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Edition 11/2013

AVL List Gmbh 2009. All right reserved




Theory





AVL BOOST
VERSION 2013.2





Theory BOOST v2013.2
AVL List Gmbh 2009. All right reserved


AVL LIST GmbH
Hans-List-Platz 1, A-8020 Graz, Austria

http://www.avl.com

AST Local Support Contact: www.avl.com/ast-worldwide


Revision Date Description Document No.
A 17-Jul-2009 BOOST v2009 Theory 01.0114.2009
B 19-Nov-2010 BOOST v2010 Theory 01.0114.2010
C 29-Jul-2011 BOOST v2011 Theory 01.0114.2011
D 06-Jun-2013 BOOST v2013.1 Theory 01.0114.2013.1
E 15-Nov-2013 BOOST v2013.2 Theory 01.0114.2013.2

Copyright 2013, AVL
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, or computer language in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise, without
prior written consent of AVL.
This document describes how to run the BOOST software. It does not attempt to discuss all the
concepts of 1D gas dynamics required to obtain successful solutions. It is the users responsibility
to determine if he/she has sufficient knowledge and understanding of gas dynamics to apply this
software appropriately.
This software and document are distributed solely on an "as is" basis. The entire risk as to their
quality and performance is with the user. Should either the software or this document prove
defective, the user assumes the entire cost of all necessary servicing, repair or correction. AVL and
its distributors will not be liable for direct, indirect, incidental or consequential damages resulting
from any defect in the software or this document, even if they have been advised of the possibility
of such damage.
All mentioned trademarks and registered trademarks are owned by the corresponding owners.



Theory BOOST v2013.2
AST.01.0114.2013.2 - 15-Nov-2013 i
Table of Contents
1. Introduction _____________________________________________________1-1
1.1. Scope _______________________________________________________________________ 1-1
1.2. User Qualifications ___________________________________________________________ 1-1
1.3. Symbols _____________________________________________________________________ 1-1
2. Theoretical Basis ________________________________________________2-1
2.1. Species Transport and Gas Properties __________________________________________ 2-1
2.1.1. Classic Species Transport __________________________________________________ 2-1
2.1.2. General Species Transport _________________________________________________ 2-2
2.1.3. Definition of the fuel species _______________________________________________ 2-4
2.2. Cylinder _____________________________________________________________________ 2-5
2.2.1. Basic Conservation Equations ______________________________________________ 2-5
2.2.2. Combustion Models ______________________________________________________ 2-19
2.2.3. Emission Models _________________________________________________________ 2-55
2.2.4. Knock Model ____________________________________________________________ 2-62
2.2.5. Dynamic In-Cylinder Swirl _______________________________________________ 2-63
2.2.6. Dynamic In-Cylinder Tumble _____________________________________________ 2-64
2.2.7. Wall Temperature _______________________________________________________ 2-64
2.2.8. Divided Combustion Chamber _____________________________________________ 2-65
2.3. Plenum and Variable Plenum _________________________________________________ 2-67
2.4. Pipe _______________________________________________________________________ 2-68
2.4.1. Conservation Equations __________________________________________________ 2-68
2.4.2. Variable Wall Temperature _______________________________________________ 2-75
2.4.3. Forward / Backward Running Waves _______________________________________ 2-78
2.4.4. Nomenclature (Pipe) _____________________________________________________ 2-79
2.5. 3D Cell Elements ____________________________________________________________ 2-81
2.5.1. General: Volume Type____________________________________________________ 2-81
2.5.2. Standard Connector ______________________________________________________ 2-82
2.5.3. Perforated Connector ____________________________________________________ 2-84
2.6. Perforated Pipe _____________________________________________________________ 2-86
2.6.1. Perforated Pipe contained in Pipe _________________________________________ 2-86
2.6.2. Perforated Pipe contained in Plenum ______________________________________ 2-87
2.7. System or Internal Boundary (Pipe Attachment) ________________________________ 2-87
2.8. Restriction _________________________________________________________________ 2-88
2.8.1. Flow Restriction and Rotary Valve _________________________________________ 2-88
2.8.2. Throttle ________________________________________________________________ 2-90
2.8.3. Injector / Carburetor _____________________________________________________ 2-90
2.8.4. Check Valve _____________________________________________________________ 2-93
2.8.5. Waste Gate _____________________________________________________________ 2-94
2.9. Junction ____________________________________________________________________ 2-94
2.10. Charging __________________________________________________________________ 2-95
2.10.1. Turbine _______________________________________________________________ 2-95
2.10.2. Compressor ____________________________________________________________ 2-96
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
ii AST.01.0114.2013.2 - 15-Nov-2013
2.10.3. Turbocharger __________________________________________________________ 2-97
2.10.4. Mechanically Driven Supercharger _______________________________________ 2-98
2.10.5. Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWSC) _____________________________________ 2-99
2.10.6. Catalyst _______________________________________________________________ 2-99
2.10.7. Particulate Filter ______________________________________________________ 2-100
2.11. Engine ___________________________________________________________________ 2-100
2.11.1. Engine Control Unit ___________________________________________________ 2-100
2.11.2. Engine Friction _______________________________________________________ 2-101
2.11.3. Mechanical Network ___________________________________________________ 2-105
2.11.4. Electrical Device _______________________________________________________ 2-106
2.12. Acoustic __________________________________________________________________ 2-107
2.12.1. End Corrections _______________________________________________________ 2-107
2.12.2. Microphone ___________________________________________________________ 2-108
2.13. BURN Utility _____________________________________________________________ 2-111
2.14. Abbreviations _____________________________________________________________ 2-112
2.15. Literature ________________________________________________________________ 2-113

Theory BOOST v2013.2
AST.01.0114.2013.2 - 15-Nov-2013 iii
List of Figures
Figure 2-1: Considered Mass Fractions ................................................................................................................... 2-1
Figure 2-2: Energy Balance of Cylinder .................................................................................................................. 2-5
Figure 2-3: Inner Valve Seat Diameter ................................................................................................................... 2-8
Figure 2-4: User-Defined Scavenging Model ........................................................................................................ 2-11
Figure 2-5: User-Defined Scavenging Input ......................................................................................................... 2-11
Figure 2-6: Standard Crank Train ........................................................................................................................ 2-12
Figure 2-7: Approximation of a Measured Heat Release ..................................................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-8: Influence of Shape Parameter 'm' ...................................................................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-9: Superposition of Two Vibe Functions................................................................................................ 2-23
Figure 2-10: Flame Arrival at Cylinder Wall; Beginning of Wall-Combustion Mode ....................................... 2-29
Figure 2-11: Flame Front Propagation ................................................................................................................. 2-30
Figure 2-12: Cylinder Volume Partitioning .......................................................................................................... 2-33
Figure 2-13: Valve Seat Geometry .......................................................................................................................... 2-35
Figure 2-14: Flame Front Combustion Weight .................................................................................................... 2-38
Figure 2-15: Spray Discretization in the Multi-Zone Combustion Model.......................................................... 2-42
Figure 2-16: Spray Discretization in the Multi-Zone Combustion Model.......................................................... 2-46
Figure 2-17: Description of 6 Zones and their Interaction .................................................................................. 2-48
Figure 2-18: Comparison of Adiabatic Flame Temperature and resulting laminar Flame Speed ................. 2-51
Figure 2-19: Pre-Chamber Geometry .................................................................................................................... 2-52
Figure 2-20: Simplified Description of Cylinder and Flame Geometry.............................................................. 2-54
Figure 2-21: State Variables and Fluxes in a Burned Zone Stratification Model .............................................. 2-61
Figure 2-23: Gas dynamic viscosity verses Temperature .................................................................................... 2-71
Figure 2-22: Pipe Bend Parameters ...................................................................................................................... 2-71
Figure 2-23: Pipe Bend Loss Coefficient ............................................................................................................... 2-72
Figure 2-24: Finite Volume Concept ..................................................................................................................... 2-74
Figure 2-25: Linear Reconstruction of the Flow Field ........................................................................................ 2-74
Figure 2-26: Pressure Waves from Discontinuities at Cell Borders ................................................................... 2-75
Figure 2-27: Main transport effects in a pipe consisting of different wall layers ............................................. 2-75
Figure 2-28: Forward / Backward Running Waves .............................................................................................. 2-78
Figure 2-29: 3D cells, connections and attachments ........................................................................................... 2-81
Figure 2-30: Schematic of the 3D Cell Element: Cells and Connectors ............................................................. 2-82
Figure 2-31: Schematic of the Perforated Connector Element ........................................................................... 2-84
Figure 2-32: Perforated Pipes contained in Pipe ................................................................................................. 2-86
Figure 2-33: Two perforated Pipes contained in Plenum .................................................................................... 2-87
Figure 2-34: The Pressure Function .................................................................................................................. 2-89
Figure 2-35: Distillation curves for different fuel types (Source: www.chevron.com) ..................................... 2-91
Figure 2-36: Full Check Valve Model .................................................................................................................... 2-93
Figure 2-37: Waste Gate ......................................................................................................................................... 2-94
Figure 2-38: Flow Patterns in a Y-Junction ......................................................................................................... 2-95
Figure 2-39: Flow Chart of the ECU ................................................................................................................... 2-101
Figure 2-40: Restriction end correction. ............................................................................................................. 2-107
Figure 2-41: Open end correction. ....................................................................................................................... 2-107
Figure 2-42: Helmholtz end correction. .............................................................................................................. 2-108
Figure 2-43: External Microphone ...................................................................................................................... 2-108
Figure 2-44: Sound pressure level A-weighting ................................................................................................. 2-109
Figure 2-45: External Microphone with ground reflection ............................................................................... 2-110
Figure 2-46: Rate of Heat Release ....................................................................................................................... 2-111
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 1-1
1. INTRODUCTION
BOOST simulates a wide variety of engines, 4-stroke or 2-stroke, spark or auto-ignited.
Applications range from small capacity engines for motorcycles or industrial purposes up
to large engines for marine propulsion. BOOST can also be used to simulate the
characteristics of pneumatic systems.
1.1. Scope
This document describes the basic concepts and methods for using the BOOST program to
perform engine cycle simulation.
1.2. User Qualifications
Users of this manual:
Must be qualified in basic Linux and/or Microsoft Windows.
Must be qualified in basic engine cycle simulation.
1.3. Symbols
The following symbols are used throughout this manual. Safety warnings must be strictly
observed during operation and service of the system or its components.


Caution: Cautions describe conditions, practices or procedures which
could result in damage to, or destruction of data if not strictly observed or
remedied.


Note: Notes provide important supplementary information.

Convention Meaning
Italics
For emphasis, to introduce a new term or for manual titles.
monospace To indicate a command, a program or a file name,
messages, input / output on a screen, file contents or
object names.
MenuOpt A MenuOpt font is used for the names of menu options,
submenus and screen buttons.


Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-1
2. THEORETICAL BASIS
Theoretical background including the basic equations for all available elements is
summarized in this chapter to give a better understanding of the AVL BOOST program.
This chapter does not intend to be a thermodynamics textbook, nor does it claim to cover
all aspects of engine cycle simulation.
2.1. Species Transport and Gas Properties
The gas properties like the gas constant or the heat capacities of a gas depend on
temperature, pressure and gas composition. BOOST calculates the gas properties in each
cell at each time step with the instantaneous composition. There are two different
approaches for the description of the gas composition (species transport) and the
calculation of the gas properties available.
2.1.1. Classic Species Transport
Using the Classic Species Transport option conservation equations for combustion
products (together with the air fuel ratio characteristic for them) and fuel vapor are solved.
The mass fraction of air is calculated from

CP FV air
w w w =1 (2.1.1)
air
w mass fraction of air
FV
w mass fraction of fuel vapor
CP
w mass fraction of combustion products
The air fuel ratio characteristic for the combustion products is calculated from

FB
FB CP
CP
w
w w
AF

= (2.1.2)
CP
AF air fuel ratio of combustion products
FB
w mass fraction of burned fuel
Figure 2-1 shows the relations of the mass fractions to each other.

Figure 2-1: Considered Mass Fractions
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-2 15-Nov-2013
For the calculation of the gas properties of exhaust gases the air fuel ratio is used as a
measure for the gas composition. Air fuel ratio in this context means the air fuel ratio at
which the combustion took place from which the exhaust gases under consideration
originate. The composition of the combustion gases is obtained from the chemical
equilibrium considering dissociation at the high temperatures in the cylinder.
2.1.2. General Species Transport
In case of General Species Transport the composition of the gas can be described based on
an arbitrary number of species that is defined directly by the user.
The minimum number of species is 7: Fuel, O2, N2, CO2, H2O, CO, H2. For each species a
conservation equation (mass fraction) is solved in each of the elements of the model.
2.1.2.1. Single Species Properties
The single species standard state (ideal gas assumption) thermodynamic properties are
calculated using polynomial fits to the specific heats at constant pressure (NASA
polynomials):

=
M
1 m
) 1 m (
mk
p
T a
R
c
k
(1)
The standard state enthalpy is given by
dT c H
T
0
p k
k
= (2)
so that

T
a
m
T a
RT
H
k , 1 M
M
1 m
) 1 m (
mk k
+
=

+ =

(3)
The standard state entropy is given by
dT
T
c
S
T
0
p
k
k

= (4)
so that

k , 2 m
M
2 m
) 1 m (
mk
k 1
k
a
1 m
T a
T ln a
R
S
+
=

+ =

(5)
2.1.2.2. Mixture Properties
The thermochemical properties of the gas mixture are calculated by mass-weighting the
single species properties.
2.1.2.3. Definition of Properties
Seven coefficients are needed for each of two temperature ranges in order to evaluate the
above polynomials in the following form:
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-3

4
k 5
3
k 4
2
k 3 k 2 k 1
p
T a T a T a T a a
R
c
k
+ + + + = (6)

T
a
T
5
a
T
4
a
T
3
a
T
2
a
a
RT
H
k 6 4 k 5 3 k 4 2 k 3 k 2
k 1
k
+ + + + + = (7)

k 7
4 k 5 3 k 4 2 k 3
k 2 k 1
a T
4
a
T
3
a
T
2
a
T a T ln a
R
S
k
+ + + + + = (8)
All other thermodynamic quantities can be derived from c
p
, H and S.

For convenience BOOST offers the following species in an internal database:
O HCl
O2 HCNO
OH GASOLINE
CO HYDROGEN
CO2 METHANE
N METHANOL
N2 ETHANOL
NO DIESEL
NO2 BUTANE
NO3 PENTANE
N2O PROPANE
NH3 CH4
H C2H2
H2 C2H4
H2O C2H6
SO C3H4
SO2 C3H6
SO3 C3H8

For all cases where the above list is not sufficient (i.e. for HCCI auto-ignition) the User
Database enables the user to specify properties for and arbitrary number of additional
species (or to overrule the properties for the species in the internal database.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-4 15-Nov-2013
2.1.3. Definition of the fuel species
For classic species transport calculations only single component fuels are available.
However, by manipulating the stoichiometric A/F ratio and lower heating value one can
control the main parameters related to the fuel. Additional fuel species can be added upon
request.
For general species transport calculations the treatment for the fuel was generalized.
This means that the fuel can consist of an arbitrary number of components. In principal
all species that are defined in the species list can be a component of the fuel. For each fuel
component the user specifies a ratio that defines the mass or volume of this component
relative to the total fuel mass or volume.
The definition of the fuel composition affects the following elements in the BOOST model:
Injector: the injected mass is distributed to all species defined as fuel components
using the specified ratio (unless modified locally in the injector).
Cylinder (Injection and Evaporation): the injected/evaporated mass is distributed
to all species defined as fuel components using the specified ratio.
Results: For all results referring to a Fuel (traces, transients, summary) all
species defined as fuel components are summed up. This means that the specified
ratio is NOT considered.

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-5
2.2. Cylinder
2.2.1. Basic Conservation Equations

Figure 2-2: Energy Balance of Cylinder
The calculation of the thermodynamic state of the cylinder is based on the first law of
thermodynamics:

( )
dt
dm
f q h
d
dm
h
d
dm
d
dm
h
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u m d
ev
ev
e
i
i BB
BB
w F
c
c
+
+ =



(2.2.1)
The variation of the mass in the cylinder can be calculated from the sum of the in-flowing
and out-flowing masses:

dt
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
d
dm
ev BB e i c
+ =


(2.2.2)

where:
( )
d
u m d
c

change of the internal energy in the cylinder
d
dV
p
c
piston work
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-6 15-Nov-2013
d
dQ
F
fuel heat input

d
dQ
w
wall heat losses
d
dm
h
BB
BB
enthalpy flow due to blow-by
c
m mass in the cylinder
u specific internal energy
c
p cylinder pressure
V cylinder volume
F
Q fuel energy
w
Q wall heat loss
crank angle
BB
h enthalpy of blow-by
d
dm
BB
blow-by mass flow
i
dm
mass element flowing into the cylinder
e
dm
mass element flowing out of the cylinder
i
h
enthalpy of the in-flowing mass
e
h
enthalpy of the mass leaving the cylinder
ev
q
evaporation heat of the fuel
f
fraction of evaporation heat from the cylinder charge
ev
m
evaporating fuel

The first law of thermodynamics for high pressure cycle states that the change of the
internal energy in the cylinder is equal to the sum of piston work, fuel heat input, wall
heat losses and the enthalpy flow due to blow-by.
Internal/External Mixture Preparation:
Equation 2.2.1 is valid for engines with internal and external mixture preparation.
However, the terms, which take into account the change of the gas composition due to
combustion, are treated differently for internal and external mixture preparation.
For internal mixture preparation it is assumed that
the fuel added to the cylinder charge is immediately combusted
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-7
the combustion products mix instantaneously with the rest of the cylinder charge
and form a uniform mixture
as a consequence, the A/F ratio of the charge diminishes continuously from a high
value at the start of combustion to the final value at the end of combustion.
For external mixture preparation it is assumed that
the mixture is homogenous at the start of combustion
as a consequence, the A/F ratio is constant during the combustion
burned and unburned charge have the same pressure and temperature although
the composition is different.

Together with the gas equation

c o c c
T R m
V
p =
1
(2.2.3)
establishing the relation between pressure, temperature and density, equation 2.2.1 for the
in-cylinder temperature can be solved using a Runge-Kutta method. Once the cylinder
temperature is known, the cylinder pressure can be obtained from the gas equation.
2.2.1.1. Port Massflow
The mass flow rates at the intake and exhaust ports are calculated from the Equations for
isentropic orifice flow under consideration of the flow efficiencies of the ports determined
on the steady state flow test rig.
From the energy Equation for steady state orifice flow, the Equation for the mass flow
rates can be obtained:

=
1
1
2
o o
o eff
T R
p A
dt
dm
(2.2.4)
dt
dm
mass flow rate
eff
A effective flow area
1 o
p upstream stagnation pressure
1 o
T upstream stagnation temperature
o
R gas constant

For subsonic flow,

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

1
1
2
2
1
2
1
o o
p
p
p
p
, (2.2.5)
2
p downstream static pressure
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-8 15-Nov-2013
ratio of specific heats
and for sonic flow,

1 1
2
1
1
max
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
= =



. (2.2.6)
The actual effective flow area can be determined from measured flow coefficients :

4
2


=
vi
eff
d
A (2.2.7)
flow coefficient of the port
vi
d inner valve seat diameter (reference diameter)
The flow coefficient varies with valve lift and is determined on a steady-state flow test
rig. The flow coefficient, , represents the ratio between the actual measured mass flow
rate at a certain pressure difference and the theoretical isentropic mass flow rate for the
same boundary conditions. The flow coefficient is related to the cross section area. of the
attached pipe.

The inner valve seat diameter used for the definition of the normalized valve lift can be
seen in the following figure:

Figure 2-3: Inner Valve Seat Diameter
The composition of the gases leaving the cylinder via the exhaust port is determined by the
scavenging model.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-9
2.2.1.2. Scavenging
A perfect mixing model is usually used for four-stroke engines. This means that the
composition of the exhaust gases is the mean composition of the gases in the cylinder, and
also that the energy content of the exhaust gases is equivalent to the mean energy content
of the gases in the cylinder. In this case the change of the air purity over crank angle can
be calculated from the following formula:
( )
d
dm
R
m d
dR
i
c
= 1
1
(2.2.8)
R air purity
In the case of a two-stroke engine, the perfect mixing model is not sufficient for accurate
simulations. For this reason BOOST also offers a perfect displacement scavenging model
and a user-defined scavenging model.
In the perfect displacement model no mixing between intake and residual gases takes place
and pure residual gases leave the cylinder (so long as they are available).
The User-defined scavenging model used in the BOOST code divides the cylinder into the
displacement zone and the mixing zone.
The mass balance is based on the following scavenging types:
SCAVENGING TYPE A
According to the (positive) Scavenging Quality
SC
Q the incoming gas delivers both the
displacement and the mixing zone while pure mixing zone gas is leaving the cylinder
0 > =
IZ
ID
SC
m
m
Q


ID
m massflow into the displacement zone
IZ
m massflow into the cylinder

SCAVENGING TYPE B
According to the (negative) Scavenging Quality
SC
Q the incoming gas is flowing into the
mixing zone and partially short-circuited to the exhaust port, while shortcut and mixing
zone gas is leaving the cylinder.
0 < =
IZ
IS
SC
m
m
Q


IS
m shortcut massflow
IZ
m massflow into the cylinder
Taking these two scavenging types into account, the Scavenging Quality Function
) (SE Q
SC
is calculated from the user defined Scavenging Efficiency Function SE(SR).
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-10 15-Nov-2013
( )
( ) ( )
Z
AS
const V
const
SREF
AS
V
t V
m
t m
t SR
CY
=
=
= =


AS
m aspirated mass
SREF
m reference mass of cylinder charge
AS
V volume of aspirated charge
Z
V cylinder reference volume
( )
( ) ( )
Z
TAS
const V
const
ZEVC
TAS
V
t V
m
t m
t SE
CY
=
=
= =


TAS
m
aspirated mass trapped
ZEVC
m total mass of cylinder charge at EVC (Exhaust Valve Closing)
TAS
V volume of aspirated charge trapped
Z
V cylinder reference volume

To consider the different zone temperatures (and densities) during the scavenging process,
the scavenging efficiency SE(t) (used for calculating the scavenging quality
SC
Q (t)=
)) ( ( t SE Q
SC
) is determined as follows:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) t
t m
d
m m
t SE
Z
Z
t
t EF
EF
IZ
IZ





|
|
.
|

\
|

=
0


IZ
m mass flow into the cylinder
EF
m fresh charge mass flow out of the cylinder
Z
m total mass of cylinder charge
IZ
density of mass flow into the cylinder
EF
density of fresh charge mass flow out of the cylinder
Z
density of cylinder charge
0
t intake valve opening time

In order to specify the quality of the scavenging system of a two-stroke engine, scavenging
efficiency is required as a function of scavenge ratio SE(SR). This can be obtained from
scavenging tests.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-11

Figure 2-4: User-Defined Scavenging Model
The following figure shows an example of User Defined Scavenging Input (the
representative excel sheet BST_501_UD_scavenging_preparation.xls can be requested from
boost support: boost@avl.com) for perfect displacement up to a scavenging ratio of 0.6
followed by perfect mixing.

