ASSIGNMENTS MK0004 (2 credits) Set 1 Marks 30 Marketing Research
Q.1 What are the sources to collect data for marketing research? Ans: Sources to collect data for marketing research: Data serves as the basis or raw material for analysis. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of study. The sources of data may be classified into (a) primary sources (b) secondary sources. (a) Primary Data Sources: Primary data sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that has not been previously collected, e.g., collection of data by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty etc. Primary data is first hand information collected through various methods such as surveys, experiments and observation. (b) Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which has been collected and compiled for another purpose . Secondary data sources may be internal sources, such as annual reports, financial statements, sales reports, inventory records, minutes of meetings and other information that is available within the firm, in the form of a marketing information system. They may also be external sources such as government agencies, publish sources, trade associations and commercial sources. Q.2 Describe personal interview versus group interview as methods of data collection in marketing research. Ans: Personal Interview: Personal interviewing may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the facial expressions, respondent’s gestures and pauses and his environment. Interviewing is the only suitable method for studied illiterate or less educated persons. Interviewing is appropriate when qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out the respondent fully. Interview is often superior to other data gathering methods. People are usually more willing to talk than to write. Interview can add flesh to statistical information. It enables the investigator to grasp the behavioral complex of the data furnished by the respondents. It permits the investigator to seek clarification and brings to the forefront those questions which for some or other the respondent don’t want to answer. Group Interview: A group interview may be defined as a method of collecting primary data in which a number of individuals with common interest interact with each other. The group may consist of about six to eight individuals with a common interest. The interviewer acts as the discussion leader. Free discussion is encouraged on some aspect of the subject under study. The desired information may be obtained through self administered questionnaire or interview, with the discussion serving as a guide to ensure evidence of common elements of attitude, belief, intentions and opinions among individuals in the group.
Q.3 What is sampling? Describe non random sampling in brief. Ans: Sampling: A part of the population is known as a sample. The method, consisting of the selection for the study, a portion of the universe, with a view to drawing conclusions about the universe or population is known as sampling. A statistical sample ideally purports to be a miniature model or replica of the population, comprised of all the terms that the study should principally encompass, that is, the items which potentially hold promise of affording information relevant to the purpose of a given research. Sampling helps in cost and time savings. Non Random Sampling: This sampling method is not based on the theory of probability. This method does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. The advantages of this sampling method are simplicity, convenience and low cost. This method suffers from sampling bias which may distort results. It may be classified into: 1. Convenience or Accidental Sampling. 2. Purposive or Judgment Sampling. 3. Quota Sampling. 4. Snow ball Sampling. 1. Convenience or Accidental Sampling: It means selecting sample units in just hit and miss fashion. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available. e.g. a teacher may select students in his class. 2. Purposive or Judgment Sampling. This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. It is based on judgment of researcher. 3.Quota Sampling: This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex, age, social class, etc. It is a method of stratified sampling, in which the selection within strata is non random. It is this non random element that constitutes its greatest weakness. 4.Snow ball Sampling: This is the colorful name for a technique of building up a list or a sample of a special population, by using an initial set of its members as informants. This sampling technique may also be used in socio- metric studies.
ASSIGNMENTS MK0004 (2 credits) Set 2 Marks 30 Marketing Research
Q.1 Explain Null hypotheses and alternative hypotheses. Ans: Null hypotheses and alternative hypotheses: The null hypotheses are a proposition that states definitive, exact relationship between two variables. That is it states that the populations correlation between two variables is equal to zero that the difference in the means of two groups in the population is equal to zero. In general the null statement is expressed as no relationship between two variables or no difference between two groups. The alternate hypothesis which is the opposite of the null is a statement expressing a relationship between two variables or indicating differences between groups. To explain it further in setting up the null hypothesis we are stating that there is no difference between what we might find in the population characteristics the total group we are interested in knowing something and the sample we are studying. Since we do not know the true the true state of affairs in the population, all we can do is to draw inferences based on what we find in our sample. What we imply through the null hypothesis is that any differences found between two sample groups or any relationship found between two variables based on our sample is simply due to random sampling fluctuations and not due to any differences. Null hypothesis = H0 Alternative hypothesis = Ha The null hypothesis and the alternative hypotheses are chosen before the sample is drawn. In the choice of null hypothesis, the following points are usually kept in view: 1. The alternative hypothesis is usually the one which is to be proved and the null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject while the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. 2. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk, it is taken as null hypothesis, because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α the level of significance which is hosen very small. 3. The null hypothesis should always be a specific hypothesis. Q.2 Describe various types of research reports. Ans: Types of Research Reports: Research reports may be classified into the following types:--1. Technical Reports 2. Popular Reports 3. Interim Reports 4. Summary Reports 5. Research Abstracts 6. Research Articles Technical Reports: This is a comprehensive report which is generally intended for other researchers and research managers and describes all aspects of the research process in considerable detail- the problem studied, the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques used, a detailed account of the sampling field and other research procedures, sources of data, tools for data collection, methods for data processing and analysis, findings, conclusions and suggestions. Popular Reports: This type of report is intended for a more general audience that is less interested in the technical aspects, but
more interested in the findings of the study. Therefore the writing style and complexity will be different from that of technical report. Sentences and paragraphs should be short and content should be simple. The presentation of the report should be lively and include bold headlines, flow diagrams, charts, tables and other visual devices. Interim Reports: When there is a time lag between data collection and presentation of the results, the study may lose its significance and usefulness. In such a situation, an interim report can narrate what has been done so far and what was its outcome. It presents a summary of the findings of that part of the analysis which has been completed. Summary Reports: A summary report is meant for a lay audience i.e. for general public. It is written in general language with pictorial charts. It is a short report with only main points of two or three pages. Research Abstracts: A Research Abstracts is short summary of technical report. It is prepared by a doctoral student on the eve of submitting a thesis. It contains a brief presentation of the statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, methods and technique used and an overview of the report. Research Articles: A Research Articles is designed for publication in a professional journal. A Research Articles must be clearly written in concise, unambiguous language. Progression from a statement of a problem and purpose of study, through to analysis of evidence, conclusions and implications are given in the report. Q.3 How marketer can assess its competitive advantage through market based assessment? Ans: Market-based-Assessment: