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HNC and HND in

Marine Surveying
Transportation of
LNG & LPG Cargoes
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An Introduction To Liquefed Gas Cargo Surveys ............................... 5
The Liquefed Gas Carrier
Chapter 1 ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Defnition of a Gas
Chapter 2 ...................................................................................................................... 8
2.1 Product Hazards / Medical Aspects
2.2 Operational Safety
2.3 Heath, Safety and Personal Protection
Chapter 3 ...................................................................................................................... 10
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Liquefed Natural Gas (LNG) Carrier
3.3 Liquefed Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier
3.4 The LPG Terminal
3.5 Ship Types
3.6 Operational Conditions
3.7 Ship Survival Capability and Location of Cargo Tanks
3.8 Ship Types for Individual Products
3.9 Gas Carrier Categorization
3.10 Tank Types
3.11 Methods Of Transfer
3.12 Loading an LPG / LNG Carrier at Ambient Temperature
3.13 Conditions of Loading
Chapter 4 ...................................................................................................................... 32
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Cargo Measurement
4.3 Tank Measurements
4.4 Automatic Gauging
4.5 Ballast
4.6 Cargo Discrepancy
4.7 Quantity
4.8 The Gas Laws
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Chapter 5 ...................................................................................................................... 38
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Overfll Protection for Cargo Tanks
5.3 Cargo Handling Equipment
5.4 Ballast Tanks and Other Spaces
Chapter 6 ...................................................................................................................... 43
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Liquefed Gas Sampling Procedures
Chapter 7 ...................................................................................................................... 46
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Cargoes
7.3 Qualifcations of Ships Personnel
7.4 Mooring
7.5 Cargo Transfer Operations
7.6 Oil Record Book
7.7 The Procedures and Arrangements (P&A) Manual
7.8 IBC and BCH Codes for Chemical Cargoes
7.9 Cargo Specifc Documentation
7.10 Cargo Spillage
7.11 Slopping of Cargo at Discharge Port
7.12 Receiving Protest
7.13 Lodging Protest
7.14 Summary
Chapter 8 ...................................................................................................................... 67
8.1 Introduction
8.3 The International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Concerns
8.4 Conclusion
8.5 Other Issues
Appendix A .................................................................................................................. 72
Appendix B .................................................................................................................. 76
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An Introduction To Liquefed Gas Cargo Surveys
Fig. 1 - Looking forward over the compressor room on an Ethylene/LPG/Chemical Carrier
In this module we address the complexity of liquefed gas cargo surveys. Many of the same principles
should be used when surveying packaged liquefed gas cargoes as found in tank containers (tanktainers)
which fall under the IMDG Code, in relation to the commodity, but gas ships are quite a different breed
from other tankers.
The focus is primarily on the management of surveys on liquefed gas tankers but much can and does cross
the soft boundary between other liquid cargoes carried in chemical carriers. Health and safety aspects,
which all surveyors must appreciate, are also addressed but these are the subject of other modules.
Because the liquefed gas trade surveying is somewhat unusual compared with other bulk liquefed cargo
surveying, it demands an understanding of the particular terminology. It should be recognised that due
to the nature of the trade, technology moves ahead at a fairly rapid pace and equipment is modifed or
updated regularly. Therefore, the description and depiction of various pieces of equipment may not be
as actually found on board. Nevertheless, the principles and outcomes are invariably the same.
At the end of the module you will fnd a bibliography giving details of recommended reading and
reference material.
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The Liquefed Gas Carrier
Liquefed gas carriers, like chemical tankers, operate at a heightened level of safety awareness and their
crews are, by necessity, well trained and competent. If this were not the case, many more incidents
would be occurring. Training is critical to the ongoing safety of operations on these vessels, therefore
surveyors undertaking work in this area are strongly advised to acquire extensive knowledge so as
not to jeopardise either their own safety or that of the personnel onboard. Team work is essential to
safety of operation and, if you as the surveyor are not in sync with the crew, disasters can and will occur.
First rule of thumb is not to touch any piece of equipment on board without confrmation from and
attendance by ships personnel.
Fig. 2 - The Liquid Natural Gas Carrier
Fig. 3 The Ethylene / LPG / Chemical Carrier
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1.1 Introduction
Liquefed gases are split into two main groups:
1. Liquefed Natural Gas (LNG) is found naturally and mainly comprises: methane, ethane, propane
and butane.
2. Liquefed Petroleum Gas (LPG) comprising various petroleum hydrocarbons and derived from
the petroleum, includes: propane, butane, propylene, butylene, ammonia, vinyl chloride monomer
(VCM), ethylene oxide, ethylene and butadiene.
LPGs and LNGs are used for fuels or feedstocks for liquefed gas processes, and as intermediates in the
production of fertilisers, explosives, plastics and synthetics.
Throughout this module, reference is made to the International Gas Codes. It would assist you in
understanding this subject if the Codes were available for ready reference during your study.
