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Submitted to : Prof. SARIKA TANDON Date Of Submission : December 15, 2009 Name : POOJA CHAUHAN Enrollment No: 08BS0002216 Batch : 2008 – 2010 Contact : +91 9320981039 e-mail: poojachauhan_1987@y ahoo.com
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terim Report on Magemen t Research Project (MRP)

Project Title:
Training:The concept,Methodology & Effectivness

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The report is submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirement of MBA program of ICFAI Business School. The project report (Management Research Project) has been with submitted course by me in of accordance requirement

reward of MBA degree from ICFAI Business School during the academic year 2008-2010. This is my original work and not submitted elsewhere for award to any other degree.

Pooja Chauhan 08BS0002216
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AUTHORIZATION…………………………………………………………………………………2 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………..…4 DEFINITION OF TRAINING………………………………………………………………………5 FEATURES OF TRAINING……………………………………………………………………….5. ROLE OF ORGANIZATION IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT………………………………6 TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND

DEVELOPMENT……………………………………………………………………...6 TRAINING OPTIONS………………………………………………………………...7 THE FIVE STEP TRAINING PROCESS……………………………………………8
TRAINING IN AN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING…………………………………………10 DECIDING TRAINING OBJECTIVES…………………………………………………..…11 TRAINING POLICY…………………………………………………………………....…..…12 LEGAL ASPECTS OF TRAINING……………………………………………………….....12

THE NEED FOR TRAINING………………………………………………………...13
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Limitations……………………………………………………………………………………..38 Refrences……………………………………………………………………………….……..38

Early millennium India saw a sector emerge and boom because of the demand surplus globally. Since then, till today there has been a positive upward growth in the industry prior to which India was known for the textiles and tool industry. Though initially there was an immature growth later due to immense competition the industry saw its mature side. Many companies have taken birth during this course of time but most have not impressed to get noticed, at the same time there have been a few who have got noticed and risen to become an empire ( INFOSYS, WIPRO etc). The secret behind the success of these companies to have sustained in both the phases (initial stage where companies saw an immature growth, later stages where the industry matured) of the industry growth is because of innovation and effective people management skills employed. Upon interaction and detailed study of corporate world it comes to our understanding that training plays a very essential part in bridging the gap between the employee skill sets and the skills associated with a particular job. As the new industry emerged there were other sectors which boomed along with the growth of IT industry namely manufacturing.

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During the growth of various industries players in each industry, in order to cope with the competition concentrated on having skilled manpower in their armory, this proved to be a very lethal weapon when they fired (launching new product, implement new technology, use new strategies etc). Thus updating their employees with the necessary skill sets and knowledge became an integral part of an employee’s tenure in the organization. In this report let’s try and understand on what training and development is all about and various methods adopted by various organizations to achieve the above said

Definition Of Training
Training may be defined as a “Planned program designed to improve performance and bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) and social behaviour of employee.” It is as act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job.

Features of Training
 Enable the employees to deal with the changing jobs and roles.  Develop knowledge, skill and attitude for handling jobs most efficiently.  Bridges the gap between the current level of employee KSA and the required level of KSA to handle job efficiently.  Training is basically job-related and need-based.  Short-term activity designed essentially for operatives.

Role Of Organization In Training And Development
An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: • To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits
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• To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount • To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date • To enhance the performance of employees • Organization’s name to be a part of training unit Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job, change in taste of consumer, change in methods of product development, etc. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field.

But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. In this situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This leads to failure of the program, which results in collusion. Therefore, it’s a foremost duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture, climate, responsibilities of organization, etc.

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Traditional And Modern Approach Of Training And Development
Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results

Training Options
There 4 training options that an organization can consider before providing training to their employees: Outsourcing: Outsourcing exempts the organizations to concentrate on its core business. Also, with the availability of sufficient amount of know-how, proficiency in the market it does not make business sense for organizations to have a separate training division. One approach is to tie up with some reputed training or educational institutes and send employees for training. This way, company gets to avail the required expertise and high-quality training programs and saves money on content development, recruiting, and maintaining training team. The only issue in outsourcing training is that the quality of training has to be frequently tracked so as to ensure the trainer's performance and training effectiveness.

