You are on page 1of 85

BAR HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE

OF ENGLAND AND WALES


Training Manual
on Rule of Law
Afghani!an
A"ril #$$%
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION1
CHAPTER I: RIGHTS IN INTERNATIONAL AND DOMESTIC LAW
A. Internationa H!"an Ri#$t% La&. ...'
B. En(or)e"ent Pro)e*!re% + Re"e*ie% (or Internationa La&...,
C. Re#iona Treatie% an* Monitorin# Bo*ie%.1'
D. Ri#$t% in t$e A(#$an Con%tit!tion..1-
CHAPTER II: CONFLICTS IN LEGAL S.STEMS
A. Priorit/ o( Bi o( Ri#$t% 0 Co"1arati2e Con%tit!tiona La&..13
B. Le#a P!rai%"........1,
C. Le#a P!rai%" in A(#$ani%tan..'4
CHAPTER III: WOMEN AND CHILD RIGHTS
A. Internationa La& on t$e Ri#$t% o( Wo"en..''
B. Internationa La& on t$e Ri#$t% o( t$e C$i*'3
C. H!"an Ri#$t% I%%!e% Con)ernin# Wo"en an* C$i*ren.',
CHAPTER I5: RULE OF LAW ISSUES
A. Se1aration o( Po&er% an* 6!*i)ia In*e1en*en)e.7-
B. Co*e o( Et$i)% 0 E81erien)e (ro" A9roa*7:
C. De2eo1"ent o( A(#$an Le#a Se)tor.-4
CHAPTER 5: ADMINISTRATION OF 6USTICE
A. Fair Tria Pro)e*!re....-'
B. Aternati2e Met$o*% o( Di%1!te Re%o!tion...-:
C. A(#$an Met$o*% o( Aternati2e Di%1!te Re%o!tion.;4
BIBLIOGRAPH...;-
INTRODUCTION
The Bar Hu&an Righ! Co&&i!!ee
of Englan' an' Wale (BHRC) i
!he in!erna!ional hu&an righ!
ar& of !he Bar of Englan' an'
Wale* I! i an in'e"en'en! +o',
"ri&aril, -on-erne' wi!h !he
"ro!e-!ion of !he righ! of
a'.o-a!e an' /u'ge aroun' !he
worl'* I! i alo -on-erne' wi!h
'efen'ing !he rule of law an'
in!erna!ionall, re-ognie' legal
!an'ar' rela!ing !o !he righ! !o
a fair !rial* The re&i! of !he BHRC
e0!en' !o all -oun!rie of !he
worl'1 a"ar! fro& i! own
/uri'i-!ion of Englan' 2 Wale*
The BHRC was set up by a group of barristers in 1991. The Committee has a Chair,
Vice-Chair, Treasurer and an !ecuti"e Committee which meets month#y. The
princip#e ob$ecti"es of the BHRC are%
The support and protection of practising #awyers and $udges who
are threatened or oppressed in their wor&
'pho#ding the ru#e of #aw and internationa##y recognised human
rights standards
(d"ising, supporting and co-operating with other organisations
and indi"idua#s wor&ing for human rights
)urthering interest in and &now#edge of human rights and the #aws
re#ating to human rights
(d"ising the *enera# Counci# of the Bar of ng#and + ,a#es in
connection with any human rights issue
-n this pro$ect, the BHRC has wor&ed in con$unction with%
T$e A(#$ani%tan In*e1en*ent H!"an Ri#$t% Co""i%%ion <AIHRC=>
A(#$ani%tan
The (.HRC was estab#ished for the promotion and protection of human rights
according to the Bonn (greement, /aris /rincip#es and on the basis of the .nterim
(dministration on 0 1une 2332. The (.HRC is a nationa# human rights organisation
whose recognition is ref#ected in (rtic#e 45 of the (fghan Constitution, 2336.
This pro$ect has been funded by%
T$e Forei#n an* Co""on&eat$ O((i)e <FCO=> U?
The FCO "ro&o!e U3 in!ere!
a+roa' an' wor4 wi!h
in!erna!ional +o'ie !o u""or! a
!rong worl' -o&&uni!,* The FCO
i re"oni+le for !he -on'u-! of
+uine wi!h o!her go.ern&en!
an' in!erna!ional organia!ion*
CH(/TR .% R.*HT7 .8 .8TR8(T.-8(9 + :-;7T.C 9(,
A. Internationa H!"an Ri#$t% La&
1. Intro*!)tion: H!"an Ri#$t% La& an* t$e Unite* Nation%
Human rights #aw dea#s with the re#ationship between those who go"ern and those
who are go"erned. The foundations of internationa# human rights #aw #ie in ,estern
po#itica# thought and "a#ues, as we## as natura# #aw princip#es and po#itica# theories
dating bac& to the )rench and (merican Re"o#utions, though its "a#ues and princip#es
can be identified in other cu#tures.
1
(fter the 7econd ,or#d ,ar, human rights #aw was codified and formed part of an
internationa# #ega# order within the 'nited 8ations. -n 26 -ctober 1964 the 'nited
8ations <the '8= was estab#ished by 41 countries with a commitment to preser"ing
peace through internationa# cooperation and co##ecti"e security. Today, near#y e"ery
nation in the wor#d is a member of the '8 and its current membership tota#s 191
countries.
,hen 7tates become ;embers of the '8, they agree to accept the ob#igations of the
Charter of the 'nited 8ations 1964, an internationa# treaty that sets out the basic ru#es
of internationa# re#ations.
(rtic#e 1 of the '8 Charter states that
>The /urposes of the '8 are%
<1= to maintain internationa# peace and security?
<2= to de"e#op friend#y re#ations among nations?
<@= to cooperate in so#"ing internationa# prob#ems and in promoting respect for
human rights? and
<6= to be a centre for harmoniAing the actions of nations.B
2
(rtic#e 44 of the '8 Charter pro"ides that the '8 sha## promote >uni"ersa# respect
for, and obser"ance of, human rights and fundamenta# freedoms for a## without
distinction as to race, se!, #anguage or re#igionB? whi#e in (rtic#e 40 >a## members
1
7ee genera##y% 7teiner, H. 1. and (ston, /., International Human Rights in Context. Law Politics and
Morals. 7econd dition <-!ford% -!ford 'ni"ersity /ress, 2333=.
2
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.un.orgCaboutunCcharterC
p#edge themse#"es to ta&e $oint and separate action in co-operation with the
-rganisation for the achie"ement of purposes set forth in (rtic#e 44B.