1.2 Defnition of a Gas
A liquefed gas is a substance having a vapour pressure not less than 2.8 Kp/cm2.
At atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature, LPG and LNG are vapours. In order to liquefy these
gases they must be either pressurised or refrigerated.
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Learning Outcomes
By the end of this chapter the student will have a fundamental understanding of the safety and medial
hazards associated with liquefed gas cargo surveys.

2.1 Product Hazards / Medical Aspects
The cargoes that gas ships carry are mainly refrigerated or pressurised and, by their nature, mainly
untouchable. The exceptions are chemicals such as Propylene Oxide that are sometimes loaded into gas
ships which can be open to handling. The possibility of gas cargo contact will have dire consequences.
There is also a major concern with inhalation. This may be as a result of venting or during the sampling
procedures but is not normal and usually results from bad operational practices. If a cryogenic substance
comes into contact with the skin it can lead to severe burns and loss of human tissue due to frostbite.
Freezing is very rapid in most cases. Hence the reason for concerns when it comes in contact with
cargoes with brittle fractures in the steelwork.
Butadiene and Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) are two cargoes that have chronic health hazards in
addition to their acute anaesthetic properties. One whiff and you are out cold! Ammonia will give you
a nasty headache. Again, not to belabour the point DO YOUR HOMEWORK! and be ready in mind
and equipment when surveying on these ships.
2.2 Hazards
Hazards of gases include fre, toxicity, corrosivity, reactivity, low temperature and pressure. It would be
of great beneft for the marine cargo surveyor to undertake a gas fre course before attempting any
work in this feld.
2.3 Operational Safety
As the attending surveyor you must respect all safety notices posted at all locations where a hazard
exists or hazardous operation takes place. All areas in which smoking is permitted will be clearly
identifed and in accordance with the written permission given by the terminal. Procedures detailing
where smoking is permitted will be clearly displayed in a public location such as an alleyway used by all
ships personnel or in the mess rooms. In the event that there appears to be no notifcation as to normal
smoking areas whilst the vessel is alongside the terminal, you should never smoke outside accommodation,
in alleyways or in any area around the terminal or ship, unless designated as a smoking area.
Give due consideration for your personnel survey equipment. The use of any non-intrinsically
safe equipment is foolish and very dangerous. These include mobile telephones, radios, calculators,
photographic equipment and any other portable equipment that is electrically powered and not
approved for operation in hazardous areas.

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2.4 Health, Safety and Personal Protection
International Safety Management Code and the safety management systems for cargo operations
necessitates that the company takes active steps to improve the safety awareness on board. This may be
done in several ways, including, but not limited to, awards or incentives to the ship for accident / incident
free operation, poster campaigns, video and promotional material. You should see much of this material
around the ship, which will indicate how dedicated the ships personnel are to safety.

The vessel will be equipped with various personal safety gear for entry into enclosed spaces. This topic
is high on the agenda when you are required to enter the ships pump rooms, void spaces and other
restricted enclosed areas. You will most likely not have this equipment, nevertheless do not enter any
space without the permission and attendance of the responsible offcer. He/she will do pre-checks
and should provide all back-up emergency egress equipment. Any surveyor undertaking this work
should purchase a personal gas detector for oxygen, hydrocarbon and CO / CO
monitoring. The
Surveyor must comply fully with the companys tank entry procedures. The ship, to the satisfaction
of the Surveyor, must produce documentary evidence that tanks are certifed suitable for entry and
will remain so throughout the duration of the inspection. The ship must provide for any additional
precautions that you as the Surveyor may deem necessary. Should there be any doubt as to your own
safety, you must refuse to enter any enclosed space.
Also any use of power tools outside the engine room or accommodation will be controlled by a permit
system as per the company manual in addition to the following:
Detailed instructions on the use of the equipment.
1. Electric arc welding and gas burning
2. The requirement to have non-slip surfaces in working areas
3. Personnel protection safety equipment SCBA sets
4. Protective equipment sets ( PPE/totally enclosed suits)
5. Safety torch is operational
6. Safety Line and Belts are available and in good condition

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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will be able to understand the layout of each type of gas carrier
and their associated cargo containment and handling features.
3.1 Introduction
Before we delve into the safe practices and general safety issues associated with these particular tankers
it is necessary to understand the layout and operational aspects of them. Lets look at each type of
vessel to better understand both the terminology and confgurations of cargo containment and cargo
handling arrangements.
3.2 Liquefed Natural Gas (LNG) Carrier
Let us look at a typical LNG Carrier with a 135,000 m3 capacity utilising the spherical cargo
containment design. We will discuss the different design later. The main features of the cargo
containment and equipment are as follows:
5 spherical cargo tanks within 5 hold spaces
Liquid & vapour cargo management piping systems
Cargo vaporisers
Cargo heaters
Hold space ventilation and stripping system
Inert gas / dry air delivery and distribution system
Nitrogen system
Automatic and portable gas detection equipment
A ballast system
Q Flex / Q Max
Built in South Korea, this the new generation of LNG carriers was pioneered by Qatargas and
represents a quantum leap in the capacities of LNG carriers. Each ship has a cargo capacity of between
210,000 and 266,000 cubic metres and is up to 80 % larger than existing ships. They have many
innovative features to maximise cargo output and to ensure the highest levels of safety and reliability.
These vessels have a membrane type cargo containment system, twin engines and shafts, and twin
rudders for increased safety/redundancy with a much reduced environmental footprint. The slow speed
diesel engines are more thermally effcient than steam turbines and therefore burn less fuel, claiming to
produce 30% lower overall emissions compared to traditional existing LNG carriers.
The cargo re-liquefaction plants return boil-off to the tanks maximising the out-turn at the discharge port.
The electrical power plants have been enhanced providing adequate reserves thereby ensuring integrity
of supplies under all operating circumstances.
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These are the new generation of LNG gas carrier of the membrane type with a capacity of 210,000 to
216,000 m
. LNG boil-off gas is treated by a re-liquefaction plant. The ships are powered by two slow
speed diesel engines in comparison to boil-off gas driven steam turbines, this has claimed a reduction of
60% in the carbon footprint of a conventional LNG tanker.
Fig. 4 A typical Moss independent spherical tanks type LNG Carrier.
The above list seems quite simple on the face of it and taking the systems individually they can easily
be understood. But the interaction and application of each system to ensure a safety cargo operation is
quite a different story! Lets look into each system.
Cargo System
Each of the fve main cargo spherical tanks is equipped with liquid and vapour pipelines; spray cooling
lines; two main cargo pumps and one stripping pump. All tanks are connected to the liquid, vapour,
spray and pressure discharge pipelines through valves and strategically located isolation pieces. Each
spherical tank is supported within a hold space equipped with the pipelines for purging and a stripping
system located in drip trays should any cargo leakage occur. At this point it is worth noting that the
cargo (LNG) is carried at cryogenic temperatures and all equipment must be able to withstand these
extremely low temperatures (-270C). We will discuss this later under hazards on the cargoes.
Gas Purging
LNG in liquid form can be defned by the amount of Methane, Ethane and Propane.
Two methods of purging are utilized - the dilution or displacement methods are dependent upon the
pipeline setup together with the density and speed of inlet of both the gas within the tank and the gas
vapour entering the tank respectively.
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Cargo Level
Typically, a high level, low level and overfll alarms/shutoff system is provided on each cargo tank using both a
foat and capacitance type of monitoring system. The foat system can be raised and lowered as required.
Temperature monitoring facilities are also standard fxtures for both the tank contents and walls,
together with pressure monitoring for accurate determination of each tanks contents and temperature
distribution during all stages of cargo operations.
Most cargo pumps are of the submerged, electric driven, centrifugal type and are equipped with remote
controls for all stages of the pumping operations.
Typically, the vessels manifold has four liquid lines and one vapour line on port and starboard sides
amidships, and possibly a stern connection, all ftted with spray cooling connections.
Cargo Machinery
The cargo machinery consists of:
1 x LNG and 1 x forcing vaporiser
gas heaters - 1 x high duty & 1 x low duty; both vaporisers and heaters are automatically
controlled and equipped with steam supply and monitoring for condensate levels.
gas compressors - 2 x high duty & 2 x low duty - equipped with capacity controls and
sealing arrangements with alarms and interlocks incorporated.
Boil-off Gas
During the normal course of the vessels voyage, boil-off gas can be delivered to the main boilers at a
required temperature and pressure. This is factored into the voyage costs and general operations of the
vessels from A to B.
All other basic steam supply and lubricating oil systems for the machinery is provided in the normal way.
Inert Gas System
An inert gas generating plant is provided. Dryers are incorporated to ensure no water vapour is carried
over. Oxygen content is carefully monitored and temperature / dew point levels are closely registered.
Many alarms, interlocks and controls are incorporated to ensure correct delivery of IG into the cargo
system and surrounding spaces. Appropriate IG connections are provided to each cargo tank via the
main pipelines and also to the hold spaces.
Nitrogen System
Typically, a membrane style generator nitrogen supply system and distribution pipelines are provided to
the hold/inter-barrier spaces, the compressor seals and the boiler burners.
Gas Detection
Detection equipment is provided to manually check the gas concentration for oxygen, % LEL or % vol.
of hydrocarbons, CO
and dewpoint in four locations within each tank, three in each hold space, at
each piece of machinery and at each manifold. The instruments are designed to be operated in a similar
way to the normal portable instruments found onboard. Automatic gas monitoring systems are usually
incorporated in the ballast tanks and other void spaces.
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Ballast System
The Ballast systems on Gas Carriers are important, as in any other tankers, to minimise hull stresses
and to ensure propeller immersion during ballast passages and manoeuvering. These vessels are
typically equipped with a fully segregated ballast system comprising 24 or more tanks. Each tank is
usually connected to a ring main pipeline system being serviced by three electric ballast pumps and one
stripping eductor.
3.3 Liquefed Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier
A typical Liquefed Petroleum Gas (LPG) Carrier would be fully refrigerated and have a 24,000 m

capacity (new generation can be as large as 75,000 m
) with the following design features:
4 cargo tanks within 4 hold spaces
2 pressurized deck storage tanks
3 two-stage R22/LPG cascade refrigeration plants
Liquid & vapour cargo piping systems
Cooling water system
Cargo heaters and booster pumps
Inert gas / dry air supply distribution system
Hold space ventilation system
Hold space stripping system
De-icing (alcohol) system
Ballast system
Portable and automatic gas detection equipment
Fig. 5 - A typical LPG Carrier with the aforementioned systems confguration
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Cargo System
Four main fully-refrigerated cargo tanks make up the containment system, each being equipped with
two main cargo pumps, one emergency pump and spray cooling lines with appropriate liquid and vapour
pipelines. Each tank is connected via liquid, vapour, spray and condensate pipelines with associated
valves and isolation pieces.
The cargo coolant system comprises two pressurized deck storage tanks on each side on the main deck.
Cargo segregation is vital, and the loading and discharge systems allow the vessels to carry two
completely segregated cargoes. All systems can be interconnected as required for liquid operations and
gas purging.
Gas purging
Gas purging systems can be connected to allow cascade purging operations. At the manifold, two liquid
and two vapour lines on each side are provided - one for each cargo system.
Each pressurised cargo tank is located within a hold space. These spaces are equipped with the all
necessary pipelines for gas purging, and eductors for stripping in the event of cargo leakage.
In the liquid phases and two vapour phases, dilution and displacement methods of gas replacement can
be achieved. Either the dilution or displacement method can occur, depending on how the pipeline is
setup and the density and speed of inlet of both the gas within the tank and that entering the spaces.
Cargo Level
High level, low level and overfll alarms/shutoff are provided on each cargo tank using a foat type
monitoring system. The foat is free to move with the liquid level and capable of being manually
During all stages of operation the tanks are also ftted with temperature monitoring for the tank
contents and walls. Pressure monitoring also enables the accurate determination of cargo contents and
temperature distribution.
Cargo Pumps
All the pumps are of the submerged, electric driven, centrifugal type (e.g. Carter) and ftted with local
and remote controls. An emergency pump is provided on board which can be lowered into the tank in
the event of failure of the main pumps.
A sea water cargo heater together with two electric booster pumps enable the discharge of cargoes to
pressurized storage.
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Refrigeration Plants
The 3 x R22/LPG cascade refrigeration plants are provided, comprising the following:
R22 System (1 & 2)
R22 compressor, with facilities to control loading and auto/man operation
Cargo receiver
Oil receiver
Expansion valve
R22 System (3)
As above with addition of Inert Gas cooler
LPG Systems include:
Two stage cargo compressor with loading control
Cargo condenser
Hot gas return
Expansion valve
Steam coils for use as vaporiser
Inert Gas System
Two inert gas generators are provided on board, one for the main supply and another for low capacity
top-up. The top-up generator enables maintenance of the hold space pressures to set levels.
Associated pipeline connections are provided to each cargo tank and all hold spaces. The cargo tanks
are equipped with both upper and lower purge pipelines.
Two air blowers are also provided for gas freeing.
Gas Detection
The atmospheres within all spaces are monitored for the oxygen content, temperature and dew point
levels. All required alarms, interlocks and controls are also incorporated.
Each tank has manual check capabilities provided for gas concentrations including oxygen, % LEL or % vol.
hydrocarbons and dewpoint in various locations within. Portable instruments are provided on board.
In addition an automatic gas monitoring system is incorporated in all ballast tanks and void spaces.
Ballast System
A fully segregated ballast system independent of all tanks is incorporated. It typically comprises 14+
tanks, each connected to a pipeline system equipped with two electric ballast pumps and one bilge
pump. As water ballast cannot be carried adjacent to the cargo tanks the ballast tanks are located in the
double bottoms and double hulls. This gives the gas carrier exceptional reserves of buoyancy.
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3.4 The LPG Terminal
Depending on the size, you might typically fnd the following confguration in a small reception facility
for Liquid Petroleum Gas. The terminals main features would include:
4 fully-refrigerated storage tanks
2 pressurised storage tanks
5 berths with associated hardarms (chicksans) for cargo transfer.
2 single stage refrigeration plants
Berth monitoring and docking assist systems
Cargo System
The terminal would be equipped with 4 fully refrigerated storage tanks, each being equipped with two
main and one emergency electrically driven centrifugal deepwell pumps.