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Internal Training: A lot of questions has been raised whether to go in for training outsourcing or setting up an internal division for training. Some companies recruit external trainers and call them to the company site make them use their tools to train employees. This alternative is generally for the new joinees who are given the fundamental or job-related training in-house and then send outside for higher training.

Product-related Training: The dealer who delivers the apparatus or installs the system offers the initial training. The user may negotiate with the dealer for a regular upgradation of product-related know-how or expertise in place of a one-time training. The apparatus dealer may choose to send their trainers or recruit outside trainers. Independent Professionals: Considering the emerging threats and opportunities, the professionals need to keep themselves updated of the developments. In this option, the responsibility of training is entirely on the individual and a better-trained professional will always have better market worth than others.

The Five Step Training Process
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We can think of a typical training program as consisting of five steps. The steps are as follows: 1. NEED ANALYSIS  Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity  Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific levels of education, experience, and skills, as well as their attitudes and personal motivations.  Use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives 2. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN  Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of and sequence of content, examples, exercises and activities. Organise them into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a blueprint for program.  Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leader’s guides and participants’ workbooks, complement each other, are written clearly, and blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning objectives.  Carefully and professionally handle all program elements-whether reproduced on paper, film, or tape-to guarantee quality and effectiveness. 3. VALIDATION  Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness. 4. IMPLEMENTATION  When applicable, boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content. 5. EVALUATION AND FOLLOW UP  Assess program success according to :
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A. REACTION – Document the learners’ immediate reactions to the training. B. LEARNING – Use feedback devices or pre- and post tests to measure what learners have actually learned. C. BEHAVIOUR – Note supervisor’s reactions to learners’ performance following completion of the training. This is the one way to measure the degree to which learners apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs. D. RESULTS – Determine the level of improvement in the job performance and assess needed maintenance.

Training In An Organisational Setting
Any Organisation has to opt for some or other type of training for increasing the knowledge and skills of its employee for performing a particular job. Training is mainly job-oriented; it aims at maintaining and improving current job performance. Training is needed to achieve the following purposes in an organisation: 1. Newly recruited employees require to undergo structured training inputs so as to learn and perform their tasks effectively. The nature of training they receive determines their competencies in handling the job(s) assigned to them. 2. Imparting need-based training to existing employees for grooming them to handle their current jobs better and to prepare them to handle higher level jobs. 3. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep them abreast of the latest developments in the concerned job-related operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity.

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4. Training is also necessary when a person gets transferred from one job to another (job rotation) or when there is enhancement in this job domain (job enlargement). 5. Training makes employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organisational needs. 6. Training improves overall job productivity / employee productivity. 7. Training, when proactively and selectively imparted to employees(s) to prepare them to shoulder higher level jobs, is known as succession planning.

Deciding Training Objectives
Training in the organisation can be planned on the basis of the type of training objective it is designed to meet. There are in all 5 types of training objectives. A. Training – For ongoing organisational requirement.  Induction and Orientation Program.  Refresher Training Program for operatives. B. Proactive – Anticipatory training required to meet futuristic organisational needs.  Training manager/Supervisors to anticipate problems before they occur.  Computer Training.  Team building sessions with the departments.  Supervisory Development Training. C. Problem Solving – Training to avert certain problems which may develop over a period time.
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 Training Clerks to reduce complaints.  Total Quality Management (TQM) Training.  Training Supervisors in communications to reduce grievances.  Quality circles Training. D. Specialized Training – To meet critical organisational requirement.  To import specialized training on critical equipment. E. Vendor arranged Training for technological up gradation.  Training Organised by vendor against the purchase of equipments.

