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Latest revision, 03 October 2003, 8:30 a.m.

Resistance

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A resistor impedes the flow of both DC and AC currents. The schematic diagram for a resistor is

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where R is the resistance in ohms , V = V1 - V2 is the voltage drop across the resistor in volts (V), and I is the current flowing through the resistor in amperes (A). Note: Some authors use E instead of V for voltage (or electric potential). In these notes, both E and V are used. The current through a resistor and the voltage drop across a resistor change instantaneously with time. At any instant of time, Ohm's Law holds, i.e. V = IR. Ohm's Law is valid for both DC and AC signals. Resistors in series

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For resistors in series, the current is the same through each resistor, but the voltage drop may differ across each individual resistor. Resistors in parallel

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For resistors in parallel, the voltage drop is the same across each resistor, but the current through each individual resistor may differ. As an example, consider a simple circuit called a voltage divider:

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The output voltage Vo is smaller than the input voltage Vi by a linear ratio between the resistances, i.e.

Capacitance

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A capacitor stores an electrical charge, and blocks DC current. The schematic diagram for a capacitor is

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where C is the capacitance in farads (F), V = V1 - V2 is the voltage drop across the capacitor in volts (V), and I is the current flowing through the capacitor in amperes (A). The definition of farad is as follows: A 1 F capacitor with 1 V across it stores 1 C (coulomb) of charge, i.e., 1 F = 1 C/V. Capacitors not only store electrical energy, but also discharge electrical energy. Unlike resistors, capacitors do not adjust to voltage changes instantaneously with time; rather time is a factor in circuits with capacitors. At any instant of time, across a capacitor. In other words, current can flow through a capacitor only if the voltage across the capacitor is changing with time. Some consequences of the above statement: o For DC signals, there is no current flow through a capacitor. (The capacitor acts like an open switch, i.e. a switch which is turned off.) o For AC signals, the current through a capacitor changes as the voltage changes with time. One can say that capacitors impede DC signals. Capacitors in series

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For capacitors in series, the current through each capacitor must be identical, but the voltage drop may differ across each individual capacitor. Capacitors in parallel

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For capacitors in parallel, the voltage is the same across each capacitor, but the current may differ across each individual capacitor.

Inductance

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An inductor allows DC currents to flow, but impedes AC currents. The schematic diagram for an inductor is

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where L is the inductance in henrys (H), V = V1 - V2 is the voltage drop across the inductor in volts (V), and I is the current flowing through the inductor in amperes (A). The definition of henry is as follows: A 1 H inductor has a voltage drop of 1 V across it when the current is changing at the rate of 1 A/s, i.e. 1 H = 1 Vs/A. Like capacitors, inductors do not adjust to current changes instantaneously with time; rather time is a factor in circuits with inductors. At any instant of time, across an inductor. In other words, there can be a voltage drop across an inductor only if the current through the inductor is changing. Some consequences of the above statement: o For DC signals, there is no voltage drop across the inductor. (The inductor acts like an closed switch, i.e. a switch which is turned on.) o For AC signals, the voltage drop across an inductor changes as the current changes with time. One can say that inductors impede AC signals.

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Impedance

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The word impedance is a general term implying that some quantity is slowed down or resisted. In electronics, impedance can be defined for resistors, capacitors, and inductors, since all of these electronic components impede something. Impedance provides a way of combining the effects of resistance, capacitance, and inductance into one property, and is thus a useful tool for analyzing and designing circuits. The units of impedance are the same as that of resistance, i.e. ohms. Let Z be the impedance of some electronic component. Z is a complex number. In this module, bold fonts are used to denote complex numbers. By definition, the absolute value (magnitude or modulus) of complex number Z is the ratio of peak voltage to peak current, i.e.

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where Vp is the peak voltage and Ip is the peak current. Since there are phase shifts in AC signals, complex numbers are necessary to mathematically define impedance. To help to understand impedance, consider an input voltage signal consisting of a simple sine wave of amplitude Vp, and with no phase shift or DC offset, where f is the frequency in Hz, and is the angular frequency in radians/s. Pagina 3 di 4

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Consider the impedance of the three basic electronic components (resistor, capacitor, and inductor) in a simple circuit as shown

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Resistor: o The impedance Z for a resistor is Z = R = real. o For a DC signal, , and Z = R. o For an AC signal, , and Z = R. o In other words, impedance is the same as resistance when considering a resistor. It does not matter whether the signal is AC or DC; the impedance of a resistor is always simply R. Capacitor: o The impedance Z for a capacitor is = imaginary. For a DC signal, , and Z approaches infinity. In other words, a capacitor has infinite impedance to a DC signal , and acts like an open switch to DC currents (i.e. it blocks or impedes DC currents). o For an AC signal, , and Z is an imaginary number, inversely proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to the capacitance. o As (high frequency AC signal), the impedance approaches zero. In other words, a capacitor offers very little impedance to high frequency AC signals. Inductor: o The impedance Z for an inductor is = imaginary. o For a DC signal, , and Z = 0. o In other words, an inductor has no impedance to a DC signal , and acts like a closed switch to DC currents (i.e. it lets DC currents pass through unaffected). o For an AC signal, , and Z is an imaginary number, proportional to the frequency and proportional to the inductance. o As , (high frequency AC signal), the impedance approaches infinity. In other words, an inductor has high impedance to high frequency AC signals. o Comparing the effect of capacitors and inductors on AC and DC signals, inductors are somewhat opposite to capacitors.

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