Chapter 3 exercises

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Chapter 3 exercises

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348 For the circuit in Figure P348 find its Thevenin and

Norton equivalent circuits.

100

v

T

, R

T

, i

N

1 A

100

FIGURE P348

349(a) Find the Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit seen by

R

L

in Figure P349.

(b) Use the equivalent circuit found in (a) to find i

L

if R

L

22 kV.

i

L

R

L

50 V

15 k

5.6 k 10 k

+

FIGURE P349

350(a) Find the Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit seen by

R

L

in Figure P350.

(b) Use the equivalent circuit found in (a) to find i

L

in terms

of i

S

, R

1

, R

2

, and R

L

.

(c) Check your answer in (b) using current division.

i

S

R

1

R

2

R

L

B

A

i

L

FIGURE P350

351 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit seen by R

L

in Figure

P351. Find the voltage across the load when R

L

5 V, 10 V,

and 20 V.

20 V

20

20

20

20

20

R

L

+

FIGURE P351

352 Find the Norton equivalent seen by R

L

in Figure P352.

Find the current through the load for when R

L

4.7 kV,

15 kV, and 68 kV.

i

L

R

L

10 mA 15 k

8.1 k

15 k

FIGURE P352

353 You need to determine the Thevenin Equivalent circuit of

a more complex linear circuit. A technician tells you she

made two measurements using her DMM. The first was with

a 10-kVload and the load current was 91 mA, the second was

with a 10-kVload and the load voltage was 5 V. Calculate the

Thevenin equivalent circuit as shown in Figure P353.

v

T

R

T

10 k 1 k

+

i

L

=91A

+

v

L

=124 mV

FIGURE P353

354 Find the Thevenin equivalent seen by R

L

in Figure P354.

Find the power delivered to the load when R

L

50 kV and

200 kV.

R

L

p

L

+

33 k

47 k 91 k

24 V

FIGURE P354

355(a) Use OrCAD to find the Norton equivalent at termi-

nals A and B in Figure P355. Hint: Find the open-circuit

voltage and short-circuit current at the requisite terminals.

(b) Use the Norton equivalent circuit found in (a) to deter-

mine the power dissipated in R

L

when it is equal to 37 kV.

(c) Use OrCADto simulate both the original and the Norton

equivalent circuits with R

L

37 kV. Verify that the power

dissipated by the load is the same in both situations.

A

B

R

L

+

100 A

47 k

56 k

100 k

33 k

10 V

FIGURE P355

146 C H A P T E R 3 CI RCUI T ANALYSI S TECHNI QUES

C03 12/15/2011 16:29:47 Page 147

356 The purpose of this problem is to use Thevenin equivalent

circuits to find the voltage v

X

in Figure P356. Find the

Thevenin equivalent circuit seen looking to the left of ter-

minals A and B. Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit seen

looking to the right of terminals A and B. Connect these

equivalent circuits together and find the voltage v

X

.

+

A

B

6 k 1 k 3 k

250 3 k

v

x

15 V

+

FIGURE P356

357 The circuit in Figure P357 was solved earlier using

supermeshes (Prob.(319). In this problem solve for the

voltage across R

L

by first finding the Thevenin equivalent

that the load resistor sees, the for R

L

2.5 kV find v

L

.

+

v

L

20 mA

10 mA

1 k

2 k

R

L 1.5 k

FIGURE P357

358 Assume that Figure P358 represents a model of the auxil-

iary output port of a car. The output current is i 1 Awhen v

0 V. The output voltage is v 12 V when a 20-V resistor is

connected between the terminals. Suppose you wanted to

charge a 12-V battery by connecting the battery at the port.

How much current would the port deliver to the battery?

+

v

i

FIGURE P358

359 The i-v characteristic of the active circuit in Figure P358

is 5v + 500i 100. Find the output voltage when a 500-V

resistive load is connected.

360 You successfully completed Circuits I and as an under-

graduatework-study, your past professor askedyoutohelpher

grade a Circuits I quiz. Onthe quiz, students wereaskedtofind

the power supplied by the source to both the 10 kV load (R

L

)

and to the entire circuit as shown in Figure P360. Your

professor asks to help her by creating a grading sheet.

(a) Solve he quiz and establish reasonable A, B . . . etc. cuts

for incorrect solutions.

