map maps unique key to value in a map for every key there is a corresponding value and you will
lookup the values using keys. Map cannot contain duplicate “key” and “value”. In map both the “key” &
“value” are objects.

Methods>> Object get(Object k), Object put(Object k, Object v).

Iterator  Before accessing a collection through an iterator you must obtain one if the collection classes
provide an iterator() method that returns an iterator to the start of the collection. By using iterator object you
can access each element in the collection, one element at a time.
Ex:- ArayList arr = new ArrayList();
Iterator itr = arr.iterator();
Object element =;

List Iterator  List Iterator gives the ability to access the collection, either forward/backward direction

Legacy Classes

Dictionary  is an abstract class that represent key/value storage repository and operates much like “Map”
once the value is stored you can retrieve it by using key.

Hash Table  HashTable stores key/value pairs in hash table, HashTable is Synchronized when using
hash table you have to specify an object that is used as a key, and the value that you want to linked to that
key. The key is then hashed, and the resulting hash code is used as the index at which the value is stored
with the table. Use H.T to store large amount of data, it will search as fast as vector.

Methods>> boolean containsKey(Object key), boolean containsValue(Object value), Object get(Object key),
Object put(Object key, Object value)
Stack  is a sub class of vector, stack includes all the methods defined by vector and adds several of its

Vector  vector holds any type of objects, it is not fixed length and vector is synchronized. We can store
primitive data types as well as objects. Default length of vector is up to 10.

Methods>> final void addElement(Object element), final int size(), final int capacity(), final boolean
removeElementAt(int index), final void removeAllElements().

Properties  is a subclass of HashTable, it is used to maintain the list of values in which the “key/value” is

Legacy Interfaces

Enumeration  Define methods by which you can enumerate the elements in a collection of objects.
Enumeration is synchronized it having 2 methods hasMoreElements(), nextElement().

Q) Array
Array of fixed length of same data type, we can store primitive data types as well as class objects.
 Arrays are initialized to the default value of their type when they are created, not declared, even if they are
local variables

Q) Diff Iterator & Enumeration

Iterator is not synchronized and enumeration is synchronized. Both are interface, Iterator is collection
interface which extends from ‘List’ interface. Enumeration is a legacy interface, Enumeration having 2 methods
‘Boolean hasMoreElements()’ & ‘Object NextElement()’. Iterator having 3 methods ‘boolean hasNext()’, ‘object
next()’, ‘void remove()’.

Q) List Iterator
It is an interface, List Iterator extends Iterator to allow bi-directional traversal of a list and modification of
the elements. Methods are ‘hasNext()’, ‘ hasPrevious()’.

Q) Diff HashTable & HashMap

 Both provide key/value to access the data. The H.T is one of the collection original collection class in java. H.P
is part of new collection frame work.
 H.T is synchronized and H.M is not.
 H.M permits null values in it while H.T does not.
 Iterator in the H.P is fail safe while the enumerator for the H.T is not.

Exception Handling



Error Exception

AWT Error Virtual Machine Error

Compile time.Ex Runtime Exception

(checked) (Unchecked)

OutOfMemory.E StackOverFlow.E EOF.E FilenotFound.E

Arithmetic.E NullPointer.E Indexoutof
ArrayIndexoutOfBound.E StirngIndexoutOfBound

Q) Diff Exception & Error

Exception and Error both are subclasses of the Throwable class.

ExceptionException are generated by java runtime system (or) by manually. An exception is a abnormal
condition that transfer program execution from a thrower to catcher.
Error Will stop the program execution, Error is a abnormal system condition we cannot handled these.

Q) try, catch, throw, throws

try  This is used to fix up the error, to prevent the program from automatically terminating, try-catch is
used to catching an exception that are thrown by the java runtime system.

Throw  is used to throe an exception explicitly.

Throws  A Throws clause list the type of exceptions that a methods might through.

Q) Checked & UnChecked Exception :-

Checked exception is some subclass of Exception. Making an exception checked forces client
programmers to deal with the possibility that the exception will be thrown. eg, IOException thrown by's read() method·

Unchecked exceptions are RuntimeException and any of its subclasses. Class Error and its subclasses
also are unchecked. With an unchecked exception, however, the compiler doesn't force client programmers either
to catch the exception or declare it in a throws clause. In fact, client programmers may not even know that the
exception could be thrown. eg, StringIndexOutOfBoundsException thrown by String's charAt() method· Checked
exceptions must be caught at compile time. Runtime exceptions do not need to be. Errors often cannot be.

Checked Exceptions Un checked exception

ClassNotFoundException ArithmeticException
NoSuchMethodException ArrayIndexOutOfBoundException
NoSuchFieldException ClasscastException
InterruptedException IllegalArgumentException
IllegalAccessException IllegalMonitorSateException
CloneNotSupportedException IllegalThreadStateException

OutOfMemoryError --> Signals that JVM has run out of memory and that the garbage collector is unable to
claim any more free memory.
StackOverFlow --> Signals that a stack O.F in the interpreter.
ArrayIndexOutOfbound --> For accessing an array element by providing an index values <0 or > or equal
to the array size.
StringIndexOutOfbound --> For accessing character of a string or string buffer with index values <0 or >
or equal to the array size.
Arithmetic Exception --> such as divide by zero.
ArrayStore Exception --> Assignment to an array element of an incompatible types.
ClasscastException --> Invalid casting.
IllegalArgument Exception --> Illegal argument is used to invoke a method.
Nullpointer Exception --> If attempt to made to use a null object.
NumberFormat Exception --> Invalid conversition of string to numeric format.
ClassNotfound Exception --> class not found.
Instantion Exception --> Attempt to create an object of an Abstract class or Interface.
NosuchField Exception --> A request field does not exist.
NosuchMethod Exception --> A request method does not exist.

Q) Can I catch an exception and give my own error message?

A) Yes, you can catch servlet errors and give custom error pages for them, but if there are exceptional conditions
you can anticipate, it would be better for your application to address these directly and try to avoid them in the first
place. If a servlet relies upon system or network resources that may not be available for unexpected reasons, you
can use a RequestDispatcher to forward the request to an error page.

RequestDispatcher dispatcher = null;

try {
// SQL operation
catch (SQLException se) {
dispatcher.forward(request, response);
HTTP error code

Q) Methods in Exceptions?
A) getMessage(), toString(), printStackTrace(), getLocalizedMessage(),

Q) Primitive multi tasking

If the threads of different priorities shifting the control depends on the priority .i.e; a thread with higher
priority is executed first than the thread with lower priority. This process of shifting control is known as primitive
multi tasking.

All Packages

Q) Thread Class
Methods: -
getName() run()
getPriority() Sleep()
isAlive() Start()

Q) Object class
All other classes are sub classes of object class, Object class is a super class of all other class.
Methods: -
void notify() void notifyAll()
Object Clone() Sting toString()
Boolean equals(Object object) Void wait()
void finalize() void wait(long milliseconds, int

Q) throwable class

Methods: -
String getMessage() Void printStackTrace()
String toString() Throwable fillInStackTrace()

Q) Javax.servlet Package

Interfaces Classes Exceptions

Servlet GenericServlet ServletException
ServletConfig ServletInputStream UnavaliableException
ServletContext ServletOutputStream

GenericServlet (C)public void destroy();

public String getInitParameter(String name);
public Enumeration getInitParameterNames();
public ServletConfig getServletConfig();
public ServletContext getServletContext();
public String getServletInfo();
public void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException;
public void log(String msg);
public abstract void service(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res)

ServletInputStream (C) public int readLine(byte b[], int off, int len)

ServletOutputStream (C) public void print(String s) throws IOException;

public void println() throws IOException;

Servlet (I)  public abstract void destroy();

public abstract ServletConfig getServletConfig();
public abstract String getServletInfo();
public abstract void init(ServletConfig config) throws ServletException;
public abstract void service(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res)

ServletConfig (I)  public abstract String getInitParameter(String name);

public abstract Enumeration getInitParameterNames();
public abstract ServletContext getServletContext();

ServletContext (I)  public abstract Object getAttribute(String name);

public abstract String getRealPath(String path);
public abstract String getServerInfo();
public abstract Servlet getServlet(String name) throws ServletException;
public abstract Enumeration getServletNames();
public abstract Enumeration getServlets();
public abstract void log(Exception exception, String msg);

ServletRequest (I)  public abstract Object getAttribute(String name);

public abstract String getParameter(String name);
public abstract Enumeration getParameterNames();
public abstract String[] getParameterValues(String name);
public abstract String getRealPath(String path);
public abstract String getRemoteAddr();
public abstract String getRemoteHost();
public abstract String getServerName();
public abstract int getServerPort();

ServletResponse (I)  public abstract String getCharacterEncoding();

public abstract PrintWriter getWriter() throws IOException;
public abstract void setContentLength(int len);
public abstract void setContentType(String type);

Q) Javax.servlet.Http Package

Interfaces Classes Exceptions

HttpServletRequest Cookies ServletException
HttpServletResponse HttpServlet UnavaliableException
HttpSession HttpUtils
HttpSessionContext HttpSessionbindingEvent

Cookies (C)  public Object clone();

public int getMaxAge();
public String getName();
public String getPath();
public String getValue();
public int getVersion();
public void setMaxAge(int expiry);
public void setPath(String uri);
public void setValue(String newValue);
public void setVersion(int v);

HttpServlet (C)  public void service(ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res)

protected void doDelete (HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected void doGet (HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected void doOptions(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected void doPut(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected void doTrace(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)
protected long getLastModified(HttpServletRequest req);
protected void service(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse res)

HttpSessionbindingEvent (I)  public String getName();

public HttpSession getSession();

HttpServletRequest (I)  public abstract Cookie[] getCookies();

public abstract String getHeader(String name);
public abstract Enumeration getHeaderNames();
public abstract String getQueryString();
public abstract String getRemoteUser();
public abstract String getRequestedSessionId();
public abstract String getRequestURI();
public abstract String getServletPath();
public abstract HttpSession getSession(boolean create);
public abstract boolean isRequestedSessionIdFromCookie();
public abstract boolean isRequestedSessionIdFromUrl();
public abstract boolean isRequestedSessionIdValid();

HttpServletResponse (I)  public abstract void addCookie(Cookie cookie);

public abstract String encodeRedirectUrl(String url);
public abstract String encodeUrl(String url);
public abstract void sendError(int sc, String msg) throws IOException;
public abstract void sendRedirect(String location) throws IOException;
public abstract void setHeader(String name, String value);

HttpSession (I)  public abstract long getCreationTime();

public abstract String getId();
public abstract long getLastAccessedTime();
public abstract HttpSessionContext getSessionContext();
public abstract Object getValue(String name);
public abstract String[] getValueNames();
public abstract void invalidate();
public abstract boolean isNew();
public abstract void putValue(String name, Object value);
public abstract void removeValue(String name);

HttpSessionContext (I)  public abstract Enumeration getIds();

public abstract HttpSession getSession(String sessionId);

Q) java.sql Package

Interfaces Classes Exceptions

Statement DriverManager SQL Exception
PreparedStatement Time ClassNotFoundException
CallableStatement TimeStamp Instantiation Exception

Q) java.lang Package

Interfaces Classes Exceptions

Cloneable Double, Float, Long, Integer, Short, ArithmeticException,
Byte, Boolean, Character, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundOf.E,
ClassCast.E, ClassNotFound.E
Runnable Class, ClassLoader IlleAcess.E, IllegalArgument.E
Comparable Process, RunTime, Void IllegalSate.E, NullPointer.E
String, StringBuffer NoSuchField.E, NoSuchMethod.E
Thread, ThreadGroup NumberFormat.E

Q) java.IO Package

Interfaces Classes Exceptions

DataInputstream BufferInputstream, BufferOutputStream
DataOutputstream BufferReader, BufferWriter
ObjectInputStream ByteArrayInputStream, ByteArrayOutputstream
ObjectOutputstream CharacterarrayReader, CharacterArayWriter
Serializable DataInputStream, DataOutputStream
Externializable Filereader, FileWriter
ObjectInputStream, ObjectOutputStream

SERVLETS Questions

Q) Servlet
Servlet is server side component, a servlet is small plug gable extension to the server and servlets are
used to extend the functionality of the java-enabled server. Servlets are durable objects means that they remain in
memory specially instructed to be destroyed.