(rtic#es 44 and 40 were gi"en content through the adoption of the 'ni"ersa#
:ec#aration of Human Rights <':HR=, 1965. The drafters of the ':HR inc#uded
peop#e from many states and cu#tures. .n particu#ar, the '8Ds records document the
contributions of (rab and ;us#im dip#omats from 1960-1900.
Through the efforts of the '8, go"ernments ha"e conc#uded many mu#ti#atera#
agreements that attempt to ma&e the wor#d a safer and hea#thier p#ace with greater
opportunity and $ustice. The '8 has de"e#oped a comprehensi"e body of
internationa# #aw, which inc#udes human rights #aw.
<i= Treaties
Human rights standards are set out in Co"enants, Con"entions, Charters and
/rotoco#s, which are #ega##y binding in internationa# #aw on the states that
agree to be bound by them.
Treaties <see be#ow= are open to ratification by states.
Ratification and accession define the internationa# act whereby a state
indicates its consent to be bound by a treaty. Ratification a##ows a state the
necessary time frame to see& the reEuired appro"a# for the treaty on the
domestic #e"e# and to enact the necessary #egis#ation to gi"e domestic effect to
that treaty.
7tate reser"ations purport to e!c#ude or a#ter the #ega# effect of certain
pro"isions of the treaty in their app#ication to the reser"ing state. Reser"ations
can be made when the treaty is signed, ratified, accepted, appro"ed or acceded
to, howe"er they must not be incompatib#e with the ob$ect and the purpose of
the treaty. )urthermore, a treaty might prohibit reser"ations or on#y a##ow for
certain reser"ations to be made.
@
@
The Vienna Con"ention on the 9aw of Treaties 1909 is the authoritati"e treaty on the internationa# #aw
of treaties, estab#ishing the procedures by which treaties are adopted, interpreted, and in"a#idated? )or
fu## te!t, see% http%CCuntreaty.un.orgCi#cCte!tsCinstrumentsCeng#ishCcon"entionsC1F1F1909.pdf
<ii= 8on-treaty standards
;any human rights standards are not contained in treaties but in non-binding
internationa# instruments such as :ec#arations, /rincip#es, Ru#es etc.
The most important is the '8Ds 'ni"ersa# :ec#aration of Human Rights from
which many treaties, non-treaties and nationa# constitutions ha"e drawn their
inspiration.
(#though non-treaty standards do not technica##y ha"e the #ega# power of
treaties, they ha"e persuasi"e force, ha"ing been negotiated by states and
ha"ing been adopted by bodies such as the '8 *enera# (ssemb#y.
7ome human rights standards are wide#y accepted as constituting customary
internationa# #aw, binding upon states.
<iii= 7pecia# Rapporteur
7pecia# Rapporteur refers to the procedure for dea#ing with communications
re#ating to "io#ations of human rights and fundamenta# freedoms.
(n indi"idua# who ser"es as a specia# rapporteur is appointed by the
Chairperson of the Commission on Human Rights after consu#tation with the
fi"e regiona# groups, which consist of ;ember 7tates of the Commission.
The specia# rapporteurDs mandate is to e!amine, monitor, ad"ise and pub#ic#y
report on human rights "io#ations wor#dwide, &nown as thematic mandates.
.n carrying out their mandates, specia# rapporteurs underta&e country "isits
and report bac& to the Commission on Human Rights.
'. Unite* Nation%: H!"an Ri#$t% In%tr!"ent%
The !hree &a/or general
in!ru&en!1 whi-h are 4nown a
!he 5In!erna!ional Bill of Righ!61
are !he UDHR1 !he In!erna!ional
Co.enan! on Ci.il an' 7oli!i-al
Righ! (ICC7R) an' !he
In!erna!ional Co.enan! on
E-ono&i-1 So-ial an' Cul!ural
Righ! (ICESCR)*
There are o!her in!ru&en! !ha!
-o.er "e-ifi- .iola!ion an'
"ro!e-! !he righ! of grou" an'
in-lu'e1 !he In!erna!ional
Con.en!ion on !he Eli&ina!ion of
All For& of Ra-ial Di-ri&ina!ion
(CERD)1 !he Con.en!ion Again!
Tor!ure an' o!her Cruel1 Inhu&an
or Degra'ing Trea!&en! or
7unih&en! (CAT)1 !he Con.en!ion
on !he Eli&ina!ion of All For& of
Di-ri&ina!ion again! Wo&en
(CEDAW) an' Con.en!ion on !he
Righ! of !he Chil' (CRC)* Thee
are a&ong !he &o! i&"or!an! of
!he in!erna!ional hu&an righ!
!rea!ie whi-h Afghani!an ha
ra!ifie'*
<i= 'ni"ersa# :ec#aration of Human Rights 1965
The ':HR,
6
proc#aimed by the *enera# (ssemb#y in 1965, does not impose #ega#
ob#igations on 7tates, but estab#ishes goa#s for 7tates to wor& towards. ;any of its
pro"isions are now wide#y accepted as customary internationa# #aw.
.t sets out basic rights and freedoms to which a## women and men are entit#ed, such as
the right to #ife, #iberty and nationa#ity, the right to freedom of thought, conscience
and re#igion, the right to wor& and to be educated, the right to food and housing, the
right to ta&e part in go"ernment and the right not to be discriminated against on the
grounds of race, co#our, se!, #anguage, re#igion, po#itica# or other opinion, nationa# or
socia# origin, property birth or other status.
Afghanistan recognises the UDHR in Article 7 of the 2004 Constitution
through its commitment to abide by the UDHR and other international
treaties and conventions to which Afghanistan is a arty!
<ii= .nternationa# Co"enant on Ci"i# and /o#itica# Rights 1900
(rtic#e 1 constitutes /art . of the .CC/R
4
and states that G(## peop#es ha"e the right to
se#f determinationD and this resu#ts in peop#es right to determine their po#itica# status
and their freedom to pursue their economic, socia# and cu#tura# de"e#opment. The
artic#e subseEuent#y states the ob#igation of 7tates to Gpromote the rea#isation of the
right to se#f-determinationD.
(rtic#es 2-4 </art ..= contain underta&ings to respect and ensure without
discrimination the substanti"e rights contained in the .CC/R, which are intended to
be of immediate effect, together with certain other pro"isions of a genera# nature.
There is a#so a reEuirement for effecti"e remedies for "io#ation of Co"enant rights.
(rtic#es 0-2H </art ...= set out an e!tensi"e #ist of ci"i# and po#itica# rights the
Co"enant aims to protect.
6
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.un.orgC-"er"iewCrights.htm#
4
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCccpr.htm
(rtic#es 25-64 </art .V= estab#ish the '8 Human Rights Committee and inc#ude the
measures of imp#ementation and enforcement of the Co"enant on ci"i# and po#itica#
rights.
nforcement measures are supp#emented by the )irst -ptiona# /rotoco#, 1900. The
7econd -ptiona# /rotoco#, 1959 abo#ishes the death pena#ty for states that become
parties to it. 7tate parties ha"e accepted that no one within the $urisdiction of the state
party wi## be e!ecuted and agree to ta&e a## necessary measures to abo#ish the death
pena#ty.
Afghanistan rati"ed the #CC$R on 24 Aril %&'(!
0
Afghanistan has not rati"ed the )irst or the *econd $rotocol to the #CC$R!
<iii= .nternationa# Co"enant on conomic, 7ocia# and Cu#tura# Rights 1900
Arti)e 1 on t$e ri#$t o( a 1eo1e% to %e(@*eter"ination )on%tit!te% Part I o( t$e ICESCR
A
an* i% i*enti)a to Arti)e 1 in
t$e ICCPR. Wit$ t$e e8)e1tion o( t$i% ri#$t> t$e ri#$t% 1rote)te* in t$i% Co2enant are *i((erent a% &e a% t$e o9i#ation%
a%%!"e* 9/ State 1artie%.
(rtic#es 2-4 </art ..= set out the ob#igations of the 7tate parties with respect to the
rights contained in the .C7CR, by underta&ing steps to progressi"e#y rea#ise
economic, socia# and cu#tura# rights without discrimination through indi"idua# and
internationa# assistance and co-operation to the ma!imum of the state partyDs a"ai#ab#e
resources. (rtic#es 0-14 </art ...= set out an e!tensi"e #ist of economic, socia# and
cu#tura# rights the Co"enant aims to protect.
(rtic#es 10-24 </art .V= out#ine a system of periodic reporting by 7tates to be
considered by the conomic and 7ocia# Counci# for the imp#ementation of the
Co"enant on economic, socia# and cu#tura# rights.
0
)or (fghanistanDs dec#aration on the .CC/R, see%
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC@.htm
H
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcescr.htm
http%CCwww.un.orgCa"CphotoCsub$ectsCimagesC1691@6.$pgThe Committee on conomic,
7ocia# and Cu#tura# Rights monitors imp#ementation of the .C7CR.
Afghanistan ratifed the ICESCR on 24 April 1983.
:
<i"= .nternationa# Con"ention on the #imination of (## )orms of Racia#
:iscrimination 1904
CR:
9
prohibits 7tate parties from racia# discrimination against indi"idua#s, groups
of persons or institutions, and reEuires 7tate parties to ensure that pub#ic authorities
and institutions do #i&ewise.
The Committee on the #imination of Racia# :iscrimination monitors imp#ementation
of the Race Con"ention by its 7tate parties.
Afghanistan ratifed CERD on 5 Agst 1983.
14
<"= Con"ention (gainst Torture and other Crue#, .nhuman or :egrading Treatment
or /unishment 1956
Torture is strict#y condemned by internationa# #aw as it is considered a particu#ar#y
serious "io#ation of human rights. C(T
11
states that there may be no e!ception to the
prohibition against torture. C(T defines torture and specifies that 7tates /arties
out#aw torture in their nationa# #egis#ation, and a#so e!p#icit#y notes that no
e!ceptiona# circumstance may be in"o&ed as a $ustification of torture.
The Committee (gainst Torture monitors imp#ementation of C(T by its 7tate parties.
Afghanistan rati"ed C(T on 2+ ,une %&'7!
12
5
)or (fghanistanDs dec#aration on the .C7CR, see%
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC@.htm
9
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcerd.htm
13
)or (fghanistanDs reser"ation and dec#aration on the CR:, see%
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC2.htm
11
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcat.htm
12
)or (fghanistanDs dec#aration on the C(T, see%
<2i= Con2ention on t$e Ei"ination o( A For"% o( Di%)ri"ination a#ain%t
Wo"en 1,A,
C:(,
1@
sets out internationa##y accepted princip#es on the rights of women, so that
women are guaranteed the same rights as men. C:(, prohibits a## forms of
discrimination against women and prescribes measures to be ta&en to ensure that
women e"erywhere are ab#e to en$oy the rights to which they are entit#ed.
T$e Co""ittee on t$e Ei"ination o( Di%)ri"ination a#ain%t Wo"en "onitor%
i"1e"entation o( CEDAW 9/ it% State 1artie%.
Afghanistan rati"ed C-DA. on / 0arch 200(!
16
<2ii= Con2ention on Ri#$t% o( t$e C$i* 1,:,
The CRC
14
encompasses a## aspects of chi#drenDs rights, name#y their ci"i#, po#itica#,
economic, socia# and cu#tura# rights and ac&now#edges that the en$oyment of one right
cannot be separated from the en$oyment of others.
http%CCwww.un.orgCa"CphotoC23@2@4.$pgT$e Co""ittee on t$e Ri#$t% o( t$e C$i*
"onitor% i"1e"entation o( t$e CRC 9/ it% State 1artie%.
Afghanistan rati"ed the CRC on 27 Aril %&&4!
10
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC9.htm
1@
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcedaw.htm
16
(fghanistan has not entered a dec#aration or a reser"ation on the C:(,. )or other dec#arations or
reser"ations on the C:(,, see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC5F1.htm
14
)or fu## te!t see% http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcrc.htm
10
)or (fghanistanDs dec#aration on the CRC, see%
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC11.htm
B. En(or)e"ent Pro)e*!re% + Re"e*ie% (or Internationa La&
1. Intro*!)tion
ach '8 human rights treaty body consists of a committee of independent e!perts
that monitors the imp#ementation of that human rights treaty. These Committees are
created in accordance with the pro"isions of the treaty that they monitor. They
perform a number of functions in accordance with the pro"isions of the treaties that
created them, which inc#ude%
Con%i*eration o( State 1artie%B re1ort%
Con%i*eration o( in*i2i*!a )o"1aint% or )o""!ni)ation%
Con%i*eration o( inter@%tate )o"1aint% or )o""!ni)ation%
P!9i)ation o( Genera Co""ent%
(## the Committees issue *enera# Comments or Recommendations, which pro"ide
authoritati"e interpretations of the re#e"ant con"ention. The Committees are not
$udicia# bodies, at best they are Euasi-$udicia#. .n a## cases, Conc#uding Comments to
statesD reports, opinions in response to indi"idua# comp#aints and *enera# Comments
and Recommendations made by "arious Committees are non-binding and
recommendatory on#y. ffecti"e#y, the '8 human rights system constitutes soft #aw
as it is not direct#y enforceab#e in courts but nonethe#ess has an impact on
internationa# re#ations and internationa# #aw.
(n a#ternati"e method of reporting to the committees e!ists through shadow reporting
by 8*-s and others. The shadow report pro"ides an effecti"e means for groups other
than the 7tate to critiEue or supp#ement information in the officia# state report. This
a#ternati"e reporting mechanism ho#ds go"ernments accountab#e to their citiAens and
the '8 and is considered as important as the report content itse#f. 8*-s from
different countries ha"e de"e#oped a#ternati"e reports to the officia# state report.
'. Unite* Nation%: H!"an Ri#$t% Treat/ Bo*ie%
<i= Human Rights Committee
The Human Rights Committee monitors imp#ementation of the .CC/R by its 7tate
parties through%
S!9"i%%ion o( Re1ort% 0 Arti)e -4
Inter@%tate Co"1aint% 0 Arti)e% -1@-7
In*i2i*!a Co"1aint% 0 Fir%t O1tiona Proto)o
<ii= Committee on conomic, 7ocia# and Cu#tura# Rights
The Committee on conomic, 7ocia# and Cu#tura# Rights monitors imp#ementation of
the .C7CR by its 7tate parties through%
S!9"i%%ion o( Re1ort% 0 Arti)e 13
.ndi"idua# Comp#aints I :raft -ptiona# /rotoco#
/resent#y, the Committee cannot consider indi"idua# comp#aints, a#though a draft
-ptiona# /rotoco# to the Co"enant is under consideration.
<iii= Committee on the #imination of Racia# :iscrimination
The Committee on the #imination of Racia# :iscrimination monitors imp#ementation
of CR: by its 7tate parties through%
7ubmission of Reports I (rtic#e 9
.nter-state Comp#aints I (rtic#es 11-1@
.ndi"idua# Comp#aints I (rtic#e 16 <Gopt-inD procedure=
ar#y-warning and 'rgent /rocedures
The ear#y-warning and urgent procedures are pre"enti"e measures that aim to pre"ent
e!isting situations esca#ating into conf#icts and urgent procedures to respond to
prob#ems reEuiring immediate attention to pre"ent or #imit the sca#e or number of
serious "io#ations of the Con"ention.
<i"= Committee (gainst Torture
T$e Co""ittee A#ain%t Tort!re "onitor% i"1e"entation o( CAT 9/ it% State
1artie% t$ro!#$:
S!9"i%%ion o( Re1ort% 0 Arti)e 1,
Inter@%tate Co"1aint% 0 Arti)e 74 <Co1t@inB 1ro)e*!re=
In*i2i*!a Co"1aint% 0 Arti)e '' <Co1t@inB 1ro)e*!re=
Ur#ent InD!irie% 0 Arti)e '4
O1tiona Proto)o 0 a*o1te* '44'> o1en (or rati(i)ation an* a))e%%ion
An O1tiona Proto)o to t$e Con2ention &i> &$en it enter% into (or)e> )reate a
%!9@)o""ittee an* ao& in@)o!ntr/ in%1e)tion% o( 1a)e% o( *etention to 9e
!n*ertaEen in )oa9oration &it$ nationa in%tit!tion%.
<"= Committee on the #imination of :iscrimination (gainst ,omen
The Committee monitors imp#ementation of C:(, by its 7tate parties through%
S!9"i%%ion o( Re1ort% 0 Arti)e 1:
Re)o""en*ation% 0 Arti)e '1
.ndi"idua# Comp#aints - -ptiona# /rotoco#
.nEuiry I -ptiona# /rotoco#
<"i= Committee on the Rights of the Chi#d <CRC=
The Committee on the Rights of the Chi#d monitors imp#ementation of the CRC and
its optiona# protoco#s by its 7tate parties through%
7ubmission of Reports I (rtic#e 66
C. Re#iona H!"an Ri#$t% Treatie% an* Monitorin# Bo*ie%
1. Intro*!)tion
.n addition to the '8 mechanisms for imp#ementing human rights, regiona# human
rights treaties operate in (frica, the (mericas and urope. The rights protected by
these treaties deri"e from, and are simi#ar to, those of the .nternationa# Bi## of Human
Rights. ach of the regiona# treaties has de"e#oped its own uniEue approaches to
see&ing assurance that the rights are put into practice through enforcement in nationa#
courts. The three main regiona# treaties on human rights are the (frican Charter on
Human and /eop#esD Rights <(frican Charter=, the (merican Con"ention on Human
Rights <(CHR= and the uropean Con"ention for the /rotection of Human Rights and
)undamenta# )reedoms <CHR=.
'. Re#iona Treatie% + Monitorin# Bo*ie%
<i= (frica
The (frican Charter was adopted in 1901 and is monitored by the (frican
Commission on Human and /eop#esD Rights.
The Commission recei"es and considers communications by states,
indi"idua#s and organisations a##eging a "io#ation by a state party of the rights
guaranteed in the Charter. 8*-s and indi"idua#s are a#so a##owed to ma&e
ora# representations before the Commission. The CommissionDs fina#
decisions are ca##ed recommendations and are not in themse#"es #ega##y
binding on the states concerned.
The /rotoco# to the Charter created the (frican Court on Human Rights and
/eop#esD Rights and has the power to render ad"isory opinions at the reEuest
of a member state or an organisation re#ating to the Charter or any other
app#icab#e (frican human rights instruments.
<ii= (merica
The (CHR was adopted in 1909 and pro"ides for the .nter-(merican
Commission on Human Rights to hear cases and recei"e reports.
The .nter-(merican Commission on Human Rights is one of two bodies for
the promotion and protection of human rights. .t recei"es indi"idua# petitions
that a##ege human rights "io#ations, submits cases to the .nter-(merican Court
and appears before the Court in the #itigation of cases.
The .nter-(merican Court of Human Rights has ad$udicatory and ad"isory
$urisdiction and app#ies and interprets the Con"ention, deciding cases in which
it is a##eged that one of the state parties has "io#ated the Con"entionDs rights.
<iii= urope
The CHR entered into force in 194@. Ratification of or accession to the
Con"ention is a condition of $oining the Counci# of urope.
The Con"ention pro"ides for the uropean Court of Human Rights to ha"e
competence to hear cases. The Court recei"es comp#aints from any
contracting state or indi"idua# c#aiming to be a "ictim of a "io#ation of the
Con"ention a##eging a breach by the state of one of the Con"ention rights.
The Court may a#so at the reEuest of the Committee of ;inisters gi"e ad"isory
opinion on #ega# Euestions concerning the interpretation of the Con"ention and
its /rotoco#s. ( fina# $udgment of the Court is binding on states and wi## not
ha"e the effect of Euashing nationa# decisions or stri&ing down #egis#ation.
<i"= 9eague of (rab 7tates
.n 1996, the 9eague of (rab 7tates appro"ed the (rab Charter on Human
Rights, which sets up as its monitoring mechanism, a Human Rights
Committee of !perts that re"iews reports from state parties once in three
years. The (rab Charter has not yet been ratified and a Commission and a
Court on Human Rights do not operate in the (rab region.
<"= -rganisation of .s#amic Conference
.n 1993, the member states of the -rganisation of .s#amic Conference adopted
the Cairo :ec#aration on Human Rights, which affirms Sharia, .s#amic #aw, as
the so#e source of human rights. The :ec#aration is usua##y seen as an .s#amic
counterpart of and a response to the 'ni"ersa# :ec#aration of Human Rights.
D. Ri#$t% in t$e A(#$an Con%tit!tion
1. Intro*!)tion
(fghanistan has a history of incorporating basic rights in its "arious Constitutions,
beginning with the Constitution of 192@. The de"e#opment of (fghanistanDs new
Constitution was faci#itated through the '8Ds Bonn /rocess, which estab#ished a
framewor& for state formation that aimed to de"e#op a broad-based, mu#ti-ethnic and
fu##y representati"e go"ernment by 2336. The Bonn (greement made pro"isions for
fundamenta# po#itica# processes and estab#ished se"era# commissions to support
different aspects of state bui#ding, inc#uding a constitutiona# commission, a human
rights commission, a ci"i# ser"ice commission, and a $udicia# reform commission.
1H