(b) A particular student correctly finds the Thevenin equiv-

alent circuit that the resistive load sees and calculates the

power to the load using V

T

2

/R

L

. He then does a source

transformation correctly finding the Norton equivalent of

the circuit. He calculates the source power by V

T

I

N

. What

grade would you give him?

(c) Another student finds P

L

5.625 mWand P

S

22.5 mW,

but provides no work to justify her answers. What grade would

you give her?

(d) A third student first finds the Norton equivalent, finds

the current through the load using a current divider and

calculates the power in the load using I

L

2

R

L

. He figures

correctly what the parallel voltage would be across the

Norton circuit and the load v

L

, and then calculates P

s

=I

N

v

L

.

What grade would you give him?

R

L

+

10 k 10 k

10 k

10 k

10 k

15 V

FIGURE P360

361 The Thevenin equivalent parameters of a practical volt-

age source are v

T

30 V R

T

300 V. Find the smallest load

resistance for which the load voltage exceeds 10 V.

362 Use a sequence of source transformations to find the

Thevenin equivalent at terminals A and B in Figure P362.

Then select a resistor to connect across A and B so that 5 V

appears across it.

1 A 3 A 20 V

15

15

5

+

5 V

B

A

5

+

FIGURE P362

363 The circuit in Figure P363 provides power to a number of

loads connected in parallel. The circuit is protected by a

3

/

4

mA fuse with a nominal 100 Vresistance. Each load is 10 kV.

PROBLEMS 147

C03 12/15/2011 16:29:49 Page 149

20 m

2 k

3 k

R

L

FIGURE P370

371 For the circuit of Figure P371 find the value of R

L

that

will result in:

(d) Maximum voltage. What is that voltage?

(e) Maximum current. What is that current?

(f) Maximum power. What is that power?

56 V 3.3 k

2.2 k 1 k

R

L

+

FIGURE P371

372 The resistance R in Figure P372 is adjusted until maxi-

mum power is delivered to the load consisting of R and the

15-kV resistor in parallel.

(a) Find the required value of R.

(b) How much power is delivered to the load?

3 k

2 k

1 k

R 12 k

Load

40 mA

FIGURE P372

373 When a 5-kV resistor is connected across a two-terminal

source a current of 15 mA is delivered to the load. When a

second 5-kV resistor is connected in parallel with the first, a

total current of 20 mAis delivered. Find the maximumpower

available from the source.

374 Find the value of R in the circuit of Figure P374 so that

maximum power is delivered to the load. What is the value of

the maximum power?

50 R

5 k 2 k

Load

10 V

+

FIGURE P374

375 For the circuit of Figure P375 find the value of R

L

that

will result in:

(g) Maximum voltage. What is that voltage?

(h) Maximum current. What is that current?

(i) Maximum power. What is that power?

R

L

3 k 10 mA

2.75 k

1 k

i

L

+

v

L

FIGURE P375

376 A 100 V-load needs 10 mA to operate correctly.

Design a practical power source to provide the needed

current. The smallest source resistance you can practically

design for is 50 V, but you can add any other series resistance

if you need to.

377 A practical source delivers 50 mA to a 300-V load. The

source delivers 12 V to a 120-V load. Find the maximum

power available from the source.

O B J E C T I V E 3 5 I N T E R F A C E C I R C U I T D E S I G N A N D

E V A L U A T I O N ( S E C T . 3 6 )

(a) Given the signal transfer objective at a source-load

interface, adjust the circuit parameters or design one or

more two-port interface circuits to achieve the specified

objectives within stated constraints.

(b) Given two or more circuits that perform the same

interface function, rank-order the circuits using stated

criteria.

See Examples 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 3

31 and Exercises 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341,

342, 343.

378 Select R

L

and design an interface circuit for the circuit

shown in Figure P378 so that the load voltage is 2 V.

10 k

R

L

5 k 10 k 10 V

+

Interface

Circuit

FIGURE P378

379 The source in Figure P379 has a 100 mA output

current limit. Design an interface circuit so that the load

voltage is v

2

20 V and the source current is i

1

<50 mA.

PROBLEMS 149

C03 12/15/2011 16:29:55 Page 151

385 Design the interface circuit in Figure P385 so that the

power delivered to the load is 100 mW.