Q) Servlet Life cycle

Public void init (ServletConfig config) throws ServletException
public void service (ServletRequest req, ServletResponse res) throws ServletException, IOException
public void destroy ()

First the servlet is constructed and then initialized with the init () method, this will call only once.
Any request from client is handled initially by the service () method before delegating to the doXxx () methods
in the case of HttpServlet.
The servlet is removed from service, destroyed with the destroy () method, then garbaged collected and
finalized. This will call only once. When your application is stopped (or) Servlet Container shuts down, your
Servlet's destroy () method will be called. This allows you to free any resources you may have got hold of in your
Servlet's init () method.

Q) ServletConfig & ServletContex

ServletConfig  ServletConfig object is used to obtain configuration data when it is loaded.
ServletContext ServletContext is used to obtain information about environment on which a servlet is running.

Q) Where the servlets will be loaded?

A) Address space of webserver.

Q) Are Servlets multithread?

A) Yes, the servlet container allocates a thread for each new request for a single servlet. Each thread of your
servlet runs as if a single user were accessing using it alone, but u can use static variable to store and present
information that is common to all threads, like a hit counter for instance.

Q) What happens to System.out & System.err output in a Servlet?

A) System.out goes to 'client side' and is seen in browser, while System.err goes to 'server side' and is visible in
error logs and/or on console.

Q) Session Tracking
Session tracking is the capability of the server to maintain the single client sequential list.

Q) Servlet chaining
Is a technique in which two are more servlets cooperating in servicing a single client sequential request,
where one servlet output is piped to the next servlet output. The are 2 ways (i) Servlet Aliasing (ii) HttpRequest

Servlet Aliasing  allow you to setup a single alias name for a comma delimited list of servlets. To make a servlet
chain open your browser and give the alias name in URL.

HttpRequest construct a URL string and append a comma delimited list of servlets to the end.

Q) HttpTunnelling
Is a method used to reading and writing serializes objects using a http connection. You are creating a sub
protocol inside http protocol that is tunneling inside another protocol.

Q) Diff CGI & Servlet

 Servlet is thread based but CGI is not
 CGI allow separate process for every client request, CGI is platform dependent and servlet is platform

Q) Diff GET & POST

 GET & POST are used to process request and response of a client.
 Get method is the part of URL, we send less amount of data through Get. The amount of information limited is
240-255 characters.
 Using POST we can send large amount of data through hidden fields.
 Get is to get the posted html data, POST is to post the html data.

Q) Diff Http & Generic Servlet

 HttpServlet class extends Generic servlet , so Generic servlet is parent and HttpServlet is child.
 Generic is from javax.servlet package, HttpServlet is from javax.servlet.Http package.
 Http implements all Http protocols, Generic servlet will implements all networking protocol
 Http is stateless protocol, which mean each request is independent of previous one, In generic we cannot
maintain the state of next page only main state of current page.
 A protocol is said to be stateless if it has n memory of prior connection.
 Http servlet extra functionality is capable of retrieving Http header information.
 Http servlet can override doGet(), doDelete(), doGet(), doPost(), doTrace(), generic servlet will override
Service() method only.

Q) The Structure and Deployment of Modern Servlet Web Applications

A) /WEB-INF/web.xml
/WEB-INF/lib/ [any required jar files]
/WEB-INF/classes/ [all class files]

WAR-> WARfile can be placed in a server’s webapps directory

Q) Servlet mapping?
A) <servlet>

Q) Timeoutcan be overridden in web.xml?

A) <session-config>

Q) Init parameter / Define context parameters?


Q) Tag Libraries?
A) <taglib>

Q) How many ways we can instantiate a class.?

A) Class.forName().newInstance() and new keyword

Q) Client pull & Server push?

Client pull
Client pull is similar to redirection, with one major difference: the browser actually displays the content
from the first page and waits some specified amount of time before retrieving and displaying the content from the
next page. It's called client pull because the client is responsible for pulling the content from the next page.
Client pull information is sent to the client using the Refresh HTTP header. This header's value specifies the
number of seconds to display the page before pulling the next one, and it optionally includes a URL string that
specifies the URL from which to pull. If no URL is given, the same URL is used. Here's a call to setHeader() that
tells the client to reload this same servlet after showing its current content for three seconds:
setHeader("Refresh", "3");
And here's a call that tells the client to display Netscape's home page after the three seconds:
setHeader("Refresh", "3; URL=");
Server push
server push because the server sends, or pushes, a sequence of response pages to the client.With
server push, the socket connection between the client and the server remains open until the last page has been

Q) How can a servlet refresh automatically if some new data has entered the database?
A) you can use client side refresh are server push

Q) Session Tracking techniques

(i) URL Rewriting

(ii) Hidden form Field
(iii) Persistence Cookies
(iv) Session Tracking API
(v) User Authorization

URL Rewriting
URL rewriting is a technique in which the requested URL is modified with the session id.
URL rewriting is another way to support anonymous session tracking. With URL rewriting, every local URL the
user might click on is dynamically modified, or rewritten, to include extra information.
http://server:port/servlet/Rewritten?sessionid=123 added parameter

Hidden form Field

Hidden form fields are HTML input type that are not displayed when read by the browser. They are sent
back to the server when the form that contains them is submitted. You include hidden form fields with HTML like

<FORM ACTION="/servlet/MovieFinder" METHOD="POST">

<INPUT TYPE=hidden NAME="zip" VALUE="94040">
<INPUT TYPE=hidden NAME="level" VALUE="expert">
In a sense, hidden form fields define constant variables for a form. To a servlet receiving a submitted form, there
is no difference between a hidden field and a visible field.

Persistence Cookie
A cookie is a bit of information sent by a web server to a browser that can later be read back from that
browser. When a browser receives a cookie, it saves the cookie and thereafter sends the cookie back to the
server each time it accesses a page on that server, subject to certain rules. Because a cookie's value can
uniquely identify a client, cookies are often used for session tracking. Because cookies are sent using HTTP
headers, they should be added to the response before you send any content. Browsers are only required to
accept 20 cookies per site, 300 total per user, and they can limit each cookie's size to 4096 bytes.

Sending cookies from a servlet

Cookie cookie = new Cookie ("ID", "123");

res.addCookie (cookie);

A servlet retrieves cookies by calling the getCookies () method of HttpServlet- Request:

public Cookie[] HttpServletRequest.getCookies()
This method returns an array of Cookie objects that contains all the cookies sent by the browser as part of the
request or null if no cookies were sent. The code to fetch cookies looks like this:

Reading browser cookies from a Servlet

Cookie [] cookies = req. getCookies();

if (cookies != null) {
for (int i = 0; i < cookies.length; i++) {
String name = cookies [i]. getName ();
String value = cookies [i]. getValue();
A cookie, mycookie, can be Deleted using the following scriptlet:
Cookie killMyCookie = new Cookie("mycookie", null);

You can set the maximum age of a cookie with the cookie.setMaxAge(int seconds) method:
 Zero means to delete the cookie
 + value is the maximum number of seconds the cookie will live, before it expires
 - value means the cookie will not be stored beyond this browser session (deleted on browser close)

Session Tracking API

In Java the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession API handles many of the details of session tracking. It allows a
session object to be created for each user session, then allows for values to be stored and retrieved for each
session. A session object is created through the HttpServletRequest using the getSession() method:

HttpSession session = request.getSession(true);

This will return the session for this user or create one if one does not already exist.
Values can be stored for a user session using the HttpSession method putValue():

session.putValue("valueName", valueObject);

Session objects can be retrieved using getValue(String name), while a array of all value names can be retrieved
using getValueNames(). Values can also be removed using removeValue(String valueName)

User Authorization
Servers can be set up to restrict access to HTML pages (and servlets). The user is required to enter a
user name and password. Once they are verified the client re-sends the authorisation with requests for
documents to that site in the http header.
Servlets can use the username authorisation sent with request to keep track of user data. For example, a
hashtable can be set up to contain all the data for a particular user. When a user makes another request the user
name can be used to add new items to their cart using the hashtable.

Q) Session
Session is a persistence network connection between client and server that facilitate the exchange of
information between client and server. A session object created for each user persists on the server side, either
until user closes the browser or user remains idle for the session expiration time.

As such there is no limit on the amount of information that can be saved in a Session Object. Only the
RAM available on the server machine is the limitation. The only limit is the Session ID length(Identifier) , which
should not exceed more than 4K. If the data to be store is very huge, then it's preferred to save it to a temporary
file onto hard disk, rather than saving it in session. Internally if the amount of data being saved in Session
exceeds the predefined limit, most of the servers write it to a temporary cache on Hard disk.

HttpSession session = req.getSession(true); //Creating a Session instance

session.putValue ("MyIdentifier1", count1); // Storing Value into session Object
session.putValue ("MyIdentifier2", count2);
session.getValue(MyIdentifier1); // Prints value of Count
session.removeValue(MyIdentifier1); // Removing Valuefrom Session Object

Q) Cookie advantages & Disadvantages

Advantages Persistence offer efficient way to implement session tracking for each client request a cookie can
be automatically provide a clients session id.
Disadvantage The biggest problem with cookies is that browser do not always accept cookies. Some times
browser does not accept cookies. Browser only requires accepting 20 cookies per page and they can limit the
cookie size to 4096 bytes. It cannot work if the security level set too high in browser. Cookies are stored in a plain
text format so every one can view and modify them. We can put maximum 300 cookies for entire application.

Q) Advantages of Sessions over Cookies & URLRewriting?

 Sessions are more secure and fast because they are stored at server side. But sessions has to be used
combindly with cookies (or) URLRewriting for maintaining client id that is session id at client side.
 Cookies are store at client side so some clients may disable cookies so we may not sure that the cookies
which we are maintaining may work or not, if cookies are disable also we can maintain sessions using
 In URLRewriting we cannot maintain large data because it leads to network traffic and access may be become
slow. Where in sessions will not maintain the data which we have to maintain instead we will maintain only the
session id.

