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# C03 12/15/2011 16:29:45 Page 146

348 For the circuit in Figure P348 find its Thevenin and
Norton equivalent circuits.
100
v
T
, R
T
, i
N
1 A
100
FIGURE P348
349(a) Find the Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit seen by
R
L
in Figure P349.
(b) Use the equivalent circuit found in (a) to find i
L
if R
L

22 kV.
i
L
R
L
50 V
15 k
5.6 k 10 k
+

FIGURE P349
350(a) Find the Thevenin or Norton equivalent circuit seen by
R
L
in Figure P350.
(b) Use the equivalent circuit found in (a) to find i
L
in terms
of i
S
, R
1
, R
2
, and R
L
.
(c) Check your answer in (b) using current division.
i
S
R
1
R
2
R
L
B
A
i
L
FIGURE P350
351 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit seen by R
L
in Figure
P351. Find the voltage across the load when R
L
5 V, 10 V,
and 20 V.
20 V
20
20
20
20
20
R
L
+

FIGURE P351
352 Find the Norton equivalent seen by R
L
in Figure P352.
Find the current through the load for when R
L
4.7 kV,
15 kV, and 68 kV.
i
L
R
L
10 mA 15 k
8.1 k
15 k
FIGURE P352
353 You need to determine the Thevenin Equivalent circuit of
a more complex linear circuit. A technician tells you she
made two measurements using her DMM. The first was with
a 10-kVload and the load current was 91 mA, the second was
with a 10-kVload and the load voltage was 5 V. Calculate the
Thevenin equivalent circuit as shown in Figure P353.
v
T
R
T
10 k 1 k
+

i
L
=91A
+
v
L
=124 mV

FIGURE P353
354 Find the Thevenin equivalent seen by R
L
in Figure P354.
Find the power delivered to the load when R
L
50 kV and
200 kV.
R
L
p
L
+

33 k
47 k 91 k
24 V
FIGURE P354
355(a) Use OrCAD to find the Norton equivalent at termi-
nals A and B in Figure P355. Hint: Find the open-circuit
voltage and short-circuit current at the requisite terminals.
(b) Use the Norton equivalent circuit found in (a) to deter-
mine the power dissipated in R
L
when it is equal to 37 kV.
(c) Use OrCADto simulate both the original and the Norton
equivalent circuits with R
L
37 kV. Verify that the power
dissipated by the load is the same in both situations.
A
B
R
L
+

100 A
47 k
56 k
100 k
33 k
10 V
FIGURE P355
146 C H A P T E R 3 CI RCUI T ANALYSI S TECHNI QUES
C03 12/15/2011 16:29:47 Page 147
356 The purpose of this problem is to use Thevenin equivalent
circuits to find the voltage v
X
in Figure P356. Find the
Thevenin equivalent circuit seen looking to the left of ter-
minals A and B. Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit seen
looking to the right of terminals A and B. Connect these
equivalent circuits together and find the voltage v
X
.
+

A
B
6 k 1 k 3 k
250 3 k

v
x
15 V
+

FIGURE P356
357 The circuit in Figure P357 was solved earlier using
supermeshes (Prob.(319). In this problem solve for the
voltage across R
L
by first finding the Thevenin equivalent
that the load resistor sees, the for R
L
2.5 kV find v
L
.
+
v
L

20 mA
10 mA
1 k
2 k
R
L 1.5 k
FIGURE P357
358 Assume that Figure P358 represents a model of the auxil-
iary output port of a car. The output current is i 1 Awhen v
0 V. The output voltage is v 12 V when a 20-V resistor is
connected between the terminals. Suppose you wanted to
charge a 12-V battery by connecting the battery at the port.
How much current would the port deliver to the battery?