100 mW

25 50

50 50 10 V

+

Interface

Circuit

FIGURE P385

386 Design the interface circuit in Figure P385 so that the

voltage delivered to the load is 2.5 V.

387 Design the interface circuit in Figure P387 so that

R

IN

100 Vand the current delivered to the 50-Vload is i

50 mA. Hint: Use an L-pad.

100

50 15 V

+

+

R

IN

R

OUT

v

Interface

circuit

i

FIGURE P387

388 Design the interface circuit in Figure P387 so that

R

OUT

50 Vand the voltage delivered to the 50-Vload is v

2.5 V. Hint: Use an L-pad.

389 The circuit in Figure P389 has a source resistance of

75 V and a load resistance of 300 V. Design the interface

circuit so that the input resistance is R

IN

75 V 10% and

the output resistance is R

OUT

300 V 10%.

75

300

+

R

IN

R

OUT

v

S

Interface

circuit

FIGURE P389

390 It is claimed that both interface circuits in Figure

P390 will deliver v 4 V to the 75-Vload. Verify this claim.

Which interface circuit consumes the least power? Which has

an output resistance that best matches the 75-V load?

+

20 V

+

v

150

75

either

Circuit 1 Circuit 2

i

150 15

100

Interface

circuit

R

OUT

FIGURE P390

I N T E G R A T I N G P R O B L E M S

391 Audio Speaker Resistance-Matchign Network

A company is producing an interface network that they

claim would result in an R

IN

of 600 V 2 % and R

OUT

of 16, 8, or 4 V 2% depending on whether the connected

speakers are 16, 8, or 4 V selectable via a built-in switch.

Their design is shown in Figure P391. Prove or disprove

their claim.

+

600

v

S

592

8

8

Audio matching network

4

4

16, 8, or 4

4

16

FIGURE P391

392 Attenuation Analysis

In Figure P392 a two-port attenuator connects a 600-V source

to a 600-Vload. Find the power delivered to the load in terms of

v

S

. Remove the attenuator and find the power delivered to the

load when the source is directly connected to the load. By what

fraction does the attenuator reduce the power delivered to the

600-V load? Express the fraction in dB.

INTEGRATI NG PROBLEMS 151

C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 228

411 Select g in the circuit of Figure P411 so that the output

voltage is 10 V.

+

+

v

O

+

v

x

1 mV

gv

x

1 k

2.2 k

FIGURE P411

412 Designa dependent source circuit that has a closed-loop

voltage gain of 10 using a VCVS with a m of 100. The source

circuit is a voltage source v

S

in series with a 1-kV resistor,

and the load is a 3.3-kV resistor. (Hint: See Figure P410.)

413 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit that the load R

L

sees

in Figure P413. Repeat the problem with R

F

replaced by an

open circuit.

v

S

+

R

S

R

F

R

P

v

x

R

L

v

T

,

R

T

+

+

v

x

FIGURE P413

414 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit that the load R

L

sees

in Figure P414.

v

S

+

R

S

R

P

R

L

Thvenin circuit

i

S

r

.

i

S

+

FIGURE P414

415 Find R

IN

in Figure P415

v

S

+

R

R

IN

i

S

r

.

i

S

+

FIGURE P415

416 Find R

IN

in Figure P416.

i

S

i

x

R

IN

R

i

x

FIGURE P416

417 Find the Norton Equivalent circuit seen by the load in

Figure P417.

Load

i

x R

O

v

S

R

x

R

S

i

+

v

i

x

+

FIGURE P417

418 Find the Thevenin Equivalent circuit seen by the load in

Figure P418.