Q) encodeURL & encodeRedirectURL

These are methods of HttpResponse object, “encodeURL” is for normal links inside your HTML pages,
“encodeRedirectURL” is for a link your passing to response.sendRedirect().

Q) SingleThread model
SingleThreadModel is a tag interface with no methods. In this model no two threads will execute
concurrently the service method of the servlet, to accomplish this each thread uses a free servlet instance from
the servlet pool. So any servlet implementing this can be considered thread safe and it is not required synchronize
access to its variables.
If a servlet implements this interface, the server ensures that each instance of the servlet handles only
one service request at a time. Servers implement this functionality by maintaining a pool of servlet instances and
dispatching incoming requests to free servlets within the pool. SingleThreadModel provides easy thread safety,
but at the cost of increased resource requirements as more servlet instances are loaded at any given time.

public interface SingleThreadModel {


Q) Request Headers
User-agent: - Gives the information about client software, browser name, version and information about the
machine on which it is running.

Q) Why there is no constructor in servlet?

A) A servlet is just like an applet in the respect that it has an init() method that acts as a constructor, an
initialization code you need to run should e place in the init(), since it get called when the servlet is first loaded.

Q) Why do you need both GET & POST methods in servlets?

A) A single servlet can be called from different HTML pages, so different method calls can be possible.

Threading Questions
Q) What threads will start when you start the java program?
A) Finalizer, Main, Reference Handler, Signal dispatcher.

Q) Thread
Thread is a smallest unit of dispatchable code.

Q) Sleep(), wait(), notify(), notifyAll(), stop(), suspend(), resume()

sleep  sleep for a thread until some specific amount of time.

wait  wait for a thread until some specific condition occurs (Or) Tells the calling thread to give up the
monitor and go to sleep until some other thread enters the same monitor and calls notify().
notify( )  wakes up the first thread that called wait() on the same object.
notifyAll ( ) wakes up all the threads that called wait() on the same object, the highest priority thread will run
stop( )  The thread move to dead state.
suspend ( ) & resume( )  To pass and restart the execution of a thread. In case of suspend, thread will be
1suspended by calling the lock on the object. Resume will restart from where it is suspended.
join( )  wait for a thread to terminate.

Q) yield( )
Yield method temporarily stop the callers thread and put at the end of queue to wait for another turn to be
executed. It is used to make other threads of the same priority have the chance to run.

-> Thread.sleep(milliseconds);
-> Thread.sleep(milliseconds, nanoseconds);

Q) Multi Threading

Q) Daemon Thread
Daemon thread is one which serves another thread, it has no other role normally a daemon thread carry
some background program. When daemon thread remain the program exist.

Q) Thread Priority

Q) Can I restart a stopped thread?

A) Once a thread is stopped, it cannot be restarted. Keep in mind though that the use of the stop() method of
Thread is deprecated and should be avoided.

Q) Thread Priorities

Class A implements Runnable{

Thread t;
Public clicker(int p){
T = new Thread(this)
public void run(){
public void stop(){
public void start(){
class HiLo{
public static void main(Stirng args[]){
Clicker hi = new Clicker(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY+2);
Clicker lo = new Clicker(Thread.NORM_PRIORITY-2);

Q) What is the use of start() function in starting a thread? why we do not use the run() method directly to
run the thread?
 Start method tell the JVM that it needs to create a system specific thread. After creating the system resources
it passes the runnable object to it to execute the run() method.
 calling run() method directly has the thread execute in the same as the calling object, not a separate thread of

Q) what are the different levels of locking using ‘Synchronize’ key word?
A) class level, method level, object level, block level

JSP Questions

Page Directive <%@ Page language="java" extends="className" Page directive defines information
import="className" session="true|false" buffer="8KB" that will be globally available for that
autoFlush="true/false" isThreadSafe="true/false" page
info="text" errorPage="jspUrl" isErrorPage="true/false"
contentType="mimeType” %>
Include Directive <%@ include file="relative URL" %> Include JSP are Servlet at compile
time meaning that only once parsed
by the compiler, it will act as a “C”
"#include" pulling in the text of the
included file and compiling it as if it
were part of the including file. We can
also include “Static” files using this
Taglib Directive <%@ taglib uri="uriToTagLibrary" prefix="prefixString" %> Taglib directive enables you to create
your own custom tags.

<Jsp: useBean> <Jsp: useBean id="beanInstanceName" scope="page| UseBean tag is used to associate a
request|session|application” class="" java bean with jsp.
type="" bean Name="" type="" </jsp: useBean>

<Jsp: setProperty> <Jsp: setProperty name="beanInstanceName” Sets a property value or values in a

property="*" |"propertyName” param="paramName" bean.
value="{string | <%= expression %>}" />

<Jsp: getProperty> <Jsp: getProperty name="beanInstanceName" Gets the value of a bean property so
property="propertyName" /> that you can display it in a result
<Jsp: param> <Jsp: param name="beanInstanceName" value=" It is used to provide other tags with
parameterValue " /> additional information in the form of
name, value pairs. This is used to
conjunction with jsp:include,
jsp:forward, jsp:plugin.
<Jsp: include> <Jsp: include page="relativeURL " flush="true" > Jsp Include includes the JSP are
<Jsp: param name="username" value="jsmith" /> Servlet at request time, it is not
</jsp: include> parsed by the compiler, and it
Includes a static file or sends a
request to a dynamic file.

<Jsp: forward> <Jsp: forward page="{relativeURL|<%=expression %>}" > When ever the client request will
come it will take the request and
<jsp: param name="paramName" value="paramValue"/> process the request and the request
</jsp: forward> to be forward to another page and it
will also forward the http parameters
of the previous page to the destination
page. It will work at server side.
<Jsp: plugin> <Jsp: plugin type="bean/applet" code="classFileName" This action is used to generate client
codebase="classFileDirectoryName" browser specific html tags that
name="instanceName" archive="” align="" height=" " ensures the java plug in software is
width=" " hspace=" " vspace=" </jsp: plugin> available, followed by execution of
applet or java bean component
specified in tag.

Q) Implicit Objects

Implicit objects Type Scope Sum useful methods

request Subclass of Request getAttribute, getParameter, getParameterNames,
javax.servlet.ServletRequest getParameterValues, setAttribute
response Subclass of Page Not typically used by JSP page authors
pageContext javax.servlet.jsp.PageContext Page findAttribute, getAttribute, getAttributesScope,
getAttributeNamesInScope, setAttribute.
session javax.servlet.http.HttpSession Session getAttribute, getId, setAttribute.
application javax.servlet.ServletContext Application getAttribute, getMimeType, getRealPath,
out javax.servlet.jsp.JspWriter Page clear, clearBuffer, flush, getBufferSize,
config javax.servlet.ServletConfig Page getInitParameter, getInitParameterNames
page java.lang.Object Page Not typically used by JSP page authors
exception java.lang.Throwable Page getMessage, getLocalizedMessage,
printStackTrace, toString

Q) Declaration
A declaration declares one or more variables or methods for use later in the JSP source file.
Ex: <%! int a, b, c; %>
<%! int accountnumber=2346883; %>
<%! String accountname="Thomas"; %>
<%! private void processAmount () { ... } %>

XML syntax for JSP declaration is <jsp: declaration>int x; </jsp: declaration>

Q) Expressions
An expression tag contains a scripting language expression that is evaluated, converted to a String, and
inserted where the expression appears in the JSP file.
Ex: <%= (new java.util.Date ()).toLocaleString() %>

XML syntax for JSP expression is <jsp: expression>Java expression</jsp: expression>

Q) Scriptlet
A scriptlet can contain variable or method declarations, or expressions that are valid in the page scripting
language. Within scriptlet tags, you can
1.Declare variables or methods to use later in the file
2.Write expressions valid in the page scripting language
3.Use any of the JSP implicit objects or any object declared with a <jsp: useBean> tag.
Scriptlets are executed at request time, when the JSP engine processes the client request. If the scriptlet
produces output, the output is stored in the out object, from which you can display it.

XML syntax for JSP scriptlets is <jsp: scriptlet>Java code</jsp: scriptlet>

Q) Comments
Html comment  Creates a comment that is sent to the client in the viewable page source.
Ex: <! -- comment [ <%= expression %> ] -->

Hidden Comment  Documents the JSP file, but is not sent to the client.
Ex: <%-- comment --%>


Model: - model is a java bean/entity bean that represent the data being transmitted are received.
Controller: - Controller is a servlet that performs necessary manipulations to the model.
View: - is a screen representation of the model.

 Major benefits of using the MVC design pattern is separate the view & model this make it is possible to create
are change views with out having to change the model.
 1) The browser makes a request to the controller servlet 2) Servlet performs necessary actions to the java
bean model and forward the result to the jsp view. 3) The jsp formats the model for display and send the html
results back top the web browser.

Q) Life-cycle of JSP
jspInit( )  container calls the jspInit() to initialize to servlet instance. It is called before any other method,
and is called only once for a servlet instance.
_jspservice( )  container calls _jspservice() for each request, passing it the request and the response objects.
jspDestroy( )  container calls this when it decides take the instance out of service. It is the last method called n
the servlet instance.
 jspInit() & jspDestroy() called only once so we cannot override these methods.

Q) Diff RequestDispatcher.forward(req, res) & RequestDispatcher.include(req, res) & <jsp:forward> &

res.sendRedirect( url)

RequestDispatcher.include(req, res) RequestDispatcher.include() and <jsp:include> both include

content. The included page is inserted into the current page or output stream at the indicated point.
RequestDispatcher.forward(req, res) in forward req, res would be passed to the destination url and the
control will return back to the same method, It will execute at “server side”. (Or) RequestDispatcher.forward(), the
servlet engine transfers control of this HTTP request internally from your current servlet or JSP to another servlet
or JSP or static file.

<Jsp: forward> Forwards a client request to an HTML file, JSP file, or servlet for processing. When ever
the client request will come it will take the request and process the request and the request to be forward to
another page, it will also forward the http parameters of the previous page to the destination page. It will execute
at “server side” so the browser unaware of the changes. If page1.jsp redirects to page2.jsp, the browser address
bar will still show page1.jsp.

res.sendRedirect(url) when ever the client request will come just it will take the request and the request
to be forwarded to another page. It cannot forward the http parameters of the previous page. This will work at
client side.

Q) Diff res.sendRedirect( ) & req.forward( )

sendRedirect()  sends a redirect response back to the client's browser. The browser will normally
interpret this response by initiating a new request to the redirect URL given in the response.
forward()  does not involve the client's browser. It just takes browser's current request, and hands it off
to another servlet/jsp to handle. The client doesn't know that they're request is being handled by a different
servlet/jsp than they originally called.
For ex, if you want to hide the fact that you're handling the browser request with multiple servlets/jsp, and
all of the servlets/jsp are in the same web application, use forward() or include(). If you want the browser to initiate
a new request to a different servlet/jsp, or if the servlet/jsp you want to forward to is not in the same web
application, use sendRedirect ().

