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# Adjustable Frequency Drive Application Training

## AFD Professional Services

C. J. Cowie 2001 1
Power Factor
Explanation of the concept
How the concept applies to drives
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C. J. Cowie 2001 2
Power in DC circuits:
) Amps ( Current ) Volts ( Voltage ) Watts ( Power
The basic equation of power
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t tan ins that At
time in
t tan ins an At
) I ( Current ) V ( Voltage Power
-800
0
800
W 000 , 240 A 6 . 353 V 8 . 678
W 000 , 240 A 6 . 353 V 8 . 678
V
I
Power in AC Circuits
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-800
0
800
0 90 180 270 360
V(Volts)
I(Amps)
P(Watts)
P
AVG
Degrees
Instantaneous and Average Power
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-800
0
800
0 90 180 270 360
kW 240 Power Peak
kW 120
2
Power Peak
Power Average
Instantaneous and Average Power
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C. J. Cowie 2001 6
Square root of the average of the squares
of the instantaneous values of a waveform
For a sine wave:
707 . 0 Peak
2
Peak
2
Peak
RMS
2

Root Mean Square (RMS)
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C. J. Cowie 2001 7
RMS V 480 707 . 0 Peak V 8 . 678
RMS A 250 707 . 0 Peak A 6 . 353
kW 120 RMS A 250 RMS V 480
RMS Power Calculation for the Example
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L
I
+
S
V V
C
I
+
S
V V
V
I
L
or V
C
V
L
or I
C
A Review of Inductive and Capacitive Circuits
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-800
0
800
0 90 180 270 360
V(Volts)
Degrees
C
V lags I
L
Inductance and Capacitance in AC Circuits
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C. J. Cowie 2001 10
In a purely inductive circuit, the average power is zero
When V and I are both positive or both negative, power is positive
(flows from the source to the inductor)
When the signs are opposite, power is negative
(flows from the inductor to the source)
Power in an Inductive Circuit
+ +
_
_
+
_
_
_
_
+
+
+
+
+
+
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-800
0
800
0 90 180 270 360

V(Volts)
I(Amps)
P(Watts)
P
AVG
Degrees
cos I V Power
RMS RMS

Power with Inductance and Resistance
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C. J. Cowie 2001 12
cos I V Power
RMS RMS

One definition of Power Factor:
Power Factor is the cosine of the phase angle between the
voltage and current in an AC circuit.
cos pf
Power Factor
pf I V Power
RMS RMS

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C. J. Cowie 2001 13
Vector Representations
The phase relationships in AC circuits are often represented by vectors
The supply voltage is usually the reference quantity
and is represented by a horizontal vector
S
V
Current that is not in phase with the supply voltage
is represented by a vector at an angle
Z
I
S
V
Z
I
The angle between the voltage vector and the current vector
is the phase angle between the voltage and current waveforms
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C. J. Cowie 2001 14
The current vector can be separated into real
and reactive components
Current that is in phase with the supply voltage, real current,
is represented by a horizontal vector. The real component of the
current is the part that supplies power to the load.
Current that is 90 out of phase with the supply voltage, reactive current,
is represented as a vertical vector. The power associated with the reactive
current is not transmitted to the load but is transferred back and forth
between the supply and storage in the inductance or capacitance of the load
X
I
R
I
X
I
R
I
Z
I
Real and Reactive Components of Current
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C. J. Cowie 2001 15
Watts, Voltamperes and VARs
The real component of current multiplied by the voltage
is the power or Watts delivered to the load.
The reactive component of current multiplied by the voltage is the power that
transfers back and forth between the supply and the inductance or capacitance in
the load. This power is called the reactive voltamperes or VARs.
The sum of the Watts vector and the VARs vector is the VA or voltamperes,
also sometimes called apparent power.
VARs
Watts
VA
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C. J. Cowie 2001 16
Implications of Power Factor
When the pf = 1.0, all of the current is delivering power to the load.
When the pf < 1.0, only part of the current is delivering power to the load.
Operating with pf as close as possible to 1.0 means using the minimum
current to deliver the required power.
Pf = 1.0
Pf = 0.95
26% less current
Pf = 0.7
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C. J. Cowie 2001 17
Implications of Power Factor
Minimizing current minimizes losses in transformers and other
power distribution equipment.
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Implications of Power Factor
Minimizing current makes more power source capacity available
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Implications of Power Factor
The electric utility may charge a penalty for using power at
a low power factor.
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Power Factor Correction
The power factor of an inductive load is corrected or compensated
by connecting capacitors in parallel with the load
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C. J. Cowie 2001 21
pf 3 I V Power
RMS RMS

Power in Three Phase Circuits
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C. J. Cowie 2001 22
pf 3 I V Power
RMS RMS

3 I V
Power
pf
RMS RMS

## Rearranging the above equation:

Another Definition of Power Factor
s Voltampere
Power
pf
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C. J. Cowie 2001 23
Introduction to Harmonics
Harmonics are a mathematical device for analyzing distorted
sine waves and other periodic waveforms.
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C. J. Cowie 2001 24
The Basic Concept
By the principal of Fourier analysis, any periodic waveform is
equivalent to the sum of an infinite series of sine waves of
various amplitudes and frequencies.
The series of sine waves consists of a Fundamental component
which has a frequency equal to the basic frequency of the waveform
and Harmonics which have frequencies that are integral multiples
of the fundamental.
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C. J. Cowie 2001 25
H1 (Fundamental)
H5
H1 + H5
Example: Fundamental plus 5th Harmonic
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H1 (V)
H5 (I)
H1 X H5
Average
Harmonic Currents Do Not Deliver Power
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Power Factor or cos for the fundamental components
of the voltage and current waveforms
3 I RMS l Fundamenta V RMS l Fundamenta
) Watts ( Power
pf nt Displaceme