Load

gv

x R

O

i

S

i

+

v

+

v

x

FIGURE P418

419 The circuit parameters in Figure P419 are R

B

100 kV,

R

C

3.3 kV, b100, V

g

0.7 V, and V

CC

15 V. Find i

C

and

v

CE

for v

S

1 V. Repeat for v

S

5 V.

+

R

C

R

B

+

+

v

S

v

CE

V

CC

i

B

i

C

FIGURE P419

420 The circuit parameters in Figure P419 are R

C

3 kV,

b120, V

g

0.7 V, and V

CC

5 V. Select a value of R

B

such

that the transistor is in the saturation mode when v

S

2 V.

421 The parameters of the transistor in Figure P421 are

b60 and V

g

0.7 V. Find i

C

and v

CE

for v

S

0.8 V. Repeat

for v

S

2 V.

+

+

+

v

S

v

CE 15 V

10 k

20 k

i

B

10 k

i

C

FIGURE P421

228 C H A P T E R 4 ACTI VE CI RCUI TS

C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 229

422 An emergency indicator light uses a 10 V, 2-W incan-

descent lamp. It is to be ON when a digital output is high (5

V). The digital circuit does not have sufficient power to turn

on the lamp directly. However, as is common practice, a

transistor driver is used as a digital switch. Select R

B

in the

circuit of Figure P422 so to drive the transistor into satura-

tion causing it to act as a short circuit between the lamp and

ground when the digital output is high. The Thevenin equiv-

alent for the digital circuit is also shown in the figure.

+

Digital

circuit

= 50

V

= 0.7 V

Lamp = 10V @ 2W

+10 V

V

D

R

D

R

B

i

Lamp

V

D

= 5 V

R

D

= 500

FIGURE P422

O B J E C T I V E 4 2 O P A M P C I R C U I T A N A L Y S I S

( S E C T S . 4 3 , 4 4 )

Given a linear resistance circuit containing OP AMPs, find

selected output signals or input-output relationships.

See Examples 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 4

20 and Exercises 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421,

422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428.

423 Find the voltage gain of each OP AMP circuit shown

in Figure P423.

+

330 k

(a)

+

v

O

+

v

S

33 k

+

330 k

(b)

+

v

O

33 k

+

v

S

FIGURE P423

424 Considering simplicity and standard 10% tolerance

resistors as major constraints, design OP AMP circuits that

produce the following voltage gains 10%: 100, 200, 1,

0.5, 0.5.

425 Two OPAMP circuits are shown in Figure P425. Both

claim to produce a gain of either 100.

(a) Show that the claim is true.

(b) A practical source with a series resistor of 1 kV is

connected to the input of each circuit. Does the

original claim still hold? If it does not, explain why?

1 k

1 k

100 k

99 k

Source

V

S

1 k

Circuit 2

Circuit 1

v

O

v

O

v

IN

v

IN

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

FIGURE P425

426 Suppose the output of the practical source shown in

Figure P425 needs to be amplified by 10

4

and you can use

only the two circuits shown. How would you connect the

circuits to achieve this? Explain why.

427

(a) Find the voltage gain v

O

/v

S

in Figure P427.

(b) Validate your answer by simulating the circuit in

OrCAD.

+

330 k

+

v

O

v

S

68 k

+

22 k 33 k

V

CC

= 15 V

FIGURE P427

428 What is the range of the gain v

O

/v

S

in Figure P428?

v

O

v

S

+

+

+

2 k 100 k 100 k

V

CC

= 15 V

FIGURE P428

PROBLEMS 229

C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 230

429 Design a simple OP AMP circuit that has a variable

gain from 10 to 100.

430 For the circuit in Figure P430:

(a) Find v

O

in terms v

S

.

(b) Find i

O

for v

S

1 V. Repeat for v

S

3 V.

+

v

S

i

O

+

v

O

10 k

10 k

150 k

10 k

V

CC

= 24 V

FIGURE P430

431 For the circuit in Figure P431:

(a) Find v

O

in terms v

S

.

(b) Find i

O

for v

S

0.5 V. Repeat for v

S

2 V.

v

O

+

+

+

10 k

10 k

100 k

100 k

v

S

i

O

V

CC

= 18 V

FIGURE P431

432 A young designer needed to amplify a 2-V signal by

the factors of 1, 5, and 10. Find the problem with the design

shown in Figure P432. Recommend a fix.

v

O

v

S

+

+

+

10 k

90 k

40 k

1

2

3

V

CC

= 15 V

FIGURE P432

433 Design two circuits to produce the following output:

v

O

2v

1

3v

2

.

(a) In your first design use a standard subtractor.

(b) In your second design both inputs must be into high

input resistance amplifiers to avoid loading.

434 For the circuit in Figure P434:

(a) Find v

O

in terms of the inputs v

1

and v

2

.