Q) Diff <%@ include file="file" %> & <jsp:include page=”abc.jsp” %>

<%@include file="abc.jsp"%> directive acts like C "#include", pulling in the text of the included file and
compiling it as if it were part of the including file. The included file can be any type (including HTML or text). (Or)
includes a jsp/servlet at compile time meaning only once parsed by the compiler.

<jsp:include page="abc.jsp"> include a jsp/servlet at request time it is not parsed by the compiler.

Q) Diff Jsp & Servlet

Internally when jsp is executed by the server it get converted into the servlet so the way jsp & servlet work is
almost similar.
 In jsp we can easily separate the P.L with B.L, but in servlet both are combined.
 One servlet object is communicate with many number of objects, but jsp it is not possible.

Q) Can JSP be multi-threaded? How can I implement a thread-safe JSP page?

A) By default the service() method of all the JSP execute in a multithreaded fashion. You can make a page
“thread-safe” and have it serve client requests in a single-threaded fashion by setting the page tag’s is Thread
Safe attribute to false:
<%@ page is ThreadSafe=”false” %>

Q) How does JSP handle runtime exceptions?

A) You can use the errorPage attribute of the page directive to have uncaught run-time exceptions automatically
forwarded to an error processing page. For example:
<%@ page errorPage=\"error.jsp\" %>
redirects the browser to the JSP page error.jsp if an uncaught exception is encountered during request

processing. Within error.jsp, if you indicate that it is an error-processing page, via the directive:
<%@ page isErrorPage=\"true\" %> .

Q) How do I prevent the output of my JSP or Servlet pages from being cached by the Web browser? And
Proxy server?

Web browser caching

response.setDateHeader ("Expires", 0);

Proxy server caching


Q) What's a better approach for enabling thread-safe servlets & JSPs? SingleThreadModel Interface or
A) SingleThreadModel technique is easy to use, and works well for low volume sites. If your users to increase in
the future, you may be better off implementing explicit synchronization for your shared data
Also, note that SingleThreadModel is pretty resource intensive from the server's perspective. The most serious
issue however is when the number of concurrent requests exhaust the servlet instance pool. In that case, all the
unserviced requests are queued until something becomes free.

Q) Servlet – to- JSP communicate?

public void doPost(HttpServletRequest req,
HttpServletResponse res){
govi.FormBean f = new govi.formBean();
string id = req.getParameter(“id”);
getServletConfig().getServletContext().getRequestDispatcher(“/jsp/Bean1.jsp”).forward(req, res);
} catch(Exception ex);

The jsp page Bean1.jsp can then process fBean,

<jsp:useBean id=”fBean” class=”govi.formBean” scope=”request” />

<jsp:getProprety name=”fBean” property=”name” />
<jsp:getProprety name=”fBean” property=”addr” />

Q) JSP- to-EJB Session Bean communicate?

<%@ page import="javax.naming.*, javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject, foo.AccountHome, foo.Account" %>
AccountHome accHome=null;
public void jspInit() {
InitialContext cntxt = new InitialContext( );
Object ref= cntxt.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/AccountEJB");
accHome = (AccountHome)PortableRemoteObject.narrow(ref,AccountHome.class);
Account acct = accHome.create();

Q) Servlet output - to - another Servlet?

ServletContext sc = getServletContext();
RequestDispatcher rd = sc.getRequestDispatcher(“/../srevlet2”) ;
rd.forward(req, res);

Public void service(servletRequest req, servletResponse res)
ServletContext sc = getServletContext();
RequestDispatcher rd = sc.getRequestDispatcher(“/../srevlet1”) ;
rd.include(req, res);

Q) How do you pass an InitParameter to a JSP?

ServletConfig cfg =null;
public void jspInit(){
ServletConfig cfg=getServletConfig();
for (Enumeration e=cfg.getInitParameterNames(); e.hasMoreElements();)
String name=(String)e.nextElement();
String value = cfg.getInitParameter(name);

Q) How to view an image stored on database with JSP?

<%@ page language="java" import="java.sql.*,java.util.*"%>
String image_id = (String) request.getParameter("ID");
if (image_id != null){
Connection con =
Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM IMMAGINE WHERE IMMAGINE_ID = " +
if (
String dim_image = rs.getString("IMMAGINE_DIMENSIONE");
byte [] blocco = rs.getBytes("IMMAGINE_IMMAGINE");
ServletOutputStream op = response.getOutputStream();
for(int i=0;i<Integer.parseInt(dim_image);i++)
} catch(Exception e) {
out.println("An error occurs : " + e.toString());

Q) How do I pass values from a list box (with multiple selects) to a Java Bean?
Consider the following HTML, which basically allows the user to select multiple values by means of a checkbox:

What's your favorite movie?

<form method=post action=Movies.jsp>
<input type=checkbox name=faveMovies value="2001: A Space Odyssey"> 2001: A Space Odyssey
<input type=checkbox name=faveMovies value="The Waterboy"> The Waterboy
<input type=checkbox name=faveMovies value="The Tin Drum"> The Tin Drum
<input type=checkbox name=faveMovies value="Being John "> Being John Malkovich
<input type=submit>
To handle HTML elements like checkboxes and lists which can be used to select multiple values, you need to use
a bean with indexed properties (arrays). The following bean can be used to store the data selected from the
above check box, since it contains an indexed property movies:

package foo;
public class MovieBean {
private String[] movies;
public MovieBean() {
String movies[] = new String[0];
public String[] getMovies() {
return movies;
public void setMovies(String[] m) {
this.movies = m;

Although a good design pattern would be to have the names of the bean properties match those of the HTML
input form elements, it need not always be the case, as indicated within this example. The JSP code to process
the posted form data is as follows:

<html> <body>
<%! String[] movies; %>

<jsp:useBean id="movieBean" class="foo.MovieBean">

<jsp:setProperty name="movieBean" property="movies" param="faveMovies" />

<% movies = movieBean.getMovies();

if (movies != null) {
out.println("You selected: <br>");
for (int i = 0; i < movies.length; i++) {
out.println ("<li>"+movies[i]+"</li>");
} else
out.println ("Don't you watch any movies?!");

JDBC Questions

Q) what Class.forName will do while loading drivers?

A) it is used to create an instance of the driver and register with the DriverManager.

Q) JDBC connection
import java.sql.*;
public class JDBCSample {
public static void main(java.lang.String[] args) {
try {
} catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
System.out.println("Unable to load Driver Class");
try {
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection("jdbc:odbc:companydb","", "");
Statement stmt = con.createStatement();
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT FIRST_NAME FROM EMPLOYEES");
while( {
catch (SQLException se) {
System.out.println("SQL Exception: " + se.getMessage());

Q) 4th type driver

connection con = driverManager.getConnection(“JDBC:oracle:thin:@hostname:portno:oracleservice”,”uid”,

Q) Steps to connect to JDBC?

A) 1. First thing is using jdbc you have to establish a connection to the data base this is 2 steps process (i) you
must load the jdbc driver (ii) then make a connection, to do this we can call the getConnection() method of driver
manager class.
2. To execute any sql commands using jdbc connection you must first create a statement object to create this call
statement st = con.createSteatement().
This is done by calling the createStatement() method in connection interface. Once the statement is created you
can executed it by calling execute() method of the statement interface.

Q) JDBC connection pool

When you are going to caret a pool of connection to the data base. This will give access to a collection of
already opened data base connections, which will reduce the time it takes to service the request and you can
service “n” number of request at once.

Q) Why you need JDBC if ODBC is available?

A) ODBC is purely written in “c” so we cannot directly connect with java. JDBC is a low level pure java API used
to execute SQL statements. (i) ODBC is not appropriate for direct use from java because it uses “c” interfaces.
Calls from java to native “c” code has number of drawbacks in the security , implementation and robustness.

Q) Can we establish the connection with ODBC itself?

A) Yes, using java native classes we have to write a program.

Q) what is necessity of JDBC in JDBC-ODBC bridge?

A) The purpose of JDBC is to link java API to the ODBC , ODBC return high level “c” API so the JDBC converts
“c” level API to java API.

Q) JDBC Drivers

o JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver

o Native API - Partly Java Driver
o Network protocol – All Java Driver
o Native Protocol - Pure Java Driver

Tier Driver mechanism Description

Two JDBC-ODBC JDBC access via most ODBC drivers, some ODBC binary
code and client code must be loaded on each client
machine. This driver is commonly used for prototyping.
The JDBC-ODBC Bridge is JDBC driver which implements
JDBC operations by translating them to JDBC operations.
This driver converts JDBC calls to database specific native
Two Native API - Partly - Java driver
calls. Client requires database specific libraries.
This driver converts JDBC calls into DBMS independent
network protocol that is sent to the middleware server.
This will translate this DBMS independent network
Three JDBC - Net -All Java driver
protocol into DBMS specific protocol , which is sent to a
particular database. The results are again rooted back to
middleware server and sent back to client.
They are pure java driver, they communicate directly with
Two Native protocol - All - Java driver
the vendor database. They convert JDBC commands.

Q) Does the JDBC-ODBC Bridge support multiple concurrent open statements per connection?
A) No. You can open only one Statement object per connection when you are using the JDBC-ODBC Bridge.

Q) Is the JDBC-ODBC Bridge multi-threaded?

A) No. The JDBC-ODBC Bridge does not support concurrent access from different threads. The JDBC-ODBC
Bridge uses synchronized methods to serialize all of the calls that it makes to ODBC
Q) Dynamically creating Tables
Statement st = con.cretaeStatement();
Int n = st.executeUpdate(“create table “ + uname+ “(sno int, sentby varchar(10), subject varchar(15)”);

Q) Statements in JDBC

Statement  Does not take any arguments, In this statement it will check syntax error and execute it
every time.

Prepare statement  P.S are precompiled statements once we compile the statements and send it to the server
for later use. P.S are partially compiled statements placed at server side with place holders. Before execution of
these statements user has to supply values for place holders, it will increase performance of application.

PreparedStatement pst = con.prepareStatement("SELECT * FROM EMP WHERE deptno=?");

DataInputStream dis = new DataInputStream(“”);
Int dno = Integer.ParseInt(dis.readLine());
pst.setInt(1, dno);
ResultSet rs = pst.executeQuery();

Callable statement  C.S used to retrieve data by invoking stored procedures, stored procedure are program
units placed at data base server side for reusability. These are used by n-number of clients. Stored procedure are
precompiled in RDBMS, so they can run faster than the dynamic sql.
Callable statement will call a single stored procedure, they perform multiple queries and updates without net work

callableStatement cst = con.prepareCall(“{CALL procedure-name(??)} ”);

DataInputStream dis = new DataInputStream(“”);
Int enum = Integer.ParseInt(dis.readLine());
cst.setInt(1, enum);
cst.registerOutParameter(2, types.VARCHAR)
resultset rs = cst.execute();

In  used to send information to the procedure.

Out  used to retrieve information from data base.
InOut  both.

Q) Retrieving very large values from database?