Training Policy
Every organisation should have a declared training policy, which is understood and supported by employees at all levels. Training can be abortive if there is no commitment on the part of those being trained. Training should not be seen by employees as a penalty but as an opportunity for them to further their knowledge and expertise both in their own and the organisation’s interest. The climate needs to be created in which they are eager to seize such opportunities and in their enthusiasm may well be able to identify some their own needs.  Key Features of a Good Training Policy. 1. It should be holistic and should cater to needs of the employees. 2. It should be in line with and complement business policy of the organisation. 3. It should emanate from the joint evocation of HR manager and line management with
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top management support. 4. It should have commitment of the target group.

Legal Aspects Of Training
Under equal employment legislation several aspects of your training program must be assessed with an eye toward the program’s impact on women and minorities. For example, having relatively few women or minorities selected for the training program may require showing that the admissions procedures are valid – that they predict performance on the job for which the person is being trained. Similarly, suppose completing the training program is a prerequisite for promotion. You should then be able to show that the training program itself has no adverse impact on women or minorities. In other words, members of protected group should have as much chance of successfully completing the training as do white males. If they do not, the validity of the training requirements should be demonstrated. For example, it could turn out that the reading level of your training manuals is too high for minority trainees, and that they are thus doing poorly in the program quite aside from their aptitude for the jobs for which they are being trained. The training program might then be found to be unfairly discriminatory. Negligent training is another potential problem. Negligent training occurs when an employer fails to train adequately, and an employee subsequently harms a third party. Courts will find the employer liable in cases of negligent training, particularly the employer’s business or service is oriented toward serving the public. Precautions here include: 1. Confirm claims of skill and experience for all applicants.

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2. Reduce the risks of harm by extensively training employees who work with dangerous equipment, materials or processes. 3. Ensure that the training includes procedures to protect third parties’ health and safety. 4. Evaluate the training activity to determine its effectiveness in reducing negligence risks.

The Need For Training
Good communications and consultation are essential for efficient operation in any organisation. However, their impact is often diminished by a lack of skill or knowledge on the part of the participants. It is important, therefore, to provide both managers and employees with training in the skills and techniques required for communication and consultation. Training can help employees better understand the information they are given and can encourage them to play a fuller part in the way the organisation conducts its affairs. Training courses in particular can be a useful way of giving employees factual information about their employment because they necessarily include a substantial element of explanation and provide opportunities for questions to be answered. Managers have an important role to play in communicating and consulting and good training can enable them to:
➢  become more aware of the importance of good communication and

consultation practice
➢  understand their roles and responsibilities as communicators ➢  Support those who are less outspoken and improve their ability to


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Training is particularly important for supervisors who have important communications responsibilities but often limited experience. Communication and consultation skills should have a place in any development programme for them as well as for other managers. Trade unions should also ensure that they provide adequate training for their representatives to enable them to take a full part in employee communications and consultation. Wherever possible training should be participative and trainees should be encouraged to exchange views, take part in discussions and share ideas and experiences. Such participation not only makes for more effective training but also helps to foster the idea of employee involvement which is an underlying principle of consultation and communication. It is good practice to evaluate periodically the effectiveness of any training undertaken.

Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits
As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future. A. Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.
➢  When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed 17 | P a g e

➢  To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance

improvement effort
➢  As part of an overall professional development program ➢  As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned

change in rolein the organization
➢  To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system ➢  To train about a specific topic) (see below)

B. Typical Topics of Employee Training
➢  Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a

wide variety Of languages and customs.
➢  Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting

administrative and office tasks.
➢  Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace

makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
➢  Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people

have Different diversity

perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value

➢  Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social

responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.
➢  Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include

misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
➢  Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality


benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts,

guidelines and standards for quality, etc.

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➢  Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment,

hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.
➢  Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful

description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are inappropriate behaviors. C. General Benefits from Employee Training and Development There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. Several of these sites suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include: A. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees B. Increased employee motivation C. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain D. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods E. Increased innovation in strategies and products F. Reduced employee turnover G. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training H. Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training.