The Constitutiona# :rafting Commission was estab#ished in -ctober 2332 and
composed of 9 members appointed by the /resident. The mandate of the drafting
commission was to produce a draft constitution to be presented to the /resident on @1
;arch 233@. The draft was to be prepared on the basis on the 1906 Constitution and
on#y by (fghans. The :rafting Commission transformed into a Constitutiona#
Re"iew Commission of @4 members in (pri# 233@.
'. T$e '44- Con%tit!tion
The new constitution of (fghanistan was signed and promu#gated by /resident Hamid
JarAai on 1anuary 20 2336. The new constitution incorporates princip#es of .s#am,
1H
7ee genera##y% ,arda&, (#i, GBui#ding a post-$ustice system in (fghanistanD in Crime, Law and
Social Change 61, pp.@19-@61, 2336.
democracy and human rights and embodies the go"ernmentDs duty to respect human
rights.
(rtic#e H on .nternationa# 9aw stipu#ates that%
<1= >The state sha## abide by the '8 charter, internationa# treaties, internationa#
con"entions that (fghanistan has signed, and the 'ni"ersa# :ec#aration of
Human Rights.B
The new -on!i!u!ion in-lu'e
+ai- righ! for all of
Afghani!an6 -i!i8en in Cha"!er
II 9 5Fun'a&en!al Righ! an'
Du!ie of Ci!i8en6 (Ar!i-le ##9
:;)* The Cha"!er in-lu'e !he
righ! !o e<uali!,1 life1 li+er!,1
hu&an 'igni!,1 "reu&"!ion of
inno-en-e1 "rohi+i!ion of !or!ure1
ele-!oral righ!1 e'u-a!ion1 wor41
"rohi+i!ion of for-e' la+our1
fa&il,*
Ar!i-le := of !he -on!i!u!ion
e!a+lihe !he In'e"en'en!
Hu&an Righ! Co&&iion of
Afghani!an for !he "ur"oe of
&oni!oring1 "ro&o!ing an'
"ro!e-!ing hu&an righ! in
Afghani!an* The Ar!i-le "er&i!
an, in'i.i'ual who +elie.e !heir
fun'a&en!al righ! ha.e +een
.iola!e' !o file a -o&"lain! !o !he
Co&&iion* Following !hi1 !he
Co&&iion -an refer -ae of
.iola!ion of hu&an righ! !o !he
legal au!hori!ie1 an' ai! in
'efen'ing !he righ! of !he
-o&"lainan!*
CHAPTER II: CONFLICTS IN LEGAL S.STEMS
A. Priorit/ o( Bi o( Ri#$t% 0 Co"1arati2e Con%tit!tiona La&
1. Intro*!)tion: Con%tit!tiona a&
Constitutiona# #aw concerns how our ru#ers are chosen, ca##ed to account and
remo"ed, and the rights of the indi"idua# against our ru#ers. ( constitution pro"ides a
framewor& of ru#es and princip#es that define the nature and e!tent of go"ernment.
;ost constitutions see& to regu#ate the re#ationship between institutions of the state,
name#y the re#ationship between the e!ecuti"e, #egis#ature and the $udiciary, as we## as
the re#ationship of institutions within those branches. ;ost constitutions a#so attempt
to define the re#ationship between indi"idua#s and the state, and to estab#ish the broad
rights of indi"idua# citiAens. Therefore, constitutiona# #aw is concerned with conf#icts
both between different groups strugg#ing for power and between those in power and
indi"idua#s. The #ega# and po#itica# aspects of a constitution are interre#ated and both
are concerned with idea#s of fairness and $ustice.
15
A &ritten )on%tit!tion i% a %in#e *o)!"ent t$at )ontain% t$e "ain )on%tit!tiona
1rin)i1e% #o2ernin# t$e %tate an* i% )on%i*ere* t$e $i#$e%t a!t$orit/ in t$e an*.
Sin)e t$e Fren)$ Re2o!tion in 1A:, a"o%t e2er/ nation $a% a*o1te* a &ritten
15
7ee genera##y% (#der, 1., Constitutional and Administrative Law <Hampshire% /a#gra"e ;acmi##an,
2334=.
)on%tit!tion> &$i)$ in "o%t in%tan)e% $a% "arEe* a ne& e2ent> %!)$ a%
in*e1en*en)e (ro" )oonia %tat!%. T$e Unite* ?in#*o" i% an e8)e1tion to t$i%
nor" in not $a2in# a &ritten )on%tit!tion. Co!ntrie% in So!t$ A%ia t$at $a2e a
&ritten )on%tit!tion in)!*e> A(#$ani%tan> In*ia an* PaEi%tan. T$e reation%$i1
9et&een internationa a& an* )on%tit!tion% 9e)o"e% e2i*ent in 1o%t@)oonia
%tate%> in t$e re#ion% o( A(ri)a> A%ia an* t$e Mi**e Ea%t> &$ere t$e Uni2er%a
De)aration o( H!"an Ri#$t% $a% 2irt!a/ 9een re1i)ate* in t$e &ritten
)on%tit!tion%.

'. R!e o( La&
Con!i!u!ionali& &ean li&i!e'
go.ern&en! an' in-lu'e !he
i'ea of !he rule of law an' !he
e"ara!ion of "ower a &ean
of re!ri-!ing an' -on!rolling
go.ern&en!* The rule of law
e&"haie !he i&"or!an-e of
general rule a +in'ing on
-i!i8en an' go.ern&en! ali4e*
The rule of law re<uire !he law
!o refle-! -er!ain +ai- .alue
'eri.e' fro& !he na!ure of rule
a gui'e of -on'u-!*
The rule of law "ro&o!e !he
in'e"en'en-e of !he /u'i-iar,*
The /u'i-iar, i en!ru!e' wi!h
!he re"oni+ili!, of "ro!e-!ing
!he +ai- .alue of a -o&&uni!,
in !heir role a guar'ian of
i&"ar!ial reaon*
A 4e, a"e-! of !he rule of law i
!he wa, i! li&i! !he 'i-re!ionar,
"ower of !he go.ern&en!1
in-lu'ing !he "ower !o -hange
law* I! "re.en! ar+i!rar,
e0er-ie of !he e0e-u!i.e "ower1
"reer.e general an' &inori!,
righ!1 an' "ro&o!e !a+ili!, an'
"re'i-!a+ili!,*
>* Se"ara!ion of 7ower
The e"ara!ion of "ower i a
&o'el for !he go.ernan-e of !he
!a!e an' re<uire !he 'i.iion of
"oli!i-al "ower +e!ween an
e0e-u!i.e1 a legila!ure an' a
/u'i-iar,* Un'er !hi &o'el1 ea-h
+ran-h ha e"ara!e an'
in'e"en'en! "ower an' area of
re"oni+ili!,? howe.er1 ea-h
+ran-h of go.ern&en! houl' +e
-he-4e' o !ha! no one +o', -an
'o&ina!e !he o!her*
'nder the doctrine of the separation of powers, the e!ecuti"e is the branch of a
go"ernment charged with imp#ementing, or e!ecuting, the #aw and running the day-to-
day affairs of the state. .t is usua##y the ro#e of the e!ecuti"e to enforce the #aw by
administering the prisons and the po#ice force, and prosecuting crimina#s in the name
of the state? to conduct the foreign re#ations of the state? to command the armed
forces? to appoint state officia#s, inc#uding $udges and dip#omats? to administer
go"ernment deprtments and pub#ic ser"ices? to issue e!ecuti"e orders, &nown as
secondary #egis#ation, ordinances or decrees. ;ost constitutions reEuire that certain
e!ecuti"e powers may on#y be e!ercised in con$unction with the #egis#ature.
( #egis#ature is a go"ernment de#iberati"e assemb#y with the power to adopt #aws. .n
par#iamentary systems of go"ernment, the #egis#ature is forma##y supreme and
appoints the e!ecuti"e. .n presidentia# systems of go"ernment, the #egis#ature is
considered a power branch which is eEua# to, and independent of, the e!ecuti"e. The
#egis#ature enacts #aws and the consent of the #egis#ature is a#so often reEuired to ratify
treaties and dec#are war.
The /u'i-iar, i !he ,!e& of
-our! whi-h a'&ini!er /u!i-e
an' "ro.i'e a &e-hani& for !he
reolu!ion of 'i"u!e* The !er&
i alo ue' !o refer -olle-!i.el,
!o !he /u'ge1 &agi!ra!e an'
o!her a'/u'i-a!or who are
-en!ral !o !hi ,!e&* Un'er !he
'o-!rine of !he e"ara!ion of
"ower1 !he /u'i-iar, i !he
+ran-h of go.ern&en! "ri&aril,
re"oni+le for in!er"re!ing !he
law*
@* Con!i!u!ional Cour!
The constitution is often protected by the supreme, constitutiona# or high court. This
court $udges the compatibi#ity of #egis#ation with the pro"isions and princip#es of the
constitution. specia##y important is the courtDs responsibi#ity to protect
constitutiona##y estab#ished rights and freedoms. ( >constitutiona# "io#ationB is an
action or #egis#ati"e act that is $udged by a constitutiona# court to be contrary to the
constitution, that is, >unconstitutiona#B.
A -on!i!u!ional -our! i nor&all,
!he -our! of la! reor!1 !he
highe! /u'i-ial +o', in !he
go.ern&en!* Man, -on!i!u!ional
-our! are "owerful in!ru&en!
of /u'i-ial re.iew an' 'efen'er
of hu&an righ!1 wi!h !he "ower
!o 'e-lare na!ional law
in-o&"a!i+le wi!h !he
-on!i!u!ion* The effe-! of !hi
ruling .arie +e!ween
go.ern&en!1 +u! i! i -o&&on for
!he -our!6 a-!ion !o rule a law
unenfor-ea+le* Thu1 a
-on!i!u!ional -our! "la, a .i!al
role in "ro!e-!ing hu&an righ!
an' affir&ing 'e&o-ra!i- .alue
of hu&an 'igni!,1 e<uali!, an'
free'o& whi-h ha.e "ene!ra!e'
fro& in!erna!ional hu&an righ!
law in!o na!ional legal ,!e&*
B. Le#a P!rai%"
1. Intro*!)tion
9ega# p#ura#ism refers to a situation in #ega# systems where two or more #aws interact.
This means that whi#st the stateDs #aws sti## ha"e a ro#e to p#ay in regu#ating indi"idua#
beha"iour, the state a##ows the use of persona# #aws and customs to a certain e!tent in
matters specific to those communities. 7uch systems operate independent#y and often
interact with each other and are most e"ident in contemporary mu#ti-ethnic and mu#ti-
re#igious societies.
19

1urists ha"e said that the $urisprudence of any contemporary society cannot be
identified as a unified system. The 7tate cannot contro# the who#e of the #aw, as
cu#tura# and socia# aspects of #ega# princip#es are not capab#e of outside contro#.
These cu#tura# practices continue to e"o#"e and de"e#op separate from the state. The
tota#ity of the #aw is p#ura#, consisting of different systems of #aws interacting with
one another harmonious#y as we## as creating conf#ict scenario. These cu#tura#
di"ersities operate at three #e"e#s, name#y officia# #aws, unofficia# #aws and #ega#
postu#ates.
'. O((i)ia a&%> !no((i)ia a&% an* e#a 1o%t!ate%
O((i)ia a&% are %an)tione* 9/ t$e e#iti"ate a!t$orit/ o( t$e )o!ntr/ an* are
o(ten re(erre* to a% 9a)E etter a&. Et$ni)> )!t!ra an* rei#io!% 1ra)ti)e% are
re(e)te* in non@o((i)ia a&% t$at are not e81i)it/ %an)tione* 9/ t$e %tate.
Ne2ert$ee%%> t$e%e a&% o1erate on t$eir o&n> e2en in(!en)in# t$e (or"!ation
o( o((i)ia %tate a&%.
T$o!#$ !no((i)ia a&% o1erate* &it$o!t t$e a11ro2a o( t$e a!t$oritie%> t$e/ are
%an)tione* 9/ t$e #enera )on%en%!% o( 1eo1e &$o 1ra)ti%e t$e". T$i% #enera
)on%en%!% "a/ )on%)io!%/ or !n)on%)io!%/ 9e o9%er2e* an* it "a/ in(!en)e>
)$an#e or !n*er"ine %tate a&%.
T$e roe o( e#a 1o%t!ate% i% )o"1e"entar/ an* 9a%e* !1on a 2a!e %/%te"
%1e)i(i)a/ )onne)te* &it$ 1arti)!ar o((i)ia or !no((i)ia a&% an* )on%i%t% o(
e%ta9i%$e* e#a 1rin)i1e% %!)$ a% nat!ra F!%ti)e> "orait/ an* eD!it/. T$e/
reate 1arti)!ar/ to iti#ation> en)o!ra#in# in*i2i*!a% to %ette t$eir *i%1!te% in
a )!t!ra )onte8t> 1o%%i9/ o!t%i*e o((i)ia )o!rt%.
19
7ee genera##y% 0ens1i2 .! )!2 Comparative Law in a Global Context 34ondon5
$latinum $ublishing 4imited2 20006!
C. Le#a P!rai%" in A(#$ani%tan
1. Intro*!)tion: So!r)e% o( La&
(#though the officia# sources of #aw in (fghanistan are state #aw and Sharia <.s#amic
#aw=, customary #aw has contributed to the maintenance of socia# order in (fghan
society.
23