A) getASSCIISteram()  read values which are character in nature.
GetBinaryStream()  used to read images.
Q) ResultSetMetaData
It is used to find out the information of a table in a data base.
ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT * FROM "+ table);
ResultSetMetaData rsmd = rs.getMetaData();

Methods in ResultSetMetaData  getColumnCount(), getColumnName(), getColumnLabel(), getColumnType(),


Q) Database MetaData
You need some information about the “data base” & “dictionary” we use this .To find out tables, stored procedure
names, columns in a table, primary key of a table we use this, this is the largest interface in java.sql package

Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection(jdbcURL, "", "");

DatabaseMetaData dbmd = con.getMetaData();
ResultSet rs= dbmd.getxxx();

Methods in DatabaseMetaData  getColumns(), getTableTypes(), getTables(), getDriverName(),

getMajorVersion(), get MinorVersion(), getProcedures(), getProcedureColumns(), getTables().

Q) Procedure
Procedure is a subprogram will perform some specific action, sub programs are name PL/SQL blocks that
can take parameters to be invoked.

create or replace procedure procedure-name (id IN INTEGER , bal IN OUT FLOAT) IS

select balance into bal from accounts where account_id = id;
bal := bal + bal * 0.03;
update accounts set balance = bal where account_id = id;

Q) Trigger
Trigger is a stored PL/SQL block associated with a specific database table. Oracle executes triggers
automatically when ever a given SQL operation effects the table, we can associate 12 data base triggers with in a
given table.

Create/Replace trigger before Insert (or) Delete (or) Update on emp for each row
Insert into table-name values(:empno; :name)

Q) Stored Images into a table

Public class img

Public static void main(String args[]){
Connection con = DriverManager.getConnection();
Preparestatement pst = con.prepareStatement(“insert into image value(?));
FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(“a.gif”);
Pst.setBinaryStream(1, fis, fis.available);
Int I = pst.executeUpadate();

Retrieve Image

Statement st = con.CreateStatement();
ResultSet rs = st.executeQuery(“select * from img”);;
InputStream is = rs.getBinaryStream(1);
FileOutPutStream fos = new FileOutPutStream(“g2.gif”);
Int ch;

Q) Resultset Types
rs.beforeFirst()  goto 1st record
rs.afterLast()  goto last record
res.absolute(4)  will got 4th record in result set.
rs.first(), rs.last()
rs.updateRow(), rs.updateRow(3,88)  value in column 3 of resultset is set to 88.

EJB Questions

Q) Application server & Web server

 Application server is a generalized server for running more than one application like ejb, rmi, jsp, servlets.
 webserver is for request, response paradigm. It takes the client request and send response back to the client
and the connection is closed.
 A.S cannot process Http request, but takes the forwarded request from W.S and process the business logic
and send the output to the W.S which it turns send to the client.
 A.S manage transactions, security, persistence and lot more, but W.S cannot help in this regards. W.S takes
only the Http request.
 A.S provides runtime environment for server side components, they provide middleware services such as
resource pooling and network.

Q) Diff Bean & Ejb

Q) SessionBeans
Session beans are not persistence there are short lived beans. S.B can perform database operations but
S.B it self is not a persistence objects. S.B are business process objects they implements business logic,
business rules and workflow.

Statefull Session Bean & Stateless Session Bean

 Statefull session bean is a bean that is designed to service business process that span multiple methods
request/transaction, S.S.B can retain their state on the behalf of individual client. All S.S.B can exposes only a
single ejbCreate() method it does not take any parameters.
 Stateless session bean these are single request business process is one that does not require state to be
maintained across method invocation. S.S.B cannot hold the state.
 Statefull session bean do not have pooling concept
 Stateless session bean instance can be pooled.
 If the business process span multiple invocations there by requiring a conversational then S.S.B will be ideal
 If the business last only for a single method call, S.S.B are suitable.

Q) Entity Bean
Entity beans are permanent business entities because their state is saved in permanent data storage. E.B
are persistence objects, E.B contain data related logic. E.B are permanent so if any machine crashes, the E.B can
be reconstructed in memory again by simple reading the data back in from the database.

Bean managed Persistence & Container managed Persistence

 B.P is an entity bean that must be persisted by hand, other words component developer must write the code to
translate your in-memory fields into an underlying data store. You handle these persist operations your self, you
place your data base calls in ejbLoad() and ejbStore(). Finder methods only for B.M.P for C.M.P your ejb
container will implement the finder methods. In this commit, rollback, begin are transactions In B.M.P findByPK()
return a reference to the actual bean object.
 You do not have to do anything to synchronize with data base. In entity bean deployment descriptor you
specify which fields that the container should manage. The transaction in C.M.P are TX-Support, TX-NotSupport,
TX-require. He findByPK() in C.M.P return void because the method is internally implemented.

Q) Message Driven Bean

 M.D.B process messages asynchronously are deliver via JMS. M.D.B’s are stateless, server side, transaction
aware components used for asynchronous JMS messages. It acts as a JMS message listener which JMS
messages, the messages may be sent by any J2ee component, an application client, another enterprise bean, or
by a JMS application.
When Ejb application server starts it parse the D.D and then loads and initializes declared beans. In case of
M.D.B container establish a connection with the message provide(MOM server), client access message beans
through the beans JMS interface (java.JMS.messageListerner) which exposes a single method.
Public void onmessage(javax.JMS.message message)

Q) When to use container managed and bean managed persistence?

Container managed persistance is used when the persistant data store is a relational database and there
is one to one mapping between a data represented in a table in the relational database and the ejb object.
Bean managed persistance in used when there is no one to one mapping of the table and a complex
query reteriving data from several tables needs to be performed to construct an ejb object. Bean managed is also
used when the persistence data storage is not a relational database.

Q) When to choose Statefull & Stateless Session bean?

A) Does the business process span multiple method invocations, requiring a conversational state if so the state
full model fits very nicely. If your business process last for a single method call the stateless paradigm will better
suite needed.

Q) Diff Statefull Session & Entity Bean

Both S.S.B & E.B undergo passivation and activation. The E.B have a separate ejbStore() callback for
saving state during passivation & a separate ejbLoad() callback for loading state during activation. We do not
need these callbacks for S.S.B because the container is simply uses object serialization to persist S.S.B fields.

Q) Object-Relational Mapping
Mapping of objects to relational database is a technology called O.R.M. O.R.M is a persistence
mechanism of persistence objects than simple object serialization.

Q) When to use which bean Session Bean & Entity Bean?

 E.B are effective when application want to access one row at a time, if many rows needed to be fetched using
session bean can be better alternative.
 E.B are effective when working with one row at a time cause of lot of N.W traffic. S.B are efficient when client
wants to access database directly, fetching, updating multiple rows from data base.
 S.B for application logic.

Q) Deployment Descriptor
D.D contains information for all the beans in the “ejb.jar” file. D.D enables ejb container to provide implicit
services to enterprise bean components, these services can gain your bean with out coding. D.D is a XML file.

Q) ejbCreate()
In stateless session bean can have only one ejbCreate() method it must take no arguments. Remember
that ejbCreate() is essentially analogous to a constructor for ejb; it initializes an instance internal state variable.
Because the stateless session bean has no client specific variables.

Q) Can a Session Bean be defined without ejbCreate() method?

A) The ejbCreate() methods is part of the bean's lifecycle, so, the compiler will not return an error because there
is no ejbCreate() method.

- The home interface of a Stateless Session Bean must have a single create() method with no arguments,
while the session bean class must contain exactly one ejbCreate() method, also without arguments.
- Stateful Session Beans can have arguments (more than one create method)
- Stateful beans can contain multiple ejbCreate() as long as they match with the home interface definition

Q) Can i call remove() on a Stateless Session bean?

A) Yes, The life of a Stateless Session bean for a client is just till the execution of the method that the client would
have called on the bean…after the execution of that method if the client calls another method, then a different
bean is taken from the pool. so the container very well knows that a bean has finished its life for a client and can
put it back in the pool.

Q) Can a Stateless Session Bean maintain state?

A) Yes, A Stateless Session bean can contain no-client specific state across client invoked methods. For ex
states such as socket connection, dbase connection, references to an EJBObject and so on can be maintained.

Q) How can I map a single Entity Bean to multiple tables?

A) If u use Bean-Managed Persistence(BMP), map the bean to tables manually. Consider applying the DAO
design pattern to accomplish this,.
If u choose Container-Managed persistence(CMP), use the vendors object/relational mapping tool to specify
the mapping between your object state and the persistence schema.

Q) Can EJB handle transaction across multiple databases?

A) The transaction manager in EJB handling transaction across multiple databases. This is accomplished with
multiple Entity beans handling to each database and a single session bean to manage a transaction with the
Entity bean.

Q) Session Bean CallBack methods?

public interface javax.ejb.SessionBean extends javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean
public abstract void ejbActivate();
public abstract void ejbCreate();
public abstract void ejbPassivate();
public abstract void ejbRemove();
public abstract void setSessionContext(SessionyContext ctx);

SessionContext  S.C is your beans gateway to interact with the container, S.C query the container about your
current transactional state, your security state.


ejbPassivate( )  If too many beans are instantiated, the container can passivate some of them .ie write the
bean to some temp storage. The container should release all resources held by the bean. Just before passivating,
the container calls the ejbPassivate() method. So release all resources here, ie,close socket connections..etc.

ejbActivate( )  When a passiavted bean is called, its said to be activated. The container then calls the
ejbActivate() method. Acquire all the required resources for the bean in this method. ie get socket connection

ejbRemove() container wants to remove your bean instance it will call this method.
Q) Entity Bean CallBack methods?
public interface javax.ejb.EntityBean extends javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean
public abstract void ejbActivate();
public abstract void ejbLoad();
public abstract void ejbPassivate();
public abstract void ejbRemove();
public abstract void ejbStore();
public abstract void setEntityContext(EntityContext ctx);
public abstract void unsetEntityContext();

Q) EJBContext Rollback Methods

EJBContext interface provides the methods setRollbackOnly() & getRollbackOnly().

setRollbackOnly( ) Once a bean invokes the setRollbackOnly() method, the current transaction is marked for
rollback and cannot be committed by any other participant in the transaction--including the container.
getRollbackOnly( )  method returns true if the current transaction has been marked for rollback. This can be
used to avoid executing work that wouldn't be committed anyway.

Q) How can I call one EJB from inside of another EJB?

A) EJB can be clients of another EJB’s. it just works. Use JNDI to locate the Home Interface of the other bean,
then acquire an instance.

Q) Conversational & Non-conversational

Conversational is an interaction between the bean and client, stateless session bean is a bean that do not
hold multi method conversation with clients. Stateless.S.B cannot hold state, Statefull.S.B can hold conversational
with client that may span multiple method request.

Q) JNDI to locate Home Objects

H.O are physically located some where on the N.W, perhaps in the address space of the Ejb Container. For client
to locate H.O, you must provide nick name for your beans H.O. Client will use this nick name to identify the H.O it
wants, we will specify the nice name in the Deployment descriptor. Container will use this nick name, JNDI goes
over the N.W to some directory service to look for the H.O.