(b) If v

1

1 V, what is the range of values v

2

can have

without saturating the OP AMP?

v

O

+

+

+

50 k 50 k

50 k 100 k

100 k

+

v

2

v

1

V

CC

= +15 V

FIGURE P434

435 The input-output relationship for a three-input inverting

summer is

v

O

v

1

10v

2

100v

3

The resistance of the feedback resistor is 100 kV. Find the

values of the input resistors R

1

, R

2

, and R

3

.

436 Find v

O

in terms of the inputs v

1

and v

2

in Figure P436.

v

O

+

10 k

10 k

33 k

+

v

2

v

1

33 k

FIGURE P436

437 The switch in Figure P437 is open, find v

O

in terms of the

inputs v

S1

and v

S2

. Repeat with the switch closed.

v

O

+

30 k

30 k

Switch

+

v

S2

v

S1

60 k

60 k

FIGURE P437

230 C H A P T E R 4 ACTI VE CI RCUI TS

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-39

Find the Thvenin equivalent seen by R

L

in Figure P3-39. Find the power delivered to the load

when R

L

= 50 k! and 200 k!.

24 V

R

L

30 k! !! !

60 k! !! ! 40 k! !! !

i

L

8 V

R

L

60 k! !! !

i

L

Solution:

The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all

% Find the open-circuit voltage and the look-back resistance

vT = 24*30e3/(30e3+60e3)

RT = 40e3 + 1/(1/60e3 + 1/30e3)

% Find the load power

RL = [50e3 200e3];

iL = vT./(RT+RL);

pL = iL.^2.*RL

vT =

8.0000e+000

RT =

60.0000e+003

pL =

264.4628e-006 189.3491e-006

Answer:

R

T

= 60 k!; v

T

= 8 V;

p

L

= 264 W for R

L

= 50 k!;

p

L

= 189 W for R

L

= 200 k!

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-42

Assume that Figure P3-42 represents a model of the auxiliary output port of a car. The output

current is i = 1 A when v = 0 V. The output voltage is v = 12 V when a 20-! resistor is

connected between the terminals. Suppose you wanted to charge a 12-V battery by connecting

the battery at the port. How much current would the port deliver to the battery?

v

i

Output

Port

Solution:

The short circuit current is 1 A, as stated in the problem. When a 20-! resistor is connected to

the circuit, the equivalent resistance must be 12 ! to create a 12-V drop. Use MATLAB to solve

for the Norton resistance. Then find the Thvenin equivalent circuit and solve for the current

into the battery, assuming the battery acts as an ideal source with no internal resistance

clear all

iN = 1;

syms RN

Eqn = '1/(1/RN+1/20) - 12';

RN = double(solve(Eqn,'RN'))

vT = iN*RN

RT = RN;

iL = (vT-12)/RT

RN =

30.0000e+000

vT =

30.0000e+000

iL =

600.0000e-003

Answer:

i = 600 mA.

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-44

You successfully completed Circuits I and as an undergraduate work-study, your past professor

asked you to help her grade a Circuits I quiz. On the quiz, students were asked to find the power

supplied by the source to both the 10 k! load (R

L

) and to the entire circuit as shown in Figure

P3-44. Your professor asks to help her by creating a grading sheet.

(a) Solve the quiz and establish reasonable A, Betc. cuts

for incorrect solutions.

(b) A particular student correctly finds the Thvenin

equivalent circuit that the resistive load sees and calculates

the power to the load using V

T

2

/R

L

. He then does a source

transformation correctly finding the Norton equivalent of the

circuit. He calculates the source power by V

T

!I

N

. What

grade would you give him?

(c) Another student finds P

L

= 5.625 mW and P

S

= 22.5

mW, but provides no work to justify her answers. What grade

would you give her?

(d) A third student first finds the Norton equivalent, finds the current through the load using a

current divider and calculates the power in the load using I

L

2

R

L

. He figures correctly what the

parallel voltage would be across the Norton circuit and the load v

L

, and then calculates P

S

=I

N

!v

L

.

What grade would you give him?