+
v
i
FIGURE P358
359 The i-v characteristic of the active circuit in Figure P358
is 5v + 500i 100. Find the output voltage when a 500-V
resistive load is connected.
360 You successfully completed Circuits I and as an under-
grade a Circuits I quiz. Onthe quiz, students wereaskedtofind
the power supplied by the source to both the 10 kV load (R
L
)
and to the entire circuit as shown in Figure P360. Your
professor asks to help her by creating a grading sheet.
(a) Solve he quiz and establish reasonable A, B . . . etc. cuts
for incorrect solutions.
(b) A particular student correctly finds the Thevenin equiv-
alent circuit that the resistive load sees and calculates the
power to the load using V
T
2
/R
L
. He then does a source
transformation correctly finding the Norton equivalent of
the circuit. He calculates the source power by V
T
I
N
. What
grade would you give him?
(c) Another student finds P
L
5.625 mWand P
S
22.5 mW,
but provides no work to justify her answers. What grade would
you give her?
(d) A third student first finds the Norton equivalent, finds
the current through the load using a current divider and
calculates the power in the load using I
L
2
R
L
. He figures
correctly what the parallel voltage would be across the
Norton circuit and the load v
L
, and then calculates P
s
=I
N
v
L
.
What grade would you give him?
R
L
+

10 k 10 k
10 k
10 k
10 k
15 V
FIGURE P360
361 The Thevenin equivalent parameters of a practical volt-
age source are v
T
30 V R
T
300 V. Find the smallest load
resistance for which the load voltage exceeds 10 V.
362 Use a sequence of source transformations to find the
Thevenin equivalent at terminals A and B in Figure P362.
Then select a resistor to connect across A and B so that 5 V
appears across it.
1 A 3 A 20 V
15
15
5

+
5 V
B
A
5
+
FIGURE P362
363 The circuit in Figure P363 provides power to a number of
loads connected in parallel. The circuit is protected by a
3
/
4
mA fuse with a nominal 100 Vresistance. Each load is 10 kV.
PROBLEMS 147
C03 12/15/2011 16:29:49 Page 149
20 m
2 k
3 k
R
L
FIGURE P370
371 For the circuit of Figure P371 find the value of R
L
that
will result in:
(d) Maximum voltage. What is that voltage?
(e) Maximum current. What is that current?
(f) Maximum power. What is that power?
56 V 3.3 k
2.2 k 1 k
R
L
+

FIGURE P371
372 The resistance R in Figure P372 is adjusted until maxi-
mum power is delivered to the load consisting of R and the
15-kV resistor in parallel.
(a) Find the required value of R.
(b) How much power is delivered to the load?
3 k
2 k
1 k
R 12 k
40 mA
FIGURE P372
373 When a 5-kV resistor is connected across a two-terminal
source a current of 15 mA is delivered to the load. When a
second 5-kV resistor is connected in parallel with the first, a
total current of 20 mAis delivered. Find the maximumpower
available from the source.
374 Find the value of R in the circuit of Figure P374 so that
maximum power is delivered to the load. What is the value of
the maximum power?
50 R
5 k 2 k
10 V
+

FIGURE P374
375 For the circuit of Figure P375 find the value of R
L
that
will result in:
(g) Maximum voltage. What is that voltage?
(h) Maximum current. What is that current?
(i) Maximum power. What is that power?
R
L
3 k 10 mA
2.75 k
1 k
i
L
+
v
L

FIGURE P375
376 A 100 V-load needs 10 mA to operate correctly.
Design a practical power source to provide the needed
current. The smallest source resistance you can practically
design for is 50 V, but you can add any other series resistance
if you need to.
377 A practical source delivers 50 mA to a 300-V load. The
source delivers 12 V to a 120-V load. Find the maximum
power available from the source.
O B J E C T I V E 3 5 I N T E R F A C E C I R C U I T D E S I G N A N D
E V A L U A T I O N ( S E C T . 3 6 )
(a) Given the signal transfer objective at a source-load
interface, adjust the circuit parameters or design one or
more two-port interface circuits to achieve the specified
objectives within stated constraints.
(b) Given two or more circuits that perform the same
interface function, rank-order the circuits using stated
criteria.
See Examples 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 3
31 and Exercises 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341,
342, 343.
378 Select R
L
and design an interface circuit for the circuit
shown in Figure P378 so that the load voltage is 2 V.
10 k
R
L
5 k 10 k 10 V
+

Interface
Circuit
FIGURE P378
379 The source in Figure P379 has a 100 mA output
current limit. Design an interface circuit so that the load
voltage is v
2
20 V and the source current is i
1
<50 mA.
PROBLEMS 149
C03 12/15/2011 16:29:55 Page 151
385 Design the interface circuit in Figure P385 so that the
power delivered to the load is 100 mW.
100 mW
25 50
50 50 10 V
+