Properties props = System.getProperties();

Context ctx = new InitialContext(props);
MyHome home = (MyHome)ctx.lookup(“MyHome”);
MyRemoteInterface remote = home.create();

Q) Diff servlet/jsp session & EJB session

 logical point of view a servlet/jsp session is similar to an ejb session. A session in servlet is maintained by the
servlet container through Http session object.. That is acquiring through the request object. You cannot instantiate
Http session object.
 A session in Ejb is maintained using S.B, you design bean that can maintain business logic. You can have 2
types of beans 1. Stateless 2. Stateful.

Q) ejbCretae( ) & ejbPostCreate( )

 ejbCreate() is called just before the state of the bean is written to the persistence storage. After this method is
completed a new record is created and written.
 ejbPostCreate() is called after the bean has been written to the database and the bean data has been
assigned to an Ejb object.

Q) Can map Entity bean to more than one table?



 All EJB classes should package in a JAR file, All web components pages, servlets, gif, html, applets, beans,
ejb modules, classes should be packaged into WAR file. EAR file contain all the JAR & WAR files. Note that each
JAR, WAR, EAR file will contain D.D
Q) Life cycle

Life cycle of a Stateful Session Bean

- Stateful session bean has 3 states Does Not Exist, Method Ready Pool and Passivated states.
- A bean has not yet instantiated when it is in the Does Not Exist Sate.
- Once a container creates one are more instance of a Stateful Session bean it sets them in a Method
Ready State. In this state it can serve requests from its clients. Like Stateless beans, a new instance is
created(Class.newInstance()), the context is passed (setSessionContext()) and finally the bean is created
with the ejbCreate().
- ejbPassivate( ) If too many beans are instantiated, the container can passivate some of them .ie write
the bean to some temp storage. The container should release all resources held by the bean. Just before
passivating, the container calls the ejbPassivate() method. So release all resources here,ie,close socket
- ejbActivate( ) When a passiavted bean is called, its said to be activated. The container then calls the
ejbActivate() method. Acquire all the required resources for the bean in this method. ie get socket

Life cycle of a Stateless Session Bean : -

- A S.S.B has only two states: Does Not Exist and Method Ready Pool.
- A bean has not yet instantiated when it is in the Does Not Exist Sate.
- When the EJB container needs one are more beans, it creates and set then in the Method Ready Pool
Sate. This happens through the creation of a new instance(Class.newInstance()), then it is set its context
(setSessionContext()) and finally calls the ejbCreate() method.
- The ejbRemove() method is called to move a bean from the Method Ready Pool back to Does Not Exist
Life cycle of Entity bean
- Bean instance “Dose not exist” state represent entity bean instance that has not been instantiated yet.
- To create a new instance container calls the newInstance() on entity bean class.
- After step 2 E.B is in a pool of other E.Bs. At this point your E>b does not have any E.B data base data
loaded into it and it does not hold any bean specific resources (socket & database connections) .If the
container wants to reduce it’s pool size it can destroy your bean by calling unsetEntityContext() on your
- When the client wants to create some new data base data it calls a create() method on entity beans
HomeObject. The container grabs the beans instance from the pool and the instance ejbCreate() method
is called.
- E.B to be kicked back to pool, if a client call ejbremove() method.
- ejbPassivate( ) If too many beans are instantiated, the container can passivate some of them .ie write
the bean to some temp storage. The container should release all resources held by the bean. Just before
passivating, the container calls the ejbPassivate() method. So release all resources here, ie,close socket
- ejbActivate( ) When a passiavted bean is called, its said to be activated. The container then calls the
ejbActivate() method. Acquire all the required resources for the bean in this method. ie get socket
Life cycle of M.D.B

Does Not Exist

When an MDB instance is in the Does Not Exist state, it is not an instance in the memory of the system. In other
words, it has not been instantiated yet.

The Method-Ready Pool

MDB instances enter the Method-Ready Pool as the container needs them. When the EJB server is first started, it
may create a number of MDB instances and enter them into the Method-Ready Pool. (The actual behavior of the
server depends on the implementation.) When the number of MDB instances handling incoming messages is
insufficient, more can be created and added to the pool.

Transitioning to the Method-Ready Pool

When an instance transitions from the Does Not Exist state to the Method-Ready Pool, three operations are
performed on it. First, the bean instance is instantiated when the container invokes the Class.newInstance()
method on the MDB class. Second, the setMessageDrivenContext() method is invoked by the container providing
the MDB instance with a reference to its EJBContext. The MessageDrivenContext reference may be stored in an
instance field of the MDB.
Finally, the no-argument ejbCreate() method is invoked by the container on the bean instance. The MDB has only
one ejbCreate() method, which takes no arguments. The ejbCreate() method is invoked only once in the life cycle
of the MDB.

Q) EJB Resources?
<description> text </description>
<ejb-ref-name> name </ejb-ref-name>
<ejb-ref-type> Java type </ejb-ref-type>
<home> mycom.ejb.AccountHome </home>
<remote> mycom.ejb.Account </remote>
<ejb-link> </ejb-link>
<run-as> security role </run-as>

Q How to deploy in J2EE (i.e Jar, War file) ?

Each web application should be contained in a war (web archive) file. War files are nothing but a jar file containing
atleast one descriptor called web.xml. The file structure of war file is:

| |
| |-- WEB.XML (Deployment descriptor)
| |-- classes (Folder containing servlets and JSPs
| |
| all utility files and resources like error pages etc.

Each enterprise bean is stored in a jar file. The jar file contains all standard files like manifest and atleast one
additional file called ejb-jar.xml. The structure of a jar file is:

| |
| |-- ejb-jar.xml
| all classes as in a normal jar file.

Both jar and war files are placed inside a ear (enterprise archive) file. The structure of an ear file is

| |
| |-- application.xml
| jar and war files.

Q) Deployment descriptor of EJB

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE ejb-jar PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Enterprise
JavaBeans 1.1//EN" "">

This Deployment includes all the beans needed to make a reservation:
TravelAgent, ProcessPayment, Reservation, Customer, Cruise, and Cabin.

Remote Interface

public interface Hello extends javax.ejb.EJBObject

public String hello() throws java.rmi.RemoteException;

Home Interface

public interface HelloHome extends javax.ejb.EJBHome

Hello create() throws java.rmi.RemoteException; javax.ejb.CreateException;

Bean Class

public class HelloBean implements javax.ejb.SessionBean

private SessionContex ctx;
public void ejbCreate();
public abstract void ejbRemove();
public abstract void ejbActivate();
public abstract void ejbPassivate();
public abstract void setSessionContext(SessionyContext ctx);

public String hello(){

Return “hello world”;


public class HelloClient

public static void main(String args[ ])
properties props = system.getProperties();
Context ctx = new InitialContext(props);
Object obj = ctx.lookup(“HelloHome”);
HelloHome home = (HelloHome)
javax.rmi.protableRemoteObject.narrow(obj, HelloHome.class);
Hello hello = home.create();

Q) Transaction Isolation levels

The transaction can read uncommitted data. Dirty reads, nonrepeatable reads, and phantom reads can occur.
Bean methods with this isolation level can read uncommitted change.

The transaction cannot read uncommitted data; data that is being changed by a different transaction cannot be
read. Dirty-reads are prevented; nonrepeatable reads and phantom reads can occur. Bean methods with this
isolation level cannot read uncommitted data.
The transaction cannot change data that is being read by a different transaction.
Dirty reads and nonrepeatable reads are prevented; phantom reads can occur. Bean methods with this isolation
level have the same restrictions as Read Committed and can only execute repeatable reads.

The transaction has exclusive read and update privileges to data; different transactions can neither read nor write
the same data. Dirty reads, nonrepeatable reads, and phantom reads are prevented. This isolation level is the
most restrictive.

Dirty-read  When your application reads data from a database that has not been committed to permanent
storage yet.

Un-repeatable read  When a component reads some data from a database, but upon reading the data, the
data has been changed. This can arise when another concurrently executing transaction modifies the data being

Phantom-read  A phantom is a new set of data that magically appears in a database between two database
read operations.

Q) Diff Phantom & Un-repeatable

Un-repeatable occurs when existing data is changed, where as phantom read occurs when new data is
inserted that does not exist before.

Q) Transaction Attributes

TX_BEAN_MANAGED  Then your bean programmatically controls its own transaction boundaries. When you using
programmatically transaction, you issue the begin, commit & abort statements.

TX_NOT_SUPPORTED  If you set this your bean cannot be involved in a transaction at all.

TX_REQUIRED  If you want your bean to always run in a transaction. If there is a transaction already running your bean
joins in on that transaction. If there is no transaction running, the container starts one for you.

TX_REQUIRES_NEW  If you always want a new transaction to begin when your bean is called we should use this. If there
is a transaction already underway when your bean called, that transaction is suspended during the bean invocation. The
container then launches a new transaction and delegate the call to the bean.

TX_SUPPORTS  When a client call this it runs only in a transaction if the client had one running already; it then joins that
transaction. If no transaction =, the bean runs with no transaction at all.

TX_MANDATORY  Is a safe transaction attribute to use. It guarantees that your bean should run in a transaction. There is
no way your bean can be called if there is not a transaction already running.

Q) ACID Properties
When you properly use transaction your operations will execute ACID properties.

(i) Atomicity  Guarantees that many operations are bundled together and appears as one contiguous unit of
Ex:- When you transfer money from one bank account to another you want to add funds to one account and
remove funds from the other transaction and you want both operations to occur or neither to occur.

(ii) Consistency  Guarantees that a transaction will leave the system state to be consistent after a transaction
Ex:- A bank system state could be consist if the rule “bank account balance must always be +ve”.

(iii) Isolation  Protect concurrently executing transaction from seeing each other incomplete results.
Ex:- If you write a bank account data to a database, the transaction may obtain locks on the bank account record
(or) table. The lock guarantee that no other updates can interfere.
(iv) Durability  Resources keep a transactional log for resources crashes, the permanent data can be
reconstructed by reapplying the steps in the log.

Q) Diff Sax & DOM

1. Tree of nodes 1.Sequence of events
2. Occupies more memory preferred for 2.Does not use any memory preferred for large
small XML documents documents.
3. Slower at runtime 3.Faster at runtime
4. Stored as objects 4.Objects are to be created
5. Programmatically easy, since objects 5.Need to write code for creating objects are to
6. Easy of navigation referred
7. DOM creates a tree structure in memory 6.backward navigation is not possible

Q) Hot deployment
Hot Deployment in Web Logic is he act of deploying, re-deploying and un-deploying EJBs while the server is still

Q) When should I use TxDataSource instead of Datasource?

If your application (or) environment meet the following criteria you should use
- uses JTA
- uses EJB container in web logic server to manage transactions.
- Includes multiple database updates with single transaction.
- Access multiple resources, such as database & JMS during transactions.
- Use same connection pool on multiple servers.