The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. training program.
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Training objectives assist trainers to design the

The trainer – Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design . Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong. Trainees' learning style – the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics – After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: From simple to complex . Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general
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Dependent relationship Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees' background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources, etc

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Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:

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• Time • Accommodation, facilities and their availability

• Furnishings and equipments • Budget • Design of the training, et

Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action

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Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group. Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level. Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:

• Appraisal and performance review • Peer appraisal • Competency assessments • Subordinate appraisal
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• Client feedback • Customer feedback • Self-assessment or self-appraisal.

Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.

How Training Costs Are Calculated
The costs of learning may be difficult to decipher without an all-inclusive cost analysis system. Many trainers perpetually defend their approach through a comprehensive justification of course content, methodology, and cost effectiveness. Once all of the relevant factors have been isolated and supported by data, it is much easier to decide when and how the training will be conducted, if at all. Similarly, with the right data the decision to conduct training in-house or by an outsourcer can be determined. Some of the questions that must answered to determine training costs include:  Facilities: Where will the training be conducted? Are hotel rooms and meeting space required? If the training is Web or computer based, are specific resources dedicated to the equipment, utilities, software and hardware maintenance? Are participants reimbursed for lodging when they attend overnight training?  Instructors: Are facilitators paid a salary, per diem, or billed by an outside firm? Are trainer expenses considered? Does the company have to pay to certify the instructors or pay any license fees to use the materials?

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 Participants: What are the combined salaries and benefits costs that will be dedicated to the time spent on training? What is the price for the time spent out of the office, at seminars, traveling, or preparing for training while still at work?  Material format: What type of materials will be used? Is the media, books, tapes, CDRom, Web-based or video? How will the material be obtained? Any shipping, packaging, or transmission costs? If the material is developed in-house is the talent available or must the company recruit the technical expertise? Will the materials still be timely and technologically relevant when the training is actually delivered? If not, what are the redesign costs?  Communication and marketing: Will materials be produced to generate interest in the training? Brochures, pamphlets, direct mail, postage, and Web sites all have developmentcosts in addition to material cost. Will time be spent by senior managers selling the training internally? Will employees be actively solicited through kick-off and information meetings? How much time will be spent learning about the training?  Tuition reimbursement: What is the cost of the actual benefit as described in the company policy? What is the level of utilization by the employee population? What are the costs of communicating the program and processing the benefit? Does the company policy exclude reimbursement for unsuccessful completion of course requirements?

Some of the less apparent issues include:  The learning curve. How long does it take for the employee to get "up to speed?" What are the adaptation costs, the costs of potential mistakes while in the learning process? If the employee is in a production type situation, what is the cost of lost

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production on an incremental basis, if the employee had been fully trained from the start?  Productivity inhibited. What would the employee be doing if they were not taking time from their regular tasks to be trained? Would more income be generated for the company? How would that time be used more profitably or effectively? Could the time have resulted in the development of new accounts or products, faster production, or greater organizational efficiency?  Company culture and expectation. Some organizations have massive

expectations from the image and culture they communicate through their training experience. Training may dominate company culture and be a catalyst for many associated programs that are developed to enhance the training experience. Promotion and reward systems may be geared towards the training effort. Incentives may be given when training is completed or goals which training addresses are attained. All of these expectations result in higher percapita costs -- per employee. Additionally, because training intense companies tend to use the most sophisticated methods and expensive materials, the per-capita cost may be far greater. All of these intangibles must be isolated to truly determine the overall cost and associated benefits of the training experience.

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Secondary data

Training and Development in IT/Software Development Industry
The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87 billion by 2008. In 2006, it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%. IT sector is expected to generate 2.3 million jobs by 2010, according to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Service Companies) With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like SAP, the need of human resource development has increased.

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According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review, there is a direct link between training investment of the companies and the market capitalization. Those companies with higher training investment had higher market capitalization. It clearly indicates that the companies which have successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with effective results. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance, which in turn, helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource.