## Displacement Power Factor

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C. J. Cowie 2001 28
Combines the effect of phase shift in the fundamental components
with the effect of harmonic content
Neither reactive current nor harmonic current contribute to
the power delivered by a sinusoidal voltage source
3 Current RMS Total Voltage RMS Total
) Watts ( Power
Factor Power Total

## Total Power Factor

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C. J. Cowie 2001 29
*kVA represented by the diagonal is always
longer in three dimensions, than any two
dimensional side.
A
p
p
a
r
e
n
t

P
o
w
e
r

(
k
V
A
)
*
Real Power (kW)
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
V
A
R
)
D
i
s
t
o
r
t
i
o
n
Total Power Factor Vector Representation
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pf nt Displaceme pf Total
2
Distortion Current Harmonic Total 1
pf nt Displaceme
pf Total

## Assuming negligible harmonic voltage distortion

Total pf and Displacement pf
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C. J. Cowie 2001 31
Total Power Factor is often called the True or Real Power Factor
Total pf can be used to calculate power from
True RMS values of voltage and current
If the utility uses rotating disk kilowatt hour and kilovar hour
meters, displacement pf is calculated
Real Power Factor
Either displacement pf or total pf may be of interest depending on what
kind of calculations are being performed and what methods are used
by the utility in measuring and billing usage.
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C. J. Cowie 2001 32
Equipment pf Ratings
Manufacturers of drives and other nonlinear loads do not publish
total pf ratings because total pf is determined by harmonic content
and harmonic content is partly determined by the characteristics of
the power source.
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C. J. Cowie 2001 33
pf kVA Added pf kVA esent Pr
pf New

## This formula only calculates displacement pf from fundamental values of kVA

Total pf calculation requires calculating the new Total RMS current

2
HN
2
2 H
2
1 H
2
l Fundamenta
I . . . I I I Current RMS Total
Connecting New Equipment
Calculating the Effect on pf
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C. J. Cowie 2001 34
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Power
Factor
Percent Speed
PWM AC Drive
6 - Pulse DC Drive
Displacement Power Factor vs. Speed
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C. J. Cowie 2001 35
Displacement pf
Total pf
Typical drive
with bus or line
chokes
Typical drive
without chokes
Total Harmonic Current Distortion
Power
Factor
PWM AF Drive Power Factor
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120%
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C. J. Cowie 2001 36
Example:
Distribution transformer: 2000 KVA, 5% impedance
Drive characteristics:
Load: 500 Hp total PWM drives with no line or bus inductance, no other loads
From the TCI Analyzer: ITHD = 68.7% (at the drive terminals)
Assume drive Displacement pf = 0.96
Drive Total pf = 0.791
2
Distortion Current Harmonic Total 1
pf nt Displaceme
pf Total

## Adjustable Frequency Drive Application Training

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C. J. Cowie 2001 37
Now assume that prior to installing the drive, the example
system has the equivalent of 1000 Hp of linear load at 0.9 pf.
System Displacement pf = (1000 x .9 + 500 x .96)/1500 Displacement pf = 0.92
From the TCI Analyzer: ITHD = 22.9% (for the total transformer current)
System Total pf = 0.897
The impact of the drive is to raise the system Displacement pf from 0.9 to 0.92
while lowering the system Total pf only slightly from 0.9 to 0.897.
Impact of Drive on Power System:
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C. J. Cowie 2001 38
Displacement pf = .791 then the impact on the system would be to lower the
system Displacement pf from 0.9 to 0.864
Displacement pf = (1000 x .9 + 500 x .791)/1500 = 0.864
Comparison
Displacement pf Equivalent to Drive Total pf
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C. J. Cowie 2001 39
Compensating Drive pf
Power factor compensation is possible for drives that have a low
displacement pf, but harmonic issues must be carefully considered.
Reducing or compensating harmonic current will increase
a drives total power factor.
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C. J. Cowie 2001 40
Review
Power Factor is the cosine of the phase angle between the
voltage and current in an AC circuit.
cos pf
pf I V Power
RMS RMS

For 3 Phase:
pf 3 I V Power
RMS RMS

s Voltampere
Power
pf
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C. J. Cowie 2001 41
Review
Operating with pf as close as possible to 1.0 means using the minimum
current to deliver the required power.
Minimizing current minimizes losses in transformers and other
power distribution equipment.
Minimizing current makes more power source capacity available
The electric utility may charge a penalty for using power at
a low power factor.
AFD Professional Services
C. J. Cowie 2001 42
Review
3 I RMS l Fundamenta V RMS l Fundamenta
) Watts ( Power
pf nt Displaceme

## Displacement Power Factor is the power factor or cos for the

fundamental components of the voltage and current waveforms
pf nt Displaceme pf Total
2
Distortion Current Harmonic Total 1
pf nt Displaceme
pf Total

## 3 Current RMS Total Voltage RMS Total

) Watts ( Power
Factor Power Total

## Adjustable Frequency Drive Application Training

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C. J. Cowie 2001 43
Review
Either displacement pf or total pf may be of interest depending on what
kind of calculations are being performed and what methods are used
by the utility in measuring and billing usage.
Power factor compensation is possible for drives that have a low
displacement pf, but harmonic issues must be carefully considered.
Reducing or compensating harmonic current will increase
a drives total power factor.