Pressurised storage consists of two cylindrical tanks with associated piping connections. As they are a
pressurised system they would not be equipped with pumps.
At least three levels are monitored, and are alarms provided to register contents, temperature and
pressure on all tanks.
Multiple products can be handled at one time. Two or more separate main piping system are
incorporated for liquid and vapour, along with cool-down lines. The berths are provided with the
necessary hardarm system connecting all tank storage, and cross connections may be provided to allow
systems to be joined if required. Surge drums are ftted on the liquid lines to provide protection in the
event of manifold valve closure.
Refrigeration Plant
Two, single stage, direct cooled compressors are provided, one for each cargo system. Cooling water is
supplied by two electrically driven pumps.
Cargo Heater and Booster Pump
A cargo heater and booster pump are provided to allow the flling of the pressurised tanks. Expansion of
the cargo through heating causes product fow.
Multiple berths are capable of being linked to all pipeline systems. Connections typically consist of four
main manifolds, two liquid and two vapour manifolds for each system. Inert Gas supply to the vessel is
provided via an additional manifold. Connections are also provided to allow the supply of Nitrogen into
the hardarms for purging.
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Fig. 6 - Typical Gas berth
Monitoring of all hardarms is provided to indicate their state of operation, whether connected to the
vessel, in an inert state or empty etc.
Berth Monitoring
All berths are provided with full monitoring capabilities enabling the operator to have complete
knowledge of all processes including vessel movement and up-to-date weather and tidal information.
Hardarms operate within a critical envelope, and should they exceed their parameters appropriate
alarms and shutdown procedures will be initiated.
3.5 Ship Types
There are three codes which lay down the requirements for the design, construction and equipping of
gas carriers:
The Gas Code for existing ships (pre-1976).
The Gas Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying liquefed gases in bulk
(the gas carrier code, ships between 1976 and 1986).
The International Gas Code for the construction and equipment of ships carrying
liquefed gases in bulk (the IGC code ships constructed after 1986).
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Fig. 7 - LPG Carrier
The Codes designate gas carriers into 4 types:
a. 1G For transportation of products that pose the greatest threat to the environment and are
capable of surving the greatest extent of hull damage, with cargo tanks located at the farthest
distance from the shell plating.
b. 2G Vessels that carry liquefed cargoes requiring signifcant preventative measures for the
prevention of loss into the environment.
c. 2PG Gas carriers that are ftted with type C cargo containment, i.e. tanks ftted with Maximum
Allowable Relief Valve Setting (MARVS) of at least seven bar gauge and having a length of
150 metres or less, carrying cargoes requiring signifcant preventative measures to prevent
escape into the environment. These vessels are not permitted to carry cargo with a
temperature below -55C.
d. 3G Gas carriers that require moderate preventative measures to prevent escape of the cargo
into the environment.
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3.6 Operational Conditions
Restrictions of Loading Flammable Cargoes
1. When cargo tanks contain products for which the IGC Code requires a type 1G ship, neither
fammable liquids having a fashpoint of 60C (closed cup test) or less, or fammable products
listed in Chapter 19, are to be carried in tanks located within the protective zones described in
2.6.1 of the IGC.
2. Similarly, when cargo tanks contain products for which the IGC Code requires a type 2G or 2PG
ship, the above-mentioned fammable liquids are not to be carried in tanks located within the
protective zones described in 2.6.1 of the IGC.
3. In each case the restriction applies to the protective zones within the longitudinal extent of the
hold spaces for the cargo tanks loaded with products for which the IGC Code requires a type
1G or 2G or 2PG ship.
4. The above-mentioned fammable liquids and products may be carried within these protective
zones when the quantity of products for which the IGC Code requires a type 1G or 2G or PG
ship is solely used for cooling, circulation or fuelling purposes.
3.7 Ship Survival Capability and Location of Cargo Tanks
Ships are required to survive the normal effects of fooding following assumed hull damage caused by
some external force. In addition, to safeguard the ship and the environment, the cargo tanks are to be
protected from penetration in the case of minor damage to the ship resulting, for example, from contact
with a jetty or tug, and given a measure of protection from damage in the case of collision or stranding,
by locating them at specifed minimum distances inboard from the ships shell plating. Both the damage
to be assumed and the proximity of the tanks to the ships shell are to be dependent upon the degree of
hazard presented by the product to be carried.
3.8 Ship Types for Individual Products
The ship type required for individual products is indicated in column c in Table N19.1 (IGC)
If a ship is intended to carry more than one product listed in Table N19.1, the standard of damage
protection is to correspond to that product having the most stringent ship type requirement.
However, the requirements for the location of individual cargo tanks are those for ship types related to
the respective products intended to be carried.