Figure 2-5: User-Defined Scavenging Input

BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-12 15-Nov-2013
2.2.1.3. Piston Motion
For a standard crank train the piston motion as a function of the crank angle can be
derived from Figure 2-6:

Figure 2-6: Standard Crank Train
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin 1 cos cos
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
l
e
l
r
l r l r s (2.2.9)

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
l r
e
arcsin (2.2.10)
s piston distance from TDC
r crank radius
l con-rod length
crank angle between vertical crank position and piston TDC position
e piston pin offset
a crank angle relative to TDC
2.2.1.4. Heat Transfer
2.2.1.4.1. In Cylinder Heat Transfer
The heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber, i.e. the cylinder head, the
piston, and the cylinder liner, is calculated from:

( )
wi c w i wi
T T A Q = (2.2.11)
wi
Q wall heat flow (cylinder head, piston, liner)
i
A surface area (cylinder head, piston, liner)
w
heat transfer coefficient
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-13
c
T gas temperature in the cylinder
wi
T wall temperature (cylinder head, piston, liner)
In the case of the liner wall temperature, the axial temperature variation between the
piston TDC and BDC position is taken into account:

c x
e
T T
x c
TDC L L

=

1
,
(2.2.12)

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
BDC L
TDC L
T
T
c
,
,
ln (2.2.13)
L
T liner temperature
TDC L
T
,
liner temperature at TDC position
BDC L
T
,
liner temperature at BDC position
x relative stroke (actual piston position related to full stroke)
For the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient, BOOST provides the following heat
transfer models:
Woschni 1978
Woschni 1990
Hohenberg
Lorenz (for engines with divided combustion chamber only)
AVL 2000 Model
Bargende
WOSCHNI Model
The Woschni model published in 1978 [C45] for the high pressure cycle is summarized as
follows:
( )
8 . 0
,
1 , 1 ,
1 ,
2 1
53 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0
130
(
(

+ =

o c c
c c
c D
m c c w
p p
V p
T V
C c C T p D (2.2.14)
1
C
= 2.28 + 0.308
u
c /
m
c
2
C = 0.00324 for DI engines
2
C = 0.00622 for IDI engines
D cylinder bore
m
c mean piston speed
u
c circumferential velocity
D
V displacement per cylinder
o c
p
,
cylinder pressure of the motored engine [bar]
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-14 15-Nov-2013
1 , c
T temperature in the cylinder at intake valve closing (IVC)
1 , c
p pressure in the cylinder at IVC [bar]
The modified Woschni heat transfer model published in 1990 [C46] aimed at a more
accurate prediction of the heat transfer at part load operation:

8 . 0
2 . 0
2
1
53 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0
2 1 130

(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

IMEP
V
V
c c T p D
TDC
m c c w
(2.2.15)
TDC
V TDC volume in the cylinder
V actual cylinder volume
IMEP indicated mean effective pressure
In the case that
( )
2 . 0
2
1 ,
1 ,
1 ,
2
2

|
.
|

\
|

IMEP
V
V
c C p p
V p
T V
C
TDC
m o c c
c
c D
,
the heat transfer coefficient is calculated according to the formula published in 1978.
For the gas exchange process, both Woschni models use the same Equation for the heat
transfer coefficient:
( )
8 . 0
3
53 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0
130
m c c w
c C T p D =

(2.2.16)

m u
c c C / 417 . 0 18 . 6
3
+ =
w
heat transfer coefficient
D cylinder bore
m
c mean piston speed
u
c circumferential velocity

HOHENBERG Model
In the Hohenberg heat transfer model [C18] the following equation is used for the
calculation of the heat transfer coefficient:
( )
8 . 0 4 . 0 8 . 0 06 . 0
4 . 1 130 + =

m c c w
c T p V (2.2.17)
LORENZ Model
The Lorenz Heat Transfer Equation is valid for a cylinder with an attached combustion
chamber. In Equation 2.2.14 and 2.2.15 the characteristic speed is:

m C
c C w =
1

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-15
C
w characteristic speed in the cylinder
For the Lorenz equation the term
C
w is modified:

m
CP
C
C C
x D
dt
dV
w
1
. .
4
+

(2.2.18)
dt
dV
CP
volume flow from the connecting pipe to the cylinder
x clearance between the cylinder head and the piston
AVL 2000 Heat Transfer Model
The heat transfer during gas exchange strongly influences the volumetric efficiencies of
the engine, especially for low engine speeds. Based on AVL experience and measurements
conducted at Graz Technical University, the Woschni heat transfer has been modified to
take this effect into account [C42], [C34]. During the gas exchange the heat transfer
coefficient is calculated from the following equation:

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

8 . 0
2
4
53 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0
013 . 0 ,
in
in
Woschni
v
d
d
c T p d Max (2.2.19)
heat transfer coefficients [J/K/M2]
4
C = 14.0
d bore [m]
p pressure [Pa]
T temperature [K]
in
d pipe diameter connected to intake port [m]
in
v intake port velocity [m/s]
The diameter of the intake port directly at the valve is of special significance for this
model, therefore these diameters of the intake ports should be accurately specified over the
whole port length.
Bargende Heat Transfer Model
An improved correlation for the working cycle of SI engines was published by Bargende
[C2, C7], which takes additional influencing factors into account. Compared to the previous
reported correlations, Bargendes basic formulation considers expressly the effect of the
combustion process on the engine heat transfer introducing an additional term :
(2.2.20)
instantaneous heat transfer coefficient
crankangle
a constant in the Re-Nu-correlation
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-16 15-Nov-2013
D diameter of a sphere of the same volume as the instantaneous cylinder volume
heat conduction coefficient
w characteristic velocity
density
dynamic viscosity

combustion term

Here, like in Hohenbergs correlation, the diameter D of a sphere of the same volume as
the instantaneous cylinder volume V is taken as the characteristic length. The relevant gas
temperature T at which the gas properties are evaluated is, instead of T
c
, the estimated
average temperature within the boundary layer:
(2.2.21)
The boundary temperature, T, is evaluated separately for the piston, liner and head.
The influence of turbulence on engine heat transfer is included in the velocity term, w.
Instead of the mean piston velocity c
m
, the instantaneous piston velocity c
p
is argued to be
proportional to the average gas velocity in the cylinder:
(2.2.22)
cp instantaneous piston speed
k specific turbulent kinetic energy
In this formulation the average turbulent kinetic energy k is provided by a simple global k -
turbulence model. The specific kinetic energy is set at the start of high pressure is:
(2.2.23)
k
SHP
specific turbulent kinetic energy at the start of high pressure (IVC)
cm mean piston speed
d bore

L
volumetric efficiency
d
IV
average intake valve diameter
h
IV
maximum intake valve lift
The dissipation of the turbulence is defined as,
(2.2.24)
k specific turbulent kinetic energy
dissipation constant = 2.184
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-17
L turbulent length scale
This assumes a flat piston surface as the effect of any piston bowl on the turbulence is
ignored. The turbulent length scale L is set to the diameter of a sphere whose volume
corresponds to the present volume of the combustion chamber.
(2.2.25)
Combustion Term :
The main goal for the term is to take the flame propagation process into account by
dividing the combustion chamber into two zones: the unburned zone V
u
and the burned
zone V
B
, respectively. For this purpose two sub-terms [A] V
B
/V and [B] V
U
/V have
been introduced:
(2.2.26
where:
(2.2.27
and
(2.2.28
x
b
burned mass fraction
T
B
gas temperature of the burned zone
T
U
gas temperature of the unburned zone
T
C
gas temperature (cylinder average charge temperature)
T
W
average wall temperature

Bargende, at that time, found out empirically that the best agreement with numerous
experimental investigations is achieved when:
(2.2.29
To sum up, Bargendes correlation is then given by:
(2.2.30
heat transfer coefficient
V instantaneous cylinder volume
p gas pressure in the cylinder
T average temperature in the boundary layer
w velocity term
combustion term
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-18 15-Nov-2013
Studies show that this correlation obtains high accuracy in predicting the engine heat-
transfer, especially during the combustion process [C41, C43]. The combustion term
requires and burned and unburned zone. This means that this wall heat transfer model is
intended for use with a two zone model. The combustion term remains constant at 1.0 if
used with a single zone combustion model.
2.2.1.4.2. Port Heat Transfer
During the gas exchange process it is essential also to consider the heat transfer in the
intake and exhaust ports. This may be much higher than for a simple pipe flow because of
the high heat transfer coefficients and temperatures in the region of the valves and valve
seats. In the BOOST code, a modified Zapf heat transfer model is used:
( )
w
c m
A
w u d
T e T T T
p
p
w
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

(2.2.31)
The heat transfer coefficient,
p
, depends on the direction of the flow (in or out of the
cylinder): The formula
| |
(

+ =

vi
v
vi u u u p
d
h
d m T T C T C C 797 . 0 1
5 . 1 5 . 0 44 . 0 2
6 5 4
(2.2.32)
is used for outflow and the formula
| |
(

+ =

vi
v
vi u u p
d
h
d m T T C T C C 765 . 0 1
68 . 1 68 . 0 33 . 0 2
9 8 7
(2.2.33)
is used for inflow.
p
heat transfer coefficient in the port
d
T downstream temperature
u
T upstream temperature
T
w
port wall temperature
A
w
port surface area
m mass flow rate
c
p
specific heat at constant pressure
h
v
valve lift
d
vi
inner valve seat diameter
The following table contains the constants used in the formulas above.
Exhaust Valve Intake Valve
4
C 1.2809
7
C 1.5132
5
C
-4
10 0451 . 7
8
C
-4
10 7.1625
6
C
-7
10 4.8035
9
C
-7
10 3719 . 5
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-19
2.2.1.5. Blow-By
BOOST considers blow-by losses in the cylinder using the specified effective blow-by gap
and the mean crankcase pressure. The blow-by mass flow rates are calculated at any time
step from the orifice flow Equations (2.2.4 - 2.2.6).
The effective flow area is obtained from the cylinder bore and from the effective blow-by
gap:
= D A
eff
(2.2.34)
eff
A effective flow area
D cylinder bore
blow-by gap
If the cylinder pressure exceeds the mean crankcase pressure, the cylinder pressure and
temperature are used as upstream stagnation pressure and temperature. The mean
crankcase pressure represents the downstream static pressure. The gas properties are
taken from the cylinder.
The blow-by gas has the same energy content as the gases in the cylinder.
If the cylinder pressure is lower than the mean crankcase pressure, the pressure in the
crankcase is used as upstream stagnation pressure, and the cylinder pressure as the
downstream static pressure. The upstream stagnation temperature is set equal to the
piston wall temperature, and the gas composition is set equal to the composition of the gas
which left the cylinder just before the reverse flow into the cylinder started.
2.2.1.6. Evaporation
The model for direct gasoline injection in BOOST relies on the specification of the rate of
evaporation. It is assumed that the density of the liquid fuel is much higher compared to
the fuel vapor density. Hence the presence of liquid fuel can be neglected.
2.2.2. Combustion Models
2.2.2.1. Pre-Defined Heat Release
2.2.2.1.1. Vibe and Table
The simplest approach to model the combustion process is the direct specification of the
rate of heat release. The rate of heat release of an engine at a specific operating point is
determined from the measured cylinder pressure history. By means of a reversed high
pressure cycle calculation, i.e. by solving equation 2.2.1 for
d
dQ
F
instead for
d
dT
c
, the heat
release versus crank angle is obtained.
To simplify this approach, only the dimensionless heat input characteristic must be
specified over crank angle. From the total heat supplied to the cycle, which is determined
by the amount of fuel in the cylinder and by the A/F ratio, BOOST calculates the actual
heat input per degree crank angle.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-20 15-Nov-2013
For the direct input of the rate of heat release curve the following options are available:
1. Table
The heat release curve is approximated by specifying reference points versus crank
angle. The y-values are scaled to obtain an area of one beneath the curve. Values
between the points specified are obtained by linear interpolation.
2. Vibe Function
The Vibe function [C39] is often used to approximate the actual heat release
characteristics of an engine:
( )
( ) 1
1
+

+

=
m
y a m
c
e y m
a
d
dx

(2.2.35)

Q
dQ
dx = (2.2.36)

c
o
y

= (2.2.37)
Q total fuel heat input
crank angle
o
start of combustion
c
combustion duration
m shape parameter
a Vibe parameter a = 6.9 for complete combustion
The integral of the vibe function gives the fraction of the fuel mass which was burned
since the start of combustion:

( )

+

= =
1
1
m
y a
e d
d
dx
x

(2.2.38)
x mass fraction burned
Figure 2-7 shows the approximation of an actual heat release diagram of a DI Diesel
engine by a vibe function. The start of combustion, combustion duration and shape
parameter were obtained by a least square fit of the measured heat release curve.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-21

Figure 2-7: Approximation of a Measured Heat Release
In Figure 2-8 the influence of the vibe shape parameter 'm' on the shape of the vibe
function is shown.

Figure 2-8: Influence of Shape Parameter 'm'
3. Vibe Two Zone
Again the rate of heat release, and thus the mass fraction burned, is specified by a vibe
function. However the assumption that burned and unburned charges have the same
temperature is dropped. Instead the first law of thermodynamics is applied to the
burned charge and unburned charge respectively [C27].

d
dm
h
d
dm
h
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u dm
b BB
b BB
b
u
Wb F b
c
b b
,
,
+ + =

(2.2.39)
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-22 15-Nov-2013

=
d
dm
h
d
dm
h
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u dm
u BB
u BB
B
u
Wu u
c
u u
,
,
(2.2.40)
index b burned zone
index u unburned zone
The term
d
dm
h
B
u
covers the enthalpy flow from the unburned to the burned zone due
to the conversion of a fresh charge to combustion products. Heat flux between the two
zones is neglected.
In addition the sum of the volume changes must be equal to the cylinder volume
change and the sum of the zone volumes must be equal to the cylinder volume.

d
dV
d
dV
d
dV
u b
= + (2.2.41)
V V V
u b
= + (2.2.42)
The amount of mixture burned at each time step is obtained from the Vibe function
specified by the user. For all other terms, like wall heat losses etc., models similar to
the single zone models with an appropriate distribution on the two zones are used.
4. Double Vibe Function
The superposition of two vibe functions (Double Vibe) is used to approximate the
measured heat release characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine more
accurately. In this case two vibe functions are specified, the first one is used to model
the premixed burning peak and the second one to model the diffusion controlled
combustion. If the fuel allotment to each of the vibe functions is known, the heat
releases obtained from the two vibe functions can be added, thus giving a double vibe
heat release, Figure 2-9.

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-23


Figure 2-9: Superposition of Two Vibe Functions
2.2.2.1.2. Extended Heat Release
For the simulation of engine transients, the above mentioned approaches are not sufficient
because the heat release characteristics change with engine speed and load. As the speed
and load profile for a transient is not known prior to a simulation run, a model predicting
the rate of heat release dependent on the operating point is required.
WOSCHNI / ANISITS Model
For diesel engines the approach used is based on the model by Woschni and Anisits [C47].
The vibe function and the characteristic parameters of one operating point must be
defined. The model predicts the change of the vibe parameters according to the actual
operating conditions:

5 . 0
6 . 0
,
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ref
ref
ref c c
n
n
AF
AF
(2.2.43)

3 . 0
,
,
6 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ref IVC
ref IVC
ref IVC
IVC
ref
ref
n
n
T
T
p
p
id
id
m m (2.2.44)
c
combustion duration
AF air fuel ratio
n engine speed
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-24 15-Nov-2013
m Vibe shape parameter
id ignition delay
IVC
p pressure at intake valve closes
IVC
T in-cylinder temperature at intake valve closes
Index
ref
at reference operating point
The ignition delay is calculated with the relations found by Andree and Pachernegg [C1]
which assume that the ignition of the injected fuel droplets takes place if the integral of gas
temperature versus time exceeds a threshold.
HIRES ET AL Model
For gasoline engines the change of the combustion duration and the ignition delay is
calculated from the in-cylinder conditions at ignition timing [C19].

3 / 2
3 / 1
,
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
s
f
f
n
n
ref ref
ref
ref c c
(2.2.45)

3 / 2 3 / 1
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
s
f
f
n
n
id id
ref
ref ref
ref
(2.2.46)
s laminar flame speed
f piston to head distance at ignition timing
The laminar flame speed itself is a function of the in-cylinder conditions, the A/F ratio and
the mole fraction of the residual gases [C33].
2.2.2.2. Calculated Heat Release: Combustion Models


Note: From BOOST v5.0 on the EBCM and PBCM combustion models
are replaced by the Fractal Combustion Model.

2.2.2.2.1. Spark Ignition Engines: Fractal Combustion Model
The fractal combustion model for SI engines, implemented in BOOST, predicts the rate of
heat release in a homogeneous charge engine. Thereby the influence of the following
parameters is considered [C27]:
The combustion chamber shape
The spark plug location and spark timing
The composition of the cylinder charge (residuals, recirculated exhaust gas,
air and fuel vapor)
The macroscopic charge motion and turbulence level
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-25
The thermodynamics of the two zone combustion model is outlined in section 2.2.2 - Vibe
Two Zone. The two zone model is used to calculate the gas conditions of the combustion
products (i.e. the burned zone) and the remaining fresh charge (i.e. the unburned zone).
It is well established that the flame front propagating within the turbulent flow field
occurring inside the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is a very thin
and highly wrinkled surface. This flame area
T
A , due to the above wrinkling, is much
higher than the one occurring in a laminar burning process. The latter, i.e. the laminar
flame area
L
A , can be considered a smooth and spherical surface centered in the spark
plug location. The increase in the flame surface ( )
L T
A A / , is then first responsible for the
increase in the turbulent burning rate with respect to the laminar one. The mass burning
rate can be then expressed as:

L L
L
T
u L T u
b
S A
A
A
S A
dt
dm
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = (2.2.47)
Equation 2.2.47 underlines that the flame propagation speed remains equal to the laminar
one also in a turbulent combustion process, nevertheless, the same burning rate can be
also expressed as a function of a turbulent burning speed:

L L
L
T
u T S u
b
S A
A
A
S A
dt
dm
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
L
T
L
T
A
A
S
S

The above expressions, introduced by Damkhler in 1940 [C10], basically represent a
definition of the turbulent burning speed. Equation 2.2.47 also puts into evidence that the
burning rate can be easily computed once the increase in flame area has been established.
However the real physical mechanisms that produce the flame wrinkling are still not
perfectly clear today:
A variation of the local temperature, exponentially affecting the kinetic reaction rate,
can determine different local burning rates inducing a flame deformation.
The expansion process of the burned gases and the flame curvature together produce a
deviation in the trajectory of fluid particles passing through it and an hydrodynamic
flame deformation can occur.
The turbulent vortices also produce a convective flame wrinkling on different length
scales. This wrinkling is then partly compensated by the local laminar burning process
yielding a "smoothing" effect of the local deformations.
The competition of the above phenomena moreover varies with engine operating
conditions. At very high engine speeds the deformation action can be so intense to produce
a multiple connected flame front, with "islands" of unburned mixture trapped within it.
However it is accepted that in a relevant portion of the combustion regimes occurring in an
ICE, the flame front behaves like a single connected "passive scalar" mainly wrinkled by
the convective action of the turbulent flow field.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-26 15-Nov-2013
Under these hypothesis it is possible to develop a quasi-dimensional combustion model,
based on the concept of the fractal geometry. In this approach, an initially smooth flame
surface of spherical shape - the laminar flame
L
A - is then wrinkled by the presence of
turbulent eddies of different length scales. The interactions between the turbulent flow
field and the flame determine the development of a turbulent flame surface
T
A , which
propagates at the laminar flame speed
L
S . If a self-similar wrinkling is assumed within the
length scales interval
max min
L - L , then the flame front presents the characteristics of a
fractal object and its flame surface can be then easily computed:

2
min
max
3

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
D
L
T
L
L
A
A
(2.2.48)
The above expression, substituted in the Equation 2.2.47, allows to compute the burning
rate once the laminar flame surface
L
A and speed
L
S as well as the wrinkling scales
max min
L - L and fractal dimension
3
D has been properly evaluated:

L L
D
u
fractals
b
S A
L
L
dt
dm
2
min
max
3

|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|

(2.2.49)
Turbulence
Based on the physical hypothesis recalled above, the computation of the wrinkling scales
max min
L - L as well as the fractal dimension
3
D must depend on the characteristics of
the turbulent flow field inside the cylinder. Its evaluation within a zero-dimensional model
is really challenging. A number of proposals can be found in the current literature and,
among these, a two-equation modified k K approach [C31], is recalled here, which refers
to the Standard K-k Model in BOOST:

u
u ex
in in
K
m
m
K P u m
dt
dK


+ + =
2
2
1
(2.2.50)

u
u ex
k
m
m
k m P
dt
dk


+ + = (2.2.51)
An extension of the K-k model can be found in [C5]. This model is implemented as the
Revised K-k Model in Boost.

u
u ex
ex ex ex in in in
K
m
m
K P u m c u m c
dt
dK


+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
2
1
2
1
(2.2.52)

u
u ex
k
m
m
k m P
dt
dk


+ + = (2.2.53)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-27
There are several differences in the definitions used in the above equations which are
summarized in the following table:

Standard K-k Model Revised K-k Model
Production Term P
' u
L
K
c P
I
P
=

with
2
3
3307 . 0 =
t P
c c
f
I
P
U
L
K
c P =

with
064 . 0 =
P
c

Dissipation Term
I
L
u
3
'
=
Intake & High Pressure:
I
L
u
3
'
=

Exhaust:
k
l
u
3
'
=

Integral Length Scale
I
L
A
V
c L
cyl
l I
=
3
cyl l I
V c L =

2
2
1
f
U m K = ,
2
2
3
u m k = (2.2.54)
In the above balance equations, K is the kinetic energy of the mean flow field (
f
U ) -
whose production and destruction is mainly related to the intake and exhaust flow rates
(
in
m and
ex
m ) - k is the kinetic energy of the turbulent flow field (assumed isotropic)
while is its dissipation rate. P represents a turbulent production term which
characterizes the energy transfer between the mean and the turbulent flow field (energy-
cascade mechanism [C31]). An unique tuning constant,
t
c , is present and a value of order
1 is usually specified [C31]. Differently from [C31], the equations (2.2.50) to (2.2.53) are
integrated all over the engine cycle and a turbulent production term due to the in-cylinder
unburned density variation during the compression and expansion stroke is included in
both K and k balance equations [C4]. The turbulence intensity is finally derived from the
k definition. The above model also gives the possibility to estimate the Kolmogorov length
scale which, under the hypothesis of isotropic turbulence, assumes the expression:

4 / 3
t
I
k
Re
L
l =
with
u
I
t
L u
Re


= (2.2.55)
I
L being the integral length scale, assumed proportional (
l
c = 0.2-0.8) to the
instantaneous clearance height H inside the cylinder, and
u
is the kinematic viscosity of
the unburned mixture.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-28 15-Nov-2013
In particular, the integral and the Kolmogorov length scales,
I
L and
k
l , are chosen as the
maximum and minimum wrinkling scales in Equation 2.2.48, while the
3
D dimension
mainly depends on the ratio between the turbulence intensity u and the laminar flame
speed
L
S [C24]:

L
L
S u
S u
D
+
+
=
05 . 2 35 . 2
3
(2.2.56)
The above described fractal model is indeed really valid for a fully-developed and freely
expanding turbulent flame. During both early flame development and combustion
completion correction terms (weight factors
1
w and
2
w described below) are required.
Ignition
The complex phenomena occurring after spark occurrence, plasma formation and
subsequent flame kernel evolution are described in detail in [C24]. Kernel initiation
process ends about 200 ms (tunable with the ignition-formation time multiplier
ign
c ) after
spark at a critical flame radius of about 2 mm. During this period burning speed is very
high, depending on energy released by the ignition system, then it reaches a minimum to
values similar to the laminar flame speed [C16] and subsequently it increases again, as a
consequence of the flame surface wrinkling previously described.
Being the above phenomena not included in the present model, it is assumed to start the
computation at the end of kernel initiation process with a stable and spherically-shaped
smooth flame of about 2 mm radius. Flame wrinkling process then starts at a rate which
increases with both the instantaneous flame radius and the turbulence intensity
(proportional to the engine speed). The following expression is proposed for the
computation of a non-dimensional flame wrinkling rate:

ref ref f
f
wr
n
n
r
r
,
=
(2.2.57)
In the above equation,
ref f
r
,
parameter is a tunable reference radius of order 1cm, while
ref
n is a reference engine speed fixed to 1000 rpm. Equation 2.2.56 is finally redefined to
handle an increase in the fractal dimension related to the gradual increase in flame
wrinkling during time.