Q) Clustering
In J2ee container can be distributed, a distributed container consist of number of JVM’s running on one
are more host machines. In this setup, application components can be deployed on a number of JVM’s. Subject to
the type of loading strategy and the type of the component the container can distributed the load of incoming
request to one of these JVM’s.

Struts Questions
Q) Diff Struts1.0 & 1.1?
A) 1.RequestProcessor class, 2.Method perform() replaced by execute() in Struts base Action Class
3. Changes to web.xml and struts-config.xml, 4. Declarative exception handling, 5.Dynamic ActionForms, 6.Plug-
ins, 7.Multiple Application Modules, 8.Nested Tags, 9.The Struts Validator
Change to the ORO package, 10.Change to Commons logging, 11. Removal of Admin actions, 12.Deprecation of
the GenericDataSource

Q) Struts Validator Framework?

A) Struts Framework provides the functionality to validate the form data. It can be use to validate the data on the
users browser as well as on the server side. Struts Framework emits the java scripts and it can be used validate
the form data on the client browser

Q) ActionServlet :-
The class org.apache.struts.action.ActionServlet is the called the ActionServlet. In the Jakarta Struts
Framework this class plays the role of controller. All the requests to the server goes through the controller.
Controller is responsible for handling all the requests.

Q) Action Class :-
The Action Class is part of the Model and is a wrapper around the business logic. The purpose of Action
Class is to translate the HttpServletRequest to the business logic. To use the Action, we need to Subclass and
overwrite the execute() method. In the Action Class all the database/business processing are done. It is
advisable to perform all the database related stuffs in the Action Class. The ActionServlet (commad) passes the
parameterized class to Action Form using the execute() method. The return type of the execute method is
ActionForward which is used by the Struts Framework to forward the request to the file as per the value of the
returned ActionForward object.

import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.struts.action.Action;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward;
import org.apache.struts.action.ActionMapping;

public class TestAction extends Action

public ActionForward execute(
ActionMapping mapping,
ActionForm form,
HttpServletRequest request,
HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception{
return mapping.findForward("testAction");

Q) Action Form :-
An ActionForm is a JavaBean that extends org.apache.struts.action.ActionForm. ActionForm maintains
the session state for web application and the ActionForm object is automatically populated on the server side with
data entered from a form on the client side

Q) Message Resource Definition file :-

M.D.R file are simple .properties file these files contains the messages that can be used in struts
project. The M.D.R can be added in struts-config.xml file through <message-resource> tag ex: <message-
resource parameter=”MessageResource”>

Q) Reset :-
This is called by the struts framework with each request, purpose of this method is to reset all of the forms
data members and allow the object to be pooled for rescue.

public class TestAction extends ActionForm{

public void reset(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request request)

Q) execute :-
is called by the controller when a request is received from a client. The controller creates an instance of
the Action class if one do not already exist. The frame work will create only a single instance of each Action class.

public ActionForward execute( ActionMapping mapping, ActionForm form, HttpServletRequest request,

HttpServletResponse response)

Q) Validate :-
This method is called by the controller after the values from the request has been inserted into the
ActionForm. The ActionForm should perform any input validation that can be done and return any detected errors
to the controller.

public ActionErrors validate(ActionMapping mapping, HttpServletRequest request)

Q) Struts-config.xml


<set-property property=”key” value=” ” url=”” maxcount=”” mincount=”” user=”” pwd=”” >

<!— describe the instance of the form bean-- >

<form-bean name="employeeForm" type="net.reumann.EmployeeForm"/>

<!— to identify the target of an action class when it returns results -- >
<forward name="error" path="/error.jsp"/>

<!— describe an action instance to the action servlet-- >

<action path="/setUpEmployeeForm" type="net.reumann.SetUpEmployeeAction"
name="employeeForm" scope="request" validate="false">
<forward name="continue" path="/employeeForm.jsp"/>

<action path="/insertEmployee" type="net.reumann.InsertEmployeeAction"

name="employeeForm" scope="request" validate="true"
<forward name="success" path="/confirmation.jsp"/>

<!— to modify the default behaviour of the struts controller-- >

<controller processorClass=”” bufferSize=” ” contentType=”” noCache=”” maxFileSize=””/>

<!—define the collection of messages for this application -- >

<message-resources parameter="ApplicationResources" null="false" />

<plug-in className=””/>


Q) web.xml :-
Is a configuration file describe the deployment elements.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>

<display-name>Struts rr lesson 2</display-name>


<!-- Action Servlet Mapping -->


<!-- The Welcome File List -->


<!-- tag libs -->





Design Patterns Questions

Service Locator
To access different resources/services, J2EE compatible server binds these resources/services to the
JNDI server so that the clients can lookup those resources/services through JNDI lookup process from anywhere
in the network. The resources/services can be
1. EJBHome objects
2. DataSource objects
3. JMS ConnectionFactory
4. JMS Topic/Queue etc.
EJB Client needs to initially get EJBHome object from JNDI to manage life cycle of EJBObjects. JMS clients need
to get ConnectionFactory and Topic/Queue from JNDI for processing messages. JDBC clients need to get
DataSource object in order to get database connection. All these services need to bind to the JNDI services and
the clients need to lookup JNDI to get those services. Clients have to go through JNDI lookup process every time
to work with these services. JNDI lookup process is expensive because clients need to get network connection to
the JNDI server if the JNDI server is located on a different machine and need to go through lookup process every
time, this is redundant and expensive.

The solution for the redundant and expensive JNDI lookup process problem is to cache those service
objects when the client performs JNDI lookup first time and reuse that service object from the cache second time
onwards for other clients. This technique maintains a cache of service objects and looks up the JNDI only first
time for a service object. This technique reduces redundant and expensive JNDI lookup process thus increasing
performance significantly. Service Locator Pattern implements this technique by having a class to cache service
objects, methods for JNDI lookup and methods for getting service objects from the cache.
The figure below shows the ServiceLocator class intercepting the client request and accessing JNDI once and
only once for a service object.
Here the clients call ServiceLocator class to get a service object rather than calling JNDI directly. ServiceLocator
acts as interceptor between client and JNDI. For source code and different flavors of implementation of this
Pattern, see the following links.

Session Facade
EJB clients (swing, servlets, jsps etc) can access entity beans directly. If EJB clients access entity beans
directly over the network, it takes more network calls and imposes network overhead.

Here the servlet calls multiple entity beans directly to accomplish a business process, thereby increasing the
number of network calls.
The solution for avoiding number of network calls due to directly accessing multiple entity beans is to
wrap entity beans with session bean (Facade). The EJB client accesses session bean (Facade) instead of entity
beans through coarse grained method call to accomplish a business process.

Message Facade
Session bean and entity bean methods execute synchronously that means the method caller has to wait
till a value is returned. In some situations like sending hundred's of mails or firing a batch process or updating
processes, the client does not have to bother about return value. If you use synchronous session and entity beans
in such situations, they take a long time to process methods and clients have to wait till the method returns a
The client has to wait till all the eight synchronous steps complete. This synchronous execution takes a long time
and has an impact on performance when the method process is huge.

To avoid blocking of a client, use asynchronous message driven beans, so that client does not have to
wait for a return value. If a client uses asynchronous messaging then the client need not wait for a return value but
can continue its flow of execution after sending the message.

Value Object
When a client calls a remote method there will be process of marshalling, network calls and
unmarshalling involved for the remote method invocation. If you choose fine grained approach when calling
methods remotely, there will be a significant network overhead involved. For example if you call fine grained
method like this,
Here, there are four network calls from client to the remote object because every method call is remote method
The solution for avoiding many network calls due to fine grained method calls is to use coarse grained approach.
For example :
// create an Value Object and fill that object locally
PersonInfo person = new PersonInfo();
// send Value Object through network
Here, there is only one network call instead of three network calls and PersonInfo object is a Value Object. The
following figure illustrates the coarse grained approach that is passing a Value Object through network.

Value Object is an object that is passed over the network rather than passing each attributes separately thus
increasing performance by reducing network calls.

For a single request, a client might need to access multiple server side components such as different
session beans and entity beans. In such situations the client accesses multiple components over the network,
this increases the network traffic and has an impact on the performance.
To reduce the network traffic due to accessing multiple components by a client for a single request, let
ValueObjectFactory hold different ValueObjects as place holders and respond with a single ValueObject for a
client request. Here ValueObjectFactory holds creation and delegation logic of ValueObjects for different client

Value List Handler

J2EE applications generally have the search facility and have to search huge data and retrieve results. If
an application returns huge queried data to the client, the client takes long time to retrieve that large data and If
that application uses entity bean to search data, it has an impact on.

1. Use Data Access Objects (DAO) rather than Entity beans

2. Return small quantity of data multiple times iteratively rather than returning large amount of data at once to the
Data Access Object encapsulates JDBC access logic. ValueListHandler caches list of Value objects that are
retrieved through DAO. When client wants to search data, It calls ValueListHandler that is in turn responsible for
caching data and returning data to the client iteratively.

There will be only one instance for the entire JVM. You can achieve this by having the private constructor
in the class.
Singleton is probably the most widely used design pattern. Its intent is to ensure that a class has only one
instance, and to provide a global point of access to it. There are many situations in which a singleton object is
necessary: a GUI application must have a single mouse, an active modem needs one and only one telephone
line, an operating system can only have one window manager, and a PC is connected to a single keyboard

Public class Singleton{

Private static final Singleton s = new Singleton();
Private Singleton(){}
Public static Singleton getInstance(){ return s;}

Business Delegate
The Business Delegate hides the underlying implementation details of the business service, such as
lookup & access details of the EJB architecture. The business delegates acts as a client-side business
abstraction and hides the implementation of the business services.
The delegate may cache results and references to remote business services. Caching can significantly improve
performance, because it limits unnecessary and potentially costly round trips over the network.
A Business Delegate uses a component called the Lookup Service. The Lookup Service is responsible for hiding
the underlying implementation details of the business service lookup code. The Lookup Service may be written as
part of the Delegate, but we recommend that it be implemented as a separate component, as outlined in the
Service Locator pattern
Figure shows the class diagram representing the Business Delegate pattern. The client requests the
BusinessDelegate to provide access to the underlying business service. The BusinessDelegate uses a
LookupService to locate the required BusinessService component.

Security Questions

Q) Java Security Model

Byte code verifier
Which examine the byte code of a class before executing. The verifier checks that the instructions cannot
perform actions that are obviously damaging.
ClassLoader, which restrict access to the classes which can be loaded into JVM, ClassLoader keeps the
record of classes which can be loaded into JVM.
Security manager
Restrict access to potentially dangerous operations. S.M provides a sand box in which applet run. You
can also define a set of sand boxes, applying a different san box to each program. S.M is a class that controls
weather a specific operation are permitted, S.M will perform operations like opening N.W socket, creating S.M,
perform N.W multi cast etc…

Q) Basic Authentication & Digest Authentication

Basic Authentication  Is a security model in this the client must authenticate itself with user id and password
for each resource to access. In this the user id and password are sent by the client in base-64
encoded string, the server decode the string and looks in the data base for match. If it finds a
match grant access to the requested resource.

Digest Authentication  In this the user id and password does not send across the network instead send a
digest representation of password.