With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many companies have now started their own learning centers.
➢ As an example, Sun has its own training department. ➢ Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of “My Learning” that offers

access to its vast learning resources to its employees Companies are investing in both the technical training, which has always been an essential part in IT industry, as well as in managerial skills development. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs. As an example, some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of the company’s overall revenue.

Areas Covered in Training Programs in IT/Software Development Industry
The specific areas where training is given in IT/Software Development sector are: A. Computer Manufacturing B. EDP/ E- Commerce
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C. Designing D. Maintenance Service E. Operating jobs, Computer operators, Data Entry F. System Developing /Programming /Software Engineering G. Networking H. Application Programming I. Research and Development in Peripheral Integration J. Product Quality Control and Reliability Testing K. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) L. Database Warehousing and Management

Preferred Training Methods
Some of the training methods of training are:

A. B.

Computer Internet

Based Based

D. Labs E. On-the-job (OTJ) Training F. Distant Learning G. E-Books

H. Mentoring I. Coaching J. Job Rotation

Training Learning C. Lectures

IBM Training
For IBM, learning is a strategic enabler of change — an indispensable tool that supports new initiatives, re-skills our workforce and prepares us to address key market shifts and organizational transformations, such as those associated with the rapidly approaching on demand era. IBM spends about US$750 million annually for learning. Employees spend an estimated 17 million hours each year (about 55 hours per employee) in formal training —
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Either online, through online learning activities or in a traditional classroom. Approximately 47 percent of IBM learning days are now conducted online anywhere, anytime. When given meaningful learning and developmental opportunities, 79 percent of IBM employees are likely to stay with the company for at least three years. IBM conducts almost half of all employees training via e-learning, realizing a cost avoidance of US$579 million over the past two years The Basic Blue program helps new managers build skills that are necessary to Promote change, align behavior with new corporate strategies, reduce bureaucracy, emphasize customer focus and inspire the highest employee performance. Basic Blue is a three-phase approach to management and leadership development. This learning solution for new IBM managers offers the optimum blend of learning methods through its five phases: Phase I — The purpose of Phase I is to immediately bring critical management/ leadership information to the new IBM manager via a combination of e-learning, simulations, in-field experiences and second-line coaching. Phase II — In this phase, employees increase management and leadership skills and build upon the knowledge gained in Phase I through a five-day, face-to face, experience-based workshop. Phase III - Advisor — this is a Web-based, online tool developed to support continuous learning for all managers, including those in nontraditional office situations, and remote and mobile workers. Advisor has three components: exploring Web-based learning, preparing for the role of manager and formulating an individual development plan. Phase IV - The in-class learning lab — this phase comprises two days that focus on experiential, higher-order learning, personal networking and action learning.

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Phase V - Manager ongoing dialogue — an online, shared e-space provides a means for the same group of managers to collaborate on their chosen management action challenges.

General Electric training
General Electric spends roughly $1 billion on training and education every year.

Hewlett-Packard Training
Hewlett-Packard spent $275 million on training while memory-chip maker Micron Technology spent $4.8 million on training for its 21,000 employees worldwide this fiscal year. Microsoft spends "millions" on its army of 70,000.

Infosys Technologies Training
Infosys Technologies spends Rs.750 crore a year on training fresh recruits. The company added 3,192 staff in the first quarter of 2008-09. “This comes to Rs. 2.50 lakh spent on each potential new employee during a 16-week training period. The 335-acre campus, largest of the nine training centers of Infosys across India, can accommodate up to 13,500 people at a given time. Apart from containing attrition at around 13.7 per cent against the industry average of 17 per cent, the training turned out young men and women with additional ‘soft skills’, including the ability to communicate clearly, learn efficient team work and decision-making. Close to five per cent of trainees did not match the job skills required and had to return home.