Interface
Circuit
FIGURE P385
386 Design the interface circuit in Figure P385 so that the
voltage delivered to the load is 2.5 V.
387 Design the interface circuit in Figure P387 so that
R
IN
100 Vand the current delivered to the 50-Vload is i
50 mA. Hint: Use an L-pad.
100
50 15 V
+

+
R
IN
R
OUT

v
Interface
circuit
i
FIGURE P387
388 Design the interface circuit in Figure P387 so that
R
OUT
50 Vand the voltage delivered to the 50-Vload is v
2.5 V. Hint: Use an L-pad.
389 The circuit in Figure P389 has a source resistance of
75 V and a load resistance of 300 V. Design the interface
circuit so that the input resistance is R
IN
75 V 10% and
the output resistance is R
OUT
300 V 10%.
75
300
+

R
IN
R
OUT
v
S
Interface
circuit
FIGURE P389
390 It is claimed that both interface circuits in Figure
P390 will deliver v 4 V to the 75-Vload. Verify this claim.
Which interface circuit consumes the least power? Which has
an output resistance that best matches the 75-V load?
+

20 V
+
v

150
75
either
Circuit 1 Circuit 2
i
150 15
100
Interface
circuit
R
OUT
FIGURE P390
I N T E G R A T I N G P R O B L E M S
391 Audio Speaker Resistance-Matchign Network
A company is producing an interface network that they
claim would result in an R
IN
of 600 V 2 % and R
OUT
of 16, 8, or 4 V 2% depending on whether the connected
speakers are 16, 8, or 4 V selectable via a built-in switch.
Their design is shown in Figure P391. Prove or disprove
their claim.
+

600
v
S
592
8
8
Audio matching network
4
4
16, 8, or 4
4
16
FIGURE P391
392 Attenuation Analysis
In Figure P392 a two-port attenuator connects a 600-V source
to a 600-Vload. Find the power delivered to the load in terms of
v
S
. Remove the attenuator and find the power delivered to the
load when the source is directly connected to the load. By what
fraction does the attenuator reduce the power delivered to the
600-V load? Express the fraction in dB.
INTEGRATI NG PROBLEMS 151
C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 228
411 Select g in the circuit of Figure P411 so that the output
voltage is 10 V.
+

+
v
O

+
v
x

1 mV
gv
x
1 k
2.2 k
FIGURE P411
412 Designa dependent source circuit that has a closed-loop
voltage gain of 10 using a VCVS with a m of 100. The source
circuit is a voltage source v
S
in series with a 1-kV resistor,
and the load is a 3.3-kV resistor. (Hint: See Figure P410.)
413 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit that the load R
L
sees
in Figure P413. Repeat the problem with R
F
replaced by an
open circuit.
v
S
+

R
S
R
F
R
P
v
x
R
L
v
T
,

R
T

+
+
v
x

FIGURE P413
414 Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit that the load R
L
sees
in Figure P414.
v
S
+

R
S
R
P
R
L
Thvenin circuit
i
S
r
.
i
S
+

FIGURE P414
415 Find R
IN
in Figure P415
v
S
+

R
R
IN
i
S
r
.
i
S
+

FIGURE P415
416 Find R
IN
in Figure P416.
i
S
i
x
R
IN
R
i
x
FIGURE P416
417 Find the Norton Equivalent circuit seen by the load in
Figure P417.
i
x R
O
v
S
R
x
R
S
i
+

v
i
x
+

FIGURE P417
418 Find the Thevenin Equivalent circuit seen by the load in
Figure P418.
gv
x R
O
i
S
i
+

v
+

v
x
FIGURE P418
419 The circuit parameters in Figure P419 are R
B
100 kV,
R
C
3.3 kV, b100, V
g
0.7 V, and V
CC
15 V. Find i
C
and
v
CE
for v
S
1 V. Repeat for v
S
5 V.
+

R
C
R
B
+
+

v
S
v
CE
V
CC
i
B
i
C
FIGURE P419
420 The circuit parameters in Figure P419 are R
C
3 kV,
b120, V
g
0.7 V, and V
CC
5 V. Select a value of R
B
such
that the transistor is in the saturation mode when v
S
2 V.
421 The parameters of the transistor in Figure P421 are
b60 and V
g
0.7 V. Find i
C
and v
CE
for v
S
0.8 V. Repeat
for v
S
2 V.
+

