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ESSAYS BY: JOSEF JOFFE HANS MOMMSEN JRGEN KOCKA

The BerlinJournal
A QUARTERLY FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY IN BERLIN CITIZENSHIP CONFERENCE ISSUE JUNE 1999

The End of
the Nation-State?
Reconsidering Past Loyalties
By Josef Joffe
, it would
A have been quite a surprise
if a
hundred years ago

country like Germany had debated, let


alone decided upon, dual citizenship.
Even in nations defining themselves in
terms of documents like the U.S. or a
republican ideology like France, the
idea of more than one loyalty used to be
an athema. For it was the nation-state
to whom absolute and undivided allegiance belonged.
What has happened? Ask yourselves about your own identity. You will
probably define yourself, first, in terms
of your work, then of your family,your
friends, your city, your political convictions and only somewhere down the
line in terms of your country. But a
hundred years ago, I am German
(or American or Frenchman) would
have sprung first to your mind. 100,
150 years ago, emigrants wanted to get
rid of their old nationality. Today,
however, the situation is different.
Continued on Page 4

The Commited Observer


Academy Trustee Fritz Stern receives German Book Trades Peace Prize
By Ulrich Raulff
hen in November last year the which he served with virtuosity and litercontroversy about Martin Walsers ary talent, the Present always remained
speech accepting the peace prize became his primary charge: his knowledge of the
harsher and captivated the German past proved its worth in clear answers to
public, Fritz Stern was one of the most vi- topical questions. This time it will be
gilant observers of the
Fritz Stern speaking from
debate. Every day he
the same place where
had us fax him the latest
Martin Walser caused
articles that were to apsuch an uproar. And this
pear in our paper to his
speech promises to be at
office at the Columbia
least as worthy of our atUniversity. The committention. After all, it is
ted observer as Raynot the first time that
mond Aron, a kindred
the erstwhile refugee
mind to Stern, describes
who regularly returns to
himself did not miss a
Germany speaks from
single argument. Fritz
the podium of a promiStern has kept this attinent venue in Germany.
tude throughout his life.
Continued
If his Muse was History,
on Page 2
Fritz Stern
ANNETTE FRICK

NATASCHA VLAHOVIC

As the American
Academy concludes
its inaugural year, we
would like to convey to
our transatlanticcommunity something of
the esprit and the results, the atmosphere
and the optimism of those maiden activities.
It would have been impossible to always
be present at the Hans Arnhold Center, of
course, for what evolved into sixty evenings
of lectures, discussions, screenings, and
other gatherings. Our Berlin Prize Fellows
presented their work to audiences of colleagues and students,while other guest speakers whether the architect of the new
Chancellery Axel Schultes, the German
Constitutional Court justice Dieter Grimm,
the television commentator Rowland
Evans, or the Yale literary theorist Shoshana Felman marked out some of the disciplinary terrain we expect to traverse during the coming years. A sampling of this
intellectual exchange is conveyed in this
pilot issue of our Berlin Journal. Whether
film, politics, or economics, whether media, history, or architecture all these
fields, and more in fact, shall find an intellectual home in the Hans Arnhold Center of the American Academy in Berlin.

Defining Citizens
in a Global Context
Transatlantic convocation of experts and policymakers debates
consequences of migration policy in Germany and the United States.
Keynote speeches by Henry Cisneros and Otto Schily
Democrats upset the ruSlingChristian
coalition in the state of Hesse with a
everal months ago, the opposition

grass-roots campaign directed against


the granting of dual citizenship. But
what really mobilized the electorate, according to sociologist Claus Leggewie
and former Interior Minister Manfred
Kanther, were the spectre of an influx of
immigrants and unanswered questions
about the integration of foreigners.
Thus in the wake of Germanys subsequent citizenship legislation abeit a
compromise certain to continue rather
than stem debate the issues of migration and integration remain high on the
political agenda. Whereas debate may
have abated about the deficits of dual
citizenship, questions abound about the
meaning of membership, the practice
of integration, and the necessary tradeoffs inherent in immigration policy.
Moreover, just as the emergence of a
global economic system has changed
the regulatory rules of the game for the
nation-state, the governance of migration and integration is also being drama-

tically transformed. To what extent is


the nation-state relinquishing its role to
corporations, markets, and free trade
agreements? These are but some of the
issues to be addressed at a highly visible, two-day meeting of migration experts and policymakers to take place at
the American Academys Hans Arnhold
Center from June 6-8, 1999, cohosted
by the German Marshall Fund of the
United States and Humboldt University Berlin. See the Program on Page 10

Heaven Can Wait


Reporting From the Hans Arnhold Center

By William Drozdiak
W hat would be a scholars working
definition of paradise? Perhaps to live
in an idyllic mansion by a lake, surrounded by an eclectic array of stimulating
intellectuals, near the resources of one
of the worlds greatest cities for art and
culture, and removed from mundane
material demands of daily life.
Continued on Page 2

AMERICAN ACADEMY

Heaven Can Wait

The Commited Observer

Continued

Continued

For the fortunate group of fellows who


have graced the Hans Arnhold Center
since it opened last autumn, the American Academy of Berlin would seem to
fit that description. The idea of a grand
American cultural institution to keep
the German-American partnership
flourishing in the post Cold War era, as
conceived by then-U.S. ambassador
Richard C. Holbrooke in 1994, has already acquired enormous momentum
from the ideas and energy displayed by
the writers, historians, legal scholars,
drama teachers and architectural experts
who have walked through its doors.
The birth of the Academy could not
have occurred at a more striking historical juncture. With the capital of Germany moving back to Berlin on the eve
of a new millenium, the transformation
of the nation that has served as the crucible for the century's most terrible tragedies and remarkable revolutions is
accelerating rapidly with a new generation moving into the hierarchy of political and economic power.
At a time when Europe's center of gravity is shifting back to Berlin, the need
to keep Americans engaged in the social, cultural and political currents sweeping the continent seems more critical
than ever. The latest war in the Balkans
has again demonstrated the continuing
role of the United States as the leading
military power in Europe, yet that presence would be stripped of any honorable purpose without the commitments
to freedom, human rights and democracy that serve as its justification.
What better way to maintain those
connections than through the personal
bonds to be nurtured through the lectures, the dinners, the post-prandial
drinks on the balcony and the lakeside
strolls afforded by the hospitality of the
Hans Arnhold Center?

I come from a Germany, Stern once


began, that does not exist anymore
and will never exist again. These were
the opening words of his much-lauded
speech held in the Bundestag on the
Day of German Unity in 1987. For
Stern the unity of Germany was a concern close to his heart but also a matter for a clear head. When the wall
preventing unity came down, Fritz
Stern belonged to the small circle of
exceptional thinkers with the requisite
historical knowledge and personal
experience to render a prescient analysis of Germanys newly emerging
world-political situation. He knew to
assuage the concerns, with diplomatic
virtuosity, of Germanys partners and
neighbors about a new German hegemony. He counseled the Germans to
start courageously into a future offering
them another chance.

HANS PUTTNIES

Stern showed Germans


a way back into the Present

The Archive in Study No. 6


Gerald Feldman Rewrites Economic History
From the Other Side of Lake Wannsee
Academy basement are the result of
TFellow
Gerald Feldmans ongoing inve-

Arnhold Center in September 1998.


During his two-semester Fellowship,
Feldman has concentrated specifically
on the Allianz problems during the
Great Depression, the companys relationship to its Jewish clients and to the
National Socialist regime, the Aryanization of the company, and its participation in the expropriation of Jewish
property covered by Allianz insurance
policies.
Feldman did not keep the results of his
discoveries hidden away in Study No. 6,
his research retreat during his stay at the
Academy. He was generous in sharing
his knowledge, as evidenced by the number of speaking engagements he took on
during his fellowship. Because of intense
public interest in the role of German corporations in the Third Reich, Feldmans
work was the subject of a number of interviews in the print and electronic media.
He also edited a series of post-war letters
exchanged between Hans Arnhold and
former Reich Economic Minister and
insurance company head Kurt Schmitt.

ens of thousands of pages in the

stigation into the History of the Allianz


Insurance Company, a project on which
he spent considerable research time in
Germany before coming to the Hans

A Note on Our Contributors


Jrgen Kocka is Professor
of History of the Industrial
World at the Freie Universitt Berlin and Permanent
Fellow of the Wisseschaftskolleg zu Berlin.
The noted emeritus historian Hans Mommsen has
written on issues of nations
and nationalism for over
three decades. The Rise and
Fall of Weimar Democracy
is his most recent book publication in English.

Editor and Columnist of


the Sddeutsche Zeitung as
well as an Associate of Olin
Center for Strategic Studies
at Harvard University.
Berlin Prize fellow Barbara
Schmitter Heisler is Professor at Gettysburg College
and an expert on migration
issues. During her stay in
Berlin she is working closely with the task force on
foreigners at the Municipal
Authority for the Interior.

American Academy trustee The cultural historian


Josef Joffe is Foreign Policy and essayist Ulrich Raulff

is Chief Feuilleton Editor


of the Frankfurter Allgemeine
Zeitung, and author of a
noted monograph on the
historian Marc Bloch
(S. Fischer, 1995).
Roger Cohen, German correspondent of The New York
Times, received the Overseas Press Clubs Citation
to Excellence in 1998 for
Hearts Grown Brutal. Sagas
of Sarajevo.
William Drozdiak is Central European bureau chief
of The Washington Post.

It was this well-coined expression,


the second chance for a country
that seemed to have gambled away all
its historical assets and now had this
miracle devolved upon it that bore
the name of its author in circles beyond
those familiar with his historical works.
For his readers, Stern had long been
considered a luminary in the realm of
historiographic literature. His reputation was founded upon two great works
the first about pessimism in the intellectual world of the Kaiserreich and
the second on Bismarcks banker Gerson von Bleichrder as well as a formidable series of exceptionally well-composed historical essays.
Five Germanies I have known is the
title of a lecture Stern recently delivered
to a Dutch audience. Born in 1926 in
Breslau, he became godson of the Nobel Prize laureate Fritz Haber and emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1938. The five political cultures
upon German soil he encountered were
familiar to him not only as victim but as
acteur and catalyst. When Richard
Holbrooke became American Ambassador in Bonn, he obliged his friend Stern
as a special advisor.
No other interpreter of history put
more effort into showing the Germans
ways to return spiritually, retrospectively to that second epoch of genius
prior to the first World War. But he
also showed them the way back into
the present, in which the second chance
can be earned and be used.

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

A Washingtonian in Berlin
By Gahl Burt
I am not sure
what has happened
to Americans during
the last 50 years.
Either they completely forgot that Berlin existed, or they
were afraid to go there, or they just did
not understand the wholeFour Powers
Occupation arrangement or perhaps, a
combination of all three. Whatever it
was, they seem to be making up for lost
time now.
Personal experience indicates that
Berlin is once again a destination on
the Grand Tour, a part of the summer
European itinerary and worthy of several
pages in the Sunday Times travel section.
I am almost afraid to go out now, as someone will inevitably come up to me and
request my assistance with his or her
holiday planning, research assignments,
or in gaining entrance to the Jewish
Museum.
I must confess, that as I tell my
friends where to go and what to do,

I am constantly, in my own mind, going


back to Checkpoint Charlie as the
starting point for directions to anything
in the East. And as I ride in a taxi across
the Glienicker Bruecke, just down the
street from the Academy, I cannot help
but pinch myself.
I remember, as though it were yesterday, my husband and I standing on
the American sector side of the bridge
in l986 watching Anatoly Scharansky
walk through the fog halfway across
for my husband to pick him up. It was
a spy exchange truly out of a LeCarre
novel; today I cross the bridge to have
lunch in Potsdam.
It is still amazing to me to be in the
former East. I remember so well the
cumbersome visa process we had to go
through to visit Sanssouci or Dresden.
It took months and they would keep
us waiting at the border for hours.
We would go to church in East Berlin
and take a case of Californian wine in
the trunk of our car for the Cardinal,

who was always so grateful. We would


visit seedy little restaurants in East
Berlin with our British counterparts,
and locals would come up to us and
beg for help in getting over to the West.
Now, I go to the Gendarmenmarkt and
eat in urbane restaurants such as Borchardt, Lutter & Wegner and Trenta Sei,
where only the view can compete with
the food.
As my own experience attests, the
changes in Berlin are a bit disorienting
to see the Sony and Debis buildings
in the middle of no mans land is
nothing short of remarkable.
In a city that perhaps has the most
turbulent history of any metropolis in
Europe in this century, the current
moment could be the most exhilarating
time that Berlin has witnessed. The
American Academy is part of this
excitement. The yearnings to be cosmopolitan on the parts of Berliners are
reflected in a question posed again and
again to our Fellow Arthur Miller: How

does Berlin compare to New York? The


presence of Bernhard Schlink at lectures
by Tony Sebok and Tony Grafton, Richard von Weizscker at the talk by Fellow
Donald Shriver, but also the great numbers of ministers, court justices, journalists, scholars and students in attendance at the Academy evenings, indicate
that the desire for a future-oriented
organization at the crossroads between
the arts, academics and public policy is
latent. In this way, the American Academy in Berlin is as much a representation of the new city as Daniel Libeskinds
building or Norman Fosters Reichstag
dome.
I cannot predict Berlins evolution
over the next ten years; I only know that
any guide to the city is out-of-date while
still in print. Berlin today is more tomorrow than yesterday, which makes it a
perfect setting for the exchange of ideas
initiated through the Academy Fellowships. I envy everyone who can take
part over there at Lake Wannsee.

K NST
U
Philip Morris Kunstfrderung

DIE KUNST ZU FRDERN


Sarah Morris

Wie offen eine Gesellschaft ist, zeigt ihre knstlerische Entwicklung. Gerade
Knstler wirken als kritische und vorausahnende Kraft, die gesellschaftliche
Strmungen frh erkennt und zur Diskussion stellt. Deshalb frdert Philip
Morris weltweit seit ber 40 Jahren Knstlerinnen und Knstler, um ihre
innovativen, visionren Arbeiten einem mglichst breiten Publikum zu
vermitteln. Einer solchen Demokratisierung der Wahrnehmung entspricht,
da sich Philip Morris der Malerei und Bildhauerei genauso widmet wie dem
Film, Tanz und Theater.
Um den Dialog mit anderen Kulturrumen anzuregen, frdern wir das Berlin Prize Fellowship Programm for the Arts der American Academy in Berlin. Die ersten Preistrger sind Jenny Holzer und Sarah Morris, die whrend
ihres Studienaufenthaltes in der American Academy im Hans Arnhold Center
in Berlin leben und arbeiten werden.

Jenny Holzer

Kunstfrderung begreifen wir als unverzichtbaren Teil unserer unternehmerischen Verantwortung, den gesellschaftlichen Pluralismus und eine Zukunft
der Toleranz zu untersttzen.

supports the spirit of innovation.

The American
Academy

AMERICAN ACADEMY

If the state is no longer a power-maximizing entity,


it no longer needs the exclusive loyalty
and identity of its citizens.

The End
of the Nation-State?
By Josef Joffe
ussians in Israel
and America, or Turks in
Germany dont necessarily
want to become Israelis,
Americans, Germans for at least two
reasons: First, they are not longer cut
off from their old national identity, as
in those days when it took weeks or
even months to cross the ocean.
It is so easy to stay in the old
country today: via cable TV, phone, Internet and cheap international travel.
Second, they don't have to chose. They
are no longer forced to shed their old
identity. Assimiliation has been pushed
aside by multiculturalism. Indeed, the
Western nation-state has abdicated its
role as supreme educator and acculturator in favor of what most elites now
regard as the moral superiority of multiculturalism.
If the citizen no longer gives what
the state no longer demands, something must have happened to the nationstate. First, ideological change. The
classical nation-state emphasized a
national identity and culture consisting
of a common language, a common
canon of literature and historical interpretation, a set of common behavior
norms.
Multiculturalism emphasizes the
opposite. Group, race and gender are
more important than nation, and the
multiplicity of perspectives relativism
trumps any canon. Comprehensive
identities that would transcend group
and gender, race and class must be
deconstructed and rejected.
How to explain this transformation?
Lets begin by looking at the economic
basics. The classic nation- state was the
industrial state that arose in the late
18th century and culminated sometime in the mid-20th century. It came
with mass production and urbanization
which provided an enormous mobil-

ization base. The new industrializing


state sucked in millions of uprooted
peasants armies of the alienated begging for a new identity and community.
Nationalism the intense veneration
of the state provided a perfect ideology. In the conflict-ridden Western
world of the 19th and early 20th century, nationalism was the cement that
fused worker and bourgeois, peasant
and city-dweller, Protestant and Catholic, North and South, rich and poor in
one identity. Nationalism was the great
equalizer, and the Primat der Aussenpolitik a great dampener of internal strife.
Today, it is not mass production,
but small production runs. It is not
manufacturing that concentrates large
groups in one place, but ever more individualized work. It is either self-directed, as in the case of most knowledge
workers, or if other-directed, still individualized, like data-typists who work
by themselves. Work, life and leisure
have become ever more self-centered,
undermining the bases of mass mobilization and the cult of the nation-state.
All collective entities nation-states or
labor unions are the victims of this
process.

The point is that nation and nationalism are very much tied up with the
warfare state and the warfare state is
on the way out, at least in the Western,
postindustrial world which I like to call
the Berlin-Berkeley Belt.
Which modern state was not born
in war? Spain was forged in the wars
against the Moors. England became
Britain in the wars against Scots and
Irish. The colonies became the United
States in their war against George III.
Italy and Germany were unified in war.
Soviet Russia was born in the defeat of
World War I and consolidated in the
triumph of the Great Patriotic War in
1941- 45. Israel became a state in war,
so did Pakistan, India, indeed most new
countries in Africa and Asia. To prevail, the national warfare state obviously
had to husband all these forces: the
leve en masse, the absolute loyalty of
the citizenry, the sinews of a command
economy (please note that the U.S. from
1942 to 1945 was run as if by Gosplan),
the belief in the moral superiority of the
state, and the systematic acculturation of
its subjects in the service of these needs.
If war in the blessed Berlin-Berkeley Belt is no more, the revaluation of
most values should not come as a surprise. Societies are no longer heeding
that violent, poetical excitement of
arms, as Tocqueville called it. Scores
today are settled in the balance of payments ledgers, not on the battlefield.
Brogues and cell phones are so much
more useful than tanks and jack boots.
Who needs to conquer Alsace-Lorraine if you can own it like all those
Germans who buy up unprofitable
farms as vacation homes. When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, they had
a war on their hands. When they bought
it, not bullets and bombs were exchanged, but dollars and deeds. If war goes,
so do the classic virtues of the warfare

Who needs to
conquer Alsace-Lorraine
if you can own it?
The ethos of such societies will change,
too away from the ethos of the nationstate. Going or gone are such values as
national glory or sacrificefor the nation.
Conduct a self-test again. Ernest Renan
has claimed that a nation is bound together by the sacrifices of the past and
the readiness to renew them in the future. Do you believe in your national
destiny or mission, as in manifest
destiny or mission civilisatrice?

state: honor, faith, loyalty, courage, selflessness, obligation, discipline, selftranscendence. The place of these virtues has been taken by self-realization,
doing my own thing, acquisitiveness, the sybaritics instinct.
Damit kann man keinen Staat
machen, as the Germans say; thats no
way to build and run a state. The older
values are no longer functional because
the post-warfare state is not a powermaximizing entity.

Capital is heimatlos and


Davos Man owes
no loyalty to the state
anymore
If the state is no longer a powermaximizing entity, it no longer needs,
nor can it claim, the exclusive loyalty
and identity of its citizens. But let us
not put all the weight on the decline of
the warware-state. Let us again look at
the new modes of production.
The process has been analyzed before.
It is the constant revolutionizing
of production. It is the endless
disturbance of all social conditions.
It is everlasting uncertainty. Everything fixed and frozen is swept
away, the new becomes obsolete
before it can ossify. And all that is
solid melts into air, all that is holy is
profaned.
This is from the Communist Manifesto by Messrs. Marx and Engels, written 150 years ago. They marveled at a
constantly expanding market, the
daily destruction of old-established
industries, the emergence of ever
new wants, the universal interdepence of nations and intercourse in
every direction. Substitute 21st century English for the Marx-speak, and
the Manifesto would read as a paeon to

ILLUSTRATION: NATASCHA VLAHOVIC

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

globalization. By definition, a globalizing world is a denationalizing world.