L
L
S u
S D u D
D
+
+
=
min , 3 max , 3
3

05 . 2
min , 3
= D
With this formulation, the first phase of the combustion process will be characterized by a
fractal dimension very close to its minimum level
min , 3
D , which determines an initial
burning speed close to the laminar one. Note that the minimum value of the fractal
dimension is in any case greater than 2.
This should compensate the very high burning speed which occurs during the kernel
formation phase, due to the energy supplied with the spark plug.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-29
Of course a careful tuning of the parameters
l
c and
ref f
r
,
is required to match the
experimental pressure cycles at each engine operating condition.
Wall Combustion
When the flame front reaches the combustion chamber walls the described fractal
mechanism of flame propagation is no longer valid. The most important characteristics of
combustion completion relate to the effects of the wall on the burning process ("wall-
combustion" phenomena). The wall limits gas expansion, constrains all flows, and forms a
relatively low-temperature solid boundary that cools the gas. All of these factors change
the fundamental behavior of the combustion compared with that of a flame propagating
freely across the chamber. A great portion (30-40%) of the unburned mixture really burns
in this particular combustion mode. Wall-combustion burning rate can be simply described
by an exponential decay, as follows [C6]:

b
combustion wall
b
m m
dt
dm
= |
.
|

\
|

(2.2.58)
being the characteristic time scale of the above process.
The overall burning rate can be consequently defined as a weighted mean of the two
described combustion rates:

( )
combustion wall
b
fractals
b
overall
b
dt
dm
w
dt
dm
w
dt
dm

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
2 2
1
(2.2.59)
The switch between the two combustion modes gradually starts when a transition time
tr
t
is reached, identifying the first flame plume arrival to the cylinder wall, i.e.:

( )
( )
tr L T u
tr b
f
S A
m m
r


=
(2.2.60)
L
I
/2
r
cyl
r
f

Figure 2-10: Flame Arrival at Cylinder Wall; Beginning of Wall-Combustion Mode
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-30 15-Nov-2013
When Equation 2.2.60 is verified, the characteristic time scale in Equation 2.2.58 is
computed assuming that wall-combustion burning rate equals the one derived from the
fractal model Equation 2.2.49, hence:

( )
( )
tr L T u
tr b
S A
m m


=
(2.2.61)
The above value is then kept fixed during the subsequent wall combustion process. The
weight factor
2
w indeed linearly increases with time, depending on the instantaneous
unburned mass ( )
b
m m , compared to the one occurring at the transition time
tr
t :

( )
tr b
b
m m
m m

=
(2.2.62)
In this way a smooth transition between the two modes is easily realized.
Stratified Charge
The underlying spatial discretization of the fractal combustion model considers cylinder
mixture in two zones: burned and unburned zone. The stratified charge extension takes
into account a 1-dimensional spatial distribution of fuel and residual gas in the unburned
zone. The local fuel and residual gas concentration in the flame front during the
combustion progress used fort e simulation is defined by characteristic normalized values.

Figure 2-11: Flame Front Propagation
For each flame front radius
i
r the local combustion air equivalence ratio
flame
and mass
fraction of combustion products
cp
flame
x

inside the flame front zone are calculated as
follows:

1
1

+
=
C NORM
SOC
st
st
flame
mfb
afr
afr


(2.2.63)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-31

cp
SOC C
cp
NORM
cp
flame
x mfb x x = (2.2.64)
SOC
Air equivalence ratio at Start of Combustion
cp
SOC
x
Mass fraction of combustion products (residual gas) at Start of
Combustion
C
mfb Cylinder mass fraction burned
C NORM
mfb Normalized excess air ratio as function of
C
mfb
C
cp
NORM
mfb x Normalized residual gas ratio as function of
C
mfb
st
afr Stoichiometric Air/Fuel ratio

Normalized data of air equivalence ratio and residual gas ratio can be obtained by CFD
calculations either
from a cold flow in cylinder species distribution at Start of Combustion by the
spatial integration of regions outside of a specific radius
i
r or
a combustion simulation by spatial integration of the unburned zone for the
combustion period
Cylinder Mean value for air equivalence ratio
SOC


and residual gas
cp
SOC
x at Start of
Combustion:

( )



=
C
C
V
fv cp
V
fv
st SOC
dV x x
dV x
afr
1

(2.2.65)


=
C
C
V
V
cp
cp
SOC
dV
dV x
x

(2.2.66)
Local cylinder density
V Local cylinder volume
cp
x

Local cylinder combustion product mass fraction at SOC

fv
x Local cylinder fuel vapor mass fraction at SOC

Closure conditions for input of
C NORM
mfb and
C
cp
NORM
mfb x are:
( ) 1
1
0
=

C C
cp
NORM
mfb d mfb x (2.2.67)
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-32 15-Nov-2013
( ) ( )
cp
SOC C
cp
SOC C
cp
NORM C NORM
x mfb d x mfb x mfb =

1 1
1
0
(2.2.68)
2.2.2.2.2. Open Chamber Gas Engine
This combustion model is intended for prediction of combustion rates in spark ignited gas
engines with natural gas or medium calorific value gas as fuel [C34].
The underlying sub-models for Turbulence, Ignition Delay and Flame Front Propagation
are explained in the following.
Turbulence
The main influence of the turbulence level on the combustion is accounted by the following
sub-model. The turbulence is sourced by the swirl and squish flow which energies are
balanced in the two sub-volumes
1
V and
2
V .
The squish part of the turbulent energy generation is sourced by the flow from one sub-
volume into the other. The mass flow and its related velocity of the flow across the contact
area of the two sub-volumes is calculated based on a simplified mass continuity approach
(equal density in both sub-volumes)

ct
ct
squish sq t
dm
v
C dE =
2
2
,
(2.2.69)

( )
( )
dt
ds
h R h R
h R R R
m
dt
dm
cl b
b
c
ct

+

=
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
(2.2.70)

dt
dm
A
v
ct
ct c
ct

1
(2.2.71)
sq t
E
,
Turbulent kinetic energy part sourced by squish flow
squish
C

Squish constant

ct
v

Flow velocity across contact area of the two sub-volumes

dt
dm
ct

Mass flow across contact area of the two sub-volumes
c
m

Cylinder charge mass
dt
ds

Piston velocity
2
1
b
d
R =

Piston bowl radius
b
d Piston bowl diameter
2
R Cylinder bore radius
b
h Piston bowl depth
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-33
cl
h Distance from piston top to head
c


Cylinder charge density
ct
A

Contact area of the two sub-volumes

Figure 2-12: Cylinder Volume Partitioning
The calculation of the swirl is also based on the partitioning of the cylinder into the two
sub-volumes
1
V and
2
V . Sink terms for friction are applied to the conservation equation of
the angular momentum for the charge in those sub-volumes.
j i j i d
C
I
dI dI
d
i
sf
i
j j i i
i
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
= ; 2 , 1 , ;
2


(2.2.72)
i


Angular velocity of charge in sub-volume

i
V
i
I

Moment of inertia of charge in sub-volume

i
V
sf
C

Swirl friction constant


Crank angle


The first term accounts for angular acceleration/deceleration because of momentum
transfer from one sub-volume into the other, the second term models the deceleration
because of friction effects.
d I C C dE
sf swirl sw t
=
2
1 1 ,
2
1
(2.2.73)
sw t
E
,
Turbulent kinetic energy part sourced by swirl flow
swirl
C

Swirl constant

BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-34 15-Nov-2013
The equation for the development of turbulent kinetic energy in sub-volume
1
V can be
finally written as
( )
c
c
C
cl
D sw t sq t
V
dV
k C dt
h
k
C dE dE
m
dk + =
3
2 1
2 / 3
, ,
1
(2.2.74)
k Mass specific turbulent kinetic energy
1
m Charge mass in sub-volume 1
cl
b
D
h
k
C
2 / 3
Turbulence dissipation
D
C Dissipation constant
c
c
C
V
dV
k C
3
2

Turbulence generation due to charge compression
C
C Compression constant
c
V Cylinder volume
Initialization of the Turbulence level at Start of High Pressure
SHP
k :

( )
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
30 cos 2 2
max ,
2
S n
h d
D C
k
v v v
TL
SHP

(2.2.75)
TL
C Turbulence level constant
D Cylinder bore diameter
n Engine speed
S Stroke
v
d Mean valve set diameter
max , v
h Maximum valve lift
v
Valve seat angle

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-35

Figure 2-13: Valve Seat Geometry
Ignition Delay
The Ignition Delay is modeled as combination of an Arrhenius (radicals production) and
Magnussen (influence of turbulence) approach. The combustion starts after the following
condition is reached:
1
1 1
1

+


SOC
IGN
Mag Ar
Id
d
r r
A (2.2.76)

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

c
c
O
F Ar Ar
T p
p
c c A r
3000
exp
2 . 0
0
7 . 1 1 . 2
2
(2.2.77)

3 / 4
0 c
F
Mag Mag
V
k m
A r

(2.2.78)
IGN Ignition time
SOC Start of combustion time
Id
A Ignition Delay constant
Ar
A Arrhenius constant
F
c Molar fuel vapor concentration
2
O
c Molar oxygen concentration
c
p Cylinder charge pressure
0
p Reference pressure (1bar)
0
Reference density (1kg/m3)
c
T Cylinder charge temperature
Mag
A Magnussen constant
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-36 15-Nov-2013
F
m Fuel vapor mass
k Mass specific turbulent kinetic energy
c
V Cylinder volume

Flame Front Propagation
Also the Rate of Heat Release model is based on the Magnussen approach accounting for
the main influence of the turbulence level on combustion [C25].

dt
d
H
m
V
k
C
d
dQ
u
av F
c
ROHR
F

=
,
3
(2.2.79)
d
dQ
F
Rate of heat release constant
ROHR
C Rate of heat release constant
k Mass specific turbulent kinetic energy
3
c
V Characteristic turbulence length
av F
m
,
Available fuel mass
u
H Lower heating value of fuel
dt
d

Angular engine speed
During the first combustion period, where the flame front is able to propagate freely
without wall interaction the available fuel mass is given by the volume of the flame.
s r m m
ff f F av F
= =
2
, ,
2 (2.2.80)
f F
m
,
Fuel mass in flame
ff
r Flame front radius
s Flame thickness
The development of the flame radius is driven by the turbulent flame speed. Its
dependency on turbulence, excess air ratio, temperature and pressure is modeled according
to Glder [C14],[C15].

25 . 0
3
375 . 0
5 . 0
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
u
lam turb
V
k v v

(2.2.81)
turb
v Turbulent flame speed
lam
v Laminar flame speed
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-37
3
V Characteristic turbulence length
u
Kinematic viscosity of unburned charge

The laminar flame speed
lam
v is calculated according to Peters et al. [C13]. Fuel Constants
below are those for pure methane.


5158 . 2
3
565175 . 0 2
10 44427 . 6
exp 10 2 . 2
|
|
.
|

\
|


|
|
.
|

\
|

=

u b
f b
f
u
f
F lam
T T
T T
T
T
T
v (2.2.82)

|
.
|

\
|


=
12
3
10 557 . 31
ln
10 873 . 23
p
T
f
(2.2.83)
lam
v Laminar flame speed [m/s]
F
Fuel mass fraction [-]
u
T Temperature of unburned charge [K]
b
T Temperature of burned charge [K]
f
T Averaged flame temperature [K]
p Cylinder pressure [Pa]
For the consideration of effects occurring at the later combustion phase when the flame
reaches the cylinder wall a modification for the available fuel mass is introduced. The
weighting of this modification can be steered by the 2 parameters
T
P and
T
of the flame
front combustion weight function.
( )
ub F FC f F FC av F
m m m
, , ,
1 + = (2.2.84)
FC
Flame front combustion weight
ub F
m
,
Total unburned fuel vapor mass
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-38 15-Nov-2013

Figure 2-14: Flame Front Combustion Weight
2.2.2.2.3. MCC 2-zone Model for Compression Ignition Engines
BOOST uses the Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) [C8, C9] model for the prediction
of the combustion characteristics in direct injection compression ignition engines.
The model considers the effects of the premixed (PMC) and diffusion (MCC) controlled
combustion processes according to:

d
dQ
d
dQ
d
dQ
PMC MCC total
+ = (2.2.85)
Mixing Controlled Combustion:
In this regime the heat release is a function of the fuel quantity available (f
1
) and the
turbulent kinetic energy density (f
2
):
( ) ( ) V k f Q m f C
d
dQ
MCC F Comb
MCC
, ,
2 1
=

(2.2.86)
with
( ) ( )
EGR
C
available Oxygen
MCC
F F
w
LCV
Q
m Q m f
, 1
, |
.
|

\
|
= (2.2.87)
( )
3
2
,
V
k
C V k f
Rate
= (2.2.88)
MCC
Q cumulative heat release for the mixture controlled combustion [kJ]
Comb
C combustion constant [kJ/kg/deg CA]
Rate
C mixing rate constant [s]
k local density of turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2]
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-39
F
m vaporized fuel mass (actual) [kg]
LCV lower heating value [kJ/kg]
V cylinder volume [m3]
crank angle [deg CA]
available Oxygen
w
,
mass fraction of available Oxygen (aspirated and in EGR) at SOI [-]
EGR
C EGR influence constant [-]

Conservation equation for the kinetic energy of the fuel jet:
Since the distribution of squish and swirl to the kinetic energy are relatively small, only
the kinetic energy input from the fuel spray is taken into account. The amount of kinetic
energy imparted to the cylinder charge is determined by the injection rate (first term on
RHS). The dissipation is considered as proportional to the kinetic energy (second term on
RHS) giving:
for Revised TKE calculation:

5 . 1 2
5 . 0
kin Diss F F turb
kin
E C v m C
dt
dE
= (2.2.89)

( )
stoich Diff I F
kin
m m
E
k
+
=
1
,
(2.2.90)
for Default TKE calculation (this is an older status of the model):

kin Diss F F
kin
E C v m
dt
dE
=
2
5 . 0 (2.2.91)

( )
stoich Diff I F
kin turb
m m
E C
k
+

=
1
,
(2.2.92)
kin E kinetic jet energy [J]
Turb
C turbulent energy production constant [-]
Diss
C dissipation constant; Revised: [J-
0.5
/s] ; Default: [1/s]
I F
m
,
injected fuel mass (actual) [kg]
v injection velocity =
A
m
F
F

[m/s]
A effective nozzle hole area [m2]
F
fuel density [kg/m3]
n engine speed [rpm]
stoich
m stoichiometric mass of fresh charge [kg/kg]
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-40 15-Nov-2013
Diff
Air Excess Ratio for diffusion burning [-]
t time [s]

Ignition delay model:
The ignition delay is calculated using the Andree and Pachernegg [C1] model by solving
the following differential equation:

ref id
ref UB
id
Q f
T T
d
dI

(2.2.93)
As soon as the ignition delay integral
id
I reaches a value of 1.0 (=at
id
) at the ignition
delay
iD
is calculated from
SOI id id
= .
id
I
ignition delay integral [-]
ref
T
reference temperature = 505.0 [K]
UB
T unburned zone temperature [K]
ref
Q
reference activation energy, f(droplet diameter, oxygen content, ) [K]
id

ignition delay [s]


SOI
start of injection timing [degCA]
id
ignition delay timing [degCA]
id
f
ignition delay calibration factor [-]

Premixed combustion model:
A Vibe function is used to describe the actual heat release due to the premixed combustion:
( )
( ) 1
1
+

+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
m
y a m
c
PMC
PMC
e y m
a
d
Q
dQ

(2.2.94)

c
id
y

= (2.2.95)
PMC
Q
total fuel heat input for the premixed combustion=
PMC id fuel
C m
,

id fuel
m
,
total amount of fuel injected during the ignition delay phase
PMC
C
premixed combustion parameter [-]
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-41
c
premixed combustion duration =
Dur PMC id
C



Dur PMC
C

premixed combustion duration factor
m
shape parameter m = 2.0
a
Vibe parameter a = 6.9

Droplet heat-up and evaporation model:
According to Sitkei [C37] the equilibrium temperature for the droplet evaporation can be
calculated iteratively from:

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 15 . 273 3 . 0 15 . 273 26 . 0 0 . 20
10 93 . 30
0 . 4150
4
+ +


=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c d
T
c
d
d c c
T T
e
p
T
T T
d

(2.2.96)
Using the equilibrium temperature the velocity of the evaporation results from:

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
d
T
c
d
e
e p
T
v
0 . 4159
70353 . 0 (2.2.97)
The value of 0.70353 can be changed through user input (expert parameters). Finally the
change in droplet diameter (and the corresponding change in droplet mass) over time can
be calculated:
t v d d
e d d
=
2
0 ,
(2.2.98)
c
thermal conductivity of the cylinder [W/ms]
c
T temperature in the cylinder [K]
d
T equilibrium temperature of the isothermal droplet evaporation [K]
c
p pressure in the cylinder [Pa]
e
v evaporation velocity [m2/s]
d
d actual droplet diameter [m]
0 , d
d initial droplet diameter [m]
2.2.2.2.4. Multi-Zone Combustion Model for Compression Ignition
Engines
BOOST uses a Multi-Zone Spray Combustion Model for the prediction of the combustion
characteristics in direct injection compression ignition engines.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-42 15-Nov-2013
The model subdivides the spray into a high number of zones. In each zone the mechanisms
of charge entrainment, evaporation, ignition delay, and combustion are calculated by
different sub-models.
During injection, at certain increments new packages of zones are generated. Each package
is subdivided into a number of radial zones. Consequently, the overall number of zones,
which is generated during the combustion process, depends on the duration of injection,
the calculation time-step and the discretization in radial direction.

Figure 2-15: Spray Discretization in the Multi-Zone Combustion Model
Entrainment
The entrained fresh charge mass to a zone is calculated on the basis of conservation of the
overall zone momentum. Hence the decrease of tip penetration velocity relative to injection
velocity reflects in an increase of mass. The mechanisms can be adjusted by the model
parameter
Entrain
C [C17].

fuel
D inj
p
c v


=
2
(2.2.99)

ax rad inj
ch
c tip
f f t d
p
v
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
5 . 0 5 . 0
25 . 0
,
2
95 . 2

(2.2.100)

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
Entrain
tip
inj
inj i
C
v
v
m m 1 1
(2.2.101)
inj
v
velocity at injection [m/s]

,c tip
v
tip penetration velocity [m/s]
D
c
injector nozzle discharge coefficient [-]
p
injection pressure drop [Pa]
fuel

liquid fuel density [kg/m


3
]
ch

charge density [kg/m


3
]
inj
d
injector nozzle diameter [m]
t
time after injection of package [s]
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-43
inj
m
injected package fuel mass [kg]
i
m
zone mass at t [kg]
Entrain
C
model parameter [-]
ax rad
f f
, correction functions to account for radial / axial position in the spray [-]

The velocity of the spray decreases from the spray centerline to the spray border since
there is a stronger interaction between the fuel package and the cylinder charge at the
spray periphery. An exponential decrease in radial direction was assumed in [C17],
expressed by the correction function
rad
f . Here
rad
i represents the radial position of the
package in the spray. The velocity of the outer radial zones has half the value of the zones
on the spray centerline which defines the parameter
rad
C .

| |
2
) 1 (
=
rad rad
i C
rad
e f
(2.2.102)

2
) 1 (
) 5 . 0 ln(

=
nr
C
rad
(2.2.103)
nr
number of radial zones [-]
rad
i
index of radial zone [-]
During fuel injection, the flow field within the combustion chamber is affected by the
momentum of the spray. This leads to a slipstream effect for the later injected packages.
This effect is considered by a correction function
ax
f depending on the axial position of the
zone
ax
i , that is given in [C32].

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
3 max ,
1
2
1
1
1
C
t
i
i
C f
inj
C
ax
ax
ax
(2.2.104)
inj
t
number of radial zones [-]
ax
i
index of axial zone [-]
max , ax
i
current number of axial zones [-]
3 2 1
, , C C C
model constants [-]
Droplet heat-up and evaporation model
Due to mechanisms that can be characterized as primary and secondary breakup the
condensed liquid package disintegrates to separate droplets. The initial diameter after
breakup
tb
SMD is calculated according to [C38].
The Droplets heat up by convective heat transfer and evaporate [C3]. The evaporation rate
is calculated separately in the areas of droplet temperature below ( )
cr l
T T
fv
dt dm
<
and
above ( )
cr l
T T
fv
dt dm
>
the critical temperature [C32]. There are two parameters to adjust
the model to measurements; one that controls the heat up of the droplet
eht
C and one that
controls the evaporation rate
Evap
C
.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-44 15-Nov-2013

( )
28 0 42 0
28 0 42 0 44 0
392 12
.
ch
.
.
fuel fuel
.
fuel
.
inj
tb
p
d .
SMD


=
(2.2.105)

( )
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
z
l i m eht
e
z
Nu T T SMD C q
(2.2.106)

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
<
s m
v Evap
T T
fv
p p
p
T R
p
Sh D SMD C
dt
dm
cr l
ln
(2.2.107)

2
6
1
C
Evap
T T
fv
p
SMD C C
dt
dm
cr l
|
.
|

\
|
=
>

(2.2.108)
SMD SMD
tb
,
sauter mean diameter at breakup / at t [m]
q
heat transfer to droplet [W]
dt
dm
fv
evaporation rate [kg/s]
cr
T
critical temperature of the fuel [K]
m l i
T T T , ,
temperature of zone / droplet / mean [K]
p
cylinder pressure [bar]
Nu
Nusselt Number [-]
Sh
Sherwood Number [-]
s v
m fuel
p z D , ,
, ,
fuel properties [m
2
/s], [W/m/K], [m
2
/s], [-], [Pa]
2 1
,C C
model constants [-]
eht
C
model parameter Evaporation Heat Transfer [-]
Evap
C
model parameter Evaporation Multiplier [-]
Ignition delay model
Chemical ignition delay depends on temperature and pressure which is approximated by
the Arrhenius type correlation by an approach of Wolfer [C44]. The ignition delay time is
calculated by integrating the characteristic time. Auto ignition occurs when the related
progress variable reaches the value of 1. The Temperature used for the calculation of
ignition delay
IgnDel
T
is the mean spray temperature.