+
+

v
S
v
CE 15 V
10 k
20 k
i
B
10 k
i
C
FIGURE P421
228 C H A P T E R 4 ACTI VE CI RCUI TS
C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 229
422 An emergency indicator light uses a 10 V, 2-W incan-
descent lamp. It is to be ON when a digital output is high (5
V). The digital circuit does not have sufficient power to turn
on the lamp directly. However, as is common practice, a
transistor driver is used as a digital switch. Select R
B
in the
circuit of Figure P422 so to drive the transistor into satura-
tion causing it to act as a short circuit between the lamp and
ground when the digital output is high. The Thevenin equiv-
alent for the digital circuit is also shown in the figure.
+

Digital
circuit
= 50
V

= 0.7 V
Lamp = 10V @ 2W
+10 V
V
D
R
D
R
B
i
Lamp
V
D
= 5 V
R
D
= 500
FIGURE P422
O B J E C T I V E 4 2 O P A M P C I R C U I T A N A L Y S I S
( S E C T S . 4 3 , 4 4 )
Given a linear resistance circuit containing OP AMPs, find
selected output signals or input-output relationships.
See Examples 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 4
20 and Exercises 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421,
422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428.
423 Find the voltage gain of each OP AMP circuit shown
in Figure P423.
+

330 k
(a)
+
v
O
+
v
S
33 k
+

330 k
(b)
+
v
O
33 k
+
v
S
FIGURE P423
424 Considering simplicity and standard 10% tolerance
resistors as major constraints, design OP AMP circuits that
produce the following voltage gains 10%: 100, 200, 1,
0.5, 0.5.
425 Two OPAMP circuits are shown in Figure P425. Both
claim to produce a gain of either 100.
(a) Show that the claim is true.
(b) A practical source with a series resistor of 1 kV is
connected to the input of each circuit. Does the
original claim still hold? If it does not, explain why?
1 k
1 k
100 k
99 k
Source
V
S
1 k
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
v
O
v
O
v
IN
v
IN

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
FIGURE P425
426 Suppose the output of the practical source shown in
Figure P425 needs to be amplified by 10
4
and you can use
only the two circuits shown. How would you connect the
circuits to achieve this? Explain why.
427
(a) Find the voltage gain v
O
/v
S
in Figure P427.
(b) Validate your answer by simulating the circuit in
+

330 k
+
v
O
v
S
68 k
+

22 k 33 k
V
CC
= 15 V
FIGURE P427
428 What is the range of the gain v
O
/v
S
in Figure P428?
v
O
v
S
+

+
+

2 k 100 k 100 k
V
CC
= 15 V
FIGURE P428
PROBLEMS 229
C04 11/08/2011 0:6:50 Page 230
429 Design a simple OP AMP circuit that has a variable
gain from 10 to 100.
430 For the circuit in Figure P430:
(a) Find v
O
in terms v
S
.
(b) Find i
O
for v
S
1 V. Repeat for v
S
3 V.
+

v
S
i
O
+
v
O

10 k
10 k
150 k
10 k
V
CC
= 24 V
FIGURE P430
431 For the circuit in Figure P431:
(a) Find v
O
in terms v
S
.
(b) Find i
O
for v
S
0.5 V. Repeat for v
S
2 V.
v
O
+

+
+

10 k
10 k
100 k
100 k
v
S
i
O
V
CC
= 18 V
FIGURE P431
432 A young designer needed to amplify a 2-V signal by
the factors of 1, 5, and 10. Find the problem with the design
shown in Figure P432. Recommend a fix.
v
O
v
S
+

+
+
10 k
90 k
40 k
1
2
3
V
CC
= 15 V
FIGURE P432
433 Design two circuits to produce the following output:
v
O
2v
1
3v
2
.
(a) In your first design use a standard subtractor.
(b) In your second design both inputs must be into high
434 For the circuit in Figure P434:
(a) Find v
O
in terms of the inputs v
1
and v
2
.
(b) If v
1
1 V, what is the range of values v
2
can have
without saturating the OP AMP?
v
O
+

+
+

50 k 50 k
50 k 100 k
100 k
+

v
2
v
1
V
CC
= +15 V
FIGURE P434
435 The input-output relationship for a three-input inverting
summer is
v
O
v
1
10v
2
100v
3