It is built on the rising speed and the falling cost of communication, and of
course on the decision of states since
1945 to liberalize capital and trade markets. Surely, the loyalties of business
and banking no longer belong to the
state but to those who guarantee good
returns and stable investment conditions.
As Marx correctly analyzed, capital
is heimatlos; it follows, other things
remaining equal, the highest rate of
return. Those who move with the capital
brokers, bankers, engineers, executives,
IT experts, architects, Davos Man,
as Samuel Huntington has called the
new class also dont owe any loyalty to
the state any more. But even the lowlier
people who man the workstations and
production facilities will not owe their
primary loyalty to the nation-state any
more. Along with the shareholders,
these stakeholders will look first to
their company. But there is yet another
problem. The days when the state commanded loyalty just because it provided cradle-to-grave security seem to be
numbered.
Outside of Germany, the handwriting is already on the wall, as more and
more people privatize the welfare functions of the state: with portable company
pensions and individual retirement
benefits. The collapse of state-run payas-you-go social security systems
throughout the Western world circa
2030 (due to over-aging) will further
cut into the loyalty-inducing because
benefit-producing state.

But there is quite a market


for the state
If the state loses both its warfare and
welfare functions, what is left? As it is
undermined from below by regional in-

Assimiliation has been pushed aside


by multiculturalism

Macedonia or Georgia or Brunei would


not have lasted very long.Third, we
have to distinguish between the lack of
fondness and enthusiasm for the state,
and its continuing functionality.
Functional how?

terests, as in Spain, Turkey or Italy, and


ground down from above by integration
such as in EU-Europe? As the ethos of
multiculturalism, which is just another
word for the deconstruction of the nation- state, spreads, as the very idea of
nationality wanes, what future for the
nation-state?
Surprisingly enough, I do not foresee the speedy demise of the nationstate. First of all, because it has been
around for 500 years while pushing
aside aside competing political organizations like the Papacy or the Holy
Roman Empire. Longevity must be
related to usefulness. Second, there is
quite a market for the state. Otherwise,
its number would not have quadrupled
since 1945, from about 50 to about 200.
The very forces that undermine the
nation-state, the absence of war, paradoxically also keeps it alive. In the bad
old days, sub-optimal polities like

How can an entity that


gobbles so much
be dying ?
First, most of us like being Germans
or Americans, that is, living in familiar
environments, enveloped by a myriad
cultural strands we call ours. We
really do cherish a sense of belonging,
a sense of identification with all those
who talk, think, eat and drink like us.
Second, the nation-state is still dearer
to our heart than any of its competitors.
No EU-European would rather be ruled
from Brussels than from his own capital.
Third, if the nation state is vanishing,

as Messrs. Marx and Engels predicted


150 years ago, how come it grabs and
regulates so much? In those 150 years
of withering away, the governments
take of GDP has risen from about 5 to
50 percent. The areas of life and the
economy it regulates have grown by at
least that much. How can an entity that
gobbles and governs so much be dying?
Especially if the state, in order to endure,
has been able to tap so many diverse
life-forces in the past: myth, religion,
dynastic tradition, ideology, warfare
and welfare. This betrays an enormous
adaptability or, in modern parlance,
competitiveness of the nation-state
not matter how battered it may have
become.
This lecture, given at the American Academy
in May, prompted a number of thoughtful reactions including the following contributions by
Hans Mommsen and Jrgen Kocka.

AMERICAN ACADEMY

On the Problem of the


Nation-State
By Hans Mommsen
Dr. Joffes conclusion
that the nation-state in present-day Europe is losing
the respect and weight it
heretofore enjoyed is completely correct, although it
is also irreplaceable as an
ordering principle within the framework of the European Union. Rather,
it is becoming clear, that the system
governing the states created at the Paris
peace conference has become fragile
and that the nation-state in its classical
form is losing formative power. An
impressive example is Belgium, where
the nation-state has divided itself into
two national units which have taken on
the attributes of each nationality.
Throughout western Europe, new
regional units and many groups which
see themselves in national terms are
resurfacing below the level of the
classical nation-state. In Great Britain,
this is the case with Scotland, where
the necessary conditions for the regional
building of a nation in Wales are only
partially present. In Italy, regions play
an increasingly important role for native
populations, and something similar
can be seen in Spain, apart from the
Basque problem which extends beyond
(national) borders. Even in France, the
European nation-state kat exochen,
regional attempts at autonomy, which
seemed to have been destroyed once
and for all at the time of the French Revolution, are materializing. In Eastern
Central and Southeastern Europe, the
national units created in Paris are proving to be unstable, as demonstrated by
Slovakias separation from the Czech
Republic, the dissolution of Yugoslavia
into its ethnic parts and the unresolved
question of the Kurds.
The virulence of national endeavors,
which seems to be making up for lost
time,presents a continuous potential
for danger. National tensions also exist
in the Baltic States, which contain considerable minorities as a result of the
immigration of Russian inhabitants.
The strong nationalistic yearnings in the

self-determination would lead to


extreme confusion in the international
politics, such that from this perspective,
the continued existence of multiethnic
units seems to be drastically necessary.
Ethnic homogeneity is continually
becoming the exception and should
not be made the guiding principle of
politics.
The classical nation-state is losing
its predominance to the extent that its
classical attributes the military protective function, the securing of domestic
markets, the maintenance of a unified
rule of law, and the looking after of
interests via diplomacy are being transferred to supranational units or undermined by multiethnic structures. The
traditional nation-states loss of authority becomes psychologically apparent
in that classical rituals or form of representation such as national armies or
national traditions are losing their power
to impress.
The simultaneous transfer of loyalties from the nation-state level to larger
units such as the European Union and
the resulting erosion of traditional
national attitudes is accompanied by
an increase in the valorization of regional
loyalties, which often takes on national
qualities. Apparently, this tendency
corresponds to the citizens need to
belong to a political group which represents and illustrates common values.
When this tendency is linked to
the release of national resentments previously dammed up by the conditions of
the East-West conflict in the states of the
former Yugoslavia, it may come to relapses into clashes between nationalities
in a 19th-century style. Equipped with
the tools of the modern totalitarian
and military executive, this take on
suicidal qualities.
One has the impression that regional
nationalism is coming into the foreground particularly under the blanket
of globalization, to the extent that the
pressure to assimilate being exerted on
national minorities by majority nations
is in contradiction to the advancing

Russian states are diminishing


following the first temporary excesses.
It seems that the populations most affected by the Second World War are the
first to become immune to the traditional enticements of nationalism, which
in the case of Poland is only partially
applicable.
The entire European constellation
indicates that the Paris peace conference
intentions to be able to end national
conflicts through the creation of homogenous nation-states and through the
forced assimilation of ethnic minorities
the internationally treaties for the
protection of minorities served exactly
this purpose as well as the exchange
of populations as an instrument which
came into consideration comparatively
early were failures down the line.

A Janus Face
Even more questionable is the fact
that the West European countries,
under the influence of the subjective
term nation, to this day hold on to the
notion that a lasting solution could be
achieved through the creation of zones
that are ethnically homogenous to the
degree possible, such as in the case of
Bosnia. With ideas such as this, they
have encouraged nationalists of Milosevics type.
In contrast, it appears that a solution
to national rivalries, which in Europe
are by no means fading away, can only
be reached via a combination of personal
and territorial autonomy, as practiced
in Estonia during the interwar period.
The implementation of the nationstate principle, which in 1919 was seen
as self-evident, is showing its Janus face
once again today. Ernest Gellner has
already pointed out that the number
of ethnic groups which can lay claim to
national independence are nearly without limit, as proven by a look at Russia
and its bordering regions, China, and
India. From this point of view,a schematic extension of national rights to

democratic principles of order. Also in


these cases, the use of the principles
of the nation-state and the production
of ethnically homogenous units as a
recourse does not promise an acceptable
solution.

Globalized Nationalism
Out of all this, it follows that nationalism is not simply disappearing for
the convenience of cosmopolitan
attitudes, but rather that it is able to
renew and intensify itself on lower levels.
For this reason, it is somewhat risqu to
speak of a zone between Berkeley and
Berlin which distinguishes itself by the
absence of traditional national attitudes,
apart from the fact that a tendency has
been appearing over the past decades
in the United States that makes it, as far
as nationalistic attitudes are concerned,
rather comparable with the nationally
characterized Europe of the period
prior to the World Wars.
National loyalties are not disappearing. Rather, they appear multilayered,
which means that they possess only
limited rights of validation and cannot
claim to represent political values of
the highest order. The refusal to complete military service and desertion,
previously crimes of high treason, are
seen today as less reprehensible than
before. The nation-state can no longer
demand the unconditional loyalty and
willingness to duty from its citizens.
National identities, in spite of possessing a notable historical consistency,
seem to be becoming more fluid in the
course of globalization and the growing
processes of transnational exchange.
As a social-psychological compensation
in face of the uniformity of material
civilizations, correctly predicted by
Marx, political functions, which reach
far beyond the protection of cultural
and linguistic identities, are multiplying.
Globalization does not mean the
dissolution but rather the multiplication
of nationalism on all levels of societal
formations.

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

No End

in Sight

By Jrgen Kocka

Renaissance
of the Nation-State
Were one to compare Europe of
1800 and Europe today, there is no
doubt that the portion of persons living
in nation-states increased considerably
during this time. The same is true when
one compares the world in 1900 with
the world of today. It is completely true
of the past ten years: the renaissance of
the nation-state in Central and Eastern

Europe since the late 1980s is obvious;


moreover, looking at Southeastern
Europe and at the territory of the former
Soviet Union it can be said that it is not
yet finished.The violent collapse of Yugoslavia can be understood as an attempt
to build nation-states in a region in which
the model in view of ethnic-cultural
fragmentation and encapsulated areas
of settlement is unsuitable.
Since 1990 Germany is more clearly
and unambiguously organized than at
any other time in its history.
The Germans area of settlement has
never been so congruent with the German state territory than following the
reunification of the states in 1990.
End of the nation-state? I do not see
it, on the contrary. One may regret and
lament this. For, in spite of its strengths,
the nation-state has grave weaknesses:
pride in ones own nation corresponds
all too often to a disdain for others.
Exclusion always belongs to inclusion.
The nation-states display of power and
cultural heterogeneity are usually compatible only under great duress.
The inward energies mobilized by
the nation-state are easily transformed
into outward aggressions.There has
never been an innocent nationalism.
And, the more the globalization of the
economy, communications, and migrations increases, the clearer it becomes
that the nation-state is reaching its limits.
Why does it nonetheless remain so
strong? It is superior in terms of power
to pre/post-national governments and
systems because it uniquely includes,
supports, mobilizes ideally under free
and democratic circumstances and with
state support its citizens and allows
them to participate as a nation.
National culture which need not be
defined in ethnic terms but rather marked by historical recollection, cultural
memory, and ideas about a common
history, stabilized and strengthened
by language, daily life and school systems, by pictures and representations)
serves as a hinge between the state and
its people, as an important medium for

societal integration, and as a network


of paths over which the state is supplied
with societal energies and its power to
carry out its will is increased. Ernest
Gellner analyzed it: multiculturalism
has its limits every-where.