Sharia deri"es its authority from di"ine sources. The sources of .s#amic #aw are% 1=
Quran, 2= Sunnah <statement and deeds of the /rophet=, @= Ima <consensus of .s#amic
scho#ars= and 6= Qi!as <ana#ogica# reasoning=. ;uch of Sharia is the end resu#t of
Qi!as. There are four estab#ished .s#amic schoo#s of thought within 7unni .s#am.
;ost peop#e in (fghanistan are fo##owers of the Hana"i 7choo#.
7tate #aw can be understood as a set of forma##y sanctioned #ega# norms that resemb#e
other normati"e orders such as re#igion and customary practices of autonomous or
semi-autonomous socia# groups. Customary #aws are practices, customs and
traditions that o"er time estab#ish guiding norms of socia# beha"ior within a
community. These are not usua##y written down or codified, but may inf#uence the
#oca# en"ironment and the degree of enforcement of state #aws.
'. Intera)tion 9et&een t$e La&%
Historica##y, (fghanistanDs $ustice system was based on .s#amic #aw, which was
uncodified and administered by #adis <.s#amic $udges=. .s#am pro"ided the
ideo#ogica# framewor&, which was interpreted within the conte!t of (fghan traditions.
Customary #aws were administered through irgas or shuras and p#ayed an important
ro#e in the maintenance of socia# order. Therefore, whi#st triba# #aws ha"e
significant#y inf#uenced the (fghan #ega# system, the u#timate source of authority was
(##ah and the /rophet as in other .s#amic societies.
23
7ee genera##y% ,arda&, (#i, GBui#ding a post-$ustice system in (fghanistanD in Crime, Law and
Social Change 61, pp.@19-@61, 2336.
.n the ear#y twentieth century, the state conso#idated Sharia #aw <based on the Hana"i
interpretation= and to some e!tent customary #aws to pro"ide the basis for the (fghan
#ega# and $ustice system. The $lama <.s#amic scho#ars= had a dua# ro#e of interpreting
the 7haria and acting as #adis <$udges= in state courts. .t was a#so during this period
that (fghanistanDs first constitution was promu#gated.
7. Priorit/ o( t$e Con%tit!tion
(rtic#es in the new constitution state that the state is ob#iged to create a prosperous
and progressi"e society based on socia# $ustice, by protecting human dignity and
human rights, rea#ising democracy, and ensuring nationa# unity and eEua#ity among a##
ethnic groups and tribes.
(rtic#e @ states that
>.n (fghanistan, no #aw can be contrary to the be#iefs and pro"isions
of the sacred re#igion of .s#am.B
(rt. 4 states that
>.mp#ementation of the pro"isions of this constitution and other #aws, defending
independence, nationa# so"ereignty, territoria# integrity, and ensuring the security and
defense capabi#ity of the country, are the basic duties of the state.B
The re#ationship between nationa# #aws and internationa# #aws becomes apparent in
the stateDs commitment to abide by the '8 Charter, the 'ni"ersa# :ec#aration of
Human Rights and other internationa# treaties and con"entions that it has signed.
CHAPTER III: WOMEN AND CHILD RIGHTS
A. Internationa La& on Ri#$t% o( Wo"en
A* In!ro'u-!ion
In!erna!ional hu&an righ! law
re-ognie !he righ! of wo&en !o
e<ual !rea!&en! an' non9
'i-ri&ina!ion on !he +ai of e0
generall,1 +, "rohi+i!ing an,
'i!in-!ion on !he +ai of e0
wi!h re"e-! !o !he en/o,&en! of
hu&an righ!* E<uali!, of righ!
for wo&en i a +ai- "rin-i"le of
!he UN Char!er an' The
In!erna!ional Bill of Hu&an Righ!
!reng!hen an' e0!en' !he
e&"hai on !he hu&an righ! of
wo&en*
#A
Howe.er1 'ue !o !he e&ergen-e of
"a!!ern of 'i-ri&ina!ion again!
wo&en1 in &an, "ar! of !he
worl'1 i! wa fel! !ha! wo&en
were inuffi-ien!l, guaran!ee'
!he en/o,&en! of !heir
in!erna!ionall, agree' righ!*
Sin-e i! e!a+lih&en!1 !he
Co&&iion on !he S!a!u of
Wo&en (CSW)
##
ha ough! !o
21
7ee genera##y% Char#esworth, H. and Chin&in, C., %he &oundaries o" international law. A "eminist
anal!sis <;anchester% ;anchester 'ni"ersity /ress, 2333=.
22
The Commission on the 7tatus of ,omen was estab#ished as a functiona# commission of the 'nited
8ations conomic and 7ocia# Counci# to prepare recommendations and reports to the Counci# on
promoting womenKs rights in po#itica#, economic, ci"i#, socia# and educationa# fie#ds.
'efine an' ela+ora!e !he general
guaran!ee of non9'i-ri&ina!ion
in in!ru&en! !ha! fo-u on
wo&en6 righ! fro& a gen'er
"er"e-!i.e* The wor4 of CSW
ha reul!e' in a nu&+er of
i&"or!an! 'e-lara!ion an'
-on.en!ion !ha! "ro!e-! an'
"ro&o!e !he hu&an righ! of
wo&en*
Mo! i&"or!an!l,1 in!erna!ional
in!ru&en! !ha! fo-u
"e-ifi-all, on !he righ! of
wo&en an' in-lu'eB
Con"ention on the #imination of (## )orms of :iscrimination against ,omen
19H9 <152 states parties in 2330=.
-ptiona# /rotoco# to the Con"ention on the #imination of (## )orms of
:iscrimination against ,omen 1999 <HH states parties in 2330=.
2. C:(, 19H9
.n 19H9, the '8 *enera# (ssemb#y adopted C:(,, which focuses entire#y on
discrimination against women. The treaty, now ratified by 152 countries, sets out the
#ega# ob#igations to e#iminate discrimination against women and to ensure they en$oy
their ci"i#, po#itica#, economic, socia# and cu#tura# rights without any discrimination in
the pub#ic and pri"ate spheres. There are many reser"ations to C:(,. (fghanistan
ratified C:(, on 4 ;arch 233@ and has not entered any dec#arations or
reser"ations to its pro"isions.
(rtic#e 1 of the Con"ention defines Gdiscrimination of womenD as%
(ny distinction, e!c#usion or restriction made on the basis of se! which has the
effect or purpose of impairing or nu##ifying the recognition, en$oyment or
e!ercise by women, irrespecti"e of their marita# status, on the basis of eEua#ity of
men and women, of human rights and fundamenta# freedoms in the po#itica#,
economic, socia#, cu#tura#, ci"i# or any other fie#d.
(rtic#e 2 out#ines #egis#ati"e and other measures that the Con"ention reEuires states to
ta&e to e#iminate discrimination against women and to ensure the practica# rea#isation
of eEua#ity of men and women. These measures inc#ude%
mbodying the princip#e of eEua#ity of men and women in nationa#
constitutions or other appropriate #egis#ation?
stab#ishing #ega# protection of the eEua# rights of women with men and
ensuring the effecti"e protection of women against any act of discrimination
through competent nationa# tribuna#s and pub#ic institutions?
/rohibiting a## discrimination against women by adopting appropriate
#egis#ati"e and other measures, inc#uding sanctions?
Refraining from engaging in discrimination against women by its pub#ic
authorities and institutions?
#iminating discrimination against women by any person, organisation or
enterprise?
;odifying or abo#ishing e!isting #aws, regu#ations, customs and practices that
constitute discrimination against women?
Repea#ing a## nationa# pena# pro"isions that constitute discrimination against
women.
(rtic#e @ co"ers discrimination in the po#itica#, socia#, economic and cu#tura# fie#ds.
(rtic#e 6 proposes the adoption by state parties of Gtemporary specia# measuresD to
acce#erate eEua#ity between men and women? these measures sha## be discontinued
when the ob$ecti"es of eEua#ity of opportunity and treatment ha"e been achie"ed.
(rtic#e 4 reEuires states to ta&e appropriate measures to modify socia# and cu#tura#
practices with a "iew to e#iminating pre$udice and practices based on the inferiority of
one se! o"er the other. (rtic#e 0 refers to states ta&ing appropriate measures to
suppress traffic&ing in women and the e!p#oitation of prostitution of women.
-ther artic#es in the Con"ention identify areas where states must wor& to e#iminate
discrimination, these are%
/o#itica# and pub#ic #ife I (rtic#e H
.nternationa# organisations I (rtic#e 5
8ationa#ity I (rtic#e 9
ducation - (rtic#e 13
mp#oyment I (rtic#e 11
Hea#thcare I (rtic#e 12
)ami#y benefits I (rtic#e 1@<a=
)inancia# credit I (rtic#e 1@<b=
Cu#tura# #ife I (rtic#e 1@<c=
Rights of rura# women I (rtic#e 16
9aw I (rtic#e 14
;arriage and fami#y re#ations I (rtic#e 10
The Con"ention ad"ances womenDs rights in se"era# ways. .t identifies areas where
discrimination against women is #arge#y pre"a#ent and where they most need
guarantees. .t a#so attempts to o"ercome the pub#icCpri"ate dichotomy obser"ed in
internationa# #aw, by asserting womenDs eEua# rights to participate in pub#ic decision
ma&ing bodies at a## #e"e#s and affirming womenDs right to eEua#ity within the fami#y.
The Human Rights Committee <monitoring committee of the .CC/R= in *enera#
Comment 25 pro"ides an interpretation of the .CC/R that ta&es account of womenDs
human rights.
;ethods of imp#ementing the Con"ention inc#ude the submission of periodic reports
under (rtic#e 21 to the Committee on the #imination of (## )orms of :iscrimination
against ,omen and through indi"idua# comp#aints under the -ptiona# /rotoco# to the
Con"ention.
7. O1tiona Proto)o to CEDAW 1,,,
-n 0 -ctober 1999 the *enera# (ssemb#y adopted a 21 artic#e -ptiona# /rotoco# to
C:(,. By ratifying the -ptiona# /rotoco#, a 7tate recognises the competence of
the Committee on the #imination of :iscrimination against ,omen to recei"e and
consider comp#aints from indi"idua#s or groups within its $urisdiction. To date,
(fghanistan has not ratified the -ptiona# /rotoco#.
The /rotoco# contains two procedures%
<1= ( communications procedure that a##ows indi"idua# women, or groups of
women, to submit c#aims of "io#ations of rights protected under the
Con"ention to the Committee.
The /rotoco# estab#ishes that in order for indi"idua# communications to be
admitted for consideration by the Committee, a number of criteria must be
met, inc#uding that domestic remedies must ha"e been e!hausted.
<2= The /rotoco# a#so creates an inEuiry procedure enab#ing the Committee to
initiate inEuiries into situations of gra"e or systematic "io#ations of womenDs
rights.
.n either case, 7tates must be party to the Con"ention and the /rotoco#. The /rotoco#
inc#udes an Gopt-out c#auseD, a##owing 7tates upon ratification or accession to dec#are
that they do not accept the inEuiry procedure. (rtic#e 1H of the /rotoco# e!p#icit#y
pro"ides that no reser"ations may be entered to its terms.
The O"!ional 7ro!o-ol en!ere'
in!o for-e on ## De-e&+er #$$$
an' ha in-e a'o"!e' >
'e-iionC.iew* Alo1 !he
Co&&i!!ee -o&"le!e' i! fir!
in<uir, un'er ar!i-le = of !he
O"!ional 7ro!o-ol in Dul, #$$@ in
regar' !o Me0i-o*
B. Internationa La& on Ri#$t% o( t$e C$i*
1. Intro*!)tion
Hu&an righ! a""l, !o all age
grou" an' -hil'ren ha.e !he
a&e general hu&an righ! a
a'ul!* Howe.er1 a -hil'ren are
-oni'ere' "ar!i-ularl,
.ulnera+le1 in a''i!ion !o
generall, re-ognie' in!erna!ional
hu&an righ!1 !he, alo ha.e
"ar!i-ular righ! !ha! re-ognie
!heir "e-ial nee' for "ro!e-!ion*
#>
2@
7ee genera##y% Van Bueren, *., %he International Law on the Rights o" the Child <The Hague%
J#uwer 9aw .nternationa#, 1995=.
The recognition of chi#drenDs rights in internationa# human rights #aw is a historic
de"e#opment. The internationa# community has adopted standards on rights of the
chi#d that ref#ect a "ariety of cu#tura# traditions. .n doing so, it has high#ighted its
commitment to chi#dren and raised their "isibi#ity in internationa# and dip#omatic
arenas.
( number of internationa# instruments focus specifica##y on the rights of the chi#d and
inc#ude%
Con"ention on the Rights of the Chi#d 1959
-ptiona# /rotoco# to the CRC on the .n"o#"ement of Chi#dren in (rmed
Conf#ict 2333
-ptiona# /rotoco# to the CRC on the 7a#e of Chi#dren, Chi#d /rostitution and
Chi#d /ornography 2333
'. CRC 1,:,
In A;=; !he UN General Ae&+l,
a'o"!e' !he CRC* The CRC ha
+een ra!ifie' +, A;# !a!e (!he
&o! of an, hu&an righ! !rea!,)
an' i -oni'ere' !he &o!
-o&"reheni.e ingle !rea!, in
!he hu&an righ! fiel'*
Afghani!an ra!ifie' !he CRC on
#E A"ril A;;@ an' u"on igna!ure
en!ere' !he following 'e-lara!ionB
De-lara!ion
>The *o"ernment of the Repub#ic of (fghanistan reser"es the right to e!press,
upon ratifying the Con"ention, reser"ations on a## pro"isions of the Con"ention
that are incompatib#e with the #aws of .s#amic 7haria and the #oca# #egis#ation in
effect.B
26

The Con.en!ion -o.er all !he
!ra'i!ionall, 'efine' area of
hu&an righ!1 na&el, -i.il1
"oli!i-al1 e-ono&i-al1 -ul!ural an'
o-ial righ!1 an' i -on-erne'
wi!h four 76B
/articipation I of chi#dren in decisions affecting their own destiny?
26
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishCcountriesCratificationC11.htm
/rotection I of chi#dren against discrimination and a## forms of neg#ect and
e!p#oitation?
/re"ention I of harm to chi#dren?
/ro"ision I of assistance for their basic needs.

.n app#ying internationa# standards to the rights of the chi#d, these four
comp#ementary approaches are a## eEua##y necessary when app#ied appropriate#y.
(rtic#e 1 states that the Con"ention app#ies to Ge"ery human being be#ow the age of
eighteen years un#ess, under the #aw app#icab#e to the chi#d, ma$ority is attained
ear#ierD. This p#aces the burden on the state to $ustify instances in which a #ower age
#imit may be imposed.
(rtic#e 2 incorporates a non-discrimination pro"ision for state parties to respect and
ensure each chi#dDs rights set forth in the Con"ention without discrimination of any
&ind. )urther, state parties are as&ed to ta&e a## appropriate measures to ensure that
the chi#d is protected against a## forms of discrimination or punishment. (rtic#e @ is
fundamenta# to the who#e Con"ention in that it stipu#ates that the chi#dDs best interests
must be a Gprimary considerationD in a## actions concerning chi#dren.
(rtic#e 6 prescribes to states measures for the imp#ementation of Con"ention rights.
The artic#e e!p#icit#y mentions measures for the imp#ementation of economic, socia#
and cu#tura# rights, to the ma!imum e!tent of their a"ai#ab#e resources and, where
needed, within the framewor& of internationa# co-operation.
(rtic#e 4 focuses state partiesD attention towards the potentia# of the e!tended fami#y
and the community, together with parenta# responsibi#ities, rights and duties, to
pro"ide appropriate direction and guidance in the e!ercise by the chi#d of his or her
rights in a manner consistent with e"o#"ing capacities of the chi#d.