Cost of training at Infosys Technologies
The cost of training might seem high but in the West, it worked out to $50,000 per trainee as compared to $6,000 here. In a statement by Ceo, Mr.Gopalkrishnan “If our universities upgraded and made the teaching methods more industry and employment-

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oriented, the IT sector need not spend that much for training. On our part, we can claim having contributed 50,000 trained persons so far to the workforce,” . Infosys has its on-campus job skills programme, Campus Connect, covering 510 engineering colleges in several regions. So far, 2,300 faculties have been trained on industry needs like better understanding of concepts involved in work such as software engineering.

Wipro Technology Training
Wipro Technology has been awarded by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) for its employee training and development activities. Wipro was ranked sixth among the 39 companies, which won the ASTD's BEST awards. Wipro has won the award for the third year in a row. ASTD is an association dedicated to workplace learning. Seven other Indian companies, including Reliance Petroleum, Infosys Technologies, ICICI Bank and Hindustan Petroleum also won the award. Reliance Petroleum made it to the top five. The award is given to companies based on the evidence that the employee training programmes have added to the companies' overall performance and that the companies have made a significant investment in building talent. BEST is an acronym for 'build talent enterprise wide, supported by the leaders, through learning'. “The award winners are chosen from amongst 71 entries from across the world and the winners set the standards for excellence and foster a good learning culture,” The company spends one per cent of its total revenue on training. The company has eight dedicated employee training centers with four in Bangalore. These centers impart training in HRleadership skills, behavioural skills and cross-culture training. The centers train about 3,500 employees daily. Wipro also has a dedicated learning centre

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for its Japanese businesses, in Chennai. "The Japanese market is the hardest to penetrate and also very complicated.

Cognizant Technological Solutions Training
At Cognizant, middle-level managers are provided with continuous learning and development opportunities. They are also groomed for senior leadership positions through a combination of technical and non-technical training. In addition to technical training, soft-skills such as leadership, team building and development, assessment centers, presentation skills, and workshops on selfawareness, are the other areas of focus. Further, every employee of Cognizant needs to undergo 10 person-days of training to ensure that the quality of the workforce, and therefore that of the organizations, is continuously updated and enhanced. Through this, the organisation combines a proactive readiness to service emerging demand patterns and also a reactive fulfillment of current skill requirements in the customer market. Interestingly, Cognizant has made both the management development program (MDP) at IIM Bangalore and the Project Management Professional (PMP) certification mandatory for all midlevel professionals for promotion and career growth, he says. The training at Cognizant also includes pursuing higher education such as MS in Software Engineering and MS in e-Business (the company has a tie-up with BITS, Pilani) and MBA (it has a tie-up with The British Open University). This organisation also regularly sends its middle and senior management professionals to IIM Bangalore for a customized two-week residential management development program (MDP).

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Cognizant also provides opportunities for its middle and senior level professionals to undergo certifications in domains, processes and project management. The company allocates approximately four per cent of its revenue for training across all levels. The mandatory MDP at IIM Bangalore, PMP certification and Assessment Centre alone costs the organisation more than Rs one lakh per employee per year at the mid-and-senior levels Training programs focusing on new technology helps in deploying the knowledge required to deliver value to a company's customers. "Apart from several other critical factors, providing opportunity to associates for upgrading their skills also plays a significant role in retention," . continuous learning is built into the career-path of all the associates.

Training and Development in Retail-FMCG Sector
Retail/FMCG Sector is the most booming sector in the Indian economy and is expected to reach US$ 175-200 billion by 2016. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased. Lack of skilled workers is the major factor that is holding back the retail sector for high growth. The sector is facing the severe shortage of trainers. Also, the current education system is not sufficiently prepared to address the new processes, according the industry majors.