Database Questions

Q) DML  insert, update, delete

DDL  create, alter, drop, truncate, rename.

DQL  select

DCL  grant, revoke.

TCL  commit, rollback, savepoint.

Q) Normalization
Normalization is the process of simplifying the relationship between data elements in a record.

Q) Normal forms

(i) 1st normal form : - 1st N.F is achieved when all repeating groups are removed, and P.K should be defined.

(ii) 2nd normal form : - Eliminate any non full dependence of data item on record keys.

(iii) 3rd normal form : - Eliminate any transitive dependence of data items on P.K’s.

Q) Diff Primary key and a Unique key? What is foreign key?

A) Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. But by default
primary key creates a clustered index on the column, where are unique creates a nonclustered index by default.
Another major difference is that, primary key doesn't allow NULLs, but unique key allows one NULL only.

Foreign key constraint prevents any actions that would destroy link between tables with the corresponding data
values. A foreign key in one table points to a primary key in another table. Foreign keys prevent actions that would
leave rows with foreign key values when there are no primary keys with that value. The foreign key constraints are
used to enforce referential integrity.
CHECK constraint is used to limit the values that can be placed in a column. The check constraints are used to
enforce domain integrity.
NOT NULL constraint enforces that the column will not accept null values. The not null constraints are used to
enforce domain integrity, as the check constraints.

Q) Diff Delete & Truncate?

A) Rollback is possible after DELETE but TRUNCATE remove the table permanently and can’t rollback. Truncate
will remove the data permanently we cannot rollback the deleted data.

Dropping : (Table structure + Data are deleted), Invalidates the dependent objects, Drops the indexes
Truncating : (Data alone deleted), Performs an automatic commit, Faster than delete
Delete : (Data alone deleted), Doesn’t perform automatic commit

Q) Diff Varchar and Varchar2?

A) The difference between Varchar and Varchar2 is both are variable length but only 2000 bytes of character of
data can be store in varchar where as 4000 bytes of character of data can be store in varchar2.


A) You use the LONG datatype to store variable-length character strings. The LONG datatype is like the
VARCHAR2 datatype, except that the maximum length of a LONG value is 32760 bytes.
You use the LONG RAW datatype to store binary data (or) byte strings. LONG RAW data is like LONG data,
except that LONG RAW data is not interpreted by PL/SQL. The maximum length of a LONG RAW value is 32760

Q) Diff Function & Procedure

Function is a self contained program segment, function will return a value but procedure not.
Procedure is sub program will perform some specific actions.

Q) How to find out duplicate rows & delete duplicate rows in a table?
----- ---------- -----------
1 Jack 555-55-5555
2 Mike 555-58-5555
3 Jack 555-55-5555
4 Mike 555-58-5555
SQL> select count (empssn), empssn from employee group by empssn
having count (empssn) > 1;


------------- -----------
2 555-55-5555
2 555-58-5555
SQL> delete from employee where (empid, empssn)
not in (select min (empid), empssn from employee group by empssn);

Q) Select the nth highest rank from the table?

A) Select * from tab t1 where 2=(select count (distinct (t2.sal)) from tab t2 where t1.sal<=t2.sal)

Q) a) Emp table where fields empName, empId, address

b) Salary table where fields EmpId, month, Amount
these 2 tables he wants EmpId, empName and salary for month November?
A) Select emp.empId, empName, Amount from emp, salary where emp.empId=salary.empId and

Q) Oracle/PLSQL: Synonyms?
A) A synonym is an alternative name for objects such as tables, views, sequences, stored procedures, and other
database objects

Syntax: -
Create [or replace] [public] synonym [schema.] synonym_name for [schema.] object_name;

or replace -- allows you to recreate the synonym (if it already exists) without having to issue a DROP synonym
Public -- means that the synonym is a public synonym and is accessible to all users.
Schema -- is the appropriate schema. If this phrase is omitted, Oracle assumes that you are referring to your own
object_name -- is the name of the object for which you are creating the synonym. It can be one of the following:
Table Package
View materialized view
sequence java class schema object
stored procedure user-defined object
Function Synonym

Create public synonym suppliers for app. suppliers;
Example demonstrates how to create a synonym called suppliers. Now, users of other schemas can reference
the table called suppliers without having to prefix the table name with the schema named app. For example:
Select * from suppliers;

If this synonym already existed and you wanted to redefine it, you could always use the or replace phrase as
Create or replace public synonym suppliers for app. suppliers;
Dropping a synonym
It is also possible to drop a synonym.
drop [public] synonym [schema .] synonym_name [force];
public -- phrase allows you to drop a public synonym. If you have specified public, then you don't specify a
Force -- phrase will force Oracle to drop the synonym even if it has dependencies. It is probably not a good idea
to use the force phrase as it can cause invalidation of Oracle objects.

Drop public synonym suppliers;
This drop statement would drop the synonym called suppliers that we defined earlier.

Q) What is an alias and how does it differ from a synonym?

A) An alias is an alternative to a synonym, designed for a distributed environment to avoid having to use the
location qualifier of a table or view. The alias is not dropped when the table is dropped.

Q) What are joins? Inner join & outer join?

A) By using joins, you can retrieve data from two or more tables based on logical relationships between the tables

Inner Join: - returns all rows from both tables where there is a match
Outer Join: - outer join includes rows from tables when there are no matching values in the tables.


The result set of a left outer join includes all the rows from the left table specified in the LEFT OUTER clause, not
just the ones in which the joined columns match. When a row in the left table has no matching rows in the right
table, the associated result set row contains null values for all select list columns coming from the right table.
A right outer join is the reverse of a left outer join. All rows from the right table are returned. Null values are
returned for the left table any time a right table row has no matching row in the left table.
A full outer join returns all rows in both the left and right tables. Any time a row has no match in the other table,
the select list columns from the other table contain null values. When there is a match between the tables, the
entire result set row contains data values from the base tables.

Q. Diff join and a Union?

A) A join selects columns from 2 or more tables. A union selects rows.
when using the UNION command all selected columns need to be of the same data type. The UNION command
eliminate duplicate values.
Q. Union & Union All?
A) The UNION ALL command is equal to the UNION command, except that UNION ALL selects all values. It
cannot eliminate duplicate values.
> SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_Norway
SELECT E_Name FROM Employees_USA

Q) Is the foreign key is unique in the primary table?

A)Not necessary

Q) Table mentioned below named employee

1 CEO Null
3 Director VP

Asked to write a query to obtain the following output

CEO Null
Director VP

A) SQL> Select, from employee a, employee b where

Q) Explain a scenario when you don’t go for normalization?

A) If we r sure that there wont be much data redundancy then don’t go for normalization.

Q) What is Referential integrity?

A) R.I refers to the consistency that must be maintained between primary and foreign keys, i.e. every foreign key
value must have a corresponding primary key value.

Q) What is Normalization? Explain in details?

A)  Normalization is the process of simplifying the relation ship between data elements in a record.

1st N.F -- the big table is broken into many small tables, such that each table has a primary key.
2nd N.F – Removes partial dependency. Ie The columns in a table which is not completely dependant on the
primary key are taken to a separate table
3rd N.F – Removes Transitive dependency. Ie If X is the primary key in a table. Y & Z are columns in the same
table. Suppose Z depends only on Y and Y depends on X. Then Z does not depend directly on primary key. So
remove Z from the table to a look up table.

Q) What techniques are used to retrieve data from more than one table in a single SQL statement?
A) Joins, unions and nested selects are used to retrieve data.

Q) What is a view? Why use it?

A) A view is a virtual table made up of data from base tables and other views, but not stored separately.

Q) SELECT statement syntax?

A) SELECT [ DISTINCT | ALL ] column_expression1, column_expression2, ....
[ FROM from_clause ]
[ WHERE where_expression ]
[ GROUP BY expression1, expression2, .... ]
[ HAVING having_expression ]
[ ORDER BY order_column_expr1, order_column_expr2, .... ]

column_expression ::= expression [ AS ] [ column_alias ]

from_clause ::= select_table1, select_table2, ...
from_clause ::= select_table1 LEFT [OUTER] JOIN select_table2 ON expr ...
from_clause ::= select_table1 RIGHT [OUTER] JOIN select_table2 ON expr ...
from_clause ::= select_table1 [INNER] JOIN select_table2 ...
select_table ::= table_name [ AS ] [ table_alias ]
select_table ::= ( sub_select_statement ) [ AS ] [ table_alias ]
order_column_expr ::= expression [ ASC | DESC ]

Q) DISTINCT clause?
A) The DISTINCT clause allows you to remove duplicates from the result set.
> SELECT DISTINCT city FROM supplier;

Q) COUNT function?
A) The COUNT function returns the number of rows in a query
> SELECT COUNT (*) as "No of emps" FROM employees WHERE salary > 25000;


A) Having Clause is basically used only with the GROUP BY function in a query. WHERE Clause is applied to
each row before they are part of the GROUP BY function in a query.


A) Group by controls the presentation of the rows, order by controls the presentation of the columns for the results
of the SELECT statement.

> SELECT "col_nam1", SUM("col_nam2") FROM "tab_name" GROUP BY "col_nam1"

> SELECT "col_nam" FROM "tab_nam" [WHERE "condition"] ORDER BY "col_nam" [ASC, DESC]

Q) What keyword does an SQL SELECT statement use for a string search?
A) The LIKE keyword allows for string searches. The % sign is used as a wildcard.

Q) What is a NULL value? What are the pros and cons of using NULLS?
A) NULL value takes up one byte of storage and indicates that a value is not present as opposed to a space or
zero value. A NULL in a column means no entry has been made in that column. A data value for the column is
"unknown" or "not available."

Q) Index? Types of indexes?

A) Locate rows more quickly and efficiently. It is possible to create an index on one (or) more columns of a table,
and each index is given a name. The users cannot see the indexes, they are just used to speed up queries.

Unique Index : -
A unique index means that two rows cannot have the same index value.
>CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name ON table_name (column_name)

When the UNIQUE keyword is omitted, duplicate values are allowed. If you want to index the values in a column
in descending order, you can add the reserved word DESC after the column name:
>CREATE INDEX PersonIndex ON Person (LastName DESC)

If you want to index more than one column you can list the column names within the parentheses.
>CREATE INDEX PersonIndex ON Person (LastName, FirstName)

Q) Diff subqueries & Correlated subqueries?

A)subqueries are self-contained. None of them have used a reference from outside the subquery.
correlated subquery cannot be evaluated as an independent query, but can reference columns in a table listed in
the from list of the outer query.

Q) Predicates IN, ANY, ALL, EXISTS ?

A) Sbquery can return a subset of zero to n values. According to the conditions which one wants to express, one
can use the predicates IN, ANY, ALL or EXISTS.

IN The comparison operator is the equality and the logical operation between values is OR.
ANY Allows to check if at least a value of the list satisfies condition.
ALL Allows to check if condition is realized for all the values of the list.
EXISTS If the subquery returns a result, the value returned is True otherwise the value returned is False.

Q) What are some sql Aggregates and other Built-in functions?