Ratifying the Con"ention entai#s re"iewing nationa# #egis#ation to ma&e sure it is in
#ine with the pro"isions of the treaty. The Con"ention stipu#ates, among other things,
that e"ery chi#d has the right to #ife, and that 7tates sha## ensure the ma!imum chi#d
sur"i"a# and de"e#opment. )urther, states sha## ensure that each chi#d en$oys fu##
rights without discrimination or distinction of any &ind, and sha## ensure that chi#dren
shou#d not be separated from their parents, un#ess by competent authorities for their
we##-being. ,hen courts, we#fare institutions or administrati"e authorities dea# with
chi#dren, the best interests of the chi#d sha## be a primary consideration.
(#so according to the Con"ention, disab#ed chi#dren sha## ha"e the right to specia#
treatment, education and care. /rimary education sha## be free and compu#sory and
discip#ine in schoo# shou#d respect the chi#dDs dignity. Capita# punishment or #ife
imprisonment sha## not be imposed for crimes committed before the age of 15. 8o
chi#d under 14 shou#d ta&e any part in hosti#ities and chi#dren e!posed to armed
conf#ict sha## recei"e specia# protection. Chi#dren of minority and indigenous
popu#ations sha## free#y en$oy their own cu#tures, re#igions and #anguages.
-bser"ance of the Con"ention by state parties is monitored through the submission of
periodic reports under (rtic#e 66 to the Committee on the Rights of the Chi#d. The
Committee ho#ds regu#ar meetings and o"ersees the progress made by state parties in
fu#fi##ing their ob#igations. .t can ma&e suggestions and recommendations to
go"ernments and the *enera# (ssemb#y on ways to meet the Con"entionDs ob$ecti"es.
In Ma, #$$$1 !he General
Ae&+l, a'o"!e' !wo O"!ional
7ro!o-ol !o !he Chil' Con.en!ion
on !he in.ol.e&en! of -hil'ren in
ar&e' -onfli-! an' on !he ale of
-hil'ren1 -hil' "ro!i!u!ion an'
-hil' "ornogra"h,* The O"!ional
7ro!o-ol en!ere' in!o for-e in
#$$# an' Afghani!an ra!ifie'
+o!h of !hee O"!ional 7ro!o-ol
in Se"!e&+er #$$>*
#:
C. H!"an ri#$t% i%%!e% )on)ernin# &o"en an* )$i*ren
1. 5ioen)e A#ain%t Wo"en
CEDAW onl, &a4e one referen-e
!o .iolen-e again! wo&en
e0"li-i!l, in Ar!i-le %1 referring !o
!raffi-4ing in wo&en an' !he
e0"loi!a!ion of "ro!i!u!ion of
wo&en* Af!er !he Con.en!ion wa
a'o"!e'1 -oun!r, re"or!
24
)or fu## te!t of the -ptiona# /rotoco#s to the CRC, see%
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcrc-conf#ict.htm?
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCcrc-sa#e.htm
u+&i!!e' un'er Ar!i-le A=1
!oge!her wi!h NGO u+&iion1
re.eale' !ha! .iolen-e again!
wo&en "reen!e' a -en!ral
o+!a-le !o !he eli&ina!ion of
'i-ri&ina!ion again! wo&en*
Ta4ing a--oun! of !hi i!ua!ion1
!he Co&&i!!ee on !he Eli&ina!ion
of All For& of Di-ri&ina!ion
again! Wo&en a'o"!e' general
re-o&&en'a!ion (A#1 A@1 A;)
un'er Ar!i-le #A !ha! -learl,
!a!e' !ha! .iolen-e again!
wo&en fell wi!hin &eaning of
'i-ri&ina!ion again! wo&en on
!he groun' of e01 a "ro.i'e' in
Ar!i-le A of CEDAW*
#%
/aragraph 1 of *enera# Recommendation 19 states that gender-based "io#ence is a
form of discrimination that serious#y inhibits a womenDs abi#ity to en$oy rights and
freedoms on the basis of eEua#ity with men. *ender-based "io#ence is defined as
>"io#ence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects
women disproportionate#y.B
2H

/aragraph H out#ines the rights and freedoms affected, these inc#ude% the right to #ife?
the right not to be sub$ect to torture or to crue#, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment? the right to eEua# protection according to humanitarian norms in time of
internationa# or interna# armed conf#ict? the right to #iberty and security of the person?
the right to eEua# protection under the #aw? the right to eEua#ity in the fami#y? the right
to the highest standard attainab#e of physica# and menta# hea#th? the right to $ust and
fa"ourab#e conditions of wor&.
/aragraphs 5 and 9 high#ight the responsibi#ity of the state to e#iminate "io#ence
against women perpetrated by pub#ic authorities as we## as the stateDs responsibi#ity
for pri"ate acts in the fai#ure to e!ercise due di#igence to pre"ent such "io#ence.
.n 199@, the '8 *enera# (ssemb#y adopted the :ec#aration on the #imination of
Vio#ence (gainst ,omen. The :ec#aration defines what constitutes "io#ence against
women and out#ines actions *o"ernments and communities shou#d ta&e to pre"ent
such acts.
(t the 199@ ,or#d Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, (ustria, womenDs rights
were reaffirmed as human rights. The Vienna Conference ca##ed for the appointment
of a 7pecia# Rapporteur on Vio#ence against ,omen by the '8 Commission on
20
Connors, 1., G'nited 8ations approaches to Gcrimes of honourDD in ds. ,e#chman, 9. and Hossain,
7., 'Honour( Crimes, Paradigms and )iolence <9ondon% Led Boo&s 9imited, 2334=.
2H
http%CCwww.un.orgCwomenwatchCdawCcedawCrecommendationsCrecomm.htmMrecom19
Human Rights. The Rapporteur reports hisCher findings on "io#ence against women to
the '8 Commission on Human Rights, and recommends the means and ways to
e#iminate it.
25

.n 1994, at the )ourth ,or#d Conference in Bei$ing, the internationa# community
adopted the /#atform for (ction,
29
which estab#ished three strategic ob$ecti"es for
go"ernments to achie"e the e#imination of "io#ence against women%
.ntegrated measures to pre"ent and e#iminate "io#ence against women?
The study of the causes and conseEuences of "io#ence against women, as we##
as the effecti"eness of pre"entati"e measures? and
The e#imination of traffic&ing in women and the pro"ision of assistance to
"ictims of "io#ence due to prostitution.
For go.ern&en! !o a-hie.e !hee
o+/e-!i.e1 i! i re-o&&en'e'
!ha! !he,B
Condemn "io#ence against women?
!ercise due di#igence in its pre"ention, in"estigation and punishment whether
committed by pub#ic or pri"ate persons?
.mp#ement e!isting internationa# standards and support internationa#
mechanisms?
(dopt and effecti"e#y imp#ement #ega# measures?
.ntroduce or strengthen awareness-raising of "io#ence against women?
/ro"ide ser"ices and support for those affected by "io#ence.
'. For)e* an* C$i* Marria#e%
25
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.unhchr.chChtm#Cmenu4Cwchr.htm
29
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.un.orgCwomenwatchCdawCbei$ingCp#atformCdec#ar.htm
.n 233@, the 7pecia# Rapporteur on Vio#ence (gainst ,omen identified ideo#ogies that
perpetuate cu#tura# practices that are "io#ent towards women, and stated >Chi#d
marriage, forced marriage and incest are additiona# forms of direct abuse that regu#ate
fema#e se!ua#ity. .gnoring women and young gir#s as indi"idua#s capab#e of ma&ing
choices about their #i"es, these practices sub$ect many women to unwanted se! and
rape, thus destroying their #i"es and their #ife potentia#B.
@3
Wi!h regar' !o for-e' an' -hil'
&arriage1 !he Co&&i!!ee on !he
Eli&ina!ion of Di-ri&ina!ion
Again! Wo&en ha iue'
General Re-o&&en'a!ion #A on
5E<uali!, in &arriage an' fa&il,
rela!ion6* The Co&&i!!ee ha
no!e' !ha! a wo&an6 righ! !o
freel, -hooe her "oue an'
en!er in!o &arriage i -en!ral !o
her life an' 'igni!,* Bo!h !he
@3
/aragraph 13@, 233@ Report of the 7pecia# Rapporteur on "io#ence against women, its causes and
conseEuences. CC8.6C233@CH4
CEDAW Co&&i!!ee an' !he CRC
Co&&i!!ee ha.e no!e' !heir
-on-ern o.er 5-ri&e of honour61
whi-h in-lu'e for-e' an' -hil'
&arriage* The Hu&an Righ!
Co&&i!!ee6 General Co&&en! #=
e&"haie !ha! 5wo&en ha.e !he
righ! !o en!er in!o &arriage onl,
wi!h !heir free an' full -onen!6*
In in!erna!ional hu&an righ! law1
!he righ! of &en an' wo&en !o
&arr, an' foun' a fa&il, -an +e
foun' in Ar!i-le A%(A) of !he
UDHR? Ar!i-le A$(A) of !he
ICESCR? Ar!i-le #>(#) an' (>) of
!he ICC7R* The un'erl,ing
e&"hai in !hee ar!i-le i !ha!
for a &an an' wo&an !o &arr,
an' e!a+lih a fa&il,1 !he, &u!
rea-h !he age of &a/ori!, an'
!he, &u! en!er in!o a &arriage
wi!h free an' full -onen!*
CEDAW ou!line &eaure for
!a!e "ar!ie !o eli&ina!e
'i-ri&ina!ion again! wo&en
rela!ing !o &arriage an' fa&il,
rela!ion an' !o enure !ha!
wo&en1 on !he +ai of e<uali!,
wi!h &en1 ha.e (Ar!i-le A%(A))B
<a= The same right to enter into marriage?
<9= T$e %a"e ri#$t (ree/ to )$oo%e a %1o!%e an* to enter into "arria#e on/ &it$
t$eir (ree an* (! )on%entG
<c= The same rights and responsibi#ities during marriage and at its disso#ution?
(g) The a&e "eronal righ! a
hu+an' an' wife*
.n (rtic#e 10<2=, C:(, further adds that a chi#d marriage sha## ha"e no #ega# effect
and that necessary steps sha## be ta&en to specify a minimum age for marriage and to
ma&e the registration of marriages in an officia# registry compu#sory. (rtic#es 1 of the
Con"ention on Consent to ;arriage, ;inimum (ge for ;arriage and Registration of
;arriages 1906,
@1
emphasises the importance of fu## and free consent to be e!pressed
in the presence of the competent authority and witnesses to so#emnise the marriage as
prescribed by #aw. (fghanistan has not ratified the Con"ention on Consent to
;arriage, ;inimum (ge for ;arriage and Registration of ;arriages 1906.
(rtic#es 2<f=, <g= and 4 of C:(, p#ace a duty on the state to modify customs that
discriminate against women. (rtic#e 26<@= of the CRC ca##s on states to ta&e effecti"e
measures to abo#ish traditiona# practices that are pre$udicia# to the hea#th of chi#dren.
The practice of forced marriage as a form of gender-based "io#ence has been
recognised in *enera# Recommendation 8o. 19.
@2
*enera# Recommendation 8o. 21
e!p#icit#y dea#s with eEua#ity in marriage and fami#y re#ations and emphasises the
right of a woman to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage free#y as it is centra# to
her dignity and eEua#ity as a human being.
@@