Redefining Relations
The national dimension of collective
memory shines strongly everywhere:
in the United States, surely, in England,
France, Switzerland, and Norway, but
also in Germany, even if the recollection
is one of collective responsibility for
crimes and collective suffering of
catastrophes. Nonetheless, one must

agree with Josef Joffe on the important


points. The nation-state is not fading
away, but it is changing. It is different
today than in the 19th century, at
least in our part of the world. Its grip
on individuals has loosened, which it
can afford to some extent.The sovereignty of the nation-state has frequently
been questioned, weakened, and relaxed, even if generally it has not been
lifted. International networks are
increasing in number and sub-national
identities are being strengthened. Although these, too, are not ringing in the
end of nation-states, their relationship
to one another is changing, just as their
relationship to individual persons.
Something new is forming.
The vocabulary for it is still missing.

Foto: ZB-Fotoreport

Definitions are awkward.


Allow me for the time being,
nonetheless, to describe what I mean
by nation-state. Nation this term
should be understood to mean a large
group of people, who have something
in common, who are aware of this, and
desire it (for example, common memories, a common language, a common
culture); who have a great deal to do with
one another; and who either have or
want to have institutions (something
like a state) appropriate for the purposes
of coming to an agreement on and implementing common goals. State refers
to a system of institutions, rules, and
acts, a system for ruling and achieving
which possesses a monopoly on legitimate power or is striving toward one.
It is possible to speak of a nationstate when nation and state are related
in a specific way: when the territory of
settlement of the nation and the territory
of the state somewhat correspond; when
the people of the state understand
themselves to be part of a nation (instead
of part of a multinational or sub-national
population, or part of a population extending beyond national borders); when
the state legitimates itself through its
performance for the nation and uses its
resources as the basis for its own power.
Using such a definition, it cannot
by any means be said that the nationstate is a historical model whose time
is running out. This is neither true in
Europe, nor in America, nor in other
parts of the world.

DIE HAUPTSTADT DEUTSCHLANDS WIRD TGLICH IN BERLINS


QUALITY PAPER GESPIEGELT. INFORMIEREN SIE SICH ZWEI
WOCHEN LANG KOSTENLOS MIT DEM TAGESSPIEGEL, DEM
PARTNER DER AMERICAN ACADEMY IN BERLIN

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an: Telefon: (030) 2 60 09 - 555
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per Internet: www.tagesspiegel.de/servi

AMERICAN ACADEMY

The Diplomacy
of Culture

ANNETTE FRICK: HENRY KISSINGER WITH GARY SMITH

A Conversation with Academy Honorary Co-Chairman Henry A. Kissinger


at the Hans Arnhold Center Dedication
Can you tell us how the American Academy
was conceived?
The idea developed at the time when
the American troops were withdrawn
from Berlin. It particularly came from
Ricghard Holbrooke, but strongly supported by me was that we need a symbol of the connection between Germany
and America relevant to the new period.
So they developed the concept of an
institution that is not military, geared
to the future and to ideas, to culture
and to art. That was the original idea
behind it, and amazingly, it is coming
into fruition. There are lots of ideas
around that never happen.
Why is the Academy located in Berlin?
Berlin is where we had troops that
guaranteed the freedom of this area.
It is where the conflicts of the Cold War
took their most visible form. It is what
in the American mind had become a
symbol of Free Germany, and it was
once an island and now is a capital, so it

Funds, Friends, and Fellows


President Everette E. Dennis reports on the financial success
and prospects of the American Academy

inancial support for the American Academy in Berlin has come from
private individuals, corporations, foundations and government agencies on
both sides of the Atlantic. Contributions,
gifts and pledges now total $16 million
with about 70% of the funds coming
from U.S. sources and 30% from German donors. With an annual budget of
$2.4 million and con-struction/remodeling costs in excess of $3.5 million at
the Hans Arnhold Center, the Academy
is fully funded for 1999 and has a running start for the year 2000.
After a founding gift of $3 million
from Stephen and Anna-Maria Kellen
and the family of Hans and Ludmilla
Arnhold, that generous family contributed an additional $1 million and offered a $2 million challenge grant as
well as pledging funds to restore the gardens. Other large donors included John

blish an endowment is critical for the


new institution. An endowment of $35
to $50 million would provide much of
the regular funding and could be supplemented with an annual fundraising
program.
Our sponsors often find their own
ideals in our fledgling institution, whether in our broader, transatlantic mission,or in specific programs they help
us create. Thus the short-term advanced public policy fellowship program
will build upon the Bosch Foundations
own program for younger scholars, the
year-long fellowship for the arts sponsored by Philip Morris will be associated with their arts programs in Berlin,
Rome, and Bilbao. And we hope that
others will follow the lead of DaimlerChrysler, which was first to endow a
named fellowship for the American
Academy in Berlin.

Kluge of Metromedia, General Motors,


Philip Morris, the European Recovery
Program, Xerox, Coca Cola, Southern
Company and others. A German corporate consortium led by Daimler-Chrysler and including Allianz, Siemens and
the Deutsche Sparkassen- und Giroverband contributed DM 5 million as
other German firms and foundations
have also offered support, including
the German Monument Protection
Foundation.
The circle of contributors to the Academy is steadily growing, with gifts
ranging from a few hundred dollars to
several million. Gifts are fully tax-exempt in the United States, where the
Academy a chartered non-profit organization, and also in Germany, where
contributors also benefits from its nonprofit status. Indeed, the need for continued funds for operations and to esta-

is symbolically extremely important.


After all, Berlin, too, is in search of
identity. It is important for Americans
and it is important for Germans.
What is it that the Academy can contribute
to the world, or is it purely AmericanGerman?
First of all, I believe that the relationship across the Atlantic is one of the key
elements of stability and progress in
the world and there the German-American relationship has a particular role
because of the history of the integration
of Europe that really started with the
question of what is one to do with Germany, going back for nearly one hundred years.
Secondly, now that Germany is becoming more and more absorbed into Europe, it becomes extremely important
to have a relationship of the new European Germany and of the new European Europe with America, and when one
looks at Berlin today, it is sort of destined to be maybe the 21st century capital of Europe. The other capitals are
19th century capitals, and in my mind,
maybe more comfortable to live in, but
Berlin represents the architecture of
the 21st century. And, so for all of these
reasons, for Europe, for America, for
the Atlantic, this is very important.
Why are you personally associated with
the Academy? What are your personal
hopes for achievement for the Academy?
People always say, since I was born in
Germany, I naturally have ties with
Germany, but, in fact, my ties with Germany come from 1946 on. It is also a
very long time ago, but I saw Germany
smashed, and I saw Germany rebuilt.
This is a kind of a combination of the
journey that began 1945-46, that I saw
as an enlisted man in the American
army and have seen through various
stages of German life, my life. To have
the ties between America and Germany
and Europe and Germany symbolized
by a cultural institution rather than a
military institution in the house of a Jewish family whose property was stolen
and who donated it back to Germany
these are all symbolic events that
mean a lot to me.

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

Migration Problems
Compared
By Barbara Schmitter Heisler
to a variety of global economic and political forces that have impacted on both
countries, chipping away at state sovereignty and transforming the nation-state.
While economic globalization, fueled
by rapid technological change, has been
among the more pervasive explanations for convergence, other factors must
be taken into account. Convergence has
also been attributed to the very nature
of the liberal democratic state and the
institutionalization and growth of
international human rights regimes,
factors that have made it difficult to impose strict immigration control and to
tolerate substantial inequalities in the
rights and treatment accorded to immigrants. (Note, for example,that Middle
Eastern or Asian countries, such as Indonesia, have had no problems in forcing
the return of migrant workers and in
violating their human rights). Together
with globalization, these factors have
contributed to the self-feeding nature of
immigration, the expansion of rights

granted to legal immigrants, and the


emergence of transnational communities. These phenomena are clearly
observable in both countries.
Yet, we should not lose sight of the
differences between the two countries.
One of the major differences, and one
that has been central to most comparative
discussions, has been the differences in
citizenship laws. While recently passed
German legislation which introduces
jus soli into German citizenship law is
historic, the pro-tempo provisions associated with dual citizenship that
force the children of immigrants born in
Germany to make a decision in favor of
German citizenship while renouncing
the citizenship of their parents, attest to
persistent differences between the two
countries.
Americans prefer a minimalist state
and American preferences for market
solutions and private efforts in social
life are well reflected in low levels of state
involvement in the economy, the large

low-wage sector heavily populated by


immigrants, and a minimal welfare
state. In Germany the state has long
been and continues to be an active force
in shaping social life, including legal
immigrants. Compared with the United
States, German labor markets remain
highly regulated and the German welfare state remains pervasive.
Beyond facilitating access to citizenship through easy naturalization for
the first generation of newcomers and
jus soli for the second, in the process of
immigrant incorporation, the American
state is noted primarily for its absence,
leaving this process largely to market
forces and the abilities of immigrants
to make a living. This tradition is clearly
evident in the 1996 welfare and immigration reform which effectively removed some legal immigrants from equal
access to an already minimal welfare
state. While in Germany, asylum seekers
(presumed to be temporary residents
until a decision concerning their claim
is made) have been excluded from full
social assistance, it would be virtually
impossible to exclude legal long-term
residents from equal social rights. Even
when access to citizenship for this group
has been difficult in the past and recent
legislative changes still impose greater
barriers than in the United States,
one should not overlook the fact that
Continued on Page 18

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lthough all advanced


industrial societies in Europe
and North America have experienced considerable immigration
since the second World War, the
United States and Germany stand out
as magnet societies. They are now
the worlds two largest recipients of
immigrants. This fact is perhaps less
surprising in the case of the United
States, a country built on immigration,
than Germany, a country where large
scale immigration has not only been
more recent, but has also been at center
of political controversy over national
self-definition and identity.
Notwithstanding their divergent histories and national self-understandings,
the very size of their immigrant populations and the myriad of issues associated with immigration have made
comparisons between the United States
and Germany particularly compelling.
Indeed, such transatlantic comparisons have gained credence among social
scientists and policy makers, drawing
attention to questions about immigration itself (e.g. border control, thecomposition, characteristics and numbers
of immigrants to be admitted), and
issues that focus more on the consequences of immigration: the process of immigrant incorporation. In both areas,
we can observe a trend toward convergence. Such convergence has been linked

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Making Transatlantic Dialogue


a Collaborative Effort
This first major policy conference of the American Academy
in Berlin represents a joint effort: it is our first collaboration with
the German Marshall Fund of the United States and the
Humboldt Universitys Chair for Population Studies. These institutions have long supported major research in these fields: our
present goal is thus to provide a highly-visible forum where these
and other key actors can formulate and debate the most salient
consequences of their work.
In doing so, we shall direct the public and policy discussion
beyond the pale of the recent double citizenship debates to the

Monday

imbricated issues of incorporation and migration policy. And the


comparison between Germany and the United States is telling,
indeed: Both are nations of immigrants despite the latters selfunderstanding and both countries have developed very different
strategies to manage membership and migration. At the same
time, both governments are being compelled to call these strategies in question: Global market forces will change how we think
about these issues, and thus the need for transatlantic dialogue is
all the more acute.
T h i s m e e t i n g of scholars and
policymakers was made possible
by generous support from the
Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und
Halbach-Stiftung, Daimler-Chrysler, and the German Marshall Fund
of the United States.
Der Tagesspiegel will publish a
special supplement on the themes
of the conference.

Sunday

We are grateful to the conferences


academic director Prof. Rainer
Mnz as well as other scholars
making important conceptual
contributions, including Prof. Susan
Martin, and our Berlin Prize Fellows, Prof. Frank Bean, Prof. Barbara Schmitter Heisler, and Prof.
Kendall Thomas.

June 7

9:00 to 10:30 a.m.

Panel I: Mission Impossible?


The Dilemmas of National Integration
Stemming from Globalization
The panel explores the economic opportunities and costs of
globalization in terms of labor mobility and technological revolutions. What are the advantages of a bilingual labor force for
markets? The discussion will address questions being raised on
the sense in which global capitalism leaves the integrative
measures of the nation-state obsolete.
Phil Martin
Professor of Agriculture and
Resource Economics,
University of California, Davis
Susan Martin
Director, Institute for the Study
of International Migration,
Georgetown University,
Washington; former Director,
U.S. Commission on Immigration
Reform

Saskia Sassen
Professor of Sociology, University
of Chicago
Moderated by
Craig Kennedy
President of the German Marshall
Fund, Washington, D.C.

June 6

7:30 p.m.

Opening:
Greetings and Introduction
Craig Kennedy
President of the German Marshall Fund
John C. Kornblum
Ambassador of the United States of America to Germany

Keynote Speeches
Henry Cisneros
President and Chief Operating Officer, Univision Communications, Inc.;
former United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
and former Mayor of San Antonio, Texas
Otto Schily
Federal Minister of the Interior, Germany

11:00 to 12:30 a.m.

Panel II: Governing Incorporation:


Strategies and Dilemmas
This panel explores the dilemmas of immigrant policy by asking
key questions about the practice of integration. What, if any,
should be the roles of government (federal as well as local),
markets, and private organizations?
Lale Akgn
Chairman of the State Center for
Immigration, Solingen

Ulla Jelpke
Member of the German Bundestag for the PDS, Bonn

Heiner Bartling
Minister of the Interior of Niedersachsen, Hanover

Jrg Schnbohm
Chairman of the CDU in the State
of Brandenburg; former Senator
of the Interior, Berlin; retired
General of the Bundeswehr

Marieluise Beck
Federal Commissioner for the
Affairs of Foreigners, Bonn

Moderated by
Barbara John
Commissioner for Foreigners,
Berlin

Tuesday

Beyond
Citizenship
GOVERNING MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
IN GERMANY AND THE UNITED STATES

Monday

June 7

June 8

9:00 to 10:30 a.m.

Panel V: The Future of Citizenship in


Advanced Democracies
The panel explores changing practices of citizenship and naturalization in Germany and the United States and their implications
for incorporation and integration.
Alexander Aleinikoff
Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,
Washington
Kay Hailbronner
Professor for Public Law, International and European Law, University of Constance
Cornelia SchmalzJacobsen
Former Federal Commissioner

on Foreigners and Deputy Party


Chairman of the FDP, Bonn
Peter Schuck
Professor of Law, Yale Law
School, New Haven
Moderated by
Rainer Mnz,
Professor of Demography,
Humboldt University, Berlin

10:30 to 11:00 p.m.

2:00 to 3:30 p.m.

Panel III: Immigration and


Settlement Policies: Consequences
and Trade-offs

Panel VI: The Emergence of Regional


and Global Integration and PostNational Citizenship

The panel discusses salient immigration policy issues with respect


to border control, refugees, and asylum. Given that Western democracies are magnet societies and cannot prohibit immigration
in principle, how can they define and manage gates of entry?

In a globalized world many migrants do not live in only one


society. This panel explores the implications of the practices of
multinational corporations which are creating transnational
communities both at the top and bottom of the labor market.

Klaus Bade
Professor at the Institute for
Migration Research, University of
Osnabrck

Cornelie Sonntag-Wolgast
Parlamentary Undersecretary of
State, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Bonn

Jorge Santibanez
Romelln
President, El Colegio de la
Frontera Norte, Tijuana, Mexico

Frank D. Bean
Ashbel Smith Professor of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin

Moderated by
Barbara Schmitter Heisler
Fellow of the American Academyin
Berlin and Professor of Sociology,
Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania

Riva Kastoryano
Senior Researcher in Sociology,
Center of International Studies,
C.N.R.S., Paris

Roger G. Kramer
Deputy Director of Immigration
Policy, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C.

1:30 to 2:30 p.m.

Panel IV: Membership and Identity:


What Does it Mean to be Integrated?
The panel explores the tensions between universal principles
(republicanism, human rights) and particular identities (ethnicity, religion, language) as well as special interests (protection
of the welfare state).

Ulrich Preu
Professor of Law, Free University
of Berlin
Ludger Pries
Professor of Sociology, University
of Gttingen

Moderated by
Patrick Weil
Professor of History, University
of Paris I (Sorbonne), Paris

Udo Steinbach
Director of the Orient Institute,
University of Hamburg

4:00 to 5:30 p.m.

Cem zdemir
Member of the Bundestag for the
Green Party, Bonn

Rainer Mnz
Professor of Demography,
Humboldt University, Berlin

Aristide Zolberg
Director of the Center for
Migration, Ethnicity, and Citizenship, New School for Social
Research, New York
Moderated by
Kendall Thomas,
Fellow of the American Academy
in Berlin and Professor of Law,
Columbia University

Plenary Session: Results and


Recommendations
Barbara John
Commissioner for Foreigners,
Berlin

Patrick Weil
Professor of History, University
of Paris I (Sorbonne), Paris

Susan Martin
Director, Institute for the Study of
International Migration, Georgetown University, Washington;
former Director, U.S. Commission
on Immigration Reform

Moderated by
Gary Smith
Executive Director, American
Academy in Berlin

Rainer Mnz
Professor of Demography,
Humboldt University, Berlin

AMERICAN ACADEMY

sense this entire building has become a


staircase leading the fellows of the Academy to higher levels of understanding,
leading Berlin and the United States to
closer degrees of friendship and cooperation.
Lets go into the library. Of all the
rooms, this is the one that looks most
like it used to. In addition to the books
and furniture, the library was home to
one of my joys, a brightly-colored parrot who was also my special protector
who defended me from my nemesis, a
fierce and terrifying governess. But,
our parrot must have sensed our fear
and he hated that governess as much as
we did. Whenever he would catch sight
of Mademoiselle, he would launch into
a wild frenzy of cackling and chattering.

ANNETTE FRICK

My sister and I were portrayed


in trompe loeil scenes

Speak,
Memory
A Reminiscence of My Parents Home
By Anna-Maria Kellen
We have just heard from some exLtraordinary
people statesmen, diploadies and Gentlemen

mats, political and government leaders.


I wont try to compete with their eloquence and their visionary statements.
Instead, because this is understandably
an emotional occasion for me, I want to
share with you some personal recollections. Let me turn back the clock for a
few moments and tell you a little about
this building, which at one time was
not an academy, but a home, the home

where my late sister and I spent our


childhood. As Heinrich Heine put it:
In meiner Erinnerung erblhen
Die Bilder, die lngst verwittert
So, let me take you on a memory walk
through our old house. When I look
about, I am immediately struck not by
something that I see, but by something
I dont see. The staircase isnt here, the
very special staircase where my friends
and I would play hide-and-seek during
our parties. And though I miss those familiar stairs, I realize that in a very real

12

In fact, so many of my memories of


this house are tied up with animals. We
always had lots of animals. A minimum
of four dogs lived with us at all times,
and quite often their number was enlarged by litters of puppies. And, there
was an enormously stubborn donkey,
who, only when he felt like it, would
pull us in a donkey cart.
Come with me now to my favorite
room, the dining room. It was not a formal room, but rather a true country
dining room, a warm and friendly place
with its cheerful yellow and blue color
scheme. On the dining room walls my
sister and I were portrayed in trompe
loeil scenes, she picking flowers and I,
forever a five-year-old, chasing butterflies. As I became older, I grew to dislike that piece of frozen time, for every
day I was confronted by that little girl,
who I was sure bore no relationship to
me anymore, now that I was a big girl!
Walk with me now around to the
back of the building, past the beautiful
gardens which arent there anymore,
past the many childrens parties that
still echo in my memory, through the
long-gone terraces where we would
have ping-pong tournaments, past the
departed tennis court and down to the
lake.
Here in my minds eye, I can see my
little greenhouse. In 1933, I had a thriving cactus collection here, with over
one hundred of the prickly plants. When
I returned to this house after the war, in
1949, our old gardener was still here.
With great ceremony he brought me into the Great Hall where we are now and
proudly showed me the two remaining
cacti from my collection, which had
grown all the way to the ceiling.
I remember vividly the lively, warm
family atmosphere that filled our house.

