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# FMA1 Lecture Notes 2 in Math 1

## A) How do you negate statements?

Keyword Example Negation
Every; All Every A is B.  Not every A is B. or
 Some A are not B. or
 Not all of A is B.or
 There exists an A
which is not B
Every, all All UPOU students are  Not every UPOU
responsible. student is responsible.
 Some UPOU students
are not responsible.
 Not all UPOU students
are responsible.
 There is a UPOU
student who is not
responsible.
In general, to negate All A are B the negation of all is some A followed by not B.
To negate Some A are B, the negation of some is every A followed by not B.
Some Some A are B.  Every A is not B
Some Some entertainers sing  Every entertainer does
well. not sing well.
 Ibig sabihin ang pag-negate ng “All are …” o “Lahat ay …” ay “Ilan ay
hindi …” o “Some are not …” o “Hindi lahat ay…” o “Not all are…” o “May
d bababa sa isa na hindi …” o “There exists at least one who is not …”.
 Halimbawa:
All are brave.  Some are not brave.
 Not all are brave.
 There exists at least one who is
not brave.
May dimples ang lahat.  Walang dimples ang ilan.
 Ang ilan ay walang dimples.
 Hindi lahat ang may dimples.
 D bababa sa isa ang bilang ng
walang dimples.
All are …  Some are not …
Lahat ay …  Ang ilan ay hindi …

##  Ganito naman ang negasyon ng “Some” o “Ilan”

Some are …  All are not …
 Every one is not …
 None is …
Ilan ay …  Lahat ay hindi …
 Bawat isa ay hindi …

 Halimbawa:
Some UPOU students are entertainers.  All UPOU students are not
entertainers.
 Every UPOU student is not an
entertainer.
 No UPOU student is an
entertainer.
 None in the UPOU studentry is an
entertainer.
May bisyo ang ilan sa mga atleta.  Lahat ng atleta ay walang bisyo.
O walang bisyo ang lahat ng
atleta.
 Bawat atleta ay walang bisyo. O
Walang bisyo ang bawat atleta.
 Walang atleta ang may bisyo.
 Wala sa mga atleta ang may
bisyo.
 Gets niyo?

## B) Punta naman tayo sa mga ARGUMENTS o ARGUMENTO.

 Define an argument: An argument consists of a set of premises all assumed to
be true and a conclusion.
 What is a valid argument? If the premises force the conclusion to be true
then the argument is valid.
 What is an invalid argument? If the premises cannot force the statement to
be true then the argument is Not Valid.

## C) Modeling or representing a statement by Venn Diagrams. Magtataka kayo cguro

kung paano natin ire-present ang isang simple statement by venn diagram. Ganito
yon:
1) Bawat statement ay kailangan ire-present ng 2 venn diagrams o bilog, isa para sa
subject, isa para sa predicate. Ang isang circle ay nagrere-present ng All of the
subject; ang pangalawa naman ay nagrere-present ng All of the predicate. Ang 2
venn diagrams na ito (usually circles) ay maaring intersecting, disjoint o subset ang
isa nung isa depende sa statement.
 Halimbawa:
Statement Set representation Venn Diagram
All birds sing beautifully B = Set of all birds
F = Set of all who sing B
beautifully

## Statement Set representation Venn Diagram

Some birds sing beautifully. B = Set of all birds
F = Set of all who sing B
beautifully

## No bird sings beautifully. B = Set of all birds

F = Set of all who sing B
beautifully

## 2) Ang isang elemento ay nirere-present ng point na may label din.

A parrot. • P parrot

##  Examples of an argument. Test the validity of the following arguments using

venn diagrams:
Argument Set representation Venn Diagram Conclusion
1) All birds sing B = Set of all birds Valid because
beautifully. F = Set of all who sing B the premises
A parrot is a bird. beautifully. • P parrot force the
Therefore a parrot • P parrot parrot to be
sings beautifully. F included in
the set of all
who sing
beautifully.
Argument Set Venn Diagram Conclusion
representation
2) Some birds sing B = Set of all Not Valid because
beautifully. birds B the premises do not
A parrot is a bird. F = Set of all who require that P ay
Therefore a parrot sing beautifully. nasa sakop lamang
sings beautifully. • P parrot • P parrot ng F. Ang masasabi
lamang ng premises
ay basta nasa
sakop ang P ng B.
• P parrot Sa gayon, Basta
nasa loob ng B,
maari itong nasa
F labas ng F, kaya
hindi valid. Kahit
nga ba maaring
nasa loob ng F ang
• P, the fact na
dalawa ang
possibleng sagot na
magkasalungat,
HINDI VALID ang
kongklusyon.

## D) Mga properties o kaangkinan ng relasyon: Ipagpalagay na ang relasyon ng 2

elemento ng isang mathematical system ay “R”. Ang mga properties ng “R” ay
maaring:
1) Reflexive. Let a ∈ S, R a relation a S is said to be REFLEXIVE if and only if
a R a. For example if R is equality, since a = a then R is reflexive. And if R is
“LOVES”, a R a because everybody should love himself for how can one love
others if he does not love himself?
2) Symmetric. Let a, b ∈ S, R a relation in S is said to be SYMMETRIC if and
only if a R b then b R a. Masasabi natin na symmetric ang isang relasyon
kung malalagyan natin ng panlaping MAG. Halimbawa, R = LOVES, dapat
lang: a R b ⇔ b R a. MAGMAHALAN, hindi lang MAHAL NI.
3) Transitive. Let a, b, c ∈ S, R a relation in S is said to be TRANSITIVE if and
only if a R b and if b R c then a R c. Samakatuwid, ang R ay transitive kung
maaring magkarelasyon ang a at c dahil sa kapwa relasyon nila sa b.
Halimbawa R = PINSAN. Magpinsan si a at b; Magpinsan si b at c pero
hindi natin masasabi na Magpinsan sina a at c. Pero paano kung gaya ng
nasa FMA1, R = MAGKAPATID? Denifine natin ang magkapatid basta lang
mayroon silang common na magulang gaya nina Eric Cuison at Vandolph.