The resistance of the feedback resistor is 100 kV. Find the
values of the input resistors R
1
, R
2
, and R
3
.
436 Find v
O
in terms of the inputs v
1
and v
2
in Figure P436.
v
O
+

10 k
10 k
33 k
+

v
2
v
1
33 k
FIGURE P436
437 The switch in Figure P437 is open, find v
O
in terms of the
inputs v
S1
and v
S2
. Repeat with the switch closed.
v
O
+

30 k
30 k
Switch
+

v
S2
v
S1
60 k
60 k
FIGURE P437
230 C H A P T E R 4 ACTI VE CI RCUI TS
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance
Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-39
Find the Thvenin equivalent seen by R
L
in Figure P3-39. Find the power delivered to the load
when R
L
= 50 k! and 200 k!.

24 V
R
L
30 k! !! !
60 k! !! ! 40 k! !! !
i
L
8 V
R
L
60 k! !! !
i
L

Solution:
The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all
% Find the open-circuit voltage and the look-back resistance
vT = 24*30e3/(30e3+60e3)
RT = 40e3 + 1/(1/60e3 + 1/30e3)

% Find the load power
RL = [50e3 200e3];
iL = vT./(RT+RL);
pL = iL.^2.*RL
vT =
8.0000e+000
RT =
60.0000e+003
pL =
264.4628e-006 189.3491e-006

R
T
= 60 k!; v
T
= 8 V;
p
L
= 264 W for R
L
= 50 k!;
p
L
= 189 W for R
L
= 200 k!
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance
Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-42
Assume that Figure P3-42 represents a model of the auxiliary output port of a car. The output
current is i = 1 A when v = 0 V. The output voltage is v = 12 V when a 20-! resistor is
connected between the terminals. Suppose you wanted to charge a 12-V battery by connecting
the battery at the port. How much current would the port deliver to the battery?

v
i
Output
Port

Solution:
The short circuit current is 1 A, as stated in the problem. When a 20-! resistor is connected to
the circuit, the equivalent resistance must be 12 ! to create a 12-V drop. Use MATLAB to solve
for the Norton resistance. Then find the Thvenin equivalent circuit and solve for the current
into the battery, assuming the battery acts as an ideal source with no internal resistance

clear all
iN = 1;
syms RN
Eqn = '1/(1/RN+1/20) - 12';
RN = double(solve(Eqn,'RN'))
vT = iN*RN
RT = RN;
iL = (vT-12)/RT
RN =
30.0000e+000
vT =
30.0000e+000
iL =
600.0000e-003

i = 600 mA.
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance
Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.

Problem 3-44
You successfully completed Circuits I and as an undergraduate work-study, your past professor
asked you to help her grade a Circuits I quiz. On the quiz, students were asked to find the power
supplied by the source to both the 10 k! load (R
L
) and to the entire circuit as shown in Figure
P3-44. Your professor asks to help her by creating a grading sheet.

(a) Solve the quiz and establish reasonable A, Betc. cuts
for incorrect solutions.
(b) A particular student correctly finds the Thvenin
equivalent circuit that the resistive load sees and calculates
the power to the load using V
T
2
/R
L
. He then does a source
transformation correctly finding the Norton equivalent of the
circuit. He calculates the source power by V
T
!I
N
. What
grade would you give him?
(c) Another student finds P
L
= 5.625 mW and P
S
= 22.5
mW, but provides no work to justify her answers. What grade
would you give her?
(d) A third student first finds the Norton equivalent, finds the current through the load using a
current divider and calculates the power in the load using I
L
2
R
L
. He figures correctly what the
parallel voltage would be across the Norton circuit and the load v
L
, and then calculates P
S
=I
N
!v
L
.
What grade would you give him?