3.9 Gas Carrier Categorization
From the above, gas carriers can be broadly categorised as follows:
1. Fully-refrigerated at approximately atmospheric pressure and designed for 50C at 0.28 Kp/
with capacities in the 100,000m3 region. LNGs and ethylenes have such low atmospheric
boiling points (-161.6C LNG and -103.9C for ethylene) that they must be refrigerated below
that to remain in a liquid state.
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2. Semi-refrigerated at between 0C and 10C and medium pressure - normally designed to
carry a full range of LPGs in tanks designed for a minimum service temperature of 4.8C and a
working pressure of between 5 and 8 kp/cm
3. Fully-pressurised at ambient temperature and high pressure and normally designed for a
pressure of 17.5 kp/cm
. Relief valves will lift and vent vapours above this pressure. Cargo
tanks are usually cylindrical in shape and protrude through the deck. No reliquefaction plant is
incorporated into the design as there is a measured / accepted loss of cargo from loading port
to discharge port consistent with expected temperature rises during the transit.
The above ship types will be issued with a certifcate of ftness as appropriate to the cargo carried.
3.10 Tank Types
Fig. 8 - Insulation Cladding for Spherical LNG tanks
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A tank type is allied closely to a ship type which, in turn, is related to the survivability of the
containment in the event of calculated damage risks. An assumed damage will dictate the location of a
tank within the hull structure. The greatest protection is provided to a type 1G vessel. The tank types
in gas carriers are:
1. Integral - This type of tank forms part of the hull structure and is not normally allowed for
cargoes below 10C without internal insulation.
2. Independent - These tanks are self-supporting (free-standing), not forming part of the ships
structure, and are divided into three types:
a. Type A - Strength and stress of materials used in construction are determined using classical
analysis procedures and, if constructed of plane surfaces, a vapour pressure of less than 0.7
bar gauge must not be exceeded. These are fully-refrigerated vessels.
b. Type B - Analysis procedures of design characteristics are refned, including model testing
fatigue verifcation and crack propagation. Plane surface construction techniques limit the
pressure to 0.7 bar gauge. This is the most common type of construction in the trade.
c. Type C - Normally referred to as pressure vessels, these tanks meet all the requirements
for pressure containment.
Fig. 9 - Spherical tank layout
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3. Membrane - These tanks are constructed of a thin membrane (1mm thick) for cargo
containment. The cargo within the membrane is supported by load-bearing insulation between
the outer membrane and the ships side. The design pressure does not normally exceed 0.25 bar.
These are very common in the LNG trade.
Fig. 10 TDZ Mark III Membrane Tank
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4. Semi-membrane - Again, the vapour pressure does not normally exceed 0.25 bar gauge.
When loaded these tanks are not self-supporting, with the tanks corners being rounded and
able to expand or contract to compensate for thermal stresses. Loadings are transmitted to the
ships structure through insulation placed between all parts of the tank (except the corners) and
the ships hull structure.
Fig. 11 - Tank Types
Internal Insulation
The main purpose of the insulation is to form a secondary barrier in the event of a fracture or leakage
of the cargo through the primary barrier. In the case of a cargo that is transported at below 10C at
atmospheric pressure, the secondary barrier should be able to contain it for a period of 15 days with an
allowance made for a static angle of heel of 30C.
The vessels hull structure temperature should not be lowered to an unsafe level in the event of primary
barrier failure.
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Independent A and type 1 internally insulated tanks must be ftted with a secondary barrier. Semi-
membrane tanks must also be ftted with a secondary barrier unless the administration is satisfed that
the design meets the requirements for an Independent B tank, and only then will a partial secondary
barrier be allowed. Independent B tanks must have a partial secondary barrier but Independent C
tanks are not required to be ftted with a secondary barrier.
The gas codes permit the outer hull to be classifed as the secondary barrier provided carbon-
magnesium steels are used in its construction and the cargo temperature is not below -55C.
3.11 Methods Of Transfer
Cargo transfer methods are different depending on the type of gas carrier, i.e. refrigerated, semi-
pressurised to fully-pressurised. We will cover the operation of loading an LPG / LNG carrier under
ambient temperature, but frst let us address the area of awareness and competence of the ships
personnel. What is it that should be happening onboard during cargo transfer operations? The following
is a list of items ships personnel should be addressing during a cargo transfer operation:
1. A written cargo plan should be available for the current cargo operation, and the duty offcer
should sign the plan to confrm that he/she has read and understood it.
2. A port record of activities log should be maintained, detailing all cargo operations in
chronological order. The details recorded may include, but not be limited to the following:
a. starting/stopping cargo or grades;
b. starting/stopping tanks;
c. pressure and temperatures;
d. loading/discharge rates;
e. delays due to ship or shore;
f. sampling, etc.
3. Environmental control procedures should be available and understood, including the use of inert gas
for gas-freeing and gassing-up procedures from a gas-free state and procedures for monitoring the
gaseous state of all tanks.
