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Q1. Explain the different types of research. Ans: Types of Research Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: 1. Pure Research It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. 2 .Applied Research It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. 3 .Exploratory Research It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on predetermined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research
may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.” 4 . Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. 5 .Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. 6. Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time. 7. Action Research It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation. Q2. Discuss the criteria of good research problem. Ans: Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research:
1. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check. 2. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. 3. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings.
4. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions. 5. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation is unaffected by the observer’s values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be. 6. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since human memory is fallible, all data collected are recorded. 7. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation – allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant. 8. Training investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection. Q3. Describe the procedure used to test the hypothesis? Ans: To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: 1 Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering the nature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in that case he can state his hypothesis as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =10 tons
Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ >10 tons Take another example. The average score in an aptitude test administered at the national level is 80. To evaluate a state’s education system, the average score of 100 of the state’s students selected on the random basis was 75. The state wants to know if there is a significance difference between the local scores and the national scores. In such a situation the hypothesis may be state as under: Null hypothesis HO: µ =80 Alternative hypothesis Ha: µ ≠ 80 The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test. If Ha is of the type greater than, we use alone tailed test, but when Ha is of the type “whether greater or smaller” then we use a two-tailed test.
2. Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Generally, in practice, either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. The factors that affect the level of significance are: 1 .The magnitude of the difference between sample ; 2. The size of the sample; 3. The variability of measurements within samples; Whether the hypothesis is directional or non – directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between, say, means). In brief, the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry. 3. Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance, the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. 4. Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. In other words, draw a sample to furnish empirical data. 5. Calculation of the Probability
One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations, if the null hypothesis were infact true. 6 .Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for α, the significance level. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than α value in case of one tailed test (and α/2 in case of two-tailed test), then reject the null hypothesis (i.e. accept the alternative hypothesis), but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis. Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I, but if we accept H0, then we run some risk of committing error type II.
Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis State H0 as well as Ha
Specify the level of significance
Decide the correct sampling distribution
Sample a random sample and workout an appropriate value
Calculate the probability that sample result would diverge as widely as it has form expectations, if H0 were true
Is this probability equal to or smaller than α value in case of one-tailed test and α/2 in case of two-tailed test
Accept H0 = Run Reject H0 = Run the risk of some risk of committing type II error
Q4. Write a note on experimental design. Ans: Hypothesis-testing research studies (generally known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables. Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability, but will permit drawing inferences about causality. Usually, experiments meet these requirements. Hence, when we talk of research design in such studies, we often mean the design of experiments. Experimental design refers to the framework or structure of an experiment and as such there are several experimental designs. We can classify experimental designs into two broad categories, viz., informal experimental designs and formal experimental designs. Informal experimental designs are those designs that normally use a less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes, where as formal experimental designs offer relatively more control and use precise statistical procedures for analysis. Informal experimental designs: • Before and after without control design: In such a design, single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been
introduced. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment. • After only with control design: In this design, two groups or areas (test and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. Treatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area. • Before and after with control design: In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both the areas for an identical time-period before the treatment. The treatment is then introduced into the test area only, and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time-period after the introduction of the treatment. The treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in test area. Formal Experimental Designs
1. Completely randomized design (CR design): It involves only two principle viz., the principle of replication and randomization. It is generally used when experimental areas happen to be homogenous. Technically, when all the variations due to uncontrolled extraneous factors are included under the heading of chance variation, we refer to the design of experiment as C R Design. 2. Randomized block design (RB design): It is an improvement over the C Research design. In the RB design the principle of local control can be applied along with the other two principles. 3. Latin square design (LS design): It is used in agricultural research. The treatments in a LS design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs more than once in any row or column. 4. Factorial design: It is used in experiments where the effects of varying more than one factor are to be determined. They are especially important in several economic and social phenomena where usually a large number of factors affect a particular problem Q.No. 5. Elaborate the ways of making a case study effective. Case study is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit or entity, be it a person, a family, an institution or a community. Case study would depend upon wit, commonsense and imagination of the person doing the case study. The investigator makes up his procedure as he goes along. Efforts should be made to ascertain the reliability of life history data through examining the internal consistency of the material.. A judicious combination of techniques of data collection is a prerequisite for securing data that are culturally meaningful and scientifically significant. Case study of particular value when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities. The case documents hardly fulfil the criteria of reliability, adequacy and representativeness, but to exclude them form any scientific study of human life will be blunder in as much as these documents are necessary and significant both for theory building and practice. In-depth analysis
of selected cases is of particular value to business research when a complex set of variables may be at work in generating observed results and intensive study is needed to unravel the complexities.