Solution:
(a) Use node-voltage analysis to solve for the required values as shown in the following
MATLAB code. Let the center node be node A and the upper right node be node B. Ground the
bottom node.

clear all
syms vA vB
Eqn1 = '(vA-15)/10e3 + vA/10e3 + (vA-vB)/10e3';
Eqn2 = '(vB-vA)/10e3 + (vB-15)/10e3 + vB/10e3';
Soln = solve(Eqn1,Eqn2,'vA','vB');
vA = double(Soln.vA);
vB = double(Soln.vB);
vL = 15-vB;
pL = vL^2/10e3
is = (15-vA)/10e3 + (15-vB)/10e3;
ps = 15*is
pL =
5.6250e-003
ps =
22.5000e-003

(b) The student deserves credit for finding the correct Thvenin and Norton equivalent circuits,
but the power calculations are incorrect for both the load and the total power dissipated in the
circuit. The grade for this solution should be low, such as a D.
10 k!
10 k!
R
L
10 k!
10 k! 10 k!
15 V
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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(c) Give the student full credit and a grade of A. The solution is correct. If the solution had
been wrong, then the grade would have been zero or F for not showing any work.

(d) The load power is calculated correctly, but the total power calculation is not valid. Give the
student a B grade.

(a) p
L
= 5.625 mW and p
TOTAL
= 22.5 mW. The requirements for the grading sheet are
instructor specific.
Suggested answers for Parts (b), (c), and (d) are presented above.
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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Problem 3-54
The resistance R in Figure P3-54 is adjusted until maximum power is delivered to the load
consisting of R and the 15-k! resistor in parallel.
(a) Find the required value of R.
(b) How much power is delivered to the load?
20 mA R
2 k! !! !
3 k! !! !
1 k! !! !
15 k! !! !

Solution:
The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all
format short eng
disp('Part (a)')
% Find the Thevenin equivalent for the source circuit
% Use the look-back technique to find the resistance
RT = 2e3+3e3+1e3;
% Open-circuit voltage
vT = 20e-3*3e3;

% Find an expression for R in terms of the total load resistance
syms R RL
Eqn1 = 'RL - 1/(1/R+1/15e3)';
R = solve(Eqn1,'R');
% The total load resistance should equal the Thevenin resistance
% for maximum power transfer
R_num = double(subs(R,RL,RT))

disp('Part (b)')
% Use the Thevenin equivalent circuit to compute the power
% dissipated by the load
pL_max = vT^2/4/RT
Part (a)
R_num =
10.0000e+003
Part (b)
pL_max =
150.0000e-003

(a) R = 10 k!
(b) p
L
= 150 mW
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
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Problem 3-56
Find the value of R in Figure P3-56 so that maximum power is delivered to the 2-k! load.
Find the value of the maximum power.

10 V
R
10 k! !! ! 2 k! !! ! 5 k! !! !

Solution:
The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all
% Maximum power will be delivered if the Thevenin resistance
% matches the load resistance of 2 kOhms
% Find an expression for the Thevenin resistance in terms of R, solve for R,
and
% evaluate when RT = 2 kOhms
syms RT R
Eqn1 = 'RT - 1/(1/R+1/10e3+1/5e3)';
R = solve(Eqn1,'R');
R = double(subs(R,RT,2e3))

% Find the Thevenin voltage
Req=1/(1/10e3+1/5e3)
vT = 10*Req/(R+Req)

% Calculate the maximum power transfer
p_max = vT^2/4/2e3
R =
5.0000e+003
Req =
3.3333e+003
vT =
4.0000e+000
p_max =
2.0000e-003

R = 5 k!
p
MAX
= 2 mW
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
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Problem 3-61
The source in Figure P3-61 has a 100 mA output
current limit. Design an interface circuit so that the
load voltage is v
2
= 2 V and the source current is i
1

< 50 mA.

Solution:
The following MATLAB code presents the solution.

clear all
% Find the load current
v2 = 2;
R2 = 50;
i2 = v2/R2

% Find the minimum total resistance seen by the source
i1 = 50e-3;
R_total_min = 10/i1
i2 =
40.0000e-003
R_total_min =
200.0000e+000

% The required current is less than the maximum current
% Add a series resistor as the interface to create current of 40 mA
Req = 10/i2
R_interface = Req - 50 - 50
Req =
250.0000e+000
R_interface =
150.0000e+000

The following OrCAD simulation verifies the solution.

v
i
10 V
50 ! !! !
v
1
i
1 2
2
50 ! !! !
Interface
circuit
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
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Problem 3-70
It is claimed that both interface circuits in Figure 3-70 will deliver v = 4 V to the 75-! load.
Verify this claim. Which interface circuit consumes the least power? Which has an output
resistance that best matches the 75-! load?