Training Programs in Retail/FMCG Sector
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Some of the training programs that are given in the retail sector are: E. Online Course A. Sales Training B. On-the-Job Training C. Seminars/Workshops D. Customer Relationship Management F. Group Study G. Computer-Based Training H. Self-Directed Training

Colgate Training
The Training and Development effort at Colgate-Palmolive is a direct outcome of the Individual Development Plan and the Business need. The business critical and individual specific needs are identified every year and a training needs inventory is drawn up. Colgate's leadership position in the global marketplace is directly linked to the skill of our employees. Practical learning and professional growth are critical to our continued success. We invest generously in the training and education of Colgate people. Their commitment to skill development includes:  Formal classroom study  Sharing best practices, globally  Developing practical work applications based on real-world learnings. Link: http://www.colgate.co.in/app/Colgate/IN/Corp/Careers/TrainingDevelopment.cvsp

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Training in Banking and Insurance Sector
Favorable economic climate and number of other factors such as, growing urbanization, increasing consumerism, rise in the standard of living, increase in financial services for people living in rural areas, etc has increased the demand for wide range of financial products that has led to mutually beneficial growth to the banking sector and economic growth process. This was coincided by technology development in the banking operations. Today most of the Indian cities have networked banking facility as well as Internet banking facility. Some of the major players in the banking sector are State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Citibank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank,etc.

In the Insurance sector also, rapid expansion has created about 5 lakh job opportunities approximately in the past five years. These openings are mainly in the field of insurance advisors or marketing agents. The eligibility criteria for these jobs is graduation with some experience in marketing or become insurance agents after completing school but this needs some relevant training. Earlier there were no training programs as such for insurance agents but on-the-job training only that was given once the new agent was appointed. But now the scenario has been changed, with the coming up of big players like ICICI Life Insurance, ICICI Lombard, HDFC Life Insurance, Tata AIG General Insurance, etc in this sector, people who've had some formal training are preferred while recruitment because it can be helpful in the insurance field. However, only the insurance degree in this field does not

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guarantee success.

To be successful an agent must have strong interpersonal,

networking, and communication skills. Number of opportunities in Banking and Insurance sector has increased than ever before. With this rapid expansion and coming up of major players like ICICI, HDFC, UTI, Bajaj Allianz, etc in the sector, the need of human resource development has increased.

Training Needs Analysis Form
Name of Employee: Department General 1. Are you a new employee or a long-standing employee of the company? 2. How long have you been in your present job? Confirmation of Current Duties 3. Do you have a Job Description for your job? 6) 4. Is your job accurately described in the Job Description? Yes (Go to Q 14) No 5.A If no, what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your Job Description? Yes No (Go to Q :

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5.B What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your Job Description?

Job Analysis 6. Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively.

7. Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example, keyboard, machinery, tools of trade, etc).

8. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job? 9. How do you work? Please circle Alone Part of a team Other (specify below) Yes No

10. If you work as part of a team, do you perform the same of different work to members of your team?

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11. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people, such as customers, clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot

12. How much autonomy is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot

13. How much variety is there in your job, i.e., to what extent do you do different things at work, using several skills and talents? Please circle. Very little Training Needs 14. To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently (eg, Excel, bookkeeping, English as a second language, etc)? Moderately A lot

15. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg, transfer to another section, supervisor position, etc)?

16. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What training or experience would be required (eg, machine operation, negotiation skills, Occupational Health and Safety Awareness, etc)?

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Future Development Needs 17. What are your career aspirations?

18. What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg, external degree study, formal meeting procedures, leadership training, etc)?

Recognition of Prior Learning 19. What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required.) 20. What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation?

Action Plan
Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months: (Record the details of training courses, on-the-job experiences, buddy systems or mentor arrangements, and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to occur.) Training Date

Signature of Staff
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Date : Date :

Signature of Supervisor :

The success of the project depends upon some factors, which may limit its scope. The factors which may affect the scope of the study includes: • • • • Reliability of the data collected Time constraints Lack of adequate resources Uncertainty about the future which cannot be correctly predicted from the past

Extensive research work was carried out for relevant literature. After extensive study through books, newsletters, magazines and internet relevant information were found.

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Web Links
1. www.wikipedia.com

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

www. naukrihub.com http://www.colgate.co.in http://www.fao.org www.citehr.com www.managementhelp.org www.management.about.com www.npti.org www.hindubusinessline.com

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