Let us discuss the criteria for evaluating the adequacy of the case history or life history which is of central importance for case study. John Dollard has proposed seven criteria for evaluating such adequacy as follows: i) The subject must be viewed as a specimen in a cultural series. That is, the case drawn out from its total context for the purposes of study must be considered a member of the particular cultural group or community. The scrutiny of the life histories of persons must be done with a view to identify the community values, standards and their shared way of life. ii) The organic motto of action must be socially relevant. That is, the action of the individual cases must be viewed as a series of reactions to social stimuli or situation. In other words, the social meaning of behaviour must be taken into consideration. iii) The strategic role of the family group in transmitting the culture must be recognized. That is, in case of an individual being the member of a family, the role of family in shaping his behaviour must never be overlooked. iv) The specific method of elaboration of organic material onto social behaviour must be clearly shown. That is case histories that portray in detail how basically a biological organism, the man, gradually blossoms forth into a social person, are especially fruitful. v) The continuous related character of experience for childhood through adulthood must be stressed. In other words, the life history must be a configuration depicting the inter-relationships between thee person’s various experiences. vi) Social situation must be carefully and continuously specified as a factor. One of the important criteria for the life history is that a person’s life must be shown as unfolding itself in the context of and partly owing to specific social situations.
vii) The life history material itself must be organised according to some conceptual framework, this
Q6. What is non probability sampling? Explain its types with examples. Ans: Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element.
Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity, convenience and low cost. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. The selection probability is unknown. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to nonavailability of a list of population, when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population, when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large, when probability sampling required more time, but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. It may be classified into: 1. Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E.g., interviewing people whom we happen to meet. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available, e.g., a teacher may select students in his class. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status, it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest. Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest, it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity, it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized.
2. Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. This is also known as judgment sampling. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. It is based on the judgment of the researcher or some expert. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgment of the researcher. Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample. Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing, does not ensure the representativeness, requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics.
3. Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex, age, social class, etc. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non- random. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness. Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys, opinion polls, and readership surveys which do not aim at precision, but to get quickly some crude results. Advantage: It is less costly, takes less time, non need for a list of population, and field work can easily be organized. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error, strict control if field work is difficult, and subject to a higher degree of classification.
4. Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies. Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups, informal groups in a formal organization, and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. It is difficult to apply when the population is large. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list.
ASSIGNMENTS MB 0034 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (3 credits) Set I Marks 60
Q1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data? Ans: Meaning and Importance of Data The search for answers to research questions is called collection of data. Data are facts, and other relevant materials, past and present, serving as bases for study and analyses. The data needed for a social science research may be broadly classified into (a) Data pertaining to human beings, (b) Data relating to organization and (c) Data pertaining to territorial areas. Secondary Sources of Data These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Cooperatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO, WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc
Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc. Features of Secondary Sources Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials, they have certain
common characteristics. First, they are readymade and readily available, and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them. Second, they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. Clearly, this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources. Finally, secondary sources are not limited in time and space. That is, the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered. Advantages of Secondary Data : • Secondary data, if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Once their source of documents and reports are located, collection of data is just matter of desk work. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided, thanks to Xeroxing facilities. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Thus, the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected.
• • • •
Disadvantages of Secondary Data • The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different; units of measure may not match; and time periods may also be different. The available data may not be as accurate as desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print, because of time lag in producing them. For example, population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation, and no new figures will be available for another ten years. Finally, information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. Even if the location of the source is known, the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. For example, most of the unpublished official records and compilations are
located in the capital city, and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places.