@1
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.unhchr.chChtm#Cmenu@CbC0@.htm
@2
)or fu## te!t, see%
http%CCwww.un.orgCwomenwatchCdawCcedawCrecommendationsCrecomm.htmMrecom19
@@
)or fu## te!t, see%
http%CCwww.un.orgCwomenwatchCdawCcedawCrecommendationsCrecomm.htmMrecom21
The Reso#ution on the #imination of "io#ence against women, 233@,
@6
identifies
"io#ence against women in the fami#y and at paragraph H%
>7trong#y condemns physica#, se!ua# and psycho#ogica# "io#ence occurring in the
fami#y, which encompasses, but is not #imited to, battering, se!ua# abuse of women
and gir#s in the househo#d, dowry-re#ated "io#ence, marita# rape, fema#e infanticide,
fema#e genita# muti#ation, crimes committed against women in the name of honour,
crimes committed in the name of passion, traditiona# practices harmfu# to women,
incest, ear#y and forced marriages, non-spousa# "io#ence and "io#ence re#ated to
commercia# se!ua# e!p#oitation as we## as economic e!p#oitation.B
The Reso#ution ca##s upon states to ta&e action at paragraph 16 stressing that%
>..7tates ha"e an affirmati"e duty to promote and protect the human rights of women
and gir#s and must e!ercise due di#igence to pre"ent, in"estigate and punish acts of a##
forms of "io#ence against women and gir#s, and ca##s upon 7tatesN.To condemn
"io#ence against women and not in"o&e custom, tradition or practices in the name of
re#igion or cu#ture to a"oid their ob#igations to e#iminate such "io#ence.B
CHAPTER I5: RULE OF LAW ISSUES
A. Se1aration o( Po&er% an* 6!*i)ia In*e1en*en)e
1. Intro*!)tion
@6
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.unhchr.chCHuridocdaCHuridoca.nsfC<7ymbo#=C.C8.6.R7.233@.64.nO
-pendocument
In !he &o'ern -on!i!u!ional
S!a!e1 !he "rin-i"le of an
in'e"en'en! /u'i-iar, ha i!
origin in !he !heor, of e"ara!ion
of "ower1 where+, !he
e0e-u!i.e1 legila!ure an'
/u'i-iar, for& !hree e"ara!e
+ran-he of go.ern&en!1 whi-h1
in "ar!i-ular1 -on!i!u!e a ,!e&
of &u!ual -he-4 an' +alan-e
ai&e' a! "re.en!ing a+ue of
"ower !o !he 'e!ri&en! of a free
o-ie!,* Thi in'e"en'en-e
&ean !ha! +o!h !he /u'i-iar, a
an in!i!u!ion an' alo !he
in'i.i'ual /u'ge 'e-i'ing
"ar!i-ular -ae &u! +e a+le !o
e0er-ie !heir "rofeional
re"oni+ili!ie wi!hou! +eing
influen-e' +, !he e0e-u!i.e1 !he
legila!ure or an, o!her
ina""ro"ria!e our-e*
>:
-n#y an independent $udiciary is ab#e to render $ustice impartia##y on the basis of #aw,
thereby a#so protecting the human rights and fundamenta# freedoms of the indi"idua#.
)or this essentia# tas& to be fu#fi##ed efficient#y, the pub#ic must ha"e fu## confidence
in the abi#ity of the $udiciary to carry out its functions in this independent and
impartia# manner. ,hene"er this confidence begins to be eroded, neither the $udiciary
as an institution nor indi"idua# $udges wi## be ab#e fu##y to perform this important tas&,
or at #east wi## not easi#y be seen to do so.
ConseEuent#y, the princip#e of independence of $udges was created to protect human
beings against abuses of power. .t fo##ows that $udges cannot act arbitrari#y in any
way by deciding cases according to their own persona# preferences, but that their duty
is and remains to app#y the #aw. .n the fie#d of protecting the indi"idua#, this a#so
means that $udges ha"e a responsibi#ity to app#y, whene"er re#e"ant, domestic and
internationa# human rights #aw.
@4
-ffice of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and .nternationa# Bar (ssociation, /rofessiona#
Training 7eries 8o. 9. Human Rights in the Administration o" *ustice+ A Manual on Human Rights "or
*udges, Prosecutors and Law!ers <8ew Por& and *ene"a% 'nited 8ations, 233@=.
( #ega# system based on respect for the ru#e of #aw a#so needs independent and
impartia# prosecutors wi##ing to in"estigate and prosecute suspected crimes committed
against human beings e"en if persons acting in an officia# capacity ha"e committed
them. 'n#ess $udges and prosecutors p#ay their respecti"e &ey ro#es to maintaining
$ustice in society, there is a serious ris& that a cu#ture of impunity wi## ta&e root,
thereby widening the gap between the genera# pub#ic and the authorities. .f peop#e
encounter prob#ems in securing $ustice for themse#"es, they may be dri"en to ta&e the
#aw into their own hands, resu#ting in a further deterioration in the administration of
$ustice and, possib#y, new outbrea&s of "io#ence.
This #ega# system wou#d not be comp#ete without independent #awyers who are ab#e to
pursue their wor& free#y and without fear of reprisa#s. .ndeed, independent #awyers
p#ay a &ey ro#e in defending human rights and fundamenta# freedoms at a## times, a
ro#e which, together with that p#ayed by independent and impartia# $udges and
prosecutors, is indispensab#e for ensuring that the ru#e of #aw pre"ai#s, and that
indi"idua# rights are protected effecti"e#y.
'. UN Ba%i) Prin)i1e% on t$e Roe o( La&/er%
The /reamb#e of the '8 Basic /rincip#es on the Ro#e of 9awyers <1993= states that
adeEuate protection of human rights reEuires that a## persons ha"e effecti"e access to
#ega# ser"ices pro"ided by an independent #ega# profession. /rofessiona# associations
of #awyers ha"e a "ita# ro#e to p#ay in upho#ding professiona# standards and ethics, and
protecting their members from persecution and improper restrictions. ,hi#e a
#awyers association wi## cooperate with the go"ernment to further the ends of $ustice,
the #ega# profession must be independent and p#ay a "ita# ro#e in upho#ding
professiona# standards and ethics.
@0
<i= Training and Eua#ifications
@0
'8 :oc. (CC-8).166C25CRe".1
/rincip#e 9 of the '8 Basic /rincip#es states that go"ernments, professiona#
associations of #awyers and educationa# institutions sha## ensure that #awyers ha"e
appropriate education and training.
/rincip#e 13 pro"ides that this must be done without discrimination <for e!amp#e, on
the basis of race, se!, re#igion, po#itica# opinion, birth or economic status=.
.t is therefore c#ear that bar associations must ha"e an input into what this training
shou#d entai# and how certification of its comp#etion is to be indicated. ach country
must decide for itse#f, in accordance with its own needs and circumstances, how the
ba#ance of powers and responsibi#ities is to be shared between the bar association, the
go"ernment, and educationa# institutions, to achie"e this.
<ii= :uties and responsibi#ities
/rincip#e 12 states that #awyers sha## at a## times maintain the honour and dignity of
the profession, and di#igent#y assist their c#ients in accordance with the recognised
standards and ethics of the profession. .t is #awyers themse#"es who best &now what
those standards shou#d reasonab#y be, and a bar association is therefore the optimum
organisation through which these standards can be articu#ated.
<iii= *uarantees for the functioning of #awyers
/rincip#e 10 pro"ides that go"ernments sha## ensure that #awyers are ab#e to perform
their functions without intimidation or harassment, and sha## not suffer, or be
threatened with, any sanctions because of actions they ha"e proper#y underta&en in
accordance with recognised professiona# duties, standards and ethics.
.n particu#ar, /rincip#e 15 states% >9awyers sha## not be identified with their c#ients or
their c#ientsD causes as a resu#t of discharging their functions.B
<i"= )reedom of association
/rincip#e 2@ pro"ides that #awyers are entit#ed to freedom of e!pression and
association. This wou#d inc#ude the right to be constructi"e#y critica# of the $ustice
system, and to form and $oin bar associations, which wou#d represent them in this
constructi"e criticism.
.n particu#ar, /rincip#e 26 e!press#y pro"ides, #awyers sha## be entit#ed to form and
$oin se#f-go"erning professiona# associations to represent their interests, promote their
continuing education and training and protect their professiona# integrity. The
e!ecuti"e body of the professiona# associations sha## be e#ected by its members and
sha## e!ercise its functions without e!terna# interference.
This indicates that a bar association shou#d be independent and run by its own
members. .t shou#d be instrumenta# in setting standards for the profession. .t shou#d
represent #awyersD interests.
/rincip#e 24 states that a bar association must cooperate with go"ernment to ensure
that e"eryone has effecti"e and eEua# access to #ega# ser"ices and that #awyers are ab#e
to assist their c#ients without interference. The bar association and the go"ernment
are therefore partners in this endea"our.
<"= :iscip#inary proceedings
/rincip#e 20 pro"ides that codes of professiona# conduct for #awyers sha## be
estab#ished by the #ega# profession through its professiona# associations, or by
#egis#ation. Comp#aints against #awyers shou#d be processed e!peditious#y and fair#y
</rincip#e 2H= and discip#inary proceedings against #awyers sha## be brought before an
impartia# discip#inary committee estab#ished by the bar association or before a court
or independent statutory authority </rincip#e 25=. These proceedings sha## be
determined in accordance with the code of professiona# conduct </rincip#e 29=. .t is
therefore essentia# that this code of professiona# conduct be formu#ated.
7. Co""on&eat$ <Lati"er Ho!%e= Prin)i1e%
.n the recognition of the #ac& of internationa# treaties in the area, the Commonwea#th
<9atimer House= /rincip#es set out the re#ationship between par#iament, the $udiciary
and the e!ecuti"e in member countries. These princip#es aim to strengthen democracy
and adherence to the Commonwea#thDs fundamenta# "a#ues in member states by
out#ining the #imits of power in the three branches of go"ernment, enab#ing them to
interact better in the promotion of good go"ernance and the ru#e of #aw. These
princip#es focus on securing trust among the branches of go"ernment and gaining the
confidence and respect of the peop#e in their #eadership.
@H
The Commonwea#th /rincip#es go"ern issues such as the harmonious ba#ancing of
power and the interaction between par#iament, the e!ecuti"e and the $udiciary in
democratic societies. They set out in detai# the consensus reached by representati"es
of the three branches of go"ernment in the Commonwea#th on how each of their
nationa# institutions shou#d interre#ate in the e!ercise of their institutiona#
responsibi#ity. The /rincip#es specify restraint in the e!ercise of power within their
respecti"e constitutiona# spheres so that the #egitimate discharge of constitutiona#
functions by other institutions are not encroached on.
The Commonwea#th /rincip#es were fina#ised by Commonwea#th #aw ministers and
endorsed by Commonwea#th Heads of *o"ernment at their summit in (bu$a, 8igeria,
in :ecember 233@. The /rincip#es ha"e been disti##ed from the 9atimer House
*uide#ines on /ar#iamentary 7o"ereignty and 1udicia# .ndependence.
B. Co*e o( Et$i)% 0 E81erien)e (ro" A9roa*
1. Intro*!)tion
The .nternationa# Bar (ssociation has estab#ished the .nternationa# Codes of 9ega#
thics
@5
as mode#s for or go"erning the practice of #aw by their members. .n some
$urisdictions these Codes are imposed on a## practitioners by their respecti"e Bar
(ssociations or 9aw 7ocieties or by the courts or administrati"e agencies ha"ing
@H
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.thecommonwea#th.orgCsharedFaspFfi#esCup#oadedfi#esCQ(CC92H3(-
929-6(3-()9-6(()C056H9CRF9atimerS23HouseS23Boo&#etS231@3436.pdf
@5
)or fu## te!t, see% http%CCwww.ibanet.orgCimagesCdown#oadsC.nternationa#Fthics.pdf
$urisdiction o"er the admission of indi"idua#s to the practice of #aw. ;uch of these
reEuirements are a guide as to what the .nternationa# Bar (ssociation considers to be a
desirab#e course of conduct by a## #awyers engaged in the internationa# practice of #aw.
'. Internationa Co*e o( Et$i)%
7ome of the &ey princip#es are%
9awyers sha## at a## times maintain the honour and dignity of their profession.
They sha##, in practice as we## as in pri"ate #ife, abstain from any beha"iour,
which may tend to discredit the profession of which they are members.
9awyers sha## preser"e independence in the discharge of their professiona#
duty.
9awyers sha## a#ways maintain due respect towards the Court. 9awyers sha##
without fear defend the interests of their c#ients and without regard to any
unp#easant conseEuences to themse#"es or to any other person. 9awyers sha##
ne"er &nowing#y gi"e to the Court incorrect information or ad"ice, which is to
their &now#edge contrary to the #aw.
.t sha## be considered improper for #awyers to communicate about a particu#ar
case direct#y with any person whom they &now to be represented in that case
by another #awyer without the #atterDs consent.
9awyers sha##, when in the c#ientDs interest, endea"our to reach a so#ution by
sett#ement out of court rather than start #ega# proceedings. 9awyers shou#d
ne"er stir up #itigation.
9awyers shou#d ne"er represent conf#icting interests in #itigation. .n non-
#itigation matters, #awyers shou#d do so on#y after ha"ing disc#osed a##
conf#icts or possib#e conf#icts of interest to a## parties concerned and on#y with
their consent. This Ru#e a#so app#ies to a## #awyers in a firm.
9awyers shou#d ne"er disc#ose, un#ess #awfu##y ordered to do so by the Court
or as reEuired by 7tatute, what has been communicated to them in their
capacity as #awyers e"en after they ha"e ceased to be the c#ientDs counse#. This
duty e!tends to their partners, to $unior #awyers assisting them and to their
emp#oyees.
C. De2eo1"ent o( A(#$an Le#a Se)tor
1. Intro*!)tion
Ar!i-le AA% of !he #$$@
Con!i!u!ion on !he In'e"en'en-e
of !he Du'i-iar, !a!eB
(A) The /u'i-ial +ran-h i an
in'e"en'en! organ of !he !a!e
of !he Ila&i- Re"u+li- of
Afghani!an*
(#) The /u'i-ial +ran-h -oni! of
!he Su"re&e Cour! (S!era
Mah4a&a)1 High Cour!1 A""eal
Cour!* S!ru-!ure of au!hori!ie
of whi-h are 'e!er&ine' +, law*
(>) The Su"re&e Cour! a !he
highe! /u'i-ial organ1 hea' !he
/u'i-iar, organ of !he Ila&i-
Re"u+li- of Afghani!an*
On No.e&+er A> #$$:1 !he
In!erna!ional Bar Ao-ia!ion hel'
a -onferen-e on e!a+lihing an
in'e"en'en! +ar ao-ia!ion for
Afghani!an in 3a+ul* There were
A@$ "ar!i-i"an!* The
"ar!i-i"an! re"reen!e'
in'i.i'ual Afghan law,er1
law,er6 grou"1 go.ern&en!
law,er1 /u'ge1 a-a'e&i-1 law
!u'en!1 na!ional an'
in!erna!ional NGO1 UN agen-ie
an' in!erna!ional 'onor* The
-onferen-e wa a''ree' +,
e0"erien-e' law,er1
in!erna!ional e0"er!1 an' !he
De"u!, Mini!er of Du!i-e* The
ou!-o&e of !hi -onferen-e were
FTwel.e Bai- 7rin-i"le for Bar
Ao-ia!ionG*
>;

'. T&e2e Ba%i) Prin)i1e% (or Bar A%%o)iation%
@9
Tahmind$is, /. and :e ;arco, 9., International ,ar Association Position Pa-er . /sta&lishing an
Inde-endent ,ar Association in A"ghanistan <8o"ember 2334=.
It i% e%%entia t$at an a)ti2e an* in*e1en*ent 9ar a%%o)iation 9e e%ta9i%$e* in A(#$ani%tan on a (ir" (ootin# 9/ e#i%ation.
Le#i%ation &i en%!re t$at t$e o9Fe)ti2e% o( t$e 9ar a%%o)iation are )ear an* t$at it% #o2ernan)e i% tran%1arent. It &i
a%o en%!re t$at a&/er% a)t in a))or*an)e &it$ )on%tit!tiona nor"%.
The term >bar associationB is not wide#y understood in (fghanistan. .t is used here to
mean a se#f-go"erning professiona# association for a## #awyers, which represents not
on#y the interests of those #awyers, but a#so promotes their continuing education and
training, regu#ates entry into the #ega# profession, estab#ishes and upho#ds professiona#
standards and ethics <inc#uding through discip#inary procedures=, protects the interests
of the pub#ic, and ad"ocates for #aw reform and the independence of #awyers and
$udges. ;any other .s#amic countries <such as gypt, .ndonesia, .ran, .raE, Juwait,
9ibya, ;a#aysia, /a&istan, 7yria, Tunisia and Tur&ey= ha"e estab#ished bar
associations.
.t is suggested that there are 12 basic princip#es which need to be addressed when
considering how a bar association shou#d be estab#ished and which a#so act as indicia
of a proper#y functioning bar association. These 12 basic princip#es are%
<i= .ndependence
<ii= /rofessiona# 7tandards
<iii= thics
<i"= :iscip#ine
<"= ntry reEuirements for the #ega# profession
<"i= Continuing #ega# education
<"ii= 9ega# (id
<"iii= 9aw Reform
<i!= ;embersD interests
<!= ;embership profi#e
<!i= )inancia# support
<!ii= 7ustainabi#ity
CHAPTER 5: ADMINISTRATION OF 6USTICE
A. Fair Tria Pro)e*!re
1. Intro*!)tion
The right to a fair tria# is one of the cornerstones of the ru#e of #aw. .t is designed to
protect indi"idua#s from the un#awfu# and arbitrary depri"ation of other basic rights
and freedoms, the most prominent of which are the right to #ife and #iberty. The
princip#e of a fair tria# is the core of the ci"i# and crimina# procedure. ,ith respect to
crimina# $urisdiction, it is designed to ensure that a## indi"idua#s are protected by #aw
throughout the crimina# process, from the moment of in"estigation or detention unti#
the fina# disposition of their case.
63
'. Fair Tria Stan*ar*% in t$e ICCPR
Afghani!an a--e'e' !o !he
ICC7R on #@ A"ril A;=> an'
aer! !he 'u!, !o a-! in
a--or'an-e wi!h i! in Ar!i-le E of
!he #$$@ Con!i!u!ion*
Afghani!an6 in!erna!ional legal
63
*uhr, (., Hob, C. and ;oschtaghi, R., 0air %rial Standards in the A"ghan Constitution, the A"ghan
Code o" Criminal Procedure, the A"ghan Penal Code and the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights <;/. .nstitute for Comparati"e /ub#ic 9aw and .nternationa# 9aw% 2336=.
o+liga!ion un'er Ar!i-le ;1 A$
an' A@ of !he ICC7R en!i!le all
"eron wi!h a righ! !o a fair !rial*
The &o! i&"or!an! a"e-! of a
fair !rial are 'eal! wi!h +elow*
<i= Ba%i) 1ro2i%ion% 0 Arti)e% '> 1-> '3
"eryone is entit#ed to a fair and pub#ic hearing by an independent and
impartia# tribuna#.
7tates must ensure that a## indi"idua#s are treated eEua##y before the #aw and
are entit#ed without any discrimination to eEua# treatment by the #aw.
The rights re#ating to a fair tria# app#y to a## courts and tribuna#s, which
determine crimina# charges, whether ordinary or specia#ised, inc#uding
mi#itary or specia# court <'8 Human Rights Committee, *enera# Comment
1@=.