4. Reactive cargo documentation and liquefed gas compatibility information should be available and
understood. In cases where a reaction will occur between two liquefed gases, double separation
in all aspects of the transfer and stowage of the cargo, segregation of the venting system and, if
applicable, isolation from air needs to be provided. It is the ships responsibility to refuse to load
any cargo for which insuffcient information is available to establish the possibilities of reaction,
and, as the attending cargo Surveyor, it is incumbent on you to be fully knowledgeable about the
cargo and, if needed, provide such information. Inhibitor certifcates, when required, need to be
produced prior to the commencement of loading any self-reactive cargo.
Pipelines or tanks should not contain any materials which are identifed as unsuitable on the data
sheets; watch for effects of heat on a self-reactive cargo; closely monitor the temperature of self-
reactive cargoes during the voyage and know the relevant emergency procedure should a cargo
begin to self-react.
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5. Assess any limitations on partial loading of tanks due to the possibility of damage caused by
signifcant acceleration loads.
6. Assess thermal loads present during the period of cool down, particularly for cargoes with a
carriage temperature lower than -55C. Written procedures covering the operation, and the
possibility of inducing thermal stresses in the tank structure if the procedures are not followed,
need to be fully understood.
7. Environmental concerns regarding discharging tank washings, and pollution control for category X,Y,
Z and OS substances (no carriage requirements) into the sea, need to be applied in accordance with
the International Pollution Prevention Noxious Liquid Substance (IPP NLS) certifcate.
8. Information about the toxicity of the various products through skin contact or absorption,
inhalation and ingestion, needs to be posted and understood.
9. Cargo spill procedures, i.e. raising the alarm, stopping cargo transfer, vapour control, protective
equipment, brittle fracture of steelwork and the use of water sprays to defect gas clouds, should
be understood.
10. Pump performance and tank level records should be maintained.
11. Fire control procedures, including the use of fame screens for certain cargoes, should be
12. Pressure relief valve operation and testing should be recorded.
13. Emergency Shut Down (EDS) mechanisms should be tested and operational procedures understood.
14. Various tank level alarms, gauges, interlocks and overrides should be tested, and records
indicating test dates and procedures noted.
15. Sampling procedures should be laid down and adhered to.
16. Inert gas system separation from the cargo system should be evident, with inspection records of
the various systems noted.
17. Compressor room fre control and segregation measures (seals) should be tested and recorded.
18. Hydrate control (methanol or ethanol) should be provided with clear guidelines on restrictions
of use with cargo such as ethylene or inhibited cargoes.
19. All check lists should be completed to the satisfaction of the ship and shore.
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Fig 12 Hardarms for cargo transfer
3.12 Loading an LPG / LNG Carrier at Ambient Temperature
Principles Of Stowage
In comparison to chemical tankers, gas carriers are limited in the type of products to be carried, due to
the particular properties of the cargoes. Nevertheless, chemical carriers are capable of carrying some
liquefed gas cargoes, such as Propylene Oxide (density 0.830g/cm - melting point -112C boiling
Point 34C), but require specialized cooling systems.

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Figure 13 LPG Carrier
Gas carriers require a Certifcate of Fitness indicating those specifc cargoes that are acceptable for
carriage in any particular vessel/tank. Once the vessel receives the cargo information, the master should
verify that the ship can carry the products by referring to the certifcate of ftness. Due to the limited
number of liquefed gas cargoes, and because many gas carriers are on long-term charters on set runs,
this job is relatively easy to accomplish. The cargoes tend to be homogenous, but there are possibilities
of carrying individual parcels that require special attention to avoid contamination which could result in
a violent reaction. Separate piping systems are required to avoid this.
Stowage criteria must be rigidly controlled. Procedures for loading, carriage and discharge of
the various commodities are laid down and must be strictly adhered to. To venture outside the
requirements is firting with danger and frankly not an option. These vessels have an enviable safety
record for the very reason that procedures are strictly controlled and it is quite unlikely that a cargo
Surveyor would be employed without the prerequisite knowledge.
Tank Inspections
Tank inspections are only carried out when the vessel arrives under air, that is, the tanks are gas-free
and ready to be opened up to allow a visual inspection of the tanks interior. The tanks should be free
from sediments and oil (oil sealed compressors) and water.
1. The tank integrity is checked by:
a. ensuring safety valves protecting the void spaces surrounding tanks are set within prescribed limits;
b. ensuring that void spaces (gas-free) are checked for structural integrity of cargo tank;
c. ensuring that the level of insulation material surrounding cargo tanks is checked, as it tends to settle
or pack down over time and must be topped up to ensure normal cargo cooling effectiveness;
d. checking for ballast leaks into outer cargo tank space (voids). May cause cargo tank
foating, resulting in major structural problems;
e. checking visually for brittle stress fractures in the cargo tank structure.
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2. Compressors change compressor oil after an ammonia load and prior to a LPG load and
inspect all records/logs for indication of maintenance.