Solution:
For each interface, calculate the load voltage, source
power, and output resistance using MATLAB.
clear all
vs = 20;
Rs = 150;
RL = 75;

disp('Circuit 1')
R11 = 150;
iL1 = vs/(Rs+R11+RL);
vL1 = RL*iL1
ps1 = iL1*vs
Rout1 = Rs+R11

disp('Circuit 2')
R21 = 100;
R22 = 15;
Req2 = 1/(1/R21+1/(R22+RL));
veq2 = Req2*vs/(Rs+Req2);
vL2 = RL*veq2/(R22+RL)
is2 = vs/(Rs+Req2);
ps2 = is2*vs
Rout2 = 15+1/(1/Rs+1/R21)
Circuit 1
vL1 =
4.0000e+000
ps1 =
1.0667e+000
Rout1 =
300.0000e+000
Circuit 2
vL2 =
4.0000e+000
ps2 =
2.0267e+000
Rout2 =
75.0000e+000
v
i
20 V
Interface
circuit
150 ! !! !
R
OUT
75 ! !! !
either
150 ! !! !
100 ! !! !
15 ! !! !
Circuit 1 Circuit 2
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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Problem 4-11
Find the Thvenin equivalent circuit that the load R
L
sees in Figure P4-11.

v
S
i
S
r@i
S
v
O
R
L
R
S
Thvenin circuit

Solution:
Since the circuit has a dependent source, we cannot reliably use the look-back technique to
compute the Thvenin resistance. We need to find the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit
current. The solution is presented in the following MATLAB code.

clear all
syms vs Rs Rp r is vT RT isc
Eqn1 = 'is - (vs-r*is)/Rs';
Eqn2 = 'vT - r*is';
Eqn3 = 'isc - r*is/Rp';

% Solve the equations
Soln = solve(Eqn1,Eqn2,Eqn3,'is','vT','isc');
vT = simplify(Soln.vT)
isc = simplify(Soln.isc);
RT = simplify(vT/isc)
vT =
r*vs/(Rs+r)
RT =
Rp

R
T
= R
P
and
r R
rV
v
+
=
S
S
T
.
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
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Problem 4-20
Suppose the output of the practical source shown in Figure P4-19 needs to be amplified by 100
and you can use only the two circuits shown. How would you connect the circuits to achieve
this? Explain why.

v
O
v
S
9 k!
1 k!
Source
1 k!
Circuit 2
1 k!
10 k!
v
IN
v
IN
v
O
Circuit 1

Solution:
Connect the practical source to the input of Circuit 1 and then connect the output of Circuit 1 to
the input of Circuit 2. The practical source does not change the gain of Circuit 1, so it still
provides a gain of 10. The output of Circuit 1 will not change the gain of Circuit 2, since the
output resistance of an OP AMP circuit is very small. The overall gain will be (10)(!10) = !100,
as requested.

Presented above in the Solution.
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, Sixth Edition Solutions Manual

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photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without
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Problem 4-23
(a) Find v
O
in terms v
S
in Figure P4-23.
(b) Find i
O
for v
S
= 1 V. Repeat for v
S
= 3 V.

Solution:
The solution is presented in the following
MATLAB code.

clear all
disp('Part (a)')
% No current flows into the OP AMP, so the voltage at the positive
% input terminal is vs and the circuit is configured as a non-inverting
% amplifier. The load resistor does not affect the output voltage.
syms vs vo io
R1 = 150e3;
R2 = 10e3;
RL = 10e3;

% Compute the gain and the output voltage
K = (R1+R2)/R2;
vo = K*vs

disp('Part (b)')
% Compute the output voltage
vs = [1 3];
vo = K*vs;
% Adjust for saturation
vcc = 24;
for n = 1:length(vo)
if vo(n) > vcc
vo(n)=vcc;
elseif vo(n)<-vcc
vo(n)=-vcc;
end
end
% Compute the output current
io = vo/RL
Part (a)
vo =
16*vs
Part (b)
io =
1.6000e-003 2.4000e-003

(a) v
O
= 16v
S

(b) For v
S
= 1 V, i
O
= 1.6 mA.
For v
S
= 3 V, i
O
= 2.4 mA because of saturation.
10 k!
10 k!
10 k!
150 k!
v
S
v
O
i
O
V
CC
=24 V