IgnDel
IgnExp
T
C
IgnDel
e p C =
02 . 1

(2.2.109)

1
1

+
dt
inj
inj

(2.2.110)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-45

characteristic ignition delay time [s]


IgnDel
T
temperature for ignition delay calculation [K]
IgnDel
C
ignition delay parameter [-]
IgnExp
C
ignition delay exponent [-]
Combustion
The heat release in the zones dt dx
fb
is calculated by the reaction kinetic approach of
Jung [C21]. Herein the educts concentrations are expressed by the mass fractions of fuel
vapor and oxygen. The reaction term is an equation of the Arrhenius type which
additionally considers the density in the pre-exponential term.

i
T
o fv ch b
fb
e x x K
dt
dx
1200
5 . 1
2

=
(2.2.111)

i
arrh
O
T
c
b
o fv
a
ch b
fb
e x x K
dt
dx

=
2
2

(2.2.112)
dt
dx
fb
fuel burned rate [s
-1
]
fv
x
fuel vapor mass concentration [-]
2
o
x
oxygen mass concentration [-]
b
K
chemical reaction parameter [-]
arrh O
c b a , ,
2 model constants
Re-Entrainment of Burned Gas
The original Multi-Zone approach of Hiroyasu does not consider heat and mass exchange
between the reaction zones. The only actual mass transfer is the unidirectional
entrainment of the cylinder charge into the reaction zones (Figure 2-16). This is a strong
simplification which may cause the problem that all oxygen of the cylinder charge is used
up and thus stops the process even though there is plenty of oxygen left inside some of the
zones. Due to this discrepancy a Burned-Gas zone was introduced which absorbs all
burned zones but recycles part of them together with the fresh charge back into the
reaction zones by the entrainment mechanism. The dosage of burned re-entrainment mass
into the fresh charge is controlled by one parameter. [C30]
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-46 15-Nov-2013

Figure 2-16: Spray Discretization in the Multi-Zone Combustion Model
Heat Transfer between Zones
The model considers Heat Exchange between the reaction zones and the fresh charge zone.
This is modeled by a Newton approach. The surface area of the zones is calculated from the
zone volume assuming a spherical shape.

( )
ch i i ht
ZtoCh
T T A
dt
dq
=
(2.2.113)
dt
dq
ZtoCh
heat transfer from spray zones to charge zone [W]
ht

heat transfer coefficient, model parameter [W/m


2
/K]
i
A
zone surface area [m
2
]
Pressure Trace Analysis and Parameter Identification using the MZCM
The Method of Pressure Trace Analysis is described in detail in [C30] and is implemented
in the BOOST Kernel. If the MZCM is used for Pressure Trace Analysis, the Spray Model
(Entrainment and Evaporation) are calculated just as in the Simulation Mode. However,
the chemical reaction parameter b
K
is kept variable and correlated at each time step to
match the target pressure curve.
First the charge entrainment parameter
Entrain
C

is given a high value. The evaporation
parameter
eht
C

starts at a low value which increases every simulation cycle. As soon as the
target function is met, the evaporation parameter is kept constant. The entrainment
parameter is set so a low value which is then increased every cycle. The procedure is
repeated with better guess for the pair of parameters.

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-47
Pollutant Formation Models
The NOx Model that is used in the Multi-Zone Model is the Genuine BOOST NOx Model
based on the extended Zeldovich Mechanism. The Soot model used for the MZCM is based
on Hiroyasu et al. [C17]. For a detailed description see BOOST Theory chapter 2.2.3.1.
Both pollutant models calculate the pollutant formation on the basis of the thermodynamic
state and the composition of the spray zones.
2.2.2.2.5. Single-Zone HCCI Auto-Ignition
The Single-Zone HCCI Auto Ignition model is available in combination with General
Species Transport only. In this case the term
d
dQ
F
in Equation 2.2.1 is formulated as:

=
=
nSpcGas
i
i i i
F
MW u
d
dQ
1

(2.2.114)
The species mass fractions are calculated as:

i i
i
MW
d
dw

= (2.2.115)
where:
nSpcGas number of species in the gas phase [-]
MW species molecular weight [kg/kmole]
u species inner energy [J/kgK]
w species mass fraction [-]
mixture density [kg/m
3
]
species reaction rate [kmole/m
3
s]
The reaction rate of each species is calculated based on a specified set of chemical
reactions that describe the auto-ignition process.
2.2.2.2.6. HCCI 6-Zone Auto-Ignition
The HCCI 6-Zone Auto ignition is also available only in combination with General Species
Transport. Definition and description of the six zones that are calculated are shown in
Figure 2-17.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-48 15-Nov-2013

Figure 2-17: Description of 6 Zones and their Interaction
Crevice zone which is marked with number 1 is defined as a constant volume zone, and the
volume of that zone has to be defined by the user. Boundary layer zones (2, 3, 4) are
defined by their thickness and a current position of the piston. Boundary layer
thickness is an input parameter of the user. It is the same for all the zones and is constant
during calculation. Two central zones (5 and 6) have equal volumes which complete
definitions of the volumes of the zones [C22].
The energy equation (2.2.1) is set for each zone. There are several assumptions which
slightly change the original energy equation of each zone. They are:
1. Pressure in all zones is the same.
2. Heat transfer of each zone j
dt
dQ
j
is constituted of:
a) wall heat transfer
b) zone heat transfer
3. Released fuel energy in each zone (j) is calculated with:

=
=
nSpcGas
i
ij i ij
j F
MW u
dt
dQ
1
,


F
Q fuel energy [J]
ij
u specific internal energy of specie i in zone j [J/(kgK)]
MW species molecular weight [kg/kmol]
species reaction rate [kmol/(m3s)]
i index specifying specie
j index specifying zone
nSpcGas number of chemical species
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-49


4. Blow by loses are neglected.
5. Addition of fuel during HPC is not possible.
With these assumptions and with the transformations of energy equations, a temperature
equation for each zone is obtained:
( )
(
(

+ =

=
nSpcGas
i
ij i ij j
c
c
j j j
j
j
j j p
j
MW u v
dt
dp
p
T R
dt
dR
T
dt
dQ
m c dt
dT
1
,
1 1
(2.2.116)
j
Q total heat transfer to zone j [J]
T temperature [K]
p
c specific heat capacity at constant pressure [J/(kgK)]
j
m mass [kg]
j
R individual gas constant [J/(kgK)]
c
p cylinder pressure [Pa]
v specific volume [m3/kg]
In each zone a different gas composition is calculated, therefore a mass fraction of each
species in each zone has to be calculated with:

ij j i
ij
v MW
dt
d

= (2.2.117)
Since the zones are connected by the fact that the pressure in all zones is the same there is
an additional equation which enables the calculation of term
dt
dp
c
in (2.2.116):

dt
dV
p
dt
dR
T m j
dt
dT
R m
dt
dp
V
c
c
j
nZones
i
j j
j
nZones
j
j j
c
c
=

= = 1 1
(2.2.118)
nZones number of zones

BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-50 15-Nov-2013
Heat Transfer of the Zone:
Heat transfer of the zone
dt
dQ
j
is constituted of a wall heat transfer and a zone heat
transfer. Wall heat transfer is calculated only for the boundary layer zones. It is calculated
in the same manner as the general in cylinder wall heat transfer, with the exception that
in equation 2.2.11 a gas temperature of each boundary layer zone is used instead of mean
cylinder temperature.
Zone heat transfer is calculated between several zones, which is shown in Figure 2-17:
Description of 6 Zones and their Interaction. Heat transfer between two zones (x, y) is
calculated with:

t
Q
dt
dQ
y x y x

=

(2.2.119)
y x
Q

heat transfer between zones x and y [J]
y x
T

temperature of the mixture of zones x and y [K]
y x
Q

zone heat exchange potential [J]
t zone heat transfer time constant [s]

The heat exchange potential
y x
Q

is calculated on the basis of the temperature of the
mixture
y x
T

that would be obtained if the complete mixing at constant volume of these
two zones would be achieved:
( ) ( )
y y y y x
y
y x
m T u T u Q
(

=

(2.2.120)
A heat exchange potential
y x
Q

represent a heat that have to be added or subtracted to
zone y in order for it to change its temperature to the temperature of the mixture
y x
T

.
Time constant t which in some way represent a speed of this heat exchange is a
calibration factor of this calculation and has to be specified by the user. Increase of time
constant lead to lower rate of heat exchange, and a greater difference in zone
temperatures.
2.2.2.2.7. Pre-Chamber Spark Ignited Gas Engine (PCSI)
The implementation of the PCSI combustion model relies on the model developed at the
Large Engines Competence Center [C12], [C20].
In Pre-Chamber Spark Ignited engines (PCSI), the pre-chamber is used to initialize
combustion of a globally very lean mixture, beyond the mixture limits ignitable by
conventional spark ignition. A fuel rich mixture is generated in the pre-chamber. Ignition
occurs at the top end of the pre-chamber. Then the flame progresses through the chamber
until the hot combustion gases reach the cylinder and cause ignition of the lean mixture in
the main combustion chamber.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-51
Combustion Model
In homogeneous charge spark ignited engines, the progression of the flame front is
governed by the turbulent flame speed v
turb
, which is calculated on the basis of the laminar
flamespeed v
lam
, and the level of instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy in the unburned
zone k. Analogously to the open chamber gas engine, the correlation of Glder [C15] is
used, where v
u
is the kinematic viscosity of the unburned zone.

5 . 0
3
75 . 0
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
u
lam turb
V
k v v

(2.2.121)
The laminar flame speed v
lam
is calculated according to Peters et al. [C13]. The correlation
uses the theoretical combustion temperature as a function on the unburned zone state.
This temperature can be calculated from the energy equation using actual fuel- and
working gas properties.
Mller et al. [C26] have introduced a polynomial correlation for the adiabatic combustion
temperature as a function of the unburned zone conditions: temperature T
ub
and air excess
ratio
ub
. The correlation shows a good agreement with the thermodynamic approach only
at lambda > 1.

3 2
3556 6776 2499
15 1270 627 0
ub ub
ub
ub aift

- . T . T + + = (2.2.122)
The different approaches can be selected in the GUI input dialog.
In BOOST, the lambda boundaries for the Mller approach are limited to above 0.8 and
below 1.4. Outside this range, the lambda value for the calculation of the adiabatic flame
temperature is kept constant. Figure 2-18 compares the calculated adiabatic flame
temperature and the resulting laminar flame speed for the two approaches.

Figure 2-18: Comparison of Adiabatic Flame Temperature
and resulting laminar Flame Speed
Additionally the model considers a correction function to account for different fuel
qualities. The fuel quality is described by a characteristic Methane Number (MN) which is
a model input.
MN 0.00087 - 083 . 1 =
lam
f (2.2.123)
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-52 15-Nov-2013
Pre-Chamber: Turbulence and Heat Release
Turbulence is induced by the flow from the main cylinder into the pre-chamber during
compression. The flow velocity depends on the geometrical dimensions of the pre-chamber,
namely the orifices diameter d
ori
and the diameter d
2
, see the following figure.

Figure 2-19: Pre-Chamber Geometry
The orifice mass flow dm
ori
and flow velocity v
d2
are calculated from the orifice equation
2.2.161. The derivative of turbulent kinetic energy in the pre-chamber dk
pre
is proportional
to the kinetic energy of the flow, as expressed by equation 2.2.124.

dt
dm
v
C
dt
dk
ori
d
pc turb
pre
=
2
2
,
2
(2.2.124)
The heat release in the pre-chamber is calculated according to the Magnussen formulation
given in equation 2.2.126. For the calculation of the flame front volume V
FF
a hemi-
spherical flame shape is assumed. The flame front thickness is a fixed value of 3mm. The
flame radius is calculated by integration of the turbulent flame speed.
The ignition delay time is calculated by an Arrhenius type correlation. Ignition occurs,
when the integration of the reciprocal ignition delay time exceeds a threshold value of 1.
T
.
pre
e p .
3000
5 0 4
10 3 4

=
(2.2.125)
The relevant concentration for the Magnussen formulation is calculated from the fuel mass
in the flame front. The correction term C
P
represents the combustion product
concentration and is calculated using equation 2.2.127, where c, h and o represent the fuel
mass fractions of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

3
,
,
pre
pre
volume front flame in mass fuel
P
pre
pre fuel
FF u pre comb
pre
V
k
C
V
m
V H C
dt
dQ
=

(2.2.126)

o h c
h c
C
P
+ +
+
=
4
32
12
32
1
4
32
12
44
(2.2.127)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-53
Main Cylinder: Turbulence and Heat Release
The turbulence production in the main cylinder is described by equation 2.2.128. The
model is in large parts identical to the one used for the open chamber gas engine described
in chapter 2.2.2.2.2. This regards the sources from swirl and squish as well as the
dissipation and density terms. For the pre-chamber model there is one additional source
for turbulence fed by the kinetic energy of the orifice flow dk
ori
, given by equation 2.2.129.

dt
dk
dt
dk
dt
dk
dt
dk
dt
dk
dt
dk
dissip
ori dens swirl
squi cyl
+ + + =
(2.2.128)

cyl
ori ori
ori turb
ori
m
v
dt
dm
C
dt
dk 1
2
2
,

=
(2.2.129)
In the main cylinder combustion starts just before the flame front radius in the pre-
chamber R
f
exceeds the chamber length l
PC
. This is usually the case before the combustion
in the pre-chamber is completed. The parameter C
ign
allows a calibration of the combustion
start in the cylinder. Thus, ignition occurs when condition 2.2.130 is fulfilled.

ign
PC
f
C
l
R

(2.2.130)
The heat release in the main cylinder is divided in two regimes dQ
cyl,I
and dQ
cyl,II
.
Therefore, the overall available fuel is divided into two pools. The partitioning between the
two pools is an input parameter to the model. Each pool is balanced separately, also
accounting for the fuel flow between pre-chamber and main chamber. The overall heat
release sums up from the two heat release phases, as expressed by equation 2.2.131.

dt
dQ
dt
dQ
dt
dQ
II cyl I cyl cyl , ,
+ =
(2.2.131)
The first heat release phase one is driven by the inflowing flame jets from the pre-chamber.
The heat release rate follows a Magnussen formulation according to equation 2.2.132.
Herein, k
spray
is calculated according to equation 2.2.133.

3
, ,
,
cyl
spray
I fuel u I comb
I cyl
V
k
m H C
dt
dQ
=
(2.2.132)

soc
ori ori
cyl
spray
d
d
dm v
m
k
2 2
1
2
(2.2.133)
The second heat release phase is also described by a Magnussen approach defined by
equation 2.2.134. The available fuel mass is calculated in the flame front volume as a
function of flame surface A
flame
and fuel density m
fuel,II
/V
cyl
. C
P
is again calculated according
to equation 2.2.127.

3
,
,
,
cyl
cyl
volume front flame in mass fuel
P
cyl
II fuel
ff flame u II comb
II cyl
V
k
C
V
m
s A H C
dt
dQ
=

(2.2.134)
In the initial phase the flame surface is described assuming (semi-)spherical shape. For the
estimation of the piston distance s
pi
, a flat piston geometry is assumed, as shown in Figure
2-20. When the flame reaches the piston surface, the flame surface is calculated assuming
an equivalent spherical layer which has the same volume as the theoretical semispherical
flame (V
eq
=V
f
). The equivalent radius R
eq
is expressed by equation 2.2.135.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-54 15-Nov-2013

3
2
pi
pi
f
eq
s
s
V
R +

(2.2.135)
Further, the flame surface is composed from the surface of the spherical layer and the
flame area on the piston surface:


piston
pi
layer spherical
pi eq flame
r s R A + =
2
2
(2.2.136)

Figure 2-20: Simplified Description of Cylinder and Flame Geometry
2.2.2.3. Pre-Defined Pressure Curve (Anal ysis)
Usually in BOOST the rate of heat release is specified or calculated. Based on this the
pressure, the temperature and the species mass fractions are calculated. The inverse
procedure, the determination of the rate of heat release from a specified target pressure
curve is called combustion analysis.
BOOST offers this feature for both, single and two zone analysis.
In order to ensure a consistent thermodynamic state at start of high pressure an adaption
has to be made to:
the Pressure Curve (Shift),
the Cylinder Mass or to the
Cylinder Temperature.
2.2.2.4. Ideal Heat Release
For theoretical investigations, BOOST allows the specification of the following theoretical
combustion models:
1. Constant Volume
The complete charge is burned instantaneously at the specified crankangle.
2. Constant Pressure
Part of the charge is burned instantaneously at top dead center to achieve the desired
peak firing pressure. The remaining charge is burned in such a way as to maintain the
specified PFP.
This combination of constant volume and constant pressure combustion is also called
Seiliger process.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-55
If the pressure at the end of the compression stroke already exceeds the specified PFP,
combustion starts when the pressure drops below this pressure during the expansion
stroke.
2.2.2.5. User-Defined Heat Release
USER MODEL
By linking user supplied subroutines (UDCOMB_CALCULATE_TS( ) , ..) to BOOST, the user
may define heat release characteristics using BOOSTs high pressure cycle simulation (For
details please refer to the BOOST Interfaces Manual).
USER DEFINED HIGH PRESSURE CYCLE
The user-defined high pressure cycle (user supplied subroutines
UDHPC_CALCULATE_TS( ) , ..) replaces the entire high pressure cycle simulation of BOOST
(For details please refer to the BOOST Interfaces Manual).
2.2.3. Emission Models
2.2.3.1. NOx Formation Model
The NOx formation model implemented in BOOST is based on Pattas and Hfner [C29].
The following 6 reactions (based on the well known Zeldovich mechanism) are taken into
account:
Stoichiometry Rate
|
.
|

\
|
=
T
TA
a
i i
i
e T k k
, 0

k
0
[cm
3
,mol,s] a [-] T
A
[K]
R1 N2 + O = NO + N
O N
c c k r =
2 1 1

4.93E13 0.0472 38048.01
R2 O2 +N = NO + O
N O
c c k r =
2 2 2

1.48E08 1.5 2859.01
R3 N +OH = NO + H
N OH
c c k r =
3 3

4.22E13 0.0 0.0
R4 N2O + O = NO + NO
O O N
c c k r =
2 4 4

4.58E13 0.0 12130.6
R5 O2 + N2 = N2O + O
2 2 5 5 N O
c c k r =

2.25E10 0.825 50569.7
R6 OH + N2 = N2O + H
2 2 6 N OH
c c k r =

9.14E07 1.148 36190.66

All reactions rates r
i
have units [mole/cm
3
s] the concentrations c
i
are molar concentrations
under equilibrium conditions with units [mole/cm
3
]. The concentration of N
2
O is calculated
according to:

2 2
6 . 9471
6125 . 0 6
2
10 1802 . 1
O N
T
O N
p c e T c =
|
.
|

\
|


The final rate of NO production/destruction in [mole/cm
3
s] is calculated as:
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-56 15-Nov-2013
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
4
4
2
1 2
1 1
1 0 . 2
AK
r
AK
r
C C r
t KineticMul lt PostProcMu NO

(2.2.137)
with:

t KineticMul equ NO
act NO
C c
c
1
,
,
=

3 2
1
2
r r
r
AK
+
=

6 5
4
4
r r
r
AK
+
=

2.2.3.2. CO Formation Model
The CO formation model implemented in BOOST is based on Onorati et al. [C28]. The
following two reactions are taken into account:
Stoichiometry Rate
R1 CO + OH = CO2 + H
OH CO
T
c c e r =
|
.
|

\
|
0 . 1102 10
1
10 76 . 6

R2 CO +O2 = CO2 + O
2
0 . 24055
12
2
10 51 . 2
O CO
T
c c e r =
|
.
|

\
|


The final rate of CO production/destruction in [mole/cm
3
s] is calculated as:

( ) ( ) + = 1
2 1
r r C r
Const CO
(2.2.138)
with
equ CO
act CO
c
c
,
,
= .
2.2.3.3. Soot Formation Models
There are two different soot formation models implemented in BOOST. The model of
Schubiger et al. [C36] is used for 2-zone calculation. The model used for the Multi-Zone
Combustion Model is based on Hiroyasu et al. [C17].
Schubiger et al.
The model considers two reactions for the soot formation mechanism that are governed by
reaction kinetic mechanisms. The soot formation reaction dt dm
f s,
is attributed to the
combustion rate of the diffusion combustion. The oxidation reaction depends on the actual
net soot mass in the cylinder and the oxygen availability in the burned zone. The mixing
term
char
is related to the global heat release rate.

T R
E
n
ref
diff fb
f s
f s
m
f s
e
p
p
dt
dm
A
dt
dm

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
,
1
,
,
,
(2.2.139)
( )
T R
E
n
ref O
O n
soot
char
o s
o s
m
o s
e
p
p
m A
dt
dm

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
,
2
2
3
,
2
,
,
1

(2.2.140)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-57
dt
dm
f s,
soot formation rate [kg/s]
dt
dm
o s,
soot oxidation rate [kg/s]
dt
dm
diff fb,
combustion rate of diffusion combustion [kg/s]
ref
p p,
pressure actual / reference [Pa]
so sf
E E ,
activation energy formation / oxidation [J/mol]
ref O O
p p
,
2 2
,
parital pressure oxygen actual / reference [Pa]
soot
m
actual soot mass [kg]
f s
A
, parameter soot formation [-]
o s
A
, parameter soot oxidation [-]
char

mixing term [-]


3 2 1
, , n n n
model constants [-]
Hiroyasu et al.
The Soot model used for the Multi-Zone Combustion Model is based on Hiroyasu et al.
[C17]. In the model, soot formation is directly attributed to the presence of fuel vapor. The
oxidation reaction is governed by the net soot mass and the available oxygen in the
reaction zone. These two reactions take place simultaneously, the actual soot mass results
from the difference of soot formation and oxidation rate.