I know now that that was due to my parents, who cared deeply about us. My
father and mother filled our home with
affection and happy times. So many of
my parents friends who visited here
were writers and artists and musicians
that in a real sense this house has always
been a cultural center.
But, memory is not always a wholly
accurate record. In reality, my sister
and I had little awareness of the difficult
times and difficult decisions our parents faced after World War I, first with
the inflation and then the brief artificial
prosperity, then the banking crisis, the
political uncertainty, and finally the
downfall of the Weimar Republic and
with it the end of the German democracy.
As I have grown older, of course, I have
become very aware of the complexities
and shadows of those times.
But, today is about looking forward.
Today, our trip into the past must point
us at the future. I believe my parents
would be pleased with what our house
has become. And I hope that the Academy will be the means for ever closer
ties between the people of the United
States and the people of Berlin for
many generations to come.

This Personal Memoir


was delivered at the formal dedication of the Hans Arnhold Center of the American Academy in
Berlin on November 6, 1998. Together with other descendants of
Hans and Ludmilla Arnhold, Anna-Maria and Stephen M. Kellen
have now made it possible for the
lakeside villa to acquire a new intellectual purpose. Indeed, this
initiative represent a continuity
for a distinguished philanthropic
family: it was Eduard Arnhold,
the uncle of Hans Arnhold, who
prior to the first World War donated Romes Villa Massimo to
the Prussian state, in order to advance the arts.

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

Fellow Anthony Seboks project involves a comparative study of punitive damages in the German and American legal systems, as well as the differing
notions of retribution, efficiency, and
corrective justice at the heart of their
philosophical foundations. In addition
to this work, most of which took place
at the faculty of law at Berlins Humboldt University Sebok took part in a
number of different conferences in
Germany and Europe, including the
Soros Conference on Transitions in
Budapest. He is also planning the first
of a series of symposia at the American
Academy on distinguished emigrs together with Humboldt colleague Bernhard Schlink.

Life and Letters


at the Hans Arnhold Center
Notes on Berlin Prize Fellow Activities

Exploration of themes such as Germany


reunited and the East German experience have provided Ward Just with
material for a new novel, which is to be
set in Berlin. This upcoming work will
pick up on the thread of two previously
released novels, The American Ambassador (1987) and The Translator
(1991), in which Berlin and Germany
also play a special role. Calling Germany a feast of the mind, not the eye,
Just commented in a recent interview
with Roger Cohen (see page 15) on the
time spent at the American Academy in
Berlin and on the draw of Berlin and
Lake Wannsee as the setting and material for his work.
Brian Ladds investigative studies have
focused upon the relationship between
urban form and national identity, the
basis for which was an analysis of urban
space in Berlin. A special area of interest
has been current and past debates regarding architecture and city planning
as a reflection of differing perceptions
of national identity between the East
and the West in Germany.
Tales of the Fall The True Story of the
Revolution in Europe, a book project of
Fellow Michael Meyer, seeks to illuminate the causes leading up to the revolutions in Eastern Europe. For the
completion of this work, Mr. Meyer
will draw upon his recent stay at the
American Academy in Berlin and prior
experience, as well as the over 300 pages
of research he brings back with him to
the United States.
Barbara Schmitter Heisler has divided
her time between Lake Wannsee and
Berlins Municipal Authority for the
Interior while serving on the latters
task group for questions involving

foreign citizens. Her areas of research


include social politics, ethnic relations,
disparity and international migration,
the subject of this years Beyond Citizenship conference.
The differences between German and
American perspectives with respect to
Affirmative Action were the focus of
Kendall Thomas project, titled
Comparative Analysis of Affirmative
action Laws in the United States and Germany, which he carried out during his
stay at the American Academy in Berlin
from September through December
1998. Mr. Thomas returned to the Academy in May 1999 to participate in a
public discussion with Federal Constitutional Court Judge Dieter Grimm on
the subject of Hate Speech in the United States and Germany and to take
part in the Beyond Citizenship Conference.
Modern Berlin and its unique culture
and esprit, serve as material for Robert
Kotlowitz documentary film examining the restored capital of Germany.
Mr. Kotlowitz followed up his stay at
the American Academy in Berlin (September December 1998) with a threeweek visit in April 1999 to conduct
further research for the upcoming film,
for which he has received a research &
development grant from WNET/13,
New Yorks public television station.
The correspondence between individual and historical conscience in Germany is the subject of poetry written by
C. K. Williams during his fellowship
at the American Academy in Berlin
from September December 1998.
Williams completed a number of new
works, including an autobiographical
meditation. A recent poem appears
for the first time in this journal.

HANS PUTTNIES

A historical book on the work of the late


German playwright Heiner Mller
with special attention paid to textual
analysis, political and cultural themes,
history and the history of theater has
been the focus of Gautam Daguptas
stay at the American Academy in Berlin. His extensive field research has earned him the title of the most active
theatergoer among the Fellows.

Joint research carried out by JoAllyn


Archambault and Lynn Snyder used
the extensive ethnographic collections
of the Berlin Museum of Ethnography,
and the Linden Museum, Stuttgart to
examine the material culture of the
Plains Indians of North America. The
project, developed in cooperation with
Dr. Peter Bolz of the Berlin Vlkerkunde museum and Dr. Sonja Scierle of the
Linden museum, concentrated on the
collections of two German naturalists,
Prince Maximilian zu Wied and Duke
Paul of Wrttenburg, both of whom
traveled to North America in the early
part of the 19th century.
Please continue
on the following page

Donald and Peggy Shriver at the


Hans Arnhold Center

Research on contemporary architecture in Berlin was the focus of Diana


Ketchams work in Berlin as a fellow
of the American Academy in Berlin.
Of particular interest to Ms. Ketcham
were several new additions to the Berlin
skyline, including the Jewish Museum in
Berlin-Kreuzberg, the Reichstag and
the Sony Center at Potsdamer Platz.

Public truth-telling about past atrocities with respect to the Nazi dictatorship
in Germany and the Apartheid regime in South Africa serve as the basis for
Donald Shrivers examination of how these two societies have attempted to
confront and master their pasts. Shrivers dynamic approach to his work, which
represents a continuation of his 1995 book An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in
Politics, led to many meetings not only with German theologians, researchers,
teachers, church and political leaders but also high-school students.

13

AMERICAN ACADEMY

The Prodigal Sons


German Hollywood Filmmakers
Discuss European Movie Future at the Academy
By Julian Hanich
he flashbulbs lit up the sky and

bed out of the polished Mercedes.


Good evening, everyone, and welcome back to Germany! Mr. Emmerich
(Stuttgart), Petersen (Emden), Ballhaus
(Berlin), and Zimmer (Frankfurt), all of
whom fled the German film world for
America and sunny Hollywood, pushed
through the crowd of journalists to the
soft chairs of the American Academy
in order to chat about moviemaking
on both sides of the Atlantic. Could
there be a European Hollywood?
To sum up 90 minutes shortly and
sweetly: No, leaning toward Yesand-No. Roland Emmerich, the director of Godzilla, who has become accustomed to mega-budgets, tried nonetheless to provide encouragement by
pointing to German successes like 23
or Jenseits der Stille: Everything works
here.
In contrast, his colleague Wolfgang
Petersen (Airforce One) somewhat clo-

ser to reality put his finger directly on


German cinemas sore spot: We are
short of everything here! According
to Petersen, in America, the marketing
is better, the public goes to more movies, there is an existing infrastructure
for the film industry and people in Hollywood work with an unbelievable
amount of enthusiasm and professionalism. That is somewhat depressing.
Hans Zimmer, the Oscar-winning
composer of the Lion King added his
praise: Hollywood is a factory in the
best sense of the word, and pointed to
the 15,000 screenplays in circulation
there during the past year. Finally,
Michael Ballhaus (Age of Innocence), who
as a cameraman has shot 38 films to
date, summed up the problem with
five ominous letters: Money. Larger
budgets had freed his fantasy, he said.
Ideas stopped occurring to me. One
starts to think small. On the other
hand, he recognized the dangers of
large-scale productions in Germany:

MARTIN LENGEMNN

T television crews pushed and whined when the four prodigal sons clim-

Lights, Camera, Action: Ballhaus, Emmerich, Petersen, and Zimmer


Directed by Gary Smith into the Academys Library
It is no longer possible to recover costs
on the German market.
The idea of the large-scale European
production remains. But can the concentrated European cinema even compete
with Hollywood? We all dont really
believe in the big European mish-mash
film, said Petersen. Euro-pudding!
called out Ballhaus contemptuously.
The French production Asterix and
Obelix against Caeser for 80 million, in
which European stars like Grard Depardieu, Roberto Benigni and Marianne
Sgebrecht appear, produced foreheads

For Eskimos,
Heaven Does Not Exist
Without Hell

Life and Letters


Continued

Robert Wilson on The Art of Making Theater


By Arne Delfs

HANS PUTTNIES

Because the two anthropologists were


working with documented collections,
meaning ones for which the collector
and circumstances pertaining to the
collection such as date and place are
well known, dating of the materials is
not an issue. Observations with regard
to change in stylistic elements like
material choice and its use in specific
locations or on specific objects are of
crucial importance. The goal of this
analysis is to track changes in style and
object manufacture through time.
During their stay, Snyder and Archambault examined over 300 objects, in
addition to taking 3,000 close-up and
whole object photographs. They also
sampled the materials (animal hair,
feathers, leather, and sinew, for example) used to make the objects. The analysis of these materials and the copious
notes the two made while in Berlin will
occur following the Fellows return to
Washington.

creased in suspicion. No, Europeans


should rather make films about their
own identities and culture in their own
languages, according to Petersen. That
could also be successful, proof being
Bergman, Fellini, and Truffault.
Emmerich and Petersen, who in
their films have banged their fists on the
table with so much American patriotism
that even Americans were surprised,
were united on one subject: both want
to work as producers in Germany in
the future.
Der Tagesspiegel

Marianne Fultons research during


her fellowship has concentrated on
pioneers in the field of photography,
specifically on German innovators
such as Arthur Korn, who developed
the first machine capable of sending
images electronically. This and other
German contributions in this area essential to the development of modern
journalism have received little attention from the scientific community prior
to this project.