<ii= Non@retroa)ti2it/ o( )ri"ina a& 0 Arti)e 1;
The princip#e of non-retroacti"ity of crimina# #aw, app#ies for a## stages of
$udicia# proceedings, and states that on#y such actions are deemed crimina# that
ha"e been defined as crimes by a #aw that was in force at the time of the
action. The princip#e contains two e#ements% 1= actions that are not stated to
be a crime cannot be the basis for in"estigations, prosecution, sentencing or
punishment, and 2= in the case of #ega# reforms, no one can be prosecuted for
an action that was not a crime at the time of action, e"en if it is #ater defined to
be a crime.
.nternationa# #aw ensures #ega# predictabi#ity and certainty. .t is an abso#ute
prereEuisite for the ru#e of #aw, whereby indi"idua# #iberties are protected
against arbitrary and unwarranted intrusion of the state. Howe"er, this
princip#e is not abso#ute. .f the new #aw is more fa"ourab#e for the accused
than the o#d one under which the crime too& p#ace, this beneficia# crimina# #aw
may be app#ied retroacti"e#y. This is ca##ed retroacti"ity of the most fa"ourab#e
#aw for the benefit of the accused
<iii= Pre%!"1tion o( inno)en)e 0 Arti)e 1-<'=
"eryone charged with a crimina# offence sha## ha"e the right to be presumed
innocent unti# pro"ed gui#ty according to #aw.
<i2= Prote)tion (ro" tort!re 0 Arti)e% A> 14
The right to be protected from torture is app#icab#e during a## stages of
crimina# proceedings. .t is an abso#ute and non-derogab#e right, it cannot be
suspended, e"en in wartime or in a state of emergency, nor is it admissib#e to
in"o&e superior orders to $ustify the use or threat of torture.
(ccording to internationa# and nationa# #aw, acts of torture constitute
disproportionate use of force by #aw enforcement officia#s, such as pro#onged
so#itary confinement, physica# pressure during interrogation <for e!amp#e,
hooding=, pro#onged p#aying of music, sha&ing, depri"ation of s#eep, threats of
death etc., and medica# e!perimentation.
<2= Free*o" (ro" ar9itrar/ *etention 0 Arti)e ,
The freedom from arbitrary detention ensures that the depri"ation of #iberty
permitted by #aw is not manifest#y disproportionate, un$ust or unpredictab#e,
and that the specific manner in which an arrest is made is not discriminatory,
but is appropriate and proportiona# in "iew of the circumstances of the case.
Therefore, there must be #ega# grounds for the arrest and the arrest must be
e!ecuted in a #awfu# manner. (n important safeguard for this right is the duty
to prompt#y bring the detainee before a $udge who has the power to re#ease the
detainee if the arrest is un#awfu#. This ensures an effecti"e contro# by an
independent authority and therefore reduces the ris& of arbitrary detention.
<2i= Ri#$t to %ien)e 0 Arti)e 1-<1=<#=
The right to si#ence comprises of two e#ements. )irst#y, it is a genera##y
accepted princip#e that the accused cannot be forced to incriminate himse#f?
thus, any coercion e!erted by the $udicia# authorities with the aim of
compe##ing the accused to ma&e a statement or confess gui#t is prohibited
during a## stages of the proceedings. 7econd#y, the right to be presumed
innocent is effected if the $udicia# authorities draw ad"erse inferences from the
si#ence of the accused. The burden of proof rests on the prosecution, so that a
con"iction based so#e#y or main#y on the si#ence of the accused "io#ates the
presumption of innocence. .t is, howe"er, possib#e to draw ad"erse inferences
from the accusedDs si#ence without infringing his fair tria# rights where the
prosecution has a#ready sufficient#y pro"en the charges. To effecti"e#y ma&e
use of his right to remain si#ent, the accused must be informed of his rights.
"ery indi"idua# sha## not be compe##ed to testify against himse#f or confess to
gui#t in the determination of a crimina# charge.
<2ii= Le#a ai* an* e#a re1re%entation 0 Arti)e 1-<7=<*=
This right constitutes one of the most fundamenta# e#ements of a fair tria#. .n
the interests of $ustice, the accused is entit#ed to the minimum guarantees of
#ega# representation and #ega# aid, if he does not ha"e sufficient means, in fu##
eEua#ity.
<2iii= Le#ait/ o( )o!rt% 0 Arti)e 1-<1=
The prereEuisite for a fair tria# is that proceedings are conducted by a
competent, independent and impartia# tribuna# estab#ished by #aw. .n the
interest of the separation of powers, a competent $udicia# body that is not
undu#y inf#uenced by the e!ecuti"e or #egis#ati"e is ca##ed for.
The court or tribuna# hearing a case must be estab#ished by #aw, i.e. the
constitution or other #egis#ation. .t must be competent and ha"e the
$urisdiction to hear the case and it must be impartia# and treat a## persons
before it eEua##y.
<i8= A))e%% to t$e )o!rt% 0 Arti)e ,
The right of access to the courts means that e"eryone must ha"e the
opportunity of addressing a court in order to determine his rights, without
being hindered by the #aw, administrati"e procedures or materia# resources. .n
essence, it is the right to be heard and to be gi"en the opportunity to present
oneDs case.
<8= In*e1en*en)e an* i"1artiait/ o( F!*#e% @ Arti)e% ,<7=> 1-<1=
(n independent $udiciary p#ays a significant ro#e in the protection of fair tria#
standards. 1udges shou#d treat the parties in a fair and eEua# manner and
shou#d ma&e an ob$ecti"e decision based on the facts of the indi"idua# case.
<8i= Tria &it$o!t !n*!e *ea/ 0 Arti)e% ,<7=> 1-<7=<)=
The reEuirement of a prompt tria# in crimina# cases ob#iges the authorities to
ensure that a## proceedings, from the pre-tria# stages to the fina# appea#, are
comp#eted within a reasonab#e time.
(0ii) 7u+li- hearing H Ar!i-le
A@(A)
The "rin-i"le of !he "u+li-
-on'u-! of a !rial -oni! of
!wo -o&"onen!B !he righ! !o a
"u+li- hearing an' !he righ! !o
a "u+li- /u'ge&en!*
The "u+li- na!ure of a hearing
i an i&"or!an! afeguar' in
!he in!ere! of !he in'i.i'ual a
/u!i-e i a'&ini!ere' in a
!ran"aren! &anner* I! alo
"ro.i'e !he -our! wi!h an
o""or!uni!, !o affir& i!
in'e"en'en-e1 i&"ar!iali!, an'
fairne1 !here+, in-reaing a
general ene of !ru! in !he
/u'i-ial ,!e& a&ong !he
-i.ilian "o"ula!ion*
There are e.eral "er&ii+le
e0-e"!ion !o a "u+li- hearing1
+, whi-h !he "re an' !he
"u+li- &a, +e e0-lu'e' fro&
all or "ar! of !he hearing1 for
e0a&"le1 in /u.enile -ae*
<8iii= Ri#$t to an a*eD!ate *e(en)e 0 Arti)e% ,<'=> 1-<7=<a=@<)=
This right inc#udes not on#y the right to be assisted by a #awyer or to defend
onese#f, but a#so to ha"e a## the e#ements of e"idence at oneDs disposa#, as we##
as to put further Euestions to the witnesses. (n integra# part of this right is the
duty of the $udicia# authorities to inform the accused of the charges made
against him, his #ega# rights and of the re#e"ant actions ta&en by the $udicia#
authorities. (## of this pro"ides the defence with an eEua# opportunity to
prepare and present the accused case.
<8i2= Witne%%e% 0 Arti)e 1-<7=<e=
T$e ri#$t to )a an* e8a"ine &itne%%e% i% an inte#ra 1art o( t$e ri#$t to
an a*eD!ate *e(en)e <%ee a9o2e=. It 1ro2i*e% t$e *e(en)e &it$ an
o11ort!nit/ to D!e%tion &itne%%e% &$o )an %!9"it e8oneratin# or
e8ten!atin# e2i*en)e> an* to )$aen#e t$e e2i*en)e 1!t (ort$ 9/ t$e
1ro%e)!tion. Con%eD!en)e o( t$i% ri#$t i% t$at a o( t$e e2i*en)e "!%t
nor"a/ 9e 1ro*!)e* in t$e 1re%en)e o( t$e a))!%e* at a 1!9i) $earin#>
%o t$at t$e e2i*en)e it%e( an* t$e reia9iit/ an* )re*i9iit/ o( t$e &itne%%
)an 9e )$aen#e*.
T$ere )an 9e %o"e e8)e1tion% to t$e r!e> (or e8a"1e to 1rote)t t$e
&itne%%> 9!t t$e%e e8)e1tion% )annot in(rin#e t$e ri#$t% o( t$e *e(en)e.
T$ere "a/ 9e i"it% to t$e ri#$t to e8a"ine &itne%%e% *!e to 1ra)ti)a
(a)tor%> %!)$ a% t$e !na2aia9iit/ o( t$e &itne%% or &$en t$e &itne%%
rea%ona9/ (ear% re1ri%a. Ho&e2er> t$e F!*i)ia a!t$oritie% "!%t not 9e
ne#i#ent in t$eir *!t/ to (in* t$e 1er%on% )on)erne*.
<82= Inter1reter% an* tran%ation 0 Arti)e 1-<7=<a=
The right to an interpreter is essentia#, gi"en that a## rights to a proper defence
are use#ess if the accused does not ha"e the #ingua# capabi#ities to understand
the charges brought against him. .t is indispensab#e for a fair tria# that the
accused is assisted by an interpreter at e"ery stage of the crimina# proceedings
in order to guarantee his right to an adeEuate defence. This right does not on#y
app#y to a#iens, but a#so to members of #inguistic minorities. :ue to the
importance of the assistance of an interpreter in crimina# proceedings, the
costs shou#d be co"ered by the 7tate in a## those cases where the accused has
no financia# resources.
<82i= Ri#$t to a11ea 0 Arti)e 1-<;=
The righ! !o a""eal +alan-e
!he ne-ei!, of ha.ing a
relia+le en!en-e !ha! "ro!e-!
righ! of !he a--ue' on !he
one han'1 an' "ro.i'e a /u'ge
in a higher -our! !o a''re
!he &i!a4e &a, +, !he
"re.iou /u'ge in rea-hing a
'e-iion*
<82ii= 6!2enie% 0 Arti)e% 3<;=> 14<'=<9=> 14<7=> 1-<1=> 1-<-=> '-<1=
Du.enile offen'er are
guaran!ee' "e-ial "ro!e-!ion
in in!erna!ional hu&an righ!
law* A -hil' i a "eron age'
le !han A=1 unle &a/ori!, i
a!!aine' earlier un'er na!ional
law (Ar!i-le A of !he CRC)* The
wi'er "e-ifi-a!ion of
"ro!e-!ion !owar' -hil'ren
ranging fro& "re !rial !o "o!
!rial !age 'eri.e fro& !he
a-4nowle'g&en! of !he
.ulnera+ili!, of -hil'ren an'
!he in!ere! of !he !a!e an'
!he o-ie!, in "ro!e-!ing !he&*
Ar!i-le @$ of !he CRC -all for
a !rea!&en! -oni!en! wi!h
!he "ro&o!ion of !he -hil'6
ene of 'igni!, an' !he
'eira+ili!, of !he -hil'6
rein!egra!ion in o-ie!,*
Therefore1 e"ara!e /u.enile
/u!i-e ,!e& !o han'le
-ae of a--ue' -hil'ren are
'eira+le* To ena+le !he
rein!egra!ion in !he o-ial
en.iron&en! re-or' of -hil'
offen'er &u! +e !ri-!l,
-onfi'en!ial an' onl,
a--ei+le !o au!horie'
offi-ial* To "ro!e-! !he "ri.a-,
an' !o a.oi' !he !ig&a!ia!ion
of !he -hil'ren1 !rial of
/u.enile houl' e0-lu'e !he
"u+li- an' !he "re* Thi
e0-e"!ion fro& !he "u+li-
hearing i alo e0!en'e' !o
/u'ge&en! for !he a&e
reaon* Du.enile houl' +e
e"ara!e' fro& a'ul! if !he,
are u+/e-!e' !o i&"rion&en!*
B. Aternati2e Met$o*% o( Di%1!te Re%o!tion
1. Intro*!)tion
(#ternati"e :ispute Reso#ution <(:R= mechanisms range from mediation and
conci#iation, in which a third party presents a non-binding so#ution to a dispute, to
arbitration, in which disputants are contractua##y bound to abide by a third partyDs
decision. (:R mechanisms can shorten the time needed to reso#"e disputes, #ower
#itigation costs, and a##e"iate s#ow or o"erburdened courts.
61
61
Roberts, 7. and /a#mer, ;., 1is-ute Processes. A1R and the Primar! 0orms o" 1ecision2Ma3ing
<Cambridge% Cambridge 'ni"ersity /ress, 2334=.
(:R encompasses a range of means to reso#"e conf#icts without forma# #itigation.
The interest in (:R in some countries a#so stems from a desire to re"i"e and reform
traditiona# mediation mechanisms.
(:R today fa##s into three broad categories%
<i= Court-anne!ed options?
<ii= Community-based dispute reso#ution mechanisms? and
<iii= Commercia# arbitration.
'. Co!rt@anne8e* ADR