T R
E
fv f s
f s
m
sf
e p m C
dt
dm

=
5 . 0
,
,
(2.2.141)

T R
E
O
soot o s
o s
m
sc
e p
p
p
m C
dt
dm

=
8 . 1
,
,
2
(2.2.142)
dt
dm
f s,
soot formation rate [kg/s]
dt
dm
o s,
soot oxidation rate [kg/s]
so sf
E E ,
activation energy formation / oxidation [J/mol]
2
O
p
parital pressure oxygen [Pa]
soot
m
actual soot mass [kg]
f s
C
, parameter soot formation [-]
o s
C
,
parameter soot oxidation [-]
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
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2.2.3.4. HC Formation Model
In a spark ignition engine the unburned hydrocarbons have different sources. A complete
description of their formation process cannot yet be given and definitely the achievement
of a reliable predictive model within a thermodynamic approach is prevented by the
fundamental assumptions and the requirement of reduced computational times.
Nevertheless a phenomenological model which accounts for the main formation
mechanisms and is able to capture the HC trends as function of the engine operating
parameter may be proposed. The following major sources of unburned hydrocarbons can be
identified in spark ignition engines (D'Errico et al. [C11]):
1. A fraction of the charge enters the crevice volumes and is not burned since the
flame quenches at the entrance.
2. Fuel vapor is absorbed into the oil layer and deposits on the cylinder wall during
intake and compression. The following desorption takes place when the cylinder
pressure decreases during the expansion stroke and complete combustion cannot
take place any more.
3. Quench layers on the combustion chamber wall which are left as the flame
extinguishes prior to reaching the walls.
4. Occasional partial burning or complete misfire occurring when combustion quality
is poor.
5. Direct flow of fuel vapor into the exhaust system during valve overlap in PFI
engines.
The first two mechanisms and in particular the crevice formation are considered to be the
most important and need to be accounted for in a thermodynamic model. Quench layer and
partial burn effect cannot be physically described in a quasi dimensional approach, but
may be included by adopting tunable semiempirical correlations.
The effect of through flow is taken into account automatically as all chemical species are
transported through all elements.
(a) Crevice mechanism
Crevices are narrow volumes in which the flame cannot propagate due to the heat
transferred to the walls. The most important crevice volumes are the formed between the
piston ring pack and the cylinder liner, and mainly the top-land crevices.
These crevice volumes cause hydrocarbon formation due to the following process. During
compression unburned mixture is forced to enter their volumes, which have a large
surface/volume ratio, and cools exchanging heat transfer with the walls. During
combustion, the pressure continues to rise and forces other unburned mixture to flow into
the crevice volumes. When the flame arrives it quenches, so that the flow through the
crevice entrance inverts its motion when the cylinder pressure starts to decrease.
To describe this process, the model assumes that the pressure in the cylinder and in the
crevices is the same and that the temperature of the mass in the crevice volumes is equal
to the piston temperature. The mass in the crevices at any time is equal to:

piston
crevice
crevice
T R
M V p
m


= (2.2.143)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-59
where:
m
crevice
mass of unburned charge in the crevices [kg]
p cylinder pressure [Pa]
V
crevice
total crevice volume [m3]
M unburned molecular weight [kg/kmol]
R gas constant [J/( kmol K)]
T
piston
piston temperature [K]

As we are interested in the evaluation of the HCs going into the exhaust BOOST begins to
accumulate the HCs that are released from the crevice volume at end of combustion.
(b) HC absorption/desorption mechanism
A second significant source of hydrocarbon is the presence of lubricating oil in the fuel or
on the walls of the combustion chamber. In fact, during compression, the fuel vapor
pressure increases so, by Henrys law, absorption occurs even if the oil was saturated
during the intake. During combustion the fuel vapor concentration in the burned gases
goes to zero so the absorbed fuel vapor will desorb from the liquid oil into the burned
gases. Fuel solubility is a positive function of the molecular weight, so the oil layer
contributed to HC emissions depending on the different solubility of individual
hydrocarbons in the lubricating oil. As a consequence, for usual gaseous fuels as methane
and propane, due to the low molecular weight, oil mechanism does not contribute
significantly.
The assumptions made in the development of the HC absorption/desorption are the
following:
the oil film is at the same temperature as the cylinder wall;
fuel is constituted by a single hydrocarbon species, completely vaporized in the
fresh mixture;
oil is represented by squalane (C
30
H
62
), whose characteristics are similar to the
SAE5W20 lubricant;
traverse flow across the oil film is negligible;
diffusion of the fuel in the oil film is the limiting factor, since the diffusion
constant in the liquid phase is 10
4
times smaller than the corresponding value in
the gas phase.
Under these hypotheses the radial distribution of the fuel mass fraction in the oil film can
be determined by solving the diffusion equation:
0
2
2
=

r
w
D
t
w
F F
(2.2.144)
where:
w
F
mass fraction of the fuel in the oil film, [-]
t time, [s]
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-60 15-Nov-2013
r radial position in the oil film (distance from the wall), [m]
D relative (fuel-oil) diffusion coefficient, [m2/s]
In order to solve Equation 2.2.144 the oil layer can be represented as a cylindrical crown
adhering to the walls. The resulting calculation domain is then obtained by subdividing the
cylindrical crown into a fixed number of elements in both axial and radial directions.
The diffusion coefficient can be computed applying the following relation:

1 6 . 0 5 . 0 8
10 4 . 7

=
f
v T M D (2.2.145)
where:
M oil molecular weight [g/mol]
T oil temperature [K]
f
v molar volume of the fuel at normal boiling conditions [cm
3
/mol]
oil viscosity [centipoise]
At the liner surface (r=0) a zero flux boundary conditions is applied to Equation 2.2.144, at
r=
Film
the fuel concentration at the gas/oil interface is assigned as boundary condition.
Here the following four different conditions can occur:
1) the oil layer is in contact with the fresh mixture
2) the oil layer is in contact with the burned gas
3) the oil layer is in contact with the crankcase gas
4) the oil layer is in contact with the piston layer
BOOST evaluates the position of the flame front at every time-step and accumulates only
HCs that are desorbed into the burned gases, since any HC released into the unburned
mixture would be burned by the propagating flame front.
(c) Partial burn effects
Quench layer and partial burn effects cannot be physically described in a quasi-
dimensional approach. A possible semi-empirical correlation has been proposed by Lavoie
et al. [C23], in which the fraction of unburned charge remaining in the cylinder F
prob
is
calculated applying the following equation which relates F
prob
to the global burn rate
parameters:

( ) ( ) | | { }
( )
( ) ( )
35 . 0
1 1 . 1 1 003 . 0
1 22 1 0032 . 0
exp
2
4
1
1
0 90 2 90 1
=
> + =
< + =
=
C
C
C
C C P F
EVO prob



(2.2.146)
where:
P tunable parameter [-]
equivalence ratio [-]

0
0% mass fuel burned timing [degCA]
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-61

90
90% mass fuel burned timing [degCA]

EVO
exhaust valve open timing [degCA]
(c) HC post oxidation
Finally all hydrocarbons released into the burned gases undergo a complex mechanism of
oxidation due to the existing high temperature in the chamber. A simplified approach to
account for this process has been proposed by Lavoie and Blumberg [C23], using an
Arrhenius equation which takes into account the slow HC post-oxidation:

HC O
Ox
Ox Ox
HC
C C
T
T
A f F
dt
dC
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
exp (2.2.147)
where:
C concentration of HC and O2 [kmole/m
3
]
F
Ox
HC postoxidation multiplier [-]
f HC postoxidation scaling factor [-]
T
Ox
activation temperature, default = 18790.0 [K]
A
Ox
frequency factor, default= 7.7E12 [m
3
/kmole/s]
2.2.3.5. Burned Zone Stratification Model
The burned zone stratification model is based on a conventional 2-zone combustion model,
as described in [C40]. As shown in Figure 2-21, the model divides the combustion chamber,
into two different zones. The unburned zone comprises the state of the unburned air/fuel
mixture in front of the ignition front. The burned zone describes the state behind the
front, where combustion products are part of the gas mixture. The mass and the enthalpy
of the unburned zone are transferred to the burned gases as the combustion proceeds.

Figure 2-21: State Variables and Fluxes in a Burned Zone Stratification Model
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-62 15-Nov-2013
It is well known that mixture which burns early in the combustion process is further
compressed after combustion as the remainder charge is burned. On the contrary, mixture
which burns late is compressed prior to combustion and therefore ends up at a different
initial state. Typically temperature differences of about 100-200 K have been reported
between the first and last burned regions. Neglecting this effect by using a standard two
zone model can result in a significant under-prediction of the CO and NOx emissions.
The burned zone stratification model splits the 'average' burned zone in to a total number
of Z stratified zones. It assumes that each zone, except the last zone (the currently burning
zone), has the same constant amount of mass. The mass of the last zone results from:

=
=
Z
z
z b
m m
1
(2.2.148)
The model assumes that there is no mass exchange between the zones. Each zone is
spherical with its center located on the spark plug position. Furthermore, each zone
exchanges heat with the cylinder walls according to the respective wetted area.
For all burned zones except the last the temperature is calculated from:

( )
dt
dp
V q
dt
h m d
z
z z
+ =

(2.2.149)
The temperature in the last burned zone results from a global energy balance in the
burned zone, expressed by equation 2.2.150. This ensures that the global conservation of
mass and energy in the cylinder is not violated.

=
=
Z
z
z z b b
h m h m
1
(2.2.150)
2.2.4. Knock Model
For gasoline engines (external mixture preparation) a knock model calculates the
minimum octane number required for engine operation free of knock. The threshold for
the onset of knock is exceeded if the integral

( )
dt
t
t
o iD

1
(2.2.151)
iD
ignition delay at the unburned zones condition is larger than one before the end
of combustion is reached.
The ignition delay for the knock model depends on the octane number of the fuel and the
gas condition according to
T
B
n
a
iD
e p
ON
A

|
.
|

\
|
=
100

(2.2.152)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-63
iD
ignition delay [ms]
ON octane number of the fuel
p pressure [atm]
T temperature [K]
B n a A , , , model constants
The default values for gasoline are:
A= 17.68 ms
a =3.402
n =1.7
B =3800 K
2.2.5. Dynamic In-Cylinder Swirl
BOOST allows the user to specify the swirl ratio of an intake port versus valve lift. During
the intake process, the moment of momentum of the mass entering the cylinder is
calculated from the instantaneous mass flow rate and the swirl produced at the
instantaneous valve lift. The in-cylinder swirl at the end of the time step is calculated
from
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
swi i sw c
c
sw
n dm t n t m
t t m
t t n +
+
= +
1
(2.2.153)
sw
n in-cylinder swirl
c
m in-cylinder mass
i
dm in-flowing mass
swi
n swirl of in-flowing mass
With reference to the inflow situation of a steady state swirl test rig, the characteristic
instantaneous swirl value entering the cylinder
swi
n together with the inflow mass
i
dm is

n
n
V
V
n
swr
D
i
swi

=
2

(2.2.154)
i
V

volume flow intake


D
V cylinder displacement
n engine speed
swr
n swirl ratio as function of valve lift
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-64 15-Nov-2013
2.2.6. Dynamic In-Cylinder Tumble
BOOST allows the user to specify the tumble ratio of an intake port versus valve lift.
During the intake process, the moment of momentum of the mass entering the cylinder is
calculated from the instantaneous mass flow rate and the tumble produced at the
instantaneous valve lift. The in-cylinder tumble at the end of the time step is calculated
from
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
tbi i tb c
c
tb
n dm t n t m
t t m
t t n +
+
= +
1
(2.2.155)
tb
n in-cylinder tumble
c
m in-cylinder mass
i
dm in-flowing mass
tbi
n tumble of in-flowing mass
With reference to the inflow situation of a steady state tumble test rig, the characteristic
instantaneous tumble value entering the cylinder
tbi
n together with the inflow mass
i
dm is

n
n
V
V
n
tbr
D
i
tbi

=
2

(2.2.156)
i
V

volume flow intake


D
V cylinder displacement
n engine speed
tbr
n tumble ratio as function of valve lift
2.2.7. Wall Temperature
The cycle averaged wall temperatures influence the wall heat losses during the high
pressure cycle and thus the efficiency of the engine. During the gas exchange, the heat
transfer from the cylinder walls heats the fresh charge and lowers the volumetric efficiency
of the engine. The energy balance between the heat flux from the working gas in the
cylinder to the cooling medium determines the wall temperatures.
For transient simulations, this energy balance can be calculated for the cylinder head/fire
deck, the liner, and the piston. In addition, the energy balance of the port walls may be
considered. The 1D heat conduction equation is solved using the average heat flux over
one cycle as boundary condition at the combustion chamber side and the heat transfer to
the cooling medium on the outside.
With these assumptions the heat conduction equation

2
2
dx
T d
c dt
dT
=

(2.2.157)
T wall temperature
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-65
conductivity of wall material
density of wall material
c specific heat capacity of wall material
can be solved. The mathematical formulation of the boundary conditions is:

dx
dT
q
in
= (2.2.158)
in
q average heat flux to the combustion chamber wall
( )
CM WO CM out
T T q = (2.2.159)
out
q heat flux to cooling medium
CM
outer heat transfer coefficient
WO
T outer combustion chamber wall temperature
CM
T temperature of cooling medium
For the piston, another term for the heat flux to the liner is taken into account.
2.2.8. Divided Combustion Chamber
Indirect Injection (IDI)-Diesel engines or lean burn gas engines with ignition in a
stoichiometric or even rich mixture in a pre-chamber may be modeled in BOOST with
divided combustion chamber. The combustion chamber is connected to the cylinder and it
has a constant Volume. The two combustion chambers are connected by orifice(s).
The energy Equation of the cylinder (Equation 2.2.1) must be modified by a term
considering the energy flow associated with mass flow from the chamber to the cylinder or
vice versa.
Thus 2.2.1 becomes:

( )
d
dm
h
d
dm
h
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u m d
cp
cp
BB
BB
w F
C
c
+ + =

(2.2.160)
d
dm
h
cp
cp
enthalpy flow from/to the connecting pipe
The concentration changes due to the flows from the chamber are:

C
CP
CP c c
m
dm
ci dci dci =
+ + , 1 , , 1

1 +
Ci Concentration at time step 1 + in the Cylinder
CP
Ci
/ 1 +
Conc. at time step 1 + in the connecting pipe
Similar extensions must be made in the energy Equation for the gas exchange.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-66 15-Nov-2013
CONNECTING PIPE MASS FLOW
With a modification of the isentropic flow equation 2.2.161 the inertia of the gas column in
a pipe is taken into account.
The mass flow is obtained from:

L
t
w
T R p
p
p
p
p
p
T R
p
A c
dt
dm
D

|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
0 0
2
0
1
1
0
1
2
0
1
0 0
0
2
1
2


(2.2.161)
A area of all connecting pipes
D
c flow coefficient
0 0 0
, , R T p
state upstream the pipe
1
p pressure downstream the pipe
L
t
w

inertia of the gas column


ratio of specific heats

COMBUSTION CHAMBER
The combustion chamber is treated as a plenum. Heat release, wall heat losses, volume
work and mass flows out of or into the plenum are accounted for (refer to Section 2.3).
With the addition of a term for the heat released due to combustion, Equation 2.3.1
becomes:

( )

+ + =

d
h dm
d
h dm
d
dQ
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u m d
e e i i B w
PL
Pl
(2.2.162)
Q
B
..... heat released due to combustion
The wall heat transfer coefficient is calculated from a correlation derived from the Woschni
heat transfer model [C45]. In case of the pre-chamber, the characteristic length L is
defined by the equivalent diameter calculated from the pre-chamber volume assuming
spherical shape. The characteristic velocity c
char
is calculated from the flow velocity in the
pre-chamber.
( )
8 . 0
,
1 ,
1 ,
2 1
53 . 0 8 . 0 2 . 0
130
(
(

+ =

o c pre
c
c
char pre pre w
p p
p
T
C c C T p L (2.2.163)
1
C
= 2.28
2
C = 0.00473
L characteristic length
char
c characteristic velocity
pre pre
p T , pre-chamber state
o c
p
,
pre-chamber pressure of the motored engine [bar]
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-67
1 , c
T pre-chamber temperature in the cylinder at intake valve closing (IVC)
1 , c
p pre-chamber pressure in the cylinder at IVC [bar]
2.3. Plenum and Variable Plenum
The calculation of the gas conditions in a plenum is very similar to the simulation of the
gas exchange process of a cylinder, as described in Section 2.2.1:

( )
d
dQ
h
d
dm
h
d
dm
d
dQ
d
dV
p
d
u m d
reac
e
e
i
i w
Pl
Pl
+ + =


(2.3.1)
Pl
m mass in the plenum
u specific internal energy
Pl
p pressure in the plenum
V plenum volume
w
Q wall heat loss
crank angle
i
dm mass element flowing into the plenum
e
dm mass element flowing out of the plenum
i
h enthalpy of the in-flowing mass
e
h enthalpy of the mass leaving the plenum
reac
Q enthalpy source due to chemical reactions

In a General Species Transport calculation chemical reactions can occur in the plenum. In
this case the term
d
dQ
reac
and the species mass fractions in the plenum are calculated as
described for the cylinder (HCCI Auto-Ignition Model) in section 2.2.2.2.5.
In the case of a variable plenum, the change of the plenum volume over crank angle is
calculated from the input specified by the user (user-defined), or from the motion of the
piston (crankcase or scavenging pump).

Heat Transfer:
BOOST offers two options for the calculation of the gas/wall heat transfer:
(1) direct specification of the heat transfer coefficient
(2) model based specification of the heat transfer coefficient
( )
4 2 . 0 8 . 0
10 3 . 1 127 . 0 2 . 0
1
018 . 0

+

= T L u R
ch ch o

(2.3.2)

3
V L
ch
=
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
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2
1
ch
pipe
n
pipe ch
L
A
u
n
u

=
L
ch
characteristic length
V plenum volume
u
ch
characteristic velocity
n number of pipe attachments
pipe
u velocity at the pipe attachment
A
pipe
cross-section at the pipe attachment
T temperature in the plenum
density in the plenum
o
R gas constant
ratio of specific heats
Please refer to section 2.2.7 for details on the plenum variable heat transfer model.
2.4. Pipe
2.4.1. Conservation Equations
The set of conservation equations to describe a one-dimensional pipe flow is given by the
well known Euler Equation:
S(U)
F(U) U
=

x t
(2.4.1)
Where U represents the state vector

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

=
j
V
w
u T c
u

2
2
1
U
(2.4.2)
and F is the flux vector

( )
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
+

=
j
w u
p E u
p u
u


2
F (2.4.3)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-69
with

2
2
1
u T c E
V
+ = (2.4.4)
The source term on the right hand side comprises two different source terms:
(U) S (F(U)) S S(U)
R A
+ = (2.4.5)
These are sources caused by axial changes in the pipe cross section

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
0
0
0
1
(F(U)) S
A
p
F
dx
dA
A
(2.4.6)
and sources taking into account homogeneous chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer
terms between the gas and solid phase and friction sources. The entire source term is given
by

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

hom
.
R
0
(U) S
R
i
i j i j
w
R
r MW
V
q
V
F

(2.4.7)

Please refer to the following sub-sections for details on the definition of the different
source terms and for details on the solution mechanism.
2.4.1.1. Pipe Friction
The wall friction force can be determined from the wall friction factor
f
:
u u
V
F
f
R

hyd
d 2
(2.4.8)
The factor is called Fanning friction factor and takes into account deviations from round
channel cross sections. It has values as summarized in Table 21.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-70 15-Nov-2013
Table 21: Fanning Friction Factor
Channel Cross Section
Round 1.00
Square 0.89
Equilateral Triangle 0.83
Sinosoidal (duct open height
to open width ratio 0.425)
0.69

The friction factor
f
is typically described as a function of the Reynolds Number

v
u d
hyd

= Re (2.4.9)
and changes depending on the flow regime (laminar, transition or turbulent):

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
=
=
lam turb
lam
turb f
lam turb
lam
lam f f turb lam
turb f f turb
lam f f lam
Re Re
Re Re
Re Re
Re Re
1 | Re Re Re
| Re Re
| Re Re
, ,
,
,



(2.4.10)
The bounds for the transition region from laminar to turbulent are set by Reynolds
numbers of Re
lam
= 2300 and Re
turb
= 5000. In the turbulent region,
turb f ,
is either
considered as a constant input value or can be calculated based on a specified value for the
surface roughness. In the laminar region
lam f ,
is given by

b
lam f
Re a
,
=
, 1
64 a
=
=
b
(2.4.11)
where a is an input value. For gas-exchange simulation b=-1 according to the Hagen-
Poisseuille-Law for laminar tube flow and cannot be modified by the user.
The gas dynamic viscosity is only a function of temperature,

( ) 4 . 110
15 . 383
*
15 . 273
* 6 1 . 17
5 . 1
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
T
T
e v (2.4.12)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-71

Figure 2-22: Gas dynamic viscosity verses Temperature

2.4.1.2. Bended Pipes
BOOST features a simple model which considers the influence of the bend of a pipe on the
friction losses. The bend model increases the wall friction losses dependent on a loss
coefficient, .

2
2
v
p

= (2.4.13)
This loss coefficient is a function of the bend angle and the ratio between the bend radius
and the pipe diameter. For this reason the variation of bend radius over pipe length must
be specified. The bend radius is defined as the bend radius of the pipe centerline.
r
D


Figure 2-23: Pipe Bend Parameters
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
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Figure 2-24: Pipe Bend Loss Coefficient
This model is only valid as long as no significant flow separations occur in the pipe. In the
case of a distinct flow separation, it is recommended to place a flow restriction at that
location and to specify appropriate flow coefficients.
2.4.1.3. Gas-Wall Heat Transfer
The convective heat transfer between the exhaust gas and the pipe wall is modeled by a
Nusselt approach:

g
hyd gw
d
Nu


= (2.4.14)
Based on Lienhard and Lienhard [P3] BOOST offers the following approaches for the
definition of the Nusselt number:
Re-Analogy:

p
g
hyd
c u
d
Nu =
2
019 . 0
(2.4.15)
Colburn:

8 . 0 4 . 0
Re Pr 0243 . 0 = Nu (2.4.16)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-73
Pethukov:

( )
2
10
3
2
64 . 1 Re log 82 . 1
1
1 Pr
8
7 . 12 07 . 1
Pr Re
8

=
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
=
f
f
f
Nu
(2.4.17)
Gnielinski:

( )
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
=
1 Pr
8
7 . 12 1
Pr 1000 Re
8
3
2
f
f
Nu (2.4.18)

Corrections for pulsating flow and bended pipes:
In order to take into account the influence of flow pulsations and/or pipe bends on the
gas/wall heat transfer the Nusselt number is augmented by two additional factors:

B P
F F Nu Nu = (2.4.19)
P
F represents an additional augmentation factor (pulsation factor taken from Wendland
[P6]) in order to consider the effect of gas pulsation given in engine exhausts. The factor
B
F takes into account increased heat transfer conditions within bended pipes. Therefore
the following correlation (see Liu and Hoffmanner [P4]) is used

B
hyd
B
d
d
F + =
14 . 0
Re
21
1 , (2.4.20)
where
hyd
d is the pipe diameter and
B
d represents the bending radius.
2.4.1.4. Numerical Solution
During the course of the numerical integration of the Euler Equation (Equ. 2.4.1) special
attention should be focused on the control of the time step. In order to achieve a stable
solution, the CFL criterion (stability criterion defined by Courant, Friedrichs and Lewy)
must be met:

a u
x
t
+

(2.4.21)
This means that a certain relation between the time step and the lengths of the cells must
be met. BOOST determines the time step to cell size relation at the beginning of the
calculation on the basis of the specified initial conditions in the pipes. However, the CFL
criterion is checked every time step during the calculation.
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If the criterion is not met because of significantly changed flow conditions in the pipes, the
time step is reduced automatically.
An ENO scheme [P1, P2] is used for the solution of the set of non-linear differential
equations discussed above. The ENO scheme is based on a finite volume approach. This
means that the solution at the end of the time step is obtained from the value at the
beginning of the time step and from the fluxes over the cell borders:

Figure 2-25: Finite Volume Concept
For the approach shown in Figure 2-24, the calculation of the mass, momentum and
energy fluxes over the cell borders at the middle of the time step is required. This can be
done using the basic conservation equations, which give a direct relation between a
gradient in the x-direction and the gradient over time.
The gradient in the x-direction is obtained by a linear reconstruction of the flow field at
the beginning of the time step.