14

While in Berlin for the staging of


Dantons Tod and Ozeanflug,
Robert Wilson demonstrates the differences between American entertainment and German theater at the American Academy in Berlin.
True to his maxim that on stage superficial effects count for more than the
naked presentation of causal relationships, Wilson not only explained his
view of American theater, an aesthetic
relying on played-out silences and slowness, but acted these directly out. In
this manner, the master of visual effects
transformed a critical audience into a
group of passive viewers that followed
the guru of international theaters moves
through the evening without a word.
What brings you as an American

theater director to Germany? Wilson


answered the first question posed by
theater scholars Bonnie Marranca and
Gautum Dasgupta, moderators of the
discussion, first with a long moment of
silence. With eyed closed in deliberation,
he unclipped his microphone. A short
while ago I was studying Eskimo masks,
he finally whispered. For Eskimos,
heaven does not exist without hell.
A nervous rustling in the room. What
does the Master want to say to us with
this? Wilson presents the solution to
his picture-puzzle. I come from Texas. On stage, I start with the effect, Germans with the cause. Wilson stands and
writes both words on a flip chart and immediately crosses them out. The effect
is the cause. Berliner Morgenpost

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

On the Waterfront
Plotting a Berlin Novel with Ward Just
By Roger Cohen
in winter, a layered gray that begins
N
in the sky, permeates the air, penetrates
o place is more gray than Berlin

the buildings and gathers with bottomless intensity in the city's lakes. It is a
grayness that Ward Just, the novelist,
calls an atmosphere, and in atmospheres lie the germ of his imaginative
voyages.
One recently began here as Just gazed
at the metal-gray waters of the Wannsee. An icy wind was blowing over the
lake. On the far shore, just visible, was
the villa where SS officers led by Reinhard Heydrich gathered in January
1942 to decide the final solution
the extermination of European Jews.
Out on the lake two middle-aged men
were furiously rowing a double scull
against the wind.
So what do you make of that?
the author said, pulling an unfiltered
Camel from a packet in the breast
pocket of his rumpled tweed jacket and
lighting it slowly. Colder than hell.
Drizzle coming down. Never seen a

gray like it. That sinister villa. Two German guys, aged fifty or so, battling the
wind.
Just smiled: he likes such conundrums.
That's enough for me a situation, an
atmosphere, a vision. I never begin with
a plot. The hell with a plot. But with
time, with patience, the thing reveals
itself.
The thing does indeed. After twelve
novels, reflections on the delusions of
people and nations and the sometimes
permanent damage they suffer, it is
safe to say that Just will draw much
from that image of the dogged rowers.
On the pain of Germany, its midcentury catastrophe, its ineluctable battle
with memory, its sullen determination
and belief in itself, its discipline, its
romantic attraction to nature's unassuaged forces, its eternal mystery.
The old journalistic curiosity continues to drive him from a settled life out
into the world; and a darker side, a stormy undertow, has persistently drawn
him to Germany and Berlin.

My family came from Darmstadt to


Chicago about 150 years ago, and I've
been interested by Germany for a very
long time, Just said.
Interest grew to obsession through
the paintings. Theres that great Max
Beckmann self-portrait in a tuxedo
square face, head down with a cigarette,
just a majestic portrait, and that led me
to all the Expressionists, Kirchner,
Schmidt-Rottluff, Dix, and something
provocative stayed in my mind forever.
He came to Berlin as a visiting fellow
at the recently opened American Academy a Gastarbeiter, or guest worker, as he puts it, with his gentle, often
self-mocking smile. For many years, sojourns in Europe had meant sojourns in
Paris with his wife, Sarah Catchpole,
but he felt it was time for a change.
Germany is a feast of the mind, not
the eye, he said. I have not seen a
single vista in Berlin that can compare
favorably to a commonplace sight in
Paris. But the conversation, the quality
of introspection, the openness are

fifty-fold what I found in France.


Much of that conversation, inevitably,
has been about the Holocaust, and some
of it left Just breathless with its frankness and pain.
They are not forgetting, he said.
It is with them every minute of every
hour of every day. My heart goes out to
those who bear no responsibility and
think of what happened so constantly.
He was at one Berlin dinner when a
man started talking about his father.
A father much loved. A father later discovered to have been a Nazi. Tears
started to flow: a grown man talking
about his father and sobbing as he
described how inexplicable it was that
so good a father could have embraced
such evil.
At another dinner, somebody remarked that Auschwitz would always stand
in the way of Germanys being a nation
like any other. The host said that was a
ridiculous notion. Germany would be
normal again.
Continued on Page 18

STANDORT HIER
WH E N WE SU PPORT TH E ARTS,
ITS TH E ARTIST WHO PU LL TH E STRI NGS.

Your Sparkasse is always there for you creating a better quality


of life for everyone, at work and at play, locally or regionally.
Through our sponsorship of leisure activities, our support for community projects and our commitment to environmental protection
and sports. Or through ideas which help to enhance the cultural life

of the region we support quality exhibitions, the preservation


of important arts and crafts, exciting concerts, not to mention
the famous Young Musicians competition and more than 220 cultural and arts foundations across the country. Standort: hier
the Sparkasse initiative for people and businesses in your region.

AMERICAN ACADEMY

Why is the American Academy located


in Berlin?
Its located in Berlin because Berlin
is again the capital of Germany and it
will be the capital of Central Europe.
It is a city with historical connections
to the United States that must be preserved and built on. So, it seemed clear
that there was no other place that would
be as appropriate as Berlin.
Also, Berlin is the most exciting city
in Europe today; its got an intellectual
ferment that comes from a certain
amount of confusion. Its not as settled
and established as the old capitals like
Paris, Rome, and London, and the very
excitement of Berlin coming from the
confusion of people coming together
makes it clearly the most interesting
city in Europe, maybe the most interesting city in the world today.

The Way to
New Traditions
Richard C. Holbrooke
On Ideas and Institutions for the Generation
That has not seen the Berlin Wall
What is the purpose of the American
Academy in Berlin?
The purpose of the American Academy
in Berlin is two-fold: First, to provide a
center for American scholars, thinkers,
leading intellectuals and political figures to come to Berlin, to share their
experiences and to learn from the people of Berlin and Germany,that is to say,
to provide a living center for the exchange of ideas.
Secondly, there is a larger theory
behind it. When the American troops,
the famous Berlin brigade which had
guarded Berlin all during the Cold War,
left in September of 1994, I was American Ambassador to Germany, and I felt
very strongly that we should have something that would replace the troops,

something that would bind the people


of Berlin to the people of the United
States. This was because the new generation of Americans and Berliners
would not remember the Berlin Wall;
they would not remember Kennedys
famous speech; they would not remember the confrontation in 1961 at Checkpoint Charlie; they would not remember the Airlift. And so, it was important
to create new institutions, to create,
if you will, new traditions.
This was the idea that came to mind,
and it was this idea that we announced
Vice-President Gore, Henry Kissinger,
former President vonWeizscker,
Mayor Diepgen, and I in September
of 1994. Now it has become a reality;
it is like seeing a dream come true.

What is it that the Academy can


contribute to the world?
I hope that the American Academy
in Berlin will be a center for learning:
Americans learning from Germans and
Germans from Americans, people ranging from Americas greatest living
playwright, Arthur Miller, our first
Berlin Fellow, to experts on immigration
and citizenship to poets, artists, and his-

torians. We hope to gain a great deal of


knowledge and also leave much behind.
Why should companies and individuals
support the Academy?
I think that any company that works
in Germany or any German company
that has strong ties to the United States
should look beyond its balance sheet,
beyond its bottom line, and think about
what it can do to build for the future.
The same is true for individuals; I think
that any individual who cares about USGerman relationships and who is in a
position to make a contribution to the
American Academy in Berlin should
do so. Projects like this one further the
goal of a closer U.S.-German understanding.
In short, any company or individual
that has an interest in U.S.-German relations should consider the fact that the
relationship between the two countries
is based not just on business, but on a
deep cultural understanding. The American Academy in Berlin is a living
monument to this relationship. It will
grow; it will prosper; and, it will be
enduring; I cant think of a better way to
promote U.S.-German understanding
than to support the American Academy
in Berlin.

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?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(Yg@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@H?g?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@heN@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@5??
?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@H?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?h3@@@@@@@@@@@@@h?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@he?3@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(Y??
?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?hN@@@@@@@@@@@@5h?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@he?V'@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(Ye?
?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@(M?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?h?3@@@@@@@@@@@Hh?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@hfN@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0Y?e?
?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0Yhe@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?h?N@@@@@@@@@@5?h?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@hf?3@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0M?f?
?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0Mhf@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@?he3@@@@@@@@@H?h?@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@hf?N@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?g@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0M?g?
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@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@?h?I4@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@0M?h?
I4@@@0M?
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16

Siemens.
Die Kraft des Neuen.

THE BERLIN JOURNAL

Thousands of
Dogs in Indian Villages

The Short Carnival


of Fall 1989

Berlin Attracts Research on Native Americans


By Ralf Groetker

Historian Charles S. Maier Talks with Jens Reiche


By Paul Stoop

demy in Berlin was so much interest rarely aroused. And, no one was disapT appears at the very least unusual. Why Lynn Snyder of the National Museum of Epointed.
Natural History in Washington, D.C. and the American Academy in Berlin would
The discussion between American historian Charles S. Maier and the
o come to Berlin, of all places, to learn more about the life of Native Americans

This Atmosphere
Lets Characters
Develop
On the Academys Grounds
By Inge Griese

It was, as always, an inspiring evening. The new recipients of the Berlin


Prize Fellowships had arrived at the
American Academy on Lake Wannsee.
Director Gary Smith and the Vice-President of the Academy, Gahl Hodges
Burt, accompanied by her husband,
Richard, former U.S. Ambassador to
Germany, had invited press and public
to the welcoming ceremony, and proudly used the opportunity to present the
Academys new PR-video. We must
not forget, reminded Smith, that the
Academy is dependent on donations.
Nevertheless, on this evening, the
only dark clouds present were those
outside over Lake Wannsee and the
Academy grounds. The Hans Arnhold
Center basked in the type of cozy, British club atmosphere which allows conversations to flourish.
Die Welt

HANS PUTTNIES

come to continue with her research into the history of the Plains Indians isnt immediately clear. That she is here has to do with the history of
science: just as every Egyptologist must visit Paris and London, so can researchers of Native
American history make discoveries in Berlin.
The Director of the National Museum for Natural History and Head of its American Indian
Program, JoAllyn Archambault, is also a Fellow
together with Ms. Snyder at the American Academy in Berlin. Snyder and Archambault jointly investigate ethnographical objects at Berlins
Ethnological Museum.
Lynn Snyder presented some of the results of
her research in a lecture about the life of dogs in
North America. Contrary to the popular clich
of adventure stories and films, dogs, not horses,
served as beasts of burden for Native Americans
up to the 16th century. Jo Allyn Archambaults
lecture investigates issues pertaining to gender
differences and the division of work in Native
American society. where the relationship between men and women was not seen as hierarchical. It was believed that masculine and feminine
roles complemented one another and that both
genders were therefore equal. Berliner Zeitung

ven during the constantly attractive debate season at the American Aca-

molecular biologist and dissident of the German Democratic Republic, Jens Reich, constituted a remarkable start to the ten-year anniversary of the events of 1989. The discussion
partners vividly demonstrated how the end of
the GDR, carefully analyzed with the help of
many sources, became history, without neglecting the story of the main characters in the
drama.
Charles S. Maier, Professor of History and
Director of the Center for European Studies at
Harvard University, came to the American
Academy introducing his extensive study,
The Disappearance of the GDR and the End
of Communism (published in German by
S. Fischer Verlag). On the same day on which
exactly nine years ago the first and only free elections for the East German Parliament were
held, Maier paid his respect to the person sitting across from him, elected to the GDR-Parliament and interviewed for Maiers book, together with many other protagonists of East
Germanys last days: Mr. Reich changed the
world. I have only described it. Tagespiegel

An Event Mirrored
In the Academys Library

Views From the Armchair


An American Future for German Literature?
By Lothar Mller
has resided in a large villa on Lake Wannsee for some time now. A glance
Toutdemy
the library windows provides a view toward the west. In the adjoining salon,

here are no more American troops in Berlin. In exchange, the American Aca -

one does not give lectures from the podium, but rather from the depths of one of
the imposing armchairs.
Arnulf Conradi, head of both the Berlin and the Siedler Verlag, likes these chairs,
here in a place where American English is spoken and it is possible to greet friends
seated in the rows of chairs by their first names. Arnulf Conradi lays claim to the
title of the most international German publisher, recently freed up by Michael
Naumanns recent changeover into politics. The Berlin Verlag lives for the most
part from translations from the United States, England, South Africa, Canada, Israel, Sweden, etc.
However, the publisher has recently discovered his passion for German literature and has prophesized its renaissance for some time now. Recuperating from its
cerebral fossilization and from the grim chewing on insipid form problems, its tongue has once again been loosened, it has listened to the voice of the New World, according to Conradi. Where else could it be easier to swear by the healing powers of
American storytelling than in this armchair?
And so the publisher himself surpasses his authors and becomes an enthusiastic
narrator, giving to his best ability one anecdote after the other, themselves literally
subjects for future novellas and novels.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

17

Privately-Financed
Diplomacy
Again
In Contrast to the Others
By Ralf Grtker
The Fellowship program of the
American Academy in Berlin enters the
second round with the 1999 Spring
Semester. The program enables American researchers, journalists and other
persons of letters to complete projects,
which as a rule are thematically tied to
the German capital or to German-American history, during their stay at the
Hans Arnhold Center on Lake Wannsee.
In contrast to other research institutions in Berlin, the American Academy,
whose operating costs are financed solely by means of sponsorships and donations, does not see itself exclusively as
an academic organization. The goal of
their activities lies in cultural diplomacy:
a renewal of German-American postwar relations and the stimulation of
cultural exchanges above all in the social
and political arenas. Berliner Zeitung

AMERICAN ACADEMY

Continued From Page 9


immigrant incorporation concerns
more than easy access to citizenship. It
is also a social process . This process has
been well on the way in the German case
and its results thus far have not been as
negative as frequently portrayed.
More than thirty years after immigration became an inescapable and
irreversible fact, that fact has finally
received legal recognition. While new
legislation is long overdue and represents a crucial step toward redefining
German nationhood and self-understanding, its impact on immigrant incorporation may not be as significant
as portrayed by some proponents of
the law.
Several reasons come to mind. First,
while comparisons between the United
States and Germany are compelling,
this dual comparison has its limits. A
thorough understanding of the complex
relationships between citizenship and
integration must include the experiences
of other countries. Because the United
States is frequently conceptualized as
the immigration country par excellence,
there is the danger of using the American
experience and the current American
situation as a normative model or an
empirical model for comparison.
In these comparisons, Germany often
appears as the exceptional case. Yet, as
many scholars, in particular, S. M. Lipset,
have pointed out, the United States displays many exceptional socio-economic
and political characteristics that are
deeply intertwined with its history.
Recent systematic comparisons of
three immigration countries, Canada,
Australia and the United States indicate
considerable differences in the socioeconomic incorporation of immigrants.
All three countries provide easy access
to citizenship. While citizenship policies
and laws set some parameters for this
process, it also builds on existing social
institutions, in particular labor markets,
education, religion and social welfare.
Second, increasing transnationalization is likely to render citizenship
as we have known it less and less important in the future. Dual and multiple
citizenships are likely to become more
and more commonplace and it will
only become more difficult for Germany
to resist this trend.

Artists and Experts


Expand Our Community
Academy Selects First Fellows in Fine Arts and Music

ourteen artists, scholars and

professionals have been named to


FBerlin
Prize Fellowships for 1999-2000.
The group includes the Academys first
fellows from the fine arts and music.
Thanks to a grant from Philip Morris,
the Academy will welcome distinguished
installation artist Jenny Holzer as an
advanced studies fellow and painter Sarah
Morris to an emerging artist fellowship.
With topics ranging from studies of
the nationalization of Central Europe
to poetry and musical compositions,
the new fellows include historians and
philosophers as well as legal scholars,
journalists and even an orchestra conductor, John Mauceri of the Hollywood
Bowl Orchestra and Teatro Regio in Italy.
Others in the class of fellows are:
poet Henri Cole, Harvard University;
sociologist Kathrine Pratt Ewing, Duke
University; historian Jeremy King,
Mount Holyoke College; musicologists
Stephen D. Lindemann, Brigham Young
University, Karen Painter, Harvard
University; journalist Elizabeth Rubin,
Harpers Magazine; composer Laura
Elise Schwendinger, University of Illinois, Chicago; Russian literature scholar Gavriel Shapiro, Cornell University;
religious studies scholar Brent Sockness, Stanford University; art historian

HANS PUTTNIES

Migration Problems
Compared

A Room With a View: Pre-Lecture Talks on Lake Wannsee


Margarita Tupitsyn, The Queens Museum, New York; and the legal scholar
James Whitman, Yale University.
Fellows will be in residence for one
or two semesters, beginning in September and ending mid-May.The distinguished selection committee included
philosopher Arthur Danto, art historian Colin Eisler, literary scholar Frances
Fitzgerald, Germanist Andreas Huyssen, historian Charles Maier, legal his-

On the Waterfront
Continued from Page 15
I should have asked: Why was it ridiculous to think that
Auschwitz would always prevent Germany from being normal? Just said. I should have asked what normality meant
to the host. But I was silent. It seems reasonable to assume
that from that silence some of the themes of Justs next novel
will emerge. Germany has been in his books for some time.
As a nation, he once wrote, it resembled Chicago, central
to its region, a furious engine that advances on its own inner
logic, closed in on itself, with resentments enough to fill the
couches of Vienna -- yet beneath the surface there was faith,
patience and an implacable sense of destiny.
The New York Times

torian Dieter Simon, and the theatrical


artist Robert Wilson as well as Academy representation. The artist selection committee includes Maxwell Anderson, Eduard Beaucamp, Marla Prather, Christoph Tannert, and Ronald
Jones.
Four further appointments for shortterm public policy fellowships shall be
made in early June for a program funded by the Bosch Foundation.

The Berlin Journal


A Quarterly from the American Academy in Berlin
Edited by Gary Smith (Executive Director)
Designed by Studio Phil Grge
Address: Hans Arnhold Center
Am Sandwerder 17-19 14109 Berlin Germany
Tel. (+49 30) 80 48 3-0 Fax (+49 30) 80 48 3-111
Email: journal@americanacademy.de
Advertising: Renate Pppel
Subscription Manager: Christian Oelze
Subscriptions: $15 per annum
All Rights Reserved Printed in Germany

Trustees of the American Academy: Gahl Hodges Burt (Vice-Chairman), Lloyd Cutler, Everette E. Dennis (President), Thomas Farmer (Honorary Co-Chairman), Richard B. Fisher, Jrgen Graf, Klaus Groenke, Karl von der Heyden (Treasurer), Richard C. Holbrooke, Thomas L. Hughes, Josef Joffe, Stephen M.
Kellen, Henry A. Kissinger (Honorary Co-Chairman), Horst Khler, Otto Graf Lambsdorff, (Chairman), Nina von Maltzahn, Klaus Mangold, Erich Marx,
Volker Schlndorff, Jerry Speyer, Fritz Stern, Jon Vanden Heuvel, Kurt Viermetz, Richard von Weizscker (Honorary Co-Chairman).

The Train
Stalled an hour beside a row of abandoned, graffiti-strickenfactories,
the person behind me talking the whole while on his portable phone,
every wordirritatingly distinct, impossible to think of anything else,
Ifeeltrapped, look out and see a young hare moving through the sooty scrub;
just as I catch sight of him, he turns with a starttoface us, and freezes.
Sleek, clean, his flesh firm in his fine-grained fur,hesvery endearing;
hereminds me of the smallest children on their wayto school in our street,
their slouchy,unself-conscious grace, the urgeyoufeelto share their beauty,
then my mind plays that trick of tryingtogo back intoits wilder part,
to let the creature know my admiration, and have him acknowledge me.
All the while were there, I long almost painfullyoutto him,
as though some mystery inhabited him, some semblance of the sacred,
but if he senses me he disregards me, and when we begin to move
hestillwaits on the black ballast gravel,ears and whiskers working,
to be sure weregood and gone before he continues his errand.
The train hurtles along, towns blur by,thevoice behind me hammerson;
itsstiflinghere but in the fields the grasses are stiff and white with rime.
Imagine being out there alone, shiversofdread thrilling through you,
those burnished railsbeforeyou, around you a silence, immense, stupendous,
only now beginning to wane, in a lift of wind, the deafening creaking of a bough.

C. K. Wil l iams

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