Court-anne!ed (:R inc#udes mediation and conci#iation, where a neutra# third party
assists disputants in reaching a mutua##y acceptab#e so#ution. -ther forms of court-
anne!ed (:R inc#ude "ariations of ear#y neutra# e"a#uation, a summary $ury tria#, a
mini-tria#, and other techniEues. 7upporters argue that such methods decrease the cost
and time of #itigation, impro"ing access to $ustice and reducing court bac&#og, whi#e
at the same time preser"ing important socia# re#ationships for disputants.
7. Co""!nit/@9a%e* ADR
Community-based (:R is often designed to be independent of a forma# court system
that may be percei"ed as being biased, e!pensi"e, distant, or otherwise inaccessib#e to
a popu#ation. 8ew initiati"es sometimes bui#d on traditiona# mode#s of popu#ar
$ustice that re#ied on e#ders, re#igious #eaders, or other community figures to he#p
reso#"e conf#ict.
-. Co""er)ia ar9itration
7ome definitions of (:R a#so inc#ude commercia# arbitration, which are pri"ate
ad"ersaria# proceedings in which a neutra# third party issues a binding decision. .n
the #ast decade, more countries ha"e passed #egis#ation based on the 1954 '8C.TR(9
<'nited 8ations Commission on .nternationa# Trade 9aw= ;ode# 9aw on
.nternationa# Commercia# (rbitration, which ma&es an arbitra# award #ega##y binding
and grants broad rights to commercia# parties choosing arbitration.
C. A(#$an Met$o*% o( Aternati2e Di%1!te Re%o!tion
)or centuries, the traditiona# institution of the irga has operated as an important
mechanism of dispute sett#ement in (fghanistan, and has contributed to the
maintenance of socia# order in the country significant#y. The term irga is wide#y used
in /ashto, but is a#so found in :ariC/ersian and Tur&ish #anguages. .n the cu#tura# and
po#itica# conte!t of (fghan society, irga is more c#ose#y associated with the ritua#s
and processes of the /ashtun traditiona# triba# institution of dispute sett#ement, where
peop#e gather and sit in a #arge circ#e in order to reso#"e disputes, or ma&e co##ecti"e
decisions about important socia# issues.
62
"en though irga is more strong#y bound up with the triba# economy and society of
the ma$ority /ashtuns of (fghanistan, the irga has a#so been identified as in the form
of a shura in rura#, or #ess urbanised parts of (fghanistan where the minority (fghan
Ta$i&s, HaAaras, 'Abe&s dominate. (mong (fghan Ta$i&s, HaAaras and 'Abe&s, the
shura operates as a mechanism of conf#ict reso#ution to reso#"e a conf#ict between
indi"idua#s, fami#ies, groups of fami#ies or who#e tribes.

(#though irga is a pre-.s#amic institution, its fundamenta# spirit and phi#osophy is
genera##y compatib#e with teachings in the Quran. (s the o"erwhe#ming ma$ority of
the (fghan popu#ation are fo##owers of .s#am, they adhere to the phi#osophy and the
spirit of irga since it is does not contradict their re#igious be#iefs. The di"erse triba#
and ethnic character of irga has been trans#ated into the nationa# po#itica# #ife of
(fghan society, where the two houses of (fghan par#iament ha"e been named wolasi
irga <#ower house= and mashrano irga <upper house= and the periodica##y he#d grand
(fghan assemb#y as lo!a irga.
( irga may be he#d at different #e"e#s of socia# organiAation of (fghan society I
nationa#, triba# <or regiona#= and #oca# #e"e#s. (t the nationa# #e"e#, a grand (fghan
62
,arda&, (#i, GThe .nstitution of 1irga and 9oca# :ispute 7ett#ement in (fghanistanD <:raft /aper=, To
Be /ub#ished 2330.
assemb#y of e#ders and po#itica# figures constitute the lo!a irga and periodica##y meet
in order to ma&e decisions on issues of nationa# importance such as dec#aration of
war, or treaties of peace, adopting a constitution. (t the #ower <sub-nationa#= #e"e#s, it
is the #awmi irga and #oca# irga <or mara3a= that operate to sett#e informa# disputes
at triba# and #oca# "i##age #e"e#s, respecti"e#y.
The #oca# "i##age based irga is more common#y and freEuent#y used to dea# with the
day-to-day prob#ems and disputes in (fghan society and is an important mechanism
of informa# dispute sett#ement in (fghan society. The #oca# irga norma##y operates
within the conte!t of a &inship group <3hel=. The 3hel is not necessari#y confined to
one "i##age and may be spread in other "i##ages. Therefore, the #oca# irga is in"o&ed
to reso#"e disputes among members of more than one "i##age.
The #oca# irga and its &ey e#ements may be defined as%
( #oca# institution of dispute sett#ement that incorporates pre"a#ent time and space-
bound nar3h <ci"i# and pena# triba# customary #aws=, institutiona#iAed ritua#s, and a
body of mara3achian <mediators or negotiators= whose -ri3ra <fina#
ru#ingCdecision= about the sett#ement of a dispute <or #oca# prob#em= is binding on
the parties in"o#"ed.
This definition imp#ies that an assemb#y of a 3hel(s members without the &ey
constituent e#ements of nar3h, institutiona#ised ritua#s, mara3achian and -ri3ra in the
#oca# irga does not ha"e binding institutiona# conseEuences. The materia#isation of
a## these four e#ements is c#ose#y #in&ed to the credibi#ity of the process of irga, and
to the #egitimacy and mora#ity of its fina# "erdict.

The #oca# irga is norma##y he#d in a specia##y designated open and pub#ic p#ace,
where members congregate together to dea# with disputes ranging from re#ati"e#y
minor issues such as ci"i# disputes o"er the #and, property and inheritance to crimina#
matters "arying from, minor bodi#y harm to murder. .n this en"ironment, men,
irrespecti"e of their different socio-economic status, see one another as eEua#s. The
#oca# irga is seen as being ega#itarian, where there is no hierarchy of spea&ers and no
chairman present. :ecisions within the #oca# irga are often conc#uded within a few
days. ( #oca# irga is usua##y hosted either by re#ati"es of the disputants or by
inf#uentia# members of the "i##age based 3hel upon raising an issue that see&s
reso#ution.
The process of engaging the mar3achain to reach the -ri3ra <outcome= of irga has
restorati"e imp#ications and a binding effect on the conduct of the parties, when it is
arri"ed at fair#y. .n the e"ent that any of these sta&eho#ders, especia##y the disputants,
see a -ri3ra as unfair it may be re$ected. This is referred to as 3og2nar&h, the
app#ication of a wrong nar3h, when the misinterpretation of the pre"a#ent nar3h, or
corruption and fa"ouritism by the mar3achain has ta&en p#ace.
.n this scenario, the dissatisfied party must ha"e the support of the "i##age in order to
be ab#e to appea# to another irga. .f the second irga confirms that a 3og2nar3h has
ta&en p#ace, then the mara3achian #ose their reputation and the right to participate in
future irgas. .n addition, they are a#so he#d to account by ha"ing to pay tawan
<compensation= to the parties. 9i&e triba# irga, #oca# irga can a#so be recon"ened
three times? the decision of the third irga is fina# and must be imp#emented.
The Gtraditiona# authorityD of mara3achian p#ays a crucia# part in achie"ing a -ri3ra
that is satisfactory to a## the parties. The main sources of the mara3achian(s
#egitimacy are their persona# Eua#ities of piety, re#igiosity, generosity, "irtuousness,
socia# status, #eadership s&i##s and &now#edge of irga ru#es and pre"a#ent customary
#aws. The mara3achian a#so s&i#fu##y use persuasion by in"o&ing the fear of (##ah as
we## as the threat to the nang aw namos, co##ecti"e honour, and to the unity of 3hel, as
important techniEues to arri"e arri"ing at an acceptab#e outcome.
The #oca# irga has its own informa# mechanisms of enforcing its -ri3ra, which ma&e
it difficu#t for a disputant to go against a irga decision. Howe"er, shou#d any of the
parties choose not to adhere to the -ri3ra, they may face ratal, a co##ecti"e socia#
boycott of the disobedient by the who#e "i##age. (#ternati"e#y, in some cases, they
may be ordered to pay nagha, a fine. .n some parts of (fghanistan, irga decisions are
e!ecuted by force by the ar&a3ian, who are usua##y young, unmarried ma#e members
of the "i##age or tribe who ha"e the responsibi#ity to imp#ement irga decisions. .n
some cases, they may be authorised to burn the house of the offender who does not
adhere to irga decisions andCor persists in re-offending. .n other cases, irga may
recommend the marriage of a woman from the -ar4s, con"icted personDs side, to the
"ictimDs c#ose re#ati"e as a sett#ement of a dispute.
(#though these practices ha"e become rare in the #oca# irga, they are sti## pre"a#ent in
areas where war#ords and commanders continue to ru#e. Howe"er, studies suggest
that irgas and shuras created by these war#ords are gradua##y being rep#aced by the
more independent traditiona# #oca# irgas, and the authority of respected "i##age and
triba# e#ders is being restored. This has been attributed to the war#ordsD #oss of
credibi#ity and #egitimacy among the #oca# peop#e.
8e"erthe#ess, some of the practices of the traditiona# irga or shura, must be
condemned as they "io#ate nationa#, .s#amic and internationa# human rights #aw. .n
the 21
st
century, the traditiona##y patriarcha# institution of the #oca# irga can on#y
function as an ega#itarian institution if it inc#udes the participation of both men and
women. Therefore, it reEuires reform on "arious #e"e#s. .n order for the #oca# irga to
fu##y rea#ise its potentia#, it needs to be independent and freed from the i##egitimate
inf#uence of war#ords. )ina##y, a## its decisions must be compatib#e with the nationa#
#aws and the fundamenta# princip#es of human rights. The e!perience of the recent#y
he#d /mergenc! and Constitutional Lo!al *irgas in (fghanistan ha"e shown that the
institution of irga has the capacity to bridge tradition with modern "a#ues.
BIBLIOGRAPH.
Te8t%:
(#der, 1., Constitutional and Administrative Law <Hampshire% /a#gra"e ;acmi##an,
2334=.
Char#esworth, H. and Chin&in, C., %he &oundaries o" international law. A "eminist
anal!sis <;anchester% ;anchester 'ni"ersity /ress, 2333=.
*uhr, (., Hob, C. and ;oschtaghi, R., 0air %rial Standards in the A"ghan
Constitution, the A"ghan Code o" Criminal Procedure, the A"ghan Penal Code and the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights <;/. .nstitute for Comparati"e
/ub#ic 9aw and .nternationa# 9aw% 2336=.
0ens1i2 .! )!2 Comparative Law in a Global Context 34ondon5
$latinum $ublishing 4imited2 200+6!
-ffice of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and .nternationa# Bar
(ssociation, /rofessiona# Training 7eries 8o. 9, Human Rights in the Administration
o" *ustice+ A Manual on Human Rights "or *udges, Prosecutors and Law!ers <8ew
Por& and *ene"a% 'nited 8ations, 233@=.
Roberts, 7. and /a#mer, ;., 1is-ute Processes. A1R and the Primar! 0orms o"
1ecision2Ma3ing <Cambridge% Cambridge 'ni"ersity /ress, 2334=.
7teiner, H. 1. and (ston, /., International Human Rights in Context. Law Politics and
Morals. 7econd dition <-!ford% -!ford 'ni"ersity /ress, 2333=.
Tahmind$is, /. and :e ;arco, 9., International ,ar Association Position Pa-er .
/sta&lishing an Inde-endent ,ar Association in A"ghanistan <8o"ember 2334=.
Van Bueren, *., %he International Law on the Rights o" the Child <The Hague%
J#uwer 9aw .nternationa#, 1995=.
,arda&, (#i, GBui#ding a post-$ustice system in (fghanistanD in Crime, Law and
Social Change 61, pp.@19-@61, 2336.
,arda&, (#i, GThe .nstitution of 1irga and 9oca# :ispute 7ett#ement in (fghanistanD
<:raft /aper=, To Be /ub#ished 2330.
ds. ,e#chman, 9. and Hossain, 7., 'Honour( Crimes, Paradigms and )iolence
<9ondon% Led Boo&s 9imited, 2334=.
We9%ite%:
A(#$an In*e1en*ent H!"an Ri#$t% Co""i%%ion:
http%CCwww.aihrc.org.afC
Bar H!"an Ri#$t% Co""ittee:
http%CCwww.barhumanrights.org.u&C
Forei#n + Co""on&eat$ O((i)e> U?:
http%CCwww.fco.go".u&
Co""on&eat$ <Lati"er Ho!%e= Prin)i1e%:
http%CCwww.thecommonwea#th.orgCsharedFaspFfi#esCup#oadedfi#esCQ(CC92H3(-
929-6(3-()9-6(()C056H9CRF9atimerS23HouseS23Boo&#et
S231@3436.pdf
Core Internationa H!"an Ri#$t% In%tr!"ent% an* Treat/ Bo*ie%:
http%CCwww.ohchr.orgCeng#ishC#awCinde!.htm
Internationa Bar A%%o)iation 0 Internationa Co*e o( Et$i)%:
http%CCwww.ibanet.orgCimagesCdown#oadsC.nternationa#Fthics.pdf


BAR HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE OF ENGLAND AND WALES
GARDEN COURT CHAMBERS
:E9%$ LINCOLN6S INN FIELDS
LONDON WC#A >LS
UNITED 3INGDOM
TelB I@@($)#$ E;;> EE::
Fa0B I@@($)#$ E;;> EE$$
E&ailB +hr-J-o&"uer.e*-o&
We+i!eB www*+arhu&anrigh!*org*u4