Figure 2-26: Linear Reconstruction of the Flow Field
From this information, the mass, momentum and energy fluxes at the cell borders of each
cell can be calculated. Normally the flux at the right cell border will not be equal to the
flux at the left cell border of the adjacent cell, which is a necessary condition to meet
continuity requirements. To overcome this problem, a Riemann-Solver is used to calculate
the correct mean value from the two different fluxes at the cell border, as shown in the
following figure.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
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Figure 2-27: Pressure Waves from Discontinuities at Cell Borders
The main advantage of an ENO scheme is that it allows the same accuracy to be achieved
as can be obtained with second order accurate finite difference schemes, but has the same
stability as first order accurate finite difference schemes.
2.4.2. Variable Wall Temperature
In a very generic consideration, the wall of a pipe consists of opaque layers such as steel
walls or insulation mats and of transparent layers representing air gaps.
Figure 2-27 sketches such a pipe consisting of three wall layers, an insulation mat and an
air gap. Although this configuration may not represent real-life pipes, it shall point out the
capabilities of the generic model implemented in BOOST. The main effects taking place
within the pipe wall are heat transfer from the exhaust gas, heat conduction in axial and
radial direction, heat radiation between the surfaces neighboring transparent layers and
heat transfer to the ambient due to convection and radiation.

Figure 2-28: Main transport effects in a pipe consisting of different wall layers
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
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The wall energy balance equation is given by
( )
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

r
T
r
r r x
T
x
c T
t
w
w l
w
w l w l p w l w , , , , ,
1
, (2.4.22)
where
w
T is the temperature of the catalyst wall. r and x represent the radial and axial
coordinates, respectively. Wall density
w l ,
, wall heat capacity
w l p
c
, ,
and its thermal
conductivity
w l ,
are given within the time and space derivatives in order to consider their
dependency of the temperature. All three properties are marked with the index l to
distinguish between the properties of different wall layers as sketched in Figure 2-27.
The boundary conditions of the 2D heat conduction field are given by
0 @ 0 = =

x
x
T
w
, (2.4.23)

pipe
w
L x
x
T
= =

@ 0 , (2.4.24)
( )
gw w g
w l
gw
w
r r T T
r
T
= =

@
,

, (2.4.25)
( ) ( )
wa rad w
w l
O
amb w
w l
wa w
r r T T T T
r
T
=

+ =

@
4 4
, ,

, (2.4.26)
where
gw
and
wa
represent the heat transfer coefficients between gas and wall and
between wall and ambient, respectively.
The first is evaluated using a Nusselt correlation the latter is used as model input
parameter in a simplifying approach.
amb
T is the ambient temperature and
rad
T is the
radiation sink temperature which is not necessarily equal to the ambient temperature.
O

represents the emissivity of the outer surface of the outermost wall layer and is the
Stefan-Boltzmann constant. According to Eq. (2.4.22) and Eq. (2.4.23) no heat losses in
axial direction are assumed. At the wall inner side (Eq. 2.4.24) a boundary heat flux is
given by convective heat transfer between the gas and wall. At the outer surface of the pipe
wall (Eq. 2.4.25) convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are taken into
account.
Air-Gaps
If i.e. air-gaps are part of the model it is additionally necessary to consider radiative heat
transfer between the opaque walls neighboring a transparent layer. This radiative heat
exchange, taken from [P5], is evaluated according to

( )
( ) ( )
io oi i o
i w o w oi o i o
oi
T T A
Q




=
1 1 1
4
,
4
,

, (2.4.27)
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where
o
and
i
represent (see Figure 2-27) the emissivities at the outer surface
o
A of the
inner layer and at the inner surface of the outer layer, respectively. ( )
io oi
is the viewing
factor from the outer (inner) side of the inner (outer) layer to the inner (outer) side of the
inner (outer) layer. Both viewing factors are evaluated according to [P5] assuming finite
length coaxial cylinders.
The conductive/radiative heat transfer within air-gaps is typically augmented by free
convection. Therefore an effective heat conductivity taken from Wilde [P7] is applied in the
model. It is given by

( )
air
air
air
eff
Gr
Gr
Pr 14500
Pr
0119 . 0 1
+

+ =

, (2.4.28)
where the effective heat conductivity
eff
is calculated as a function of the Grashof and
Prandtl number. The Grashof number is defined according to
( )
i w o w
air
air
T T
v
g
Gr
, , 2
3


=

, (2.4.29)
where is the thickness of the gap and g the gravimetric acceleration.
air
(temperature
dependent data were taken from Verein Deutscher Ingenieure [P5] represents the isobar
expansion coefficient of air and
air
v is its kinematic viscosity.
Wall-ambient heat transfer:
The external heat transfer model applies Nusselt approaches for cross-flow take from VDI
[P5]. The correlation considers free and forced convection. It is given by:

( )
3
1
3 3
forced free
Nu Nu Nu + =
, (2.4.30)
Please refer to VDI [P5] (section Fa and section Ge) for details on the definition of the
Nusselt numbers for free and forced convection.
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2.4.3. Forward / Backward Running Waves
The flow conditions at each location in a pipe is the result of a superposition of forward and
backward running waves. Shock capturing schemes, as used in BOOST, do not provide this
information as they solve the set of partial differential equations directly. Therefore, this
information must be constructed from the solution afterwards.

Figure 2-29: Forward / Backward Running Waves
An outline of the procedure is shown in the above figure. The reference state is determined
as the time average of gas velocity and sound speed. At each instant those conditions are
calculated, by which it is possible to come from the reference state to the instantaneous
calculated state by two simple waves only. The two simple waves are the forward running
wave or - characteristic, and the backward running wave or - characteristic.
The conditions between the reference state, the state behind the waves and the calculated
states are linked by the compatibility equations along the respective characteristics.
The path from the reference state to the state behind the forwards running wave
( - characteristic) is along a - characteristic. Thus, the following equation is valid.
const c u =

+
1
2


Similarly the path from the state behind the forward running wave and the calculated
state is along an - characteristic. The compatibility equation along an - characteristic is
const c u =

1
2


The two equations are solved for the gas velocity and sound speed of the state behind the
forward running wave.
The pressure is calculated from the isentropic equation from the calculated state.
The state behind the backward running wave is calculated analogously with the role of -
and - characteristics exchanged.
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2.4.4. Nomenclature (Pipe)
Units
a Speed of sound (m/s)
a
geo
Geometrical surface area (m
2
/m
3
)
A
g
Cross section of the gas phase (m
2
)
c
v
Specific heat capacity of the gas (at constant volume) (J/kg/K)
c
p,l,w
Specific heat capacity of the wall layer l (J/kg/K)
d
hyd
Hydraulic diameter (m)
f Factor in Nusselt correlation (-)
F
R
Wall friction force (N)
F
P
Factor for flow pulsation (-)
F
B
Factor for bended pipes (-)
Gr

Grashof number in air gap of width (-)


i Index of homogeneous chemical reactions (-)
j Index of chemical species (-)
L
Pipoe
Pipe length (m)
MW Molecular weight (kg/kmol)
Nu Nusselt Number (-)
Nu
forced
Nusselt Number for forced convection (-)
Nu
free
Nusselt Number for free convection (-)
p
g
Static Pressure (Pa)
Pr Prandtl number (-)
q
w
Wall heat flow (W)
oi
Q


Radiative heat flux between walls neighboring an air gap (W)
r Reaction rate (kmole/m3s)
r Spatial coordinate in radial direction (m)
Re
l
Laminar Reynolds number (-)
Re
t
Turbulent Reynolds number (-)
Re Reynolds number (-)
Sh Sherwood number (-)
t Time (s)
T
amb
Ambient Temperature (K)
T
g
Gas temperature (K)
T
rad
Radiation sink temperature (K)
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T
w
Wall temperature (K)
T
w,i
Wall temperature at inner side of wall layer (K)
T
w,o
Wall temperature at outer side of wall layer (K)
u

Mean mass weighed gas velocity (m/s)
V Volume of a computational cell ( ) dx A = (m3)
wj Mass fraction of the species j in the gas phase (kg/kg)
x Coordinate along the pipe axis (m)

Greek Letters

gw
Heat transfer coefficient between gas and wall (W/m
2
)

wa
Heat transfer coefficient between wall and ambient (W/m
2
)


Thickness of air gap (m)

i
Emissivity at inner surface of a wall layer (-)

o
Emissivity at outer surface of a wall layer (-)
Fanning friction factor (-)

io
Viewing factor from inner to outer pipe in air gap (-)

io
Viewing factor from outer to inner pipe in air gap (-)

f
Wall friction factor (-)

air
Thermal conductivity of air (W/m K)

eff
Effective thermal conductivity in air gap (W/m K)

g
Thermal conductivity (gas) (W/m K)

l,w
Thermal conductivity of wall layer l (W/m K)
Stefan Bolzman constant (W/m
2
/K
4
)
Density of the entire gas phase (kg/m
3
)

l,w
Density of wall layer l (kg/m
3
)
Kinematic viscosity (m
2
/s)
Stoichiometric coefficient (-)

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2.5. 3D Cell Elements
The 3 Junction Types General 3D Cell, Spherical 3D Cell and T-Right 3D Cell are based on
a Constant Static Pressure approach extended by Stagnation Pressure Losses applied to
each attachment flow as a function of flow-direction change.
2.5.1. General: Volume Type
The General 3D cell can be a pipe based junction type cell or a volume based cell intended
for acoustic modeling.
The 3D cell is meant to reproduce a 3D geometry as a network of 0D elements to which
characteristic lengths in the space are assigned. As shown in Figure 2-29 the 3D cell is
defined by means of 3 fundamental elements, namely cell, attachment and connector.

Figure 2-30: 3D cells, connections and attachments
The cell element contains information about the volume of the cell and is connected to
other cells by means of connectors via attachments. A connector element contains
information about the cell connectivity, distance from the centre of the neighboring cells
and has its own momentum as fluid dynamic property.
The 3D cell model is based on a staggered grid approach, this means that intensive
properties such as pressure, temperature, density, internal energy and other derived
quantities are defined over the cell element while, velocity and momentum are defined on
the connectors 5. Each connector is characterized by a direction with respect to the other
attachments to the same cell. The continuity and energy conservation equations are solved
over the cell element taking into ac-count the net flux of the conserved variables through
the linked connectors. The continuity and energy equation in a general form will be
expressed as follows:
0 ) ( = +

U div
t

(2.5.1)
0 ) ( ) ( = + +

pU div EU div
t
E

(2.5.2)
Their integration over the volume and in the time will lead to the following discretized
forms:
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0
1
1
= |
.
|

\
|
+ =

+
t U
V
Nc
c
c c
n n
(2.5.3)
( ) ( ) 0
1
1
= |
.
|

\
|
+ + =

+
t U p U E
V
E E
Nc
c
c c
Nc
c
c c c
n n
(2.5.4)
where the subscript c indicates the connector and Nc is the total number of connectors
linked to the cell. The term Uc indicates the gas velocity at the connector, which is
oriented in a direction normal to the connector. The momentum equation is solved with
respect to the connector considering the balance between the pressure force and
momentum of the neighboring cells, namely left and right cells. The momentum balance is
written as follows:

( ) ( )
0
1
=

+ +
=
+
L
t
A
A p p U m U m m
U
c
c
n
R
n
L
n
L
n
c
n
R
n
c
n
c n
c


(2.5.5)
where
n
c
m is the mass flux through the connector and t is the characteristic length
between the centroids of the two neighboring cells. Once the connector momentum has
been calculated the cell momentum is determined according to the net momentum flux
entering the cell:
( )

=
+ + +
=
Nc
c
n
c
n
c
n
CELL
U m U m
1
1 1 1
(2.5.6)
2.5.2. Standard Connector
The 3Dcell approach consists of reproducing a 3D geometry as a network of 0D elements,
such as volumes, to which characteristic length in the space are assigned [3D3]. As shown
in Figure 2-30, the 3D cell framework is defined by means of two fundamental elements,
namely cell and connector. The cell element is defined by its volume and by the list of the
connectors. The connector stores information about the connectivity between neighbouring
cells, and geometrical parameters such as the distance from the adjacent cell centres, the
direction with respect to an absolute orientation system and the flow area.

Figure 2-31: Schematic of the 3D Cell Element: Cells and Connectors
The underlying mathematical basis is the formulation of the conservation equations of
mass, momentum and energy for unsteady flows. Since the viscosity of the gas, both in the
intake and exhaust systems, is very low, it can be neglected without introducing an
Theory BOOST v2013.2
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excessive approximation [3D5]. This leads to the Euler formulation of the conservation
equations:

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) 0
0
= +

U U
U U
U
U
p E +
t
E
p +
t

+
t

(2.5.7)
This system of equations is then closed with the perfect gas equation of state. The 3Dcell
model is based on a quasi staggered grid approach, in which intensive properties such as
pressure, temperature, density, internal energy and other derived quantities are defined
over the cell element, while velocity and momentum are defined on the connectors [3D4].
The continuity and energy conservation equations are consequently solved with respect to
the cell element, taking into account the net flux of the conserved variables through the
connectors linked to the cell. Their integration in time over the cell volume will leads to
the following discretized forms:
( ) t A U
V
=
c
N
= c
n
c
n
c
n
c
n + n
+

1
1
1
(2.5.8)
( ) ( ) ( ) t h A U
V
E = E
c
N
= c
n
c
n
c
n
c
n
c
n + n
+

1
1
1
(2.5.9)
where the subscript c indicates the connector and N
c
is the total number of connectors
attached to the cell. The term U
c
indicates the gas velocity at the connector, which is
always oriented in a direction orthogonal to the connector face. According to the definition
of quasi staggered arrangement, to allow the construction of the connector momentum
equation, the velocity has been defined also in the centroid of the cell element. The cell
velocity is oriented in space and consequently has three components. As shown in Figure
2-30, when the solution of the connector momentum is addressed, the projection of the cell
velocities along the connector normal direction is considered. This operation reduces the
problem to a 1D case along the connector direction (
n
x ). Hence the momentum equation
(Equation 2.5.7) can be rewritten as follows:

( ) ( )
0
2
=

n
n c
x
pA A U
+
t
UA
. (2.5.10)
The momentum balance in the connector takes into account the momentum variation
along the characteristic direction and the resultant of the pressure forces acting on the left
and right side of the connector itself [3D2]. The discretized form of the momentum
equation will be as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
L
t
A p U A p U UA = UA
c R n c L n
n
c
n
c
+ + +
+ 2 2 1
(2.5.11)
where ( )
c
UA is the net mass flux through the connector, L is the characteristic length
between the centroids of the two neighbouring cells and U
n
the projection of cell velocity
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along the connector normal direction. Once the connector momentum is calculated, the cell
momentum can be determined according to the net momentum flux entering the cell:
( ) ( )

c
N
= c
c c cell
L A = V
1
U U (2.5.12)
When looping over the connectors linked to a specific cell, only a portion (left or right
according to the orientation of the port) of the momentum is accounted and the fraction of
this momentum is proportional to the characteristic distance
c
L between the cell centre
and the connector. This allows the handling clusters of 3D cell elements in which the mesh
spacing is not uniform. Moreover, the summation involves vectorial quantities oriented
along the port directions, providing the cell momentum with a direction arbitrarily
oriented in the space.
2.5.3. Perforated Connector
Perforated elements have been modelled by extending the properties of the connector
element. The perforated connector is characterized by the number of holes n
h
, the hole
cross section A
h
, the hole length L
h
and by the total connector surface A
c
. The approach
developed for the perforated elements solves the momentum equation for only one single
hole, in order to calculate its mass flow and calculates the connector mass flux by then
multiplying by the number of holes n
h
.

Figure 2-32: Schematic of the Perforated Connector Element
As shown in Figure 2-31, the momentum equation for one single hole is solved over a
control volume defined by the hole cross section A
h
and the length L
C,h
. This length is
determined on the basis of end corrections suggested in the literature. They are function of
the hole length L
h
and hole diameter d
h
according to the following relationship [3D5]:

h h C,h
d . + = L L 8 0 (2.5.13)
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This correction is necessary to take into account the inflow - outflow phenomena and the
fact that the flow field is extended outside the hole. The momentum equation (Equation
2.5.10) applied to the hole control volume becomes as follows:

( ) ( ) dt F
L
t
A p + U A p + U UA = UA
h
h C,
h R cv,
R cv,
R cv, h L cv,
R cv,
L cv,
n
h
n
h

(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ 2 2 1
(2.5.14)
where
cv
, p
cv
, U
cv
are respectively the density, the pressure and the normal velocity at the
control volume boundaries. In particular
cv
and p
cv
have been assumed equal to the same
quantities in the neighbouring cell, while the velocity U
cv
has been interpolated between
the connector and cell centres as follows:

R
h h C, R R n, R C,
R cv,
L
h h C, L L n, h C,
L cv,
L
U L L + U L
= U
L
U L L + U L
= U
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

2
1
2
1
,
2
1
2
1
(2.5.15)
The term
h
F in the momentum conservation equation (Equation 2.5.14) accounts for the
gas-wall friction and is determined as follows [3D5]:
( ) , ,
h
h h h h
d
f U UA = F
2
(2.5.16)
where the friction factor
h
f is defined as [3D5, 3D1]:

2
2
1
U

= f
w
h
. (2.5.17)
By knowing the mass flow for a single hole, the global mass flow through the connector is
then determined by multiplying the mass flow by the number of holes.
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2.6. Perforated Pipe
This element is especially suited for the refined modeling of, for example, silencing
elements in an exhaust system.
2.6.1. Perforated Pipe contained in Pipe
The model consists of two pipes of identical length which are connected via perforations
along this length. Because of the pipes are the same length, the spatial discretization of the
outer and inner pipes is the same, so that each individual inner pipe cell is connected to
one cell of the outer pipe.

Figure 2-33: Perforated Pipes contained in Pipe
The calculation of the mass flow per unit of pipe length between these cells is based on the
following formula:
l
t
w
T R p
p
p
p
p
p
T R
p d m

|
|
.
|

\
|

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
0
2
0
1
0
2
0 0
0
1
1
2

(2.6.1)
m mass flow through perforation per unit of pipe-length
d pipe diameter
ratio of effective flow area to total (porosity*flow coefficient)
p static pressure downstream of the perforation holes
0 0
,T p stagnation pressure and temperature upstream of the perforation holes
, R gas constant and ratio of specific heats
l characteristic flow length (function of perforation hole diameter and wall
thickness)
t
w

acceleration of gas column through perforation holes


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2.6.2. Perforated Pipe contained in Plenum
Due to the nature of the plenum model (no spatial discretization and velocity state) all cells
of contained perforated pipes are connected to the same single cell of the plenum. The flow
through the perforations is calculated using the same formula (2.6.1) as for the perforated
pipe in pipe.

Figure 2-34: Two perforated Pipes contained in Plenum
2.7. System or Internal Boundary (Pipe Attachment)
The flow at the end of a pipe is calculated from the pressure in the pipe, the ambient
pressure and the effective flow area at the pipe end.
The flow direction is determined from the calculated pressure if the pipe end was closed. If
this pressure exceeds the ambient pressure, flow out of the pipe will result. If this pressure
is lower than the ambient pressure, flow into the pipe will occur.
Depending on the ratio between the static pressure downstream and the stagnation
pressure upstream of the orifice, subsonic, sonic, or even supersonic flow may result.
Zero mass flow may also be obtained at the pipe end, either as a result of zero effective flow
area, or as a result of zero pressure difference.
Based on the quasi steady-state equation for orifice flow the flow conditions at the end of
the pipe can be calculated:

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+

1
0
2
0 0
0
1
2
p
p
p
p
T R
p m (2.7.1)
m specific mass flow rate
flow coefficient
p static pressure downstream of the orifice
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0 0
,T p stagnation pressure and temperature upstream of the orifice
, R gas constant and ratio of specific heats
If the actual pressure ratio is lower than the critical pressure ratio

1
0
1
2

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

p
p
k
, (2.7.2)
k
p critical pressure
but supersonic flow is not feasible, the mass flow is dependent on the actual pressure ratio:

1 1
2 2
1
1
0
0
+

|
.
|

\
|
+


T R
p m
. (2.7.3)
From the instantaneous mass flow rates at a system boundary, the orifice noise can be
determined.
By means of a Fourier analysis the amplitudes of the mass flow rates over frequency can be
obtained. They are considered sources of the noise generation and allow the instantaneous
sound pressure at a certain microphone position to be calculated using a directivity
function.
Ground reflections can also be considered by assuming an image source region [A6, A7, A8].
2.8. Restriction
2.8.1. Flow Restriction and Rotary Valve
The simulation of the flow through a flow restriction (and a rotary valve) is based on the
energy equation, the continuity equation, and the formulae for the isentropic change of
state:

=
1
1
2
o o
o geo
T R
p A m (2.8.1)
m mass flow rate
flow coefficient
geo
A geometrical flow area
1 o
p upstream stagnation pressure
1 o
T upstream stagnation temperature
o
R gas constant
The pressure function depends on the gas properties and on the pressure ratio:
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-89

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
k
o
k
o
p
p
p
p
1
1
2
2
1
2
1

(2.8.2)
2
p downstream static pressure
ratio of specific heats
Figure 2-34 shows the shape of the pressure function over pressure ratio.