Q2. Explain the prerequisites and advantages of observation. Ans: Meaning of Observation: Observation means viewing or seeing. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. Observation is classical method of scientific study. Prerequisites of Effective Observation • Observations must be done under conditions which will permit accurate results. The observer must be in vantage point to see clearly the objects to be observed. The distance and the light must be satisfactory. The mechanical devices used must be in good working conditions and operated by skilled persons. • Observation must cover a sufficient number of representative samples of the cases. • Recording should be accurate and complete. • The accuracy and completeness of recorded results must be checked. A certain number of cases can be observed again by another observer/another set of mechanical devices, as the case may be. If it is feasible, two separate observers and sets of instruments may be used in all or some of the original observations. The results could then be compared to determine their accuracy and completeness. Observation has certain advantages: • The main virtue of observation is its directness: it makes it possible to study behaviour as it occurs. The researcher need not ask people about their behaviour and interactions; he can simply watch what they do and say. • Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researched situation for instance, in interview; the respondent may not behave in a natural way. There is no such artificiality in observational studies, especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed. Observations is more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully, e.g. studies of children, tribal, animals, birds etc. Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behaviour. Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behaviour through observation. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs. For example only observation can provide an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation
between union and management representatives. • • • Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. It is easier to conduct disguised observation studies than disguised questioning. Mechanical devices may be used for recording data in order to secure more accurate data and also of making continuous observations over longer periods.
Q3. Discuss the stages involved in data collection. Ans: The process of data collection may involve any number of the following stages according to the method used. (1) Data creation , e.g, on clerically prepared source documents (2) Transmission of data (3) Data preparation i.e. Transcription and verification (4) Possible conversion from one medium(e.g. Diskette) to another e.g., magnetic tape (5) Input of data to the computer for validation (6) Sorting (7)Control- all stages must be controlled Method of data collection has certain characteristics. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything, but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature, scope and objectives of his study. For example, suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road, many things are before his eyes; the type, make, size and colour of the vehicles, the persons sitting in them, their hair style, etc. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. It captures the natural social context in which persons
behaviour occur. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule, social metric scale etc., and precision instruments, if any. Process of Observations The use of observation method requires proper planning. First, the researcher should carefully examine the relevance of observation method to the data needs of the selected study. Second, he must identify the specific investigative questions which call for use of observation method. These determine the data to be collected. Third, he must decide the observation content, viz., specific conditions, events and activities that have to be observed for the required data. The observation content should include the relevant variables. Fourth, for each variable chosen, the operational definition should be specified. Fifth, the observation setting, the subjects to be observed, the timing and mode of observation, recording, procedure, recording instruments to be used, and other details of the task should be determined. Last, observers should be selected and trained. The persons to be selected must have sufficient concentration powers, strong memory power and unobtrusive nature. Selected persons should be imparted both theoretical and practical training. Types of Observations Observations may be classified in different ways. With reference to investigator’s role, it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. In terms of mode of observation, it may be classified into (c) direct observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation, and (f) uncontrolled Q4. Briefly explain the types of interviews. Ans: 1 Meaning of Interview: Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection. It may be defined as a two way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondent’s gesture, facial expressions and pauses, and his
environment. Interviewing requires face to face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide. Interviewing may be used either as a main method or as a supplementary one in studies of persons. Interviewing is the only suitable method for gathering information from illiterate or less educated respondents. It is useful for collecting a wide range of data from factual demographic data to highly personal and intimate information relating to a person’s opinions, attitudes, values, beliefs past experience and future intentions. When qualitative information is required or probing is necessary to draw out fully, and then interviewing is required. Where the area covered for the survey is a compact, or when a sufficient number of qualified interviewers are available, personal interview is feasible.
Types of Interviews
The interview may be classified into: (a) structured or directive interview, (b) unstructured or non-directive interview, (c) focused interview, (d) clinical interview and (e) depth interview. 1. Structured Directive Interview This is an interview made with a detailed standardized schedule. The same questions are put to all the respondents and in the same order. Each question is asked in the same way in each interview, promoting measurement reliability. This type of interview is used for large-scale formalized surveys. 2. Unstructured or Non-Directive Interview This is the least structured one. The interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about a give topic with a minimum of prompting or guidance. In this type of interview, a detailed preplanned schedule is not used. Only a broad interview guide is used. The interviewer avoids channelling the interview directions. Instead he develops a very permissive atmosphere. Questions are not standardized and ordered in a particular way. This interviewing is more useful in case studies rather than in surveys. It is particularly useful in exploratory research where the lines of investigations are not clearly defined. It is also useful for gathering information on sensitive topics such as divorce, social discrimination, class conflict, generation gap, drug-addiction etc. It provides opportunity to explore the various aspects of the problem in an unrestricted manner. 3. Focused Interview This is a semi-structured interview where the investigator attempts to focus the discussion on the actual effects of a given experience to which the respondents have been exposed. It takes place with the respondents known to have involved in a particular experience, e.g, seeing a particular film, viewing a particular program on TV., involved in a train/bus accident, etc. The situation is analysed prior to the interview. An interview guide specifying topics relating to the research hypothesis used. The interview is focused on the subjective experiences of the respondent, i.e., his attitudes and emotional responses regarding the situation under study. The focused interview
permits the interviewer to obtain details of personal reactions, specific emotions and the like.
4 .Clinical Interview This is similar to the focused interview but with a subtle difference. While the focused interview is concerned with the effects of specific experience, clinical interview is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of the individual’s life experiences. The ‘personal history’ interview used in social case work, prison administration, psychiatric clinics and in individual life history research is the most common type of clinical interview. The specific aspects of the individual’s life history to be covered by the interview are determined with reference to the purpose of the study and the respondent is encouraged to talk freely about them. 5. Depth Interview This is an intensive and searching interview aiming at studying the respondent’s opinion, emotions or convictions on the basis of an interview guide. This requires much more training on inter-personal skills than structured interview. This deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as extremely personal feelings and emotions. This is generally a lengthy procedure designed to encourage free expression of affectively charged information. It requires probing. The interviewer should totally avoid advising or showing disagreement. Of course, he should use encouraging expressions like “uh-huh” or “I see” to motivate the respondent to continue narration. Some times the interviewer has to face the problem of affections, i.e. the respondent may hide expressing affective feelings. The interviewer should handle such situation with great care.
Q5. Describe the principles involved in the table construction. Ans: Principles of Table Construction There are certain generally accepted principles of rules relating to construction of tables. They are: 1. Every table should have a title. The tile should represent a succinct description of the contents of the table. It should be clear and concise. It should be placed above the body of the table. 2. A number facilitating easy reference should identify every table. The number can be centred above the title. The table numbers should run in consecutive serial order. Alternatively tables in chapter 1 be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, 1….., in chapter 2 as 2.1, 2.2, 2.3…. and so on. 3. The captions (or column headings) should be clear and brief.
4. The units of measurement under each heading must always be indicated. 5. 5.Any explanatory footnotes concerning the table itself are placed directly beneath the table and in order to obviate any possible confusion with the textual footnotes such reference symbols as the asterisk (*) DAGGER (+) and the like may be used. 6. If the data in a series of tables have been obtained from different sources, it is ordinarily advisable to indicate the specific sources in a place just below the table. 7. Usually lines separate columns from one another. Lines are always drawn at the top and bottom of the table and below the captions. 8. The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference. 9. All column figures should be properly aligned. Decimal points and “plus” or “minus” signs should be in perfect alignment. 10. Columns and rows that are to be compared with one another should be brought closed together. 11. Totals of rows should be placed at the extreme right column and totals of columns at the bottom. 12. In order to emphasize the relative significance of certain categories, Q6. Write a note on contents of research report. ? Ans: Meaning of Research Report Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. It narrates the problem studied, methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study. Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below: I. Prefatory Items 1) Title page 2) Declaration 3) Certificates 4) Preface/ acknowledgements 5) Table of contents 6) List of tables 7) List of graphs/ figures/ charts 8)Abstract or synopsis II. Body of the Report 1) Introduction 2) Theoretical background of the topic 3) Statement of the problem 4) Review of literature 5) The scope of the study 6) The objectives of the study 7) Hypothesis to be tested 8) Definition of the concepts 9) Models if any 10) Design of the study 11)
Methodology 12) Method of data collection 13) Sources of data 14) Sampling plan 15) data collection instruments 16) Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary, conclusions and recommendations III.Reference Material 1) Bibliography 2) Appendix 3) Copies of data collection instruments 4) Technical details on sampling plan 5) Complex tables 6) Glossary of new terms used.