Solution:

(a) Use node-voltage analysis to solve for the required values as shown in the following

MATLAB code. Let the center node be node A and the upper right node be node B. Ground the

bottom node.

clear all

syms vA vB

Eqn1 = '(vA-15)/10e3 + vA/10e3 + (vA-vB)/10e3';

Eqn2 = '(vB-vA)/10e3 + (vB-15)/10e3 + vB/10e3';

Soln = solve(Eqn1,Eqn2,'vA','vB');

vA = double(Soln.vA);

vB = double(Soln.vB);

vL = 15-vB;

pL = vL^2/10e3

is = (15-vA)/10e3 + (15-vB)/10e3;

ps = 15*is

pL =

5.6250e-003

ps =

22.5000e-003

(b) The student deserves credit for finding the correct Thvenin and Norton equivalent circuits,

but the power calculations are incorrect for both the load and the total power dissipated in the

circuit. The grade for this solution should be low, such as a D.

10 k!

10 k!

R

L

10 k!

10 k! 10 k!

15 V

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

(c) Give the student full credit and a grade of A. The solution is correct. If the solution had

been wrong, then the grade would have been zero or F for not showing any work.

(d) The load power is calculated correctly, but the total power calculation is not valid. Give the

student a B grade.

Answer:

(a) p

L

= 5.625 mW and p

TOTAL

= 22.5 mW. The requirements for the grading sheet are

instructor specific.

Suggested answers for Parts (b), (c), and (d) are presented above.

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-54

The resistance R in Figure P3-54 is adjusted until maximum power is delivered to the load

consisting of R and the 15-k! resistor in parallel.

(a) Find the required value of R.

(b) How much power is delivered to the load?

20 mA R

2 k! !! !

3 k! !! !

1 k! !! !

15 k! !! !

Load

Solution:

The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all

format short eng

disp('Part (a)')

% Find the Thevenin equivalent for the source circuit

% Use the look-back technique to find the resistance

RT = 2e3+3e3+1e3;

% Open-circuit voltage

vT = 20e-3*3e3;

% Find an expression for R in terms of the total load resistance

syms R RL

Eqn1 = 'RL - 1/(1/R+1/15e3)';

R = solve(Eqn1,'R');

% The total load resistance should equal the Thevenin resistance

% for maximum power transfer

R_num = double(subs(R,RL,RT))

disp('Part (b)')

% Use the Thevenin equivalent circuit to compute the power

% dissipated by the load

pL_max = vT^2/4/RT

Part (a)

R_num =

10.0000e+003

Part (b)

pL_max =

150.0000e-003

Answer:

(a) R = 10 k!

(b) p

L

= 150 mW

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-56

Find the value of R in Figure P3-56 so that maximum power is delivered to the 2-k! load.

Find the value of the maximum power.

10 V

R

10 k! !! ! 2 k! !! ! 5 k! !! !

Solution:

The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all

% Maximum power will be delivered if the Thevenin resistance

% matches the load resistance of 2 kOhms

% Find an expression for the Thevenin resistance in terms of R, solve for R,

and

% evaluate when RT = 2 kOhms

syms RT R

Eqn1 = 'RT - 1/(1/R+1/10e3+1/5e3)';

R = solve(Eqn1,'R');

R = double(subs(R,RT,2e3))

% Find the Thevenin voltage

Req=1/(1/10e3+1/5e3)

vT = 10*Req/(R+Req)

% Calculate the maximum power transfer

p_max = vT^2/4/2e3

R =

5.0000e+003

Req =

3.3333e+003

vT =

4.0000e+000

p_max =

2.0000e-003

Answer:

R = 5 k!

p

MAX

= 2 mW

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-61

The source in Figure P3-61 has a 100 mA output

current limit. Design an interface circuit so that the

load voltage is v

2

= 2 V and the source current is i

1

< 50 mA.

Solution:

The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all

% Find the load current

v2 = 2;

R2 = 50;

i2 = v2/R2

% Find the minimum total resistance seen by the source

i1 = 50e-3;

R_total_min = 10/i1

i2 =

40.0000e-003

R_total_min =

200.0000e+000

% The required current is less than the maximum current

% Add a series resistor as the interface to create current of 40 mA

Req = 10/i2

R_interface = Req - 50 - 50

Req =

250.0000e+000

R_interface =

150.0000e+000

The following OrCAD simulation verifies the solution.

v

i

10 V

50 ! !! !

v

1

i

1 2

2

50 ! !! !

Interface

circuit

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-70

It is claimed that both interface circuits in Figure 3-70 will deliver v = 4 V to the 75-! load.

Verify this claim. Which interface circuit consumes the least power? Which has an output

resistance that best matches the 75-! load?