Figure 2-35: The Pressure Function
In the case of subcritical flow, the pressure ratio, which is defined as the downstream static
pressure divided by the upstream stagnation pressure, is higher than the critical pressure
ratio and less than or equal to 1.0. The pressure function follows the trend shown in the
figure for this range of pressure ratios.
If the pressure ratio drops to the critical pressure ratio

1
1
1
2

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

o
crit
p
p
, (2.8.3)
the flow in the orifice reaches a Mach number of 1.0. The pressure function reaches its
maximum at the critical pressure ratio. The actual value of
max
is dependent on the
pressure ratio:

1 1
2
1
1
max
+

|
.
|

\
|
+
= =



, (2.8.4)
The values of the pressure function shown in Figure 2-34 for pressure ratios less than
the critical pressure ratio are valid only for supersonic flow in the orifice. However, it
should be pointed out that supersonic flow can never be achieved just by lowering the
backpressure, but always requires a special shape of the pipe upstream of the orifice
(Laval-Nozzle).
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-90 15-Nov-2013
2.8.2. Throttle
The calculation of the flow through the throttle is very similar to the procedure discussed
in Section 2.8.1 for the flow restriction. For the throttle the flow coefficients in up- and
downstream directions are specified depending on the throttle angle, which is imposed by
the user. The flow coefficients are typically determined experimentally on a flow test
bench.
2.8.3. Injector / Carburetor
The injector model in BOOST is based on the calculation algorithm of the flow restriction
(refer to Section 2.8.1). This means that the air flow rate in the injector depends on the
pressure difference across the injector and is calculated using the specified flow
coefficients.
2.8.3.1. Injected species specification
(a) Fuel
Using this option BOOST adds the injected mass to the transport equation of the fuel
species as it was defined under Simul ation Control/Globals (section 2.1.3.). Using the
classic species transport option, only one fuel species can be considered, whereas with the
general species transport option the fuel can consist of an arbitrary number of
components. BOOST adds the injected mass to all species defined as fuel taking the
specified ratio (mass of each injected species / total injected mass) into account.
(b) Local Species Definition (General Species Transport only)
In addition to the above options BOOST enables the user to specify the number, the type,
and the ratio (mass of each injected species / total injected mass) of the species on which
the injected mass flow will be added for each injector element separately.
This is convenient for example for the injection of urea into the exhaust system (SCR), for
the injection of Diesel into the exhaust system (DPF regeneration) and for injection of N
2
O
(NITRO) into the intake system.
For both approaches BOOST can take into account the heat needed for the evaporation
and for the heating of the injected mass from the reference temperature (298.15K) to the
instantaneous temperature.
2.8.3.2. Injected mass flow specification
(a) Ratio Control
BOOST calculates the injected mass flow using the specified A/F ratio (mass based) and a
mass flow rate. In the case of the carburetor model the instantaneous mass flow is used. In
case of the fuel injector model, a measuring point must be specified at the location of the
air flow meter. In this case the mean air flow at the air flow meter location during the last
complete cycle is used to determine the injected mass.
(b) Direct Control
In certain cases it is convenient to control the mass flow directly. BOOST allows the
specification of the fuel mass flow either as kg/cycle or as kg/s.
2.8.3.3. Injection method specification
(a) Continuous Injection
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15-Nov-2013 2-91
In this case BOOST is injecting over the whole engine cycle at a constant injection rate.
Formation of a fuel puddle at the wall and evaporation from it cannot be considered using
this method.
(b) Intermittent Injection
This option enables the user to model the injection event in a more detailed way.
(b1) Injection model
The injection process is described as a pulse with given start timing, pulse duration and/or
injection rate. Based on the specification of a reference cylinder the user specifies either
the start or the end of injection crank angle. Using this information BOOST calculates
the duration of the injection event (using the specified injector delivery rate),
the injector delivery rate (using the specified duration) or
the injected mass flow (using the specified injector delivery rate and the specified
duration).
The last option of course defines the injected mass flow directly; therefore the Mass Flow
Specification page is disabled.
(b2) Fuel puddle model
The evaporation characteristics of gasoline fuel are typically described by a distillation
curve as shown in Figure 2-35.

Figure 2-36: Distillation curves for different fuel types (Source: www.chevron.com)
Components with higher volatility evaporate at lower temperatures (approx. 50 degC),
components with lower volatility evaporate at higher temperatures (approx. 170 degC). In
order to take this effect into account the actual amount of injected fuel
F
m is split into Q
different fuel-type packages where each package has different evaporation properties
depending on the userspecified distillation curve.

=
=
Q
q
q F
m m
1
(2.8.5)
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-92 15-Nov-2013
F
m total injected mass flow, [kg/s]
q
m injected mass flow of package q, [kg/s]
Q total number of fuel-type packages, [-]
For each package q the actual mass in the fuel puddle is calculated from a simple balance
equation:
( )
q P P q evap q
q P
m C m m X
dt
dm
, ,
,
1 = (2.8.6)
q P
m
,
mass of package q in the puddle , [kg]
q evap
m
,
rate of evaporation of package q, [kg/s]
P
C puddle geometry tuning factor (default=3.0), [1/s]
X injected mass distribution factor, [-]

The rate of evaporation of fuel package q is given by

q
sat q
q sat q
g P q evap q evap
MW
y
y y
A k C m
|
|
.
|

\
|


=
,
,
,
1
(2.8.7)
evap
C evaporation rate multiplier, [-]
q
k mass transfer coefficient of package q, [m/s]
P
A puddle area, [m2]
g
molar density of the gas , [kmole/m3]
q
y bulk (cell value) mole fraction of package q, [-]
sat q
y
,
saturation mole fraction of package q, [-]
q
MW molecular weight of package q, [kg/kmole]
wherein A
P
is the actual port area that is covered by the fuel puddle. It is calculated using
the actual mass of fuel in the puddle, a diameter (taken from the reference Measuring
Point) and a user prescribed thickness of the fuel film. The saturation mole fraction for
fuel package q is calculated using Rault's law P p y
sat q sat q
/
, ,
= , the saturation vapor
pressure for each boiling range can be derived from the distillation curve for the given fuel.
k
q
is the convective mass transfer coefficient and is calculated using the following relation
for the Sherwood number:

22 . 0 8 . 0
023 . 0 Sc Re
D
d k
Sh
q
ref q
q
=

= (2.8.8)
with
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-93
ref
d diameter at a given measuring point, [m]
q
D diffusion coefficient of package q in the mixture, [m2/s]
Re Reynolds number at the injector position, [-]
Sc Schmidt number at the injector position, [-]
2.8.4. Check Valve
The calculation of the flow in a check valve is very similar to the procedure discussed in
Section 2.8.1 for the flow restriction. Two types of models are available. The simple model
considers flow coefficients which depend on the difference of the static pressures at the two
pipe attachments. This model does not consider the inertia of the valve body. If this
inertia is to be taken into account, in addition to the mass flow rates, also the valve lift
must be calculated over time. For this purpose a spring-damper-mass model as shown in
Figure 2-36 is used.

Figure 2-37: Full Check Valve Model
The motion of the valve can be calculated from the following Formula:
( ) v d x c F p p A a m
o
=
2 1
(2.8.9)
m mass of the valve
a acceleration of the valve
A cross-section of the valve
2 1
, p p static pressure
o
F spring pre-load
c spring stiffness
x valve lift
d damping constant
v valve velocity
Equation2.8.9 describes the motion of a pressure actuated valve under consideration of its
inertia, the spring pre-load, the spring stiffness, and the viscous damping.
The flow coefficient of the check valve is determined as a function of valve lift and is then
used to calculate the mass flow rate as a function of upstream and downstream pressure.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-94 15-Nov-2013
2.8.5. Waste Gate
The waste gate models a valve actuated by the pressure difference on a diaphragm (Figure
2-37). The flow through the valve is treated in the same way as for the flow restriction
(refer to Section 2.8.1). The flow coefficients required are specified versus the lift of the
valve. The instantaneous valve lift is calculated from the solution of the motion equation
of the valve body (refer to Section 2.8.3). A defined leakage between the high pressure and
the low pressure of the actuation diaphragm may be taken into account.

Figure 2-38: Waste Gate
This type of valve is used mostly to control the boost pressure of a turbocharged engine.
The boost pressure is fed to the high pressure side of the actuation diaphragm. The low
pressure side is connected to the ambient. If the pressure difference exceeds a certain
value, set by the spring pre-load, the valve opens and a part of the exhaust gases is
bypassed around the turbine thus diminishing the energy available at the turbine and
preventing a further increase of the boost pressure.
2.9. Junction
The BOOST program features three models for junctions. The constant pressure model
and the constant static pressure model can be used for all junctions. In the former case the
junction is treated like a plenum without any volume. As for a plenum, the flow
coefficients for flow into the junction and flow out of the junction must be defined for each
pipe attachment. From the gas conditions in the pipe, the static pressure and the
temperature at the center of each junction is calculated.
The constant static pressure model enforces the same static pressure in all pipe cross
sections attached to the junction. The flow coefficients are set to 1.
For three pipe junctions a more refined junction model is available. In this case the
BOOST code distinguishes between six possible flow patterns in the junction, as shown in
the following figure.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-95

Figure 2-39: Flow Patterns in a Y-Junction
For each of the flow paths indicated in Figure 2-38, the equation for the orifice flow (2.8.2)
is solved. The flow coefficients depend on the geometry of the junction, i.e. the area ratio
between the pipes and the angles between the centerlines of the pipes, and for a specific
junction on the flow pattern and on the mass flow ratio between one branch and the
common branch.
As the equations for orifice flow are applied to both separating or joining flows, two sets of
flow coefficients are required, (i.e. two times six flow coefficients must be supplied to the
program). In order to facilitate the application of this model, a database is provided with
the BOOST program. The flow coefficients contained in this database were obtained from
steady-state flow tests of junctions with different pipe diameters and different branching
angles. The mass flow ratios in the junction as well as the Mach numbers were also varied
during these tests.
The program interpolates a suitable set of flow coefficients from this database.
2.10. Charging
2.10.1. Turbine
For the simulation of a turbine, the performance characteristics along a line of constant
turbine speed or the complete turbine map for transient simulations are required.
The power provided by the turbine is determined by the turbine mass flow rate and the
enthalpy difference over the turbine.
( )
4 3
h h m P
m T T
= (2.10.1)

T
P turbine power
T
m turbine mass flow
3
h enthalpy at the turbine inlet
4
h enthalpy at the turbine outlet
m
mechanical efficiency of the turbocharger
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-96 15-Nov-2013

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
3
4
3 , 4 3
1
p
p
T c h h
p T s
(2.10.2)

T s,
isentropic turbine efficiency

p
c mean specific heat at constant pressure between turbine inlet and outlet
3
T turbine inlet temperature
3 4
, p p turbine expansion ratio
tot
total efficiency of the turbine =
T s m ,


The Simplifi ed Model turbine is a pure power supplier for the mechanically connected
element while the Full model turbine is dynamically integrated in the mechanical network
and the current rotor speed is used for evaluation of the performance maps.
2.10.2. Compressor
The power consumption of the turbo compressor depends on the mass flow rates in the
compressor and the enthalpy difference over the compressor. The latter is influenced by
the pressure ratio, the inlet air temperature, and the isentropic efficiency of the
compressor.
( )
1 2
h h m P
c c
= (2.10.3)
c
P compressor power consumption
c
m mass flow rate in the compressor
2
h enthalpy at the outlet of the compressor
1
h enthalpy at the inlet to the compressor

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
p
p
T c
1
h h
1
1
2
1 p
c , s
1 2

(2.10.4)
c s,
isentropic efficiency of the compressor
p
c mean value of the specific heat at constant pressure between compressor inlet
and outlet
1
T compressor inlet temperature
1 2
, p p compressor pressure ratio

The Simplifi ed Model compressor is a pure power consumer for the mechanically
connected element while the Full model compressor is dynamically integrated in the
mechanical network and the current rotor speed is used for evaluation of the performance
maps.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-97
2.10.3. Turbocharger
For steady state engine operation the performance of the turbocharger is determined by
the energy balance or the first law of thermodynamics. The mean power consumption of
the compressor must be equal to the mean power provided by the turbine:

T c
P P = (2.10.5)
The overall turbocharger efficiency is defined as follows:

c s T s TC m TC , , ,
= (2.10.6)
TC
overall turbocharger efficiency

Simplified Model:
For steady state engine performance a simplified turbocharger model may be used for the
simulation. Within this model the dynamics of the turbocharger (i.e. the variation of the
turbocharger speed) are not considered. Furthermore, the turbocharger efficiency is kept
constant during the engine cycle. As many test calculations have proven, this model
provides good accuracy for steady state engine calculations. It is very convenient to work
with this model, as only the mean values for the compressor efficiency, the turbine
efficiency, and the mechanical efficiency of the turbocharger must be specified. This
reduces the required input dramatically in comparison to the full turbocharger model
where entire compressor and turbine maps must be defined. Since turbine performance
maps cannot be provided by turbocharger manufacturers very often, this simplified
solution is usually the only alternative.
In BOOST, three calculation modes for the simplified model are available:
1. In the turbine layout calculation, the desired pressure ratio at the turbo compressor is
specified as input to the calculation. The program adjusts the flow resistance of the
turbine automatically, until the energy balance over the turbocharger is satisfied.
2. For the boost pressure calculation, the actual turbine size is specified in the input.
By solving the energy balance over the turbocharger, the actual boost pressure is
calculated.
3. For the waste gate calcul ation, both the turbine size as well as the desired pressure
ratio at the turbo compressor are specified in the input. The program bypasses a
certain percentage of the exhaust gases in order to achieve the energy balance over the
turbocharger. If the desired compressor pressure ratio cannot be achieved with the
specified turbine size, the program switches over to the boost pressure calculation
mode.
Full Model:
For unsteady engine operation the rotor dynamics of the turbocharger must be considered
because the wheel speed of the charger changes. From the balance of momentum at the
turbocharger wheel the change of wheel speed is obtained:

TC
c T
TC
TC
P P
I dt
d


=
1
(2.10.7)
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-98 15-Nov-2013
TC
turbocharger wheel speed
TC
I turbocharger wheel inertia
The turbocharger full model requires the input of the compressor and turbine map.
The speed of the turbocharger wheel is calculated using Equation 2.10.7.
With the instantaneous wheel speed and the mass flow rate through the compressor, the
compressor's isentropic efficiency and the pressure ratio are interpolated from the
compressor map. The efficiency and the swallowing capacity of the turbine are
interpolated from the turbine map using the wheel speed and the pressure ratio across the
turbine. If a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is used, the vane position or some
equivalent information is also required.
In this case the turbine data is obtained from interpolation in the two maps valid for vane
positions nearest to the instantaneous one and from linear interpolation afterwards.
2.10.4. Mechanically Driven Supercharger
For the simulation of mechanically driven superchargers, the performance characteristics
along a line of constant supercharger speed proportional to the steady state engine speed
or the complete supercharger map for transient simulations are required. The maps are
provided by the supercharger manufacturer. In the course of the calculations the pressure
ratio over the compressor is adjusted depending on the actual mass flow rate (and
supercharger speed if the full model is used). From the pressure ratio and the isentropic
efficiency of the compressor, the compressor outlet temperature can be obtained:

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

1
1
1
1
1
2
1 2

p
p
T T
s
(2.10.8)
2
T compressor outlet temperature
1
T air inlet temperature
s
isentropic efficiency of the compressor
2
p compressor outlet pressure
1
p compressor inlet pressure
ratio of specific heats
The power consumption of the mechanically driven compressor can be calculated from the
following formula:

(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
1
1
1
2
1

p
p
T c m P
tot
p
(2.10.9)
P compressor power consumption
m mass flow rate
p
c specific heat at constant pressure
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-99
tot
total efficiency of the compressor =
s m

m
mechanical efficiency of the compressor
2.10.5. Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWSC)
In contrast to standard charging devices the pressure wave supercharger process is based
on a direct gas-dynamic transfer of exhaust gas energy to the fresh charge in the channels
of the rotor via traveling shock- and expansion waves. The underlying physics allow a
highly predictive 1-dim. model where the performance is a simulation result and no input
like mass-flow or efficiency characteristics are necessary.
This enables the optimization of charger geometry and controller settings on a simulation
base.
Via the set of control actuators:
Rotor Speed
Casing Offset
Gas Pocket Valve
can be simulated. Also control strategies for the transient engine operation in respect to
load response time, back pressure sensitivity or EGR content can be simulated.
2.10.6. Catalyst
The gas dynamic behavior of a catalyst is modeled using the same model equations as given
for the pipe flow (see Section 2.4). The model additionally takes into account that a
honeycomb-type catalytic converter consists of a huge number of small and individual
channels. These small channels are the reason for very small Reynolds numbers and
therefore for a flow in the laminar regime. In this case the friction coefficient is evaluated
applying the Hagen-Poisseuille law, whereas in the turbulent region (if reached at all) a
turbulent friction coefficient used. The possibility of different channel shapes is taken into
account by Fanning friction factors that are applied in both, the laminar and turbulent
region.
In the BOOST cycle simulation the catalyst can be simulated with or without chemical
reactions:
For calculations using the General Species Transport option chemical reactions in
the catalyst can be activated and all reaction models can be used. The number and
the type of the chemical species must be in line with the requirements for the
specified reaction model. More detailed information about the reaction models and
the related input can be found in the BOOST Aftertreatment Manual.
For calculations using the Classic Species Transport option chemical reactions
cannot be activated. In this case the catalyst is purely considered as flow element.
If the catalyst is simulated in the aftertreatment analysis mode, a simplified fluid
mechanical approach (compared to the full Riemann Problem described in Section 2.3) is
used. More detailed information about this approach can be found in the BOOST
Aftertreatment Manual.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-100 15-Nov-2013
2.10.7. Particulate Filter
The diesel particulate filter as a flow device is treated, similar to the catalytic converter, as
an assembled element. It consists of a regular pipe, to which two plenums at each end are
attached. The open cross-sectional areas of the individual channels are replaced by a pipe
of an equivalent cross-sectional area. Thus, the flow through a particulate filter is
represented by a flow through a pipe described in the section for pipe flows. The
specification of the cellular filter structure is made similar to the catalytic converter model
as described in Section 2.10.6. In a simplifying way the model of filter friction and pressure
drop is also similar to the one of the catalytic converter. If the particulate filter is
simulated in the aftertreatment analysis mode, a simplified fluid mechanical approach
(compared to the full Riemann Problem described in Section 2.3) is used. More detailed
information about this approach can be found in the BOOST Aftertreatment Manual.
2.11. Engine
2.11.1. Engine Control Unit
In most modern engine concepts some functions of the engine are controlled by an
electronic engine management system. It is necessary to model such a control device
especially for the simulation of transients.
Usually engine control units are state machines. This means that the same input to the
unit produces different output depending on the state of the unit. The engine control
model in BOOST features three states:
Steady state
Engine acceleration
Engine deceleration

The transition from steady state to the state of engine acceleration is triggered if the
gradient of the load signal versus time exceeds a threshold specified by the user. The
transition to engine deceleration is triggered the same way when the negative gradient of
the load signal exceeds the user specified threshold.
Maps up to two dimensions are used to link the output (Actuators) of the control unit to
the input (Sensors). Figure 2-39 shows the principle of the calculation of an output value:
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-101

Figure 2-40: Flow Chart of the ECU
In the diagram x, y values = Sensor channels
output value = Actuator channel
A baseline steady state value is taken from the baseline map. This value may be subjected
to corrections by adding values from correction maps or by multiplying it by factors from
correction maps. In the case of acceleration or deceleration, other corrections may be
applied to the steady state value. Then it is checked whether the output is within
predefined bounds which themselves may be defined as maps.
Either the load signal or a desired engine speed can be selected as the guiding input signal
of the control.
For the full range of input (Sensor-Channels) and output (Actuator-Channels) please refer
to the table in Chapter 6.2 of the BOOST Users Guide.
2.11.2. Engine Friction
2.11.2.1. PNH Model
Patton, Nitschke and Heywood [F2] calculate the friction losses associated with the main
bearings, the valve train, piston group and auxiliary components. The model was originally
developed for fully warmed up engine conditions.
The total FMEP is calculated as follows:

24 . 0
90
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =
= C T
T
IP AUX VT P CS TOT
oil
oil
FMEP FMEP FMEP FMEP FMEP FMEP


(2.11.1)
The last term takes the effect of a changing oil viscosity (as a function of oil temperature)
into account (Shayler et al. [F3]). The specific contributions are described in the following
sections.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-102 15-Nov-2013
2.11.2.1.1. Crankshaft
The crankshaft mean effective pressure can be expressed as follows:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
b b
td
c
b
cs
c
b b b
cb CS
n
n D N
C
n S B
D
C
n S B
n L D N
c FMEP






2 2
2 2
3
(2.11.2)
where:
B Bore [m]
S Stroke [m]
D
b
bearing diameter [m]
L
b
bearing length [m]
n
b
no. of bearings [-]
n
c
no. of cylinders [-]
N Engine rotational Speed [rpm]
C
cb
Coefficient of the hydrodynamic losses in main bearings [Pa/rpm m]
C
cs
Coefficient of friction losses in main bearing seals [Pa m
2
]
C
td
Coefficient of friction losses due to viscous dissipation [Pa s
2
/m
2
rpm]
2.11.2.1.2. Piston (Reciprocating) Group
The FMEP in the reciprocating group may be calculated the following equation:

( )
( )
P
V
a
i
o
pr ps
c
b b b
pb P
P
P
C
B N
C
B
V
C
n S B
n L D N
c FMEP
2
10 38 . 2 33 . 1
c c
2
3
p
2
3
r 182 . 0 r 088 . 0
1 10
1



+
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(2.11.3)
where:
C
cb
Coefficient for connecting rod bearing hydrodynamics [Pa/rpm m]
C
ps
Coefficient for skirt-cylinder wall hydrodynamics [Pa s]
C
pr
Coefficient for piston ring-cylinder wall [Pa m
2
]
C
o
Coefficient for gas pressure to ring friction [Pa]
V
p
Mean piston speed [m/s]
2.11.2.1.3. Valve Train
The valve train FMEP is calculated using the following equation:

CF
v v
vm
c
v
vh vo
c
b
vb VT
FMEP
S
n L
N
C
n S B
n
C c
n S B
n N
c FMEP +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
3 0.5 1.5
v
2
n
10
1

N L


(2.11.4)
Flat Cam Follower:

c
3
n
10
1
S
n
N
C FMEP
v
vf CF
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = (2.11.5)
Roller Cam Follower:
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-103

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
n
v
vr CF
n
S
N
C FMEP (2.11.6)
where:
C
vb
Coefficient for camshaft bearing hydrodynamic [Pa m
3
/rpm]
C
vh
Oscillating hydrodynamic lubrication constant [Pa m
0.5
/rpm
0.5
]
C
vm
Oscillating mixed lubrication constant [Pa]
C
vo
Boundary lubrication constant due to the camshaft bearing seals [Pa]
L
v
Maximum valve lift [m]
n
v
No. of valves [-]
C
vf
Flat cam follower constant [Pa m]
C
vr
Roller cam follower constant [Pa m]

