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Keyword Example Negation

Every; All Every A is B. Not every A is B. or

Some A are not B. or

Not all of A is B.or

There exists an A

which is not B

Every, all All UPOU students are Not every UPOU

responsible. student is responsible.

Some UPOU students

are not responsible.

Not all UPOU students

are responsible.

There is a UPOU

student who is not

responsible.

In general, to negate All A are B the negation of all is some A followed by not B.

To negate Some A are B, the negation of some is every A followed by not B.

Some Some A are B. Every A is not B

Some Some entertainers sing Every entertainer does

well. not sing well.

Ibig sabihin ang pag-negate ng “All are …” o “Lahat ay …” ay “Ilan ay

hindi …” o “Some are not …” o “Hindi lahat ay…” o “Not all are…” o “May

d bababa sa isa na hindi …” o “There exists at least one who is not …”.

Halimbawa:

All are brave. Some are not brave.

Not all are brave.

There exists at least one who is

not brave.

May dimples ang lahat. Walang dimples ang ilan.

Ang ilan ay walang dimples.

Hindi lahat ang may dimples.

D bababa sa isa ang bilang ng

walang dimples.

All are … Some are not …

Lahat ay … Ang ilan ay hindi …

Some are … All are not …

Every one is not …

None is …

Ilan ay … Lahat ay hindi …

Bawat isa ay hindi …

Halimbawa:

Some UPOU students are entertainers. All UPOU students are not

entertainers.

Every UPOU student is not an

entertainer.

No UPOU student is an

entertainer.

None in the UPOU studentry is an

entertainer.

May bisyo ang ilan sa mga atleta. Lahat ng atleta ay walang bisyo.

O walang bisyo ang lahat ng

atleta.

Bawat atleta ay walang bisyo. O

Walang bisyo ang bawat atleta.

Walang atleta ang may bisyo.

Wala sa mga atleta ang may

bisyo.

Gets niyo?

Define an argument: An argument consists of a set of premises all assumed to

be true and a conclusion.

What is a valid argument? If the premises force the conclusion to be true

then the argument is valid.

What is an invalid argument? If the premises cannot force the statement to

be true then the argument is Not Valid.

kung paano natin ire-present ang isang simple statement by venn diagram. Ganito

yon:

1) Bawat statement ay kailangan ire-present ng 2 venn diagrams o bilog, isa para sa

subject, isa para sa predicate. Ang isang circle ay nagrere-present ng All of the

subject; ang pangalawa naman ay nagrere-present ng All of the predicate. Ang 2

venn diagrams na ito (usually circles) ay maaring intersecting, disjoint o subset ang

isa nung isa depende sa statement.

Halimbawa:

Statement Set representation Venn Diagram

All birds sing beautifully B = Set of all birds

F = Set of all who sing B

beautifully

Some birds sing beautifully. B = Set of all birds

F = Set of all who sing B

beautifully

F = Set of all who sing B

beautifully

A parrot. • P parrot

venn diagrams:

Argument Set representation Venn Diagram Conclusion

1) All birds sing B = Set of all birds Valid because

beautifully. F = Set of all who sing B the premises

A parrot is a bird. beautifully. • P parrot force the

Therefore a parrot • P parrot parrot to be

sings beautifully. F included in

the set of all

who sing

beautifully.

Argument Set Venn Diagram Conclusion

representation

2) Some birds sing B = Set of all Not Valid because

beautifully. birds B the premises do not

A parrot is a bird. F = Set of all who require that P ay

Therefore a parrot sing beautifully. nasa sakop lamang

sings beautifully. • P parrot • P parrot ng F. Ang masasabi

lamang ng premises

ay basta nasa

sakop ang P ng B.

• P parrot Sa gayon, Basta

nasa loob ng B,

maari itong nasa

F labas ng F, kaya

hindi valid. Kahit

nga ba maaring

nasa loob ng F ang

• P, the fact na

dalawa ang

possibleng sagot na

magkasalungat,

HINDI VALID ang

kongklusyon.

elemento ng isang mathematical system ay “R”. Ang mga properties ng “R” ay

maaring:

1) Reflexive. Let a ∈ S, R a relation a S is said to be REFLEXIVE if and only if

a R a. For example if R is equality, since a = a then R is reflexive. And if R is

“LOVES”, a R a because everybody should love himself for how can one love

others if he does not love himself?

2) Symmetric. Let a, b ∈ S, R a relation in S is said to be SYMMETRIC if and

only if a R b then b R a. Masasabi natin na symmetric ang isang relasyon

kung malalagyan natin ng panlaping MAG. Halimbawa, R = LOVES, dapat

lang: a R b ⇔ b R a. MAGMAHALAN, hindi lang MAHAL NI.

3) Transitive. Let a, b, c ∈ S, R a relation in S is said to be TRANSITIVE if and

only if a R b and if b R c then a R c. Samakatuwid, ang R ay transitive kung

maaring magkarelasyon ang a at c dahil sa kapwa relasyon nila sa b.

Halimbawa R = PINSAN. Magpinsan si a at b; Magpinsan si b at c pero

hindi natin masasabi na Magpinsan sina a at c. Pero paano kung gaya ng

nasa FMA1, R = MAGKAPATID? Denifine natin ang magkapatid basta lang

mayroon silang common na magulang gaya nina Eric Cuison at Vandolph.

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