Solution:

For each interface, calculate the load voltage, source

power, and output resistance using MATLAB.

clear all

vs = 20;

Rs = 150;

RL = 75;

disp('Circuit 1')

R11 = 150;

iL1 = vs/(Rs+R11+RL);

vL1 = RL*iL1

ps1 = iL1*vs

Rout1 = Rs+R11

disp('Circuit 2')

R21 = 100;

R22 = 15;

Req2 = 1/(1/R21+1/(R22+RL));

veq2 = Req2*vs/(Rs+Req2);

vL2 = RL*veq2/(R22+RL)

is2 = vs/(Rs+Req2);

ps2 = is2*vs

Rout2 = 15+1/(1/Rs+1/R21)

Circuit 1

vL1 =

4.0000e+000

ps1 =

1.0667e+000

Rout1 =

300.0000e+000

Circuit 2

vL2 =

4.0000e+000

ps2 =

2.0267e+000

Rout2 =

75.0000e+000

v

i

20 V

Interface

circuit

150 ! !! !

R

OUT

75 ! !! !

either

150 ! !! !

100 ! !! !

15 ! !! !

Circuit 1 Circuit 2

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 4-11

Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit that the load R

L

sees in Figure P4-11.

v

S

i

S

r@i

S

v

O

R

L

R

S

Thvenin circuit

Solution:

Since the circuit has a dependent source, we cannot reliably use the look-back technique to

compute the Thvenin resistance. We need to find the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit

current. The solution is presented in the following MATLAB code.

clear all

syms vs Rs Rp r is vT RT isc

Eqn1 = 'is - (vs-r*is)/Rs';

Eqn2 = 'vT - r*is';

Eqn3 = 'isc - r*is/Rp';

% Solve the equations

Soln = solve(Eqn1,Eqn2,Eqn3,'is','vT','isc');

vT = simplify(Soln.vT)

isc = simplify(Soln.isc);

RT = simplify(vT/isc)

vT =

r*vs/(Rs+r)

RT =

Rp

Answer:

R

T

= R

P

and

r R

rV

v

+

=

S

S

T

.

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 4-20

Suppose the output of the practical source shown in Figure P4-19 needs to be amplified by 100

and you can use only the two circuits shown. How would you connect the circuits to achieve

this? Explain why.

v

O

v

S

9 k!

1 k!

Source

1 k!

Circuit 2

1 k!

10 k!

v

IN

v

IN

v

O

Circuit 1

Solution:

Connect the practical source to the input of Circuit 1 and then connect the output of Circuit 1 to

the input of Circuit 2. The practical source does not change the gain of Circuit 1, so it still

provides a gain of 10. The output of Circuit 1 will not change the gain of Circuit 2, since the

output resistance of an OP AMP circuit is very small. The overall gain will be (10)(!10) = !100,

as requested.

Answer:

Presented above in the Solution.

The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without

either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance

Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 4-23

(a) Find v

O

in terms v

S

in Figure P4-23.

(b) Find i

O

for v

S

= 1 V. Repeat for v

S

= 3 V.

Solution:

The solution is presented in the following

MATLAB code.

clear all

disp('Part (a)')

% No current flows into the OP AMP, so the voltage at the positive

% input terminal is vs and the circuit is configured as a non-inverting

% amplifier. The load resistor does not affect the output voltage.

syms vs vo io

R1 = 150e3;

R2 = 10e3;

RL = 10e3;

% Compute the gain and the output voltage

K = (R1+R2)/R2;

vo = K*vs

disp('Part (b)')

% Compute the output voltage

vs = [1 3];

vo = K*vs;

% Adjust for saturation

vcc = 24;

for n = 1:length(vo)

if vo(n) > vcc

vo(n)=vcc;

elseif vo(n)<-vcc

vo(n)=-vcc;

end

end

% Compute the output current

io = vo/RL

Part (a)

vo =

16*vs

Part (b)

io =

1.6000e-003 2.4000e-003

Answer:

(a) v

O

= 16v

S

(b) For v

S

= 1 V, i

O

= 1.6 mA.

For v

S

= 3 V, i

O

= 2.4 mA because of saturation.

10 k!

10 k!

10 k!

150 k!

v

S

v

O

i

O

V

CC

=24 V

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