Both of the cam followers constants depend on the valvetrain configuration.
2.11.2.1.4. Auxiliary Losses
The following equation can be used to calculate the FMEP due to the auxiliaries (oil and
water pump):

2 4 3
10 79 . 1 22 . 5 10 23 . 6 N N FMEP
AUX

+ = (2.11.7)
For the losses caused by the injector pump the following correlation by Bohac et al. [F1]is
used:
( ) IMEP N IMEP N N
V
FMEP
D
IP
+ + + +

=
10 8 2 8 5
5
10 x 17 . 2 10 x 64 . 4 10 x 06 . 1 10 x 02 . 4 0785 . 0
0025 . 0
10
(2.11.8)
D
V is the engines total displacement.
2.11.2.2. SLM Model
Shayler, Leong and Murphy [F4], SLM, compiled and examined model fits on friction data
from motored engine tests on 4 cylinder diesel engines. The original purpose of the
experimental work was to examine friction losses at low temperatures and low engine
speeds in connection with studies of cold start behavior.
2.11.2.2.1. Crankshaft
The FMEP in the crankshaft group is calculated using the following equation:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
b
cs
n
ref c
b b b
cb CS
n S B
D
C
n S B
n L D N
c FMEP




2 2
3 6 . 0

(2.11.9)
where:
C
cb
Coefficient of the hydrodynamic losses in main bearings [Pa/rpm m]
C
cs
Coefficient of friction losses in main bearing seals [Pa m
2
]
n viscosity index [-]

Oil dynamic viscosity at the operating temperature [Pa.s]


BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-104 15-Nov-2013
ref

Oil dynamic viscosity at fully warm, reference condition [Pa.s]


2.11.2.2.2. 2. Piston (Reciprocating) Group
Mean effective pressure due to the friction in the piston group is expressed as follows:

n
ref
p
pr
p
ps
c
b b b
pb P
B
V
C
B
V
C
n S B
n L D N
c FMEP
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

2
5 . 0 5 . 0
2
3 6 . 0


(2.11.10)
where:
C
pb
Coefficient for connecting rod bearing hydrodynamics) [kPa /rpm
0.6
mm]
C
ps
Coefficient for skirt-cylinder wall hydrodynamics [kPa mm
0.5
s
0.5
]
C
pr
Coefficient for piston ring-cylinder wall [kPa mm
1.5
s
0.5
]
n viscosity index (=0.4) [-]
2.11.2.2.3. 3. Valve Train
Mean effective pressure due to the friction in the piston group is expressed as follows:
CF
c
v v
vm
n
ref c
v v
vh vs
n
ref c
b
vb VT
FMEP
n S
N L
N
C
n S B
n N L
C C
n S B
n N
c FMEP +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
5
10
2

2
5 . 0 5 . 1
2
6 . 0

(2.11.11)
Flat Cam Follower

c
v
vf CF
n S
n
N
C FMEP
5
10
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =

(2.11.12)
Roller Cam Follower

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
v
CF
n S
n N
FMEP

(2.11.13)
where:
C
vb
Coefficient for camshaft bearing hydrodynamic [kPa mm
3
/rpm
0.6
]
C
vh
Oscillating hydrodynamic lubrication constant [Pa m
0.5
/rpm
0.5
]
C
vm
Oscillating mixed lubrication constant [Pa]
C
vs
Boundary lubrication constant due to the camshaft bearing seals [Pa]
C
vf
Flat cam follower constant [Pa m]
C
vr
Roller cam follower constant [Pa m]
n viscosity index (=0.7) [-]
2.11.2.2.4. 4. Auxiliary Losses
( )
n
ref
aux
N N Fmep
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =


2
(2.11.14)
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-105
2.11.3. Mechanical Network
In addition to the thermodynamic system a mechanical network is solved in BOOST.
The following Components can be linked by means of Mechanical Connections:
Engine
Mechanical Consumer
Vehicle
Turbocharger
Turbine
Turbo Compressor
PDC
Electrical Device
There is only one Vehicle allowed to be connected to the engine.


Note: The Compatibility mode to BOOST v4.x models in which a not
mechanically connected Turbine, Turbo Compressor or PDC Element
was hidden mechanically connected to the engine is not supported
anymore.

Basically there are two calculation types for the components possible:
Simplified Model (only power is balanced and exchanged)
Full Model (speed is balanced and together with torque exchanged )
The Engine and the Vehicle are always running in full model mode while the other
components can be specified according to the following compatibility matrix (e.g.: a Turbo
Compressor Full Model requires a Mechanical Connection Full Model to be linked to the
Engine):
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-106 15-Nov-2013
Table 22: Mech. Network Compatibility Matrix

2.11.4. Electrical Device
The Electrical Device in BOOST was introduced for power assistance of other mechanical
Components. It can work in both motor and generator mode.
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-107
2.12. Acoustic
2.12.1. End Corrections
One-dimensional (1D) analytical models for the accurate acoustic performance prediction
of silencers and resonators require the introduction of acoustic length corrections in order
to account for the multidimensional effects at junctions.
The following is a summary of the end corrections applied at restrictions, open ends and
Helholtz resonators.
2.12.1.1. Restriction


Figure 2-41: Restriction end correction.
The end correction are applied at both expansions and contractions when there is a change
in the cross sectional area. The end correction used for both area discontinuities is the
Karals end correction:

3
) ( 8
r
H
e
=

0 . 1 5 . 0 ) 371 . 1 )( 1 ( 875 . 0 ) ( = H
5 . 0 0 238 . 1 1 ) ( < = H (2.12.1)
Where,
ratio of the duct diameters (smaller/larger)
r radius of the smaller pipe
2.12.1.2. Open End

Figure 2-42: Open end correction.
The open end correction is applied to an open system boundary as follows,
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-108 15-Nov-2013
6 . 0 =

r
e


Note: The open end correction is normally a function of frequency and as
such cannot be used directly in a non linear / time based / Cycle Simulation.
Therefore, the open end correction is approximated by the above equation
2.12.1.3. Helmholtz

Figure 2-43: Helmholtz end correction.
The end correction , added to the each end of the neck length of a Helmholtz resonator is
implemented as

r
e
85 . 0 =
(2.12.2)
Therefore the total end correction , added to the neck length of a Helmholtz resonator is

r
e
2 . 85 . 0 =
(2.12.3)
2.12.2. Microphone
The values at an external microphone are based on the work of Blair and Coates [A6]. The
pressure amplitude is given by,
( )
2
1
2
2
4 2 2
2
sin
sin 2
16

|
.
|

\
|
=


a
fd
a
fd
J
R
u d f
p


Angle,
Distance, R
External
Microphone
Source
@
System
Boundary
Intake or Exhaust Orifice diameter, d

Figure 2-44: External Microphone
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-109
Where,
p
Pressure amplitude and corresponds to the Acoustic > Microphone > Pressure
result. [Pa]
d Intake or exhaust orifice diameter given by the pipe diameter at the system
boundary end [m]
f frequency [Hz]
u Specific mass flow at the system boundary [kg/s m2]
J1 Bessel function
R Distance from the source to the microphone [m]
a Speed of sound in air (assumed to be 346m/s) [m/s]
Angle between the source and microphone [deg]

For a sinusodial variation:
( )
2
2

2
1
p p
rms
=

Hence the mean square sound pressure is given by:
( )
2
1
2
2
4 2 2
2
sin
sin 2
32

|
.
|

\
|
=


a
fd
a
fd
J
R
u d f
p
rms

The linear sound pressure level (SPL) in decibels is given by:
| |
( )
10
2
10
10 4
log 10

=
x
p
dB SPL
rms

This corresponds to the Acoustic > Microphone > Linear > SoundPressure result. The
sound pressure level is also corrected according to the A-weighting scale in the result
Acoustic > Microphone > A-Weighted > SoundPressure.

Figure 2-45: Sound pressure level A-weighting
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-110 15-Nov-2013
Ground effects are accounted for by assuming an image source to exist the same distance
below ground level as the actual source is above it, both sources being in the same vertical
plane. The mean square sound pressure due to the image source is given by:
( )
( )
2
1
2
1
2
2
4 2 2
2
sin
sin 2
sin
sin 2
sec 32

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=


a
fd
a
fd
J
a
fd
a
fd
J
R
u d f
p
image
rms


Ground
Intake or Exhaust Orifice diameter, d
Angle,
Distance, R
External
Microphone
Source
@
System
Boundary
Image
Angle,

Figure 2-46: External Microphone with ground reflection
And the total mean square sound pressure is then the sum of the mean square sound
pressures for both source and image
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
image
rms
source
rms
total
rms
p p p + =

Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-111
2.13. BURN Utility
The BURN utility can be used for combustion analysis. That is the rate of heat release
(ROHR) can be obtained from measured cylinder pressure traces. With any BOOST
combustion model, pressure and temperature of the cylinder is calculated from the
specified rate of heat release. The inverse procedure, the determination of the rate of heat
release from measured pressure traces is called combustion analysis. The BOOST interface
offers a tool based on the algorithms used in the BOOST cylinder to fulfill this task.
The algorithm is based on the first law of thermodynamics shown in equation 2.2.1. The
in-cylinder heat transfer is calculated using the models described in chapter 2.2.1.3. Piston
motion and blow by losses are calculated using the approach of chapters 2.2.1.3 and 2.2.1.5.
The rate of heat release is only calculated during the high pressure phase. That is with all
valves closed, so typically from IVC to EVO. A typical rate of heat release and the
components of the rate of heat release are shown in Figure 2-46.

Figure 2-47: Rate of Heat Release
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-112 15-Nov-2013
2.14. Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this manual:

Flow coefficients of the ports
BDC Bottom dead center
BMEP Brake mean effective pressure
BSFC Brake specific fuel consumption
CRA Crank angle
DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
EVC Exhaust valve closing
EVO Exhaust valve opening
FIE Fuel injection equipment
FMEP Friction mean effective pressure
IMEP Indicated mean effective pressure
ISFC Indicated specific fuel consumption
IVC Intake valve closing
IVO Intake valve opening
PFP Peak firing pressure
PMEP Pumping mean effective pressure
TDC Top dead center
VGT Variable geometry turbine
VNT Variable nozzle turbine


Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-113
2.15. Literature
This section contains important information about the theoretical basis used for the
development of the code.
General Literature:
[G1] Engine Terminology and Nomenclature General, NN, SAE - Standard J604, sl,
June 1995
3D Cell Elements:
[3D1] Benson, R. S. The Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of Internal Combustion
Engines, Clarendon Press, 1986
[3D2] Chapman, M., Novak, J. M. and Stein, R.A. Numerical Modeling of Inlet and
Exhaust Flows in Multi-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engines, ASME Winter
Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, Nov. 1419, 1982
[3D3] Fairbrother, R., Liu, S., Dolinar, A., Montenegro, G. and Onorati, A. Development
of a Generic 3D Cell for the Acoustic Modelling of Intake and Exhaust Systems,
ICSV16, Krakow, Poland, 2009
[3D4] Ferziger, J. H. and Peric, M. Computational methods for fluid dynamics.
Springer, 1997
[3D5] Winterbone, D. E. and Pearson, R. J. Theory of Engine Manifold Design.
Professional Engineering Publishing, London, 2000.

Acoustics:
[A6] Blair, G. P. and Coates, S. W. Noise Produced by Unsteady Exhaust Efflux from
an Internal Combustion Engine, SAE Automotive Congress, Detroit, January
1973, SAE 730160
[A7] Blair, G. P. and Spechko, J. A., Sound Pressure Levels Generated by Internal
Combustion Engine Exhaust Systems, SAE Automotive Congress, Detroit,
January 1972, SAE 720155
[A8] Coates, S. W. and Blair, G. P., Further Studies of Noise Characteristics of Internal
Combustion Engines, SAE Farm Construction and Industrial Machinery Meeting,
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 1974, SAE 740713

Cylinder:
[C1] Andree, A. and Pachernegg, S. J., Ignition Conditions in Diesel Engines, SAE
690253
[C2] Bargende, M., Ein Gleichungsansatz zur Berechnung der instationren
Wandwaermeverluste im Hochdruckteil von Ottomotoren, Ph.D. thesis, Technical
University Darmstadt, 1991
[C3] Borman, G. L., Johnson, J. H., Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories
of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air. SAE 620271, SAE World Congress 1962,
Detroit, USA.
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-114 15-Nov-2013
[C4] Bozza F. and Gimelli A., A Comprehensive 1D Model for the Simulation of a
Small-Size Two-Stroke SI Engine, SAE Paper 2004-01-0999, 2004.
[C5] Bozza, F., Fontana, G., Galloni E., and Torella, E. 3D-1D Analyses of the
Turbulent Flow Field, Burning Speed and Knock Occurrence in a Turbocharged SI
Engine, Detroit: SAE Technical Paper 2007-24-0029, 2007.
[C6] Bozza F., Gimelli A., Senatore A. and Caraceni A., A Theoretical Comparison of
Various VVA Systems for Performance and Emission Improvements of SI-
Engines, SAE Paper 2001-01-0670, 2001.
[C7] Chiodi, M. and Bargende, M., Improvement of Engine Heat-Transfer Calculation in
the Three-Dimensional Simulation Using a Phenomenological Heat-Transfer
Model, SAE 2001-01-3601
[C8] Chmela, F. and Orthaber, G., Rate of Heat Release Prediction for Direct Injection
Diesel Engines Based on Purely Mixing Controlled Combustion, SAE Paper 1999
01 0186
[C9] Chmela, F., Orthaber, G. and Schuster, W., Die Vorausberechnung des
Bennverlaufs von Dieselmotoren mit direkter Einspritzung auf der Basis des
Einspritzverlaufs, MTZ 59 (1998) 7/8
[C10] Damkhler, G., Der Einflu der Turbulenz auf die Flammengeschwindigkeit in
Gasgemischen, Z. f. Elektroch. 46, No. 11, 601-652, 1940.
[C11] D'Errico, G., Ferrari, G., Onorat, A. and Cerri, T., Modeling the Pollutant
Emissions from a S.I. Engine, SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0006.
[C12] Dimitrov, D., Abschlussbericht: Verbrennungsmodell Gasmotor,
Verbrennungsmodell fr den Vorkammermotor. Graz, 2007
[C13] Gttgens, J., Mauss, F., Peters, N., Analytic Approximation of Burning Velocities
and Flame Thickness of Lean Hydrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Acetylene
and Pro-pane Flames. 24th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The
Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1992
[C14] Glder, L. .: Correlations of Laminar Combustion Data for Alternative S.I.
Engine Fuels. SAE Paper 841000, 1984
[C15] Glder, L. .: Turbulent Premixed Flame Propagation Models for Different
Combustion Regimes. 23rd Symposium (International) on Combustion, The
Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1990
[C16] Herweg R. and Maly R. R., A Fundamental Model for Flame Kernel Formation in
S.I. Engines, SAE Paper 922243, 1992.
[C17] Hiroyasu, H., Kadota, T., Arai M., Development and Use of a Spray Combustion
Modeling to Predict Diesel Engine Efficiency and Pollutant Emissions, Part I:
Combustion Modeling, Bulletin of the JSME, Vol. 26, pp.569-575, 1983
[C18] Hohenberg, G., Experimentelle Erfassung der Wandwrme von Kolbenmotoren,
Habilitationsschrift TU-Graz, 1980
[C19] Hires, S. D., Tabaczynski, R. J. and Novak, J. N., The Prediction of Ignition Delay
and Combustion Intervals for a Homogenous Charge Spark Ignition Engine, SAE
780232
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-115
[C20] Jobst, J. and Chmela, F., Abschlussbericht: Verbrennungsmodell Gasmotor A1.2,
Zndverzug, Brennrate und NO Modellierung beim offenen Brennraum. Graz,
2006
[C21] Jung, D., Assanis, D.N., Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle
Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions, SAE 2001-0-1246, SAE
World Congress 2001, Detroit, USA.
[C22] Kozarac, D., Mahalec, I., Sjeric M: Introducing Initial Conditions with Non-
uniform Mixtures and Fuel Injection into the Multi Zone HCCI Simulation Model,
SAE Technical paper 2010-01-1083, 2010.
[C23] Lavoie, G. and Blumberg, P.N., A fundamental Model for Predicting
Consumption, NOx, and HC Emissions of the Conventional Spark-Ignition
Engines, Combustion Science and Technology, Vol. 21, pp 225-258,1980.
[C24] North G.L. and Santavicca D.A., The Fractal Nature of Premixed Turbulent
Flames, Comb. Science and Tech., Vol. 72, p.215-232, 1990.
[C25] Magnussen, B. F.; Hjertager, B. H.: On Mathematical Modeling of Turbulent
Combustion with special emphasis on Soot formation and Combustion. 16
th

Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh,
1976
[C26] Mller, U.C., Bollig M., Peters, N., Approximations for burning velocities and
Markstein numbers for lean hydrocarbon and methanol flames. Combustion and
Flame 108:349-356, 1997
[C27] Noske, G., Ein quasi-dimensionales Modell zur Beschreibung des ottomotorischen
Verbrennungsablaufes, Eggenstein, VDI, Fortschrittsberichte, Reihe 12, Nr 211
[C28] Onorati A., Ferrari G., DErrico, G., 1D Unsteady Flows with Chemical Reactions
in the Exhaust Duct-System of S.I. Engines: Predictions and Experiments, SAE
Paper No. 2001-01-0939.
[C29] Pattas K., Hfner G., Stickoxidbildung bei der ottomotorischen Verbrennung,
MTZ Nr. 12, 397-404, 1973.
[C30] Poetsch, C., Ofner, H., Schutting, E., Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion
Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions, SAE
2011-01-1439, SAE World Congress 2011, Detroit, USA.
[C31] Poulos S.G., Heywood G.B., The Effect of Chamber Geometry on Spark-Ignition
Engine Combustion, SAE Paper 830334, 1983.
[C32] Reinhardt, H., "Modellierung des Zndverzuges bei Mehrfacheinspritzungen
aufgeladener Dieselmotoren mit Direkteinspritzung innerhalb der
thermodynamischen Prozessrechnung. Abschlussbericht. FVV Heft 870, 2008
[C33] Rhodes, D. B. and Keck, J. C., Laminar Burning Speed Measurements of Indoline-
Air-Dilunet Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures, SAE 850047
[C34] Schlick, H.; Pirker, G.; Chmela, F.; Wimmer, A.,Weiterentwicklung eines
nulldimensionalen Brennratenmodells fr direktgezndete Gasmotoren auf Basis
der Computertomographie (Improving the predictive capability of a zero-
dimensional combustion model for open-chamber gas-engines based on
BOOST v2013.2 Theory
2-116 15-Nov-2013
tomographic combustion analysis), Conference Motorische Verbrennung 19./20.
March 2009, Munich
[C35] Schubert, C., Wimmer, A., Chmela, F., Advanced Heat Transfer Model for CI
Engines, SAE 2005-01-0695, 2005 SAE World Congress, Detroit, USA.
[C36] Schubiger R.A., Boulouchos K., Eberle M.K, Rubildung und Oxidation bei der
dieselmotorischen Verbrennung, MTZ 5/2002, 342-353, 2002.
[C37] Sitkei, G., Kraftstoffausbreitung und Verbrennung bei Dieselmotoren, Springer
Verlag, 1964.
[C38] Varde, K.S., Popa, D.M., Varde, L.K., Spray Angle and Atomization in Diesel
Sprays. SAE 841055, 1984 SAE World Congress, Detroit, USA
[C39] Vibe, I. I., Brennverlauf und Kreisproze von Verbrennungsmotoren, Verlag
Technik, Berlin, 1970
[C40] Wanker, R. J., Wurzenberger, J.C. and Schuemie, H. A., Advanced 0D/1D
Modeling of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment
Systems, The Spark Ignition Engine of the Future, Strasbourg, 2007
[C41] Wimmer, A. and Pivec, R., Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Gas-Side
Heat Transfer, 7
th
Symposium : The Working Process of the Internal Combustion
Engine, Graz, 1999
[C42] Wimmer, A., Pivec, R., Sams, Th., Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber and
Port Walls of IC Engines Measurement and Prediction, SAE 2000-01-0568, 2000
SAE World Congress, Detroit, USA
[C43] Wimmer, A., Quasi-dimensional Modeling of Charge Motion for the Simulation of
Combustion and Heat Transfer, 4
th
Stuttgart International Symposium, 2001
[C44] Wolfer, H., "Der Zndverzug im Dieselmotor. VDI Forschungsheft Nr. 392, 1938
[C45] Woschni, G., A Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat
Transfer Coefficient in Internal Combustion Engines, SAE 6700931
[C46] Woschni, G., Einflu von Ruablagerungen auf den Wrmebergang zwischen
Arbeitsgas und Wand im Dieselmotor, in proceedings to Der Arbeitsproze des
Verbrennungsmotors, Graz 1991
[C47] Woschni, G. and Anisits, F., Eine Methode zur Vorausberechnung der nderung
des Brennverlaufs mittelschnellaufender Dieselmotoren bei genderten
Betriebsbedingungen, MTZ 34, 1973
[C48] Zacharias, F., Mollier-I,S-Diagramme fr Verbrennungsgase in der
Datenverarbeitung, MTZ, Motortechnische Zeitschrift, Jahrg. 31, 1970 (296-303).

Friction:
[F1] Bohac, S. V., Baker, D. M. and Assanis, D. N. A global model for steady state and
transient S. I. Engine Heat transfer studies, International Congress & Exposition
Detroit, Michigan Feb 26-29, 1996, SAE 960073
[F2] Patton, K. J., Nitschke, R. G. and Heywood, J. B. Development and evaluation of a
friction model for spark-ignition engines SAE Paper No. 89-0836
Theory BOOST v2013.2
15-Nov-2013 2-117
[F3] Shayler, P. J., Christian, S. J. and Ma, T. A model for the investigation of
temperature heat flow and friction characteristics during engine warm-up, SAE
Paper 93-1153
[F4] Shayler, P. J., Leong, D. K. W. and Murphy, M. Friction teardown data from
motored engine tests on light duty automotive diesel engines at low temperatures
and speeds ASME 2003, Fall Technical Conference.

Pipe Flow:
[P1] Giannattasio, P. et al., Applications of a High Resolution Shock Capturing Scheme
to the Unsteady Flow Computation in Engine Ducts, Imech 1991, C430/055
[P2] Harten, A. et al., High Order Accurate Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes III,
Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 71, Number 2, August 1987
[P3] Lienhard John H. IV and Lienhard John H. V "A Heat Transfer Text Book,
Phlogiston Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 3rd edition, 2003
[P4] Liu Zheji and Hoffmanner Albert L. "Exhaust Transient Temperature Response",
SAE 950617, 1995
[P5] Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (Ed.) VDI-Wrmeatlas, Berechnungsbltter fr den
Wrmebergang. 6th Edition, VDI Verlag, Dsseldorf, 1991.
[P6] Wendland Daniel W. "Automobile Exhaust-System Steady-State Heat Transfer ",
SAE 931085, 1993
[P7] Wilde Karl "Erzwungene und freie Stroemung", Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag,
Darmstadt, 2nd edition, 1978