3. Condensers chemically check cooling water for cargo contamination.
4. Pumps generally of deepwell confguration or combination deepwell/Carter pumps. Carter
pumps are not recommended for ammonia due to corrosion of copper components.
5. Temperature probes and pressure transducers will require calibration certifcation. A surveying
company with the appropriate expertise will need to be contracted to undertake this work.
The vessel calibration records should be inspected to ensure all instrumentation is properly
Inert Gas / Nitrogen
As with other commodities transported in tankers, inert gas of some form or another plays a very
important role in the various operations. Gas carriers are at the top of the list in relation to a
combination of volume, quality and use of inert gas. It has critical importance during the loading,
carriage and warm-up cycles which, if not carefully controlled, can cause as much concern as the cargo
itself. We must be aware of the problems with certain cargoes such as anhydrous ammonia which, when
made to come in contact with the CO
in the inert gas form, solids of ammonium carbonate will be
formed. LNG ships will use pure nitrogen stored in insulated storage tanks to keep the inter-barrier
spaces inert, while LPG carriers have an IG generator and a drying plant to produce quality IG. The
quality of the IG is dependent on the quality of the fuel burnt in the generator. The objective is to
produce inert gas with a very low oxygen content without forming soot.
The initial concern is fre/explosion control. An inert state must be achieved before any LPG/LNG
operations can begin. Initially, any free water or vapour within the tanks must be removed by purging
with dry air.
The importance of dry inert gas is essential to eliminate the formation of ice within the cargo system,
rendering pumps, valves etc frozen and, therefore, inoperable. Any water vapour in the inert gas can
be removed by a number of processes including cooling, freezing, compressing, absorption drying or
a combination of these. Many of the problems associated with drying systems of these ship can be
attributed to poor maintenance of the scrubber the system used to clean the gas.
Inerting will usually take about 18 to 24 hours and the gas may be supplied by the shore or from the
ships inert gas generators. The inert gas supplied to the tanks needs to be dry and at a dewpoint below
that of the cargo to be loaded. Inert gas is heavier than air and, therefore, will sink to the bottom of
the tank. Delivering the gas through the bottom spray rails uses a displacement method of removing
all air from the tank. The spray rails in the top and bottom are used to cool the tank when the inerting
process is completed. As the inert gas flls the tank the air/IG is expelled from the top through the top
purge rail or vapour line and directed through the pipeline system, then fnally out of the vent risers.
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When the O
content is lowered to around 5%, or lower as required by the terminal (in the case of
Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) and Butadiene the O
content needs to be less than 0.1% requiring the
use of pure nitrogen), only then is the cargo introduced into the tanks.
Purging or Gassing Up
The next phase of the operation is purging or gassing up which is similar to that of inerting. LPG/LNG
is used as the reliquefaction plants on-board are incapable of condensing IG, and solids within the IG
may damage the compressors.
Product from the shore tanks or on-board deck storage is introduced into the tank through the bottom
rails and the process of displacing the IG continues in the same way as the inerting procedure. On
leaving the storage tank the LNG/LPG is passed through a vaporiser before entering the tank. As
the tanks are purged with LNG/LPG the expelled gases are again directed through the cargo transfer
pipeline system ensuring all equipment is brought to operational readiness concurrently. For LNG the
lines are purged with nitrogen to prevent any solids forming.
When readings at the top of the tanks are at 90% to 95% gas content the ships reliquefaction plant is
started and the purging stopped. In the initial stages of plant operation some incondensables remain
within the tank atmosphere; these are vented via the purge condensers.
Cooling Down
The next phase of the operation is cooling down. Due to the very nature of the cargo, LNG -162C, it
is obvious that thermal stress can be easily introduced into the tank structures should cooling be too
rapid. This also applies to warming up to conduct tank inspections etc. Some construction designs for
LPG carriage allow liquid to be pooled in the tank suffcient to cover the bottom. Boil-off is minimised
and pressures maintained using the ship reliquefaction plant. When pressures have stabilised loading can
begin where, at this point, temperatures in the tank top area are ambient while at the bottom they will
be around -42C (propane).
Cooling is achieved by supplying cargo liquid to the loading lines and/or spray rails. As the liquid leaves
the spray rails or loading line it vaporises and extracts heat from the surrounding tank atmosphere
thereby cooling it. Due to the expansion of the gas, pressure is controlled by reliquefaction in the ship
plants or returning the gas to the shore for processing. The process continues until liquid cargo forms
in the bottom of the tank and the required temperature gradient has been reached.
When the cooling down procedure has been completed, the tanks and lines are ready to accept the
cargo. Pressures should be reduced to a minimum with at least one reliquefaction plant running with
others on standby at short notice.
An initial slow loading rate allows cooling of the lines and at this stage all systems are checked for leakage.
The rate is then increased gradually and tank pressures can be maintained below the relief valve pressure.
Loading rates can be hastened using a combination of the ships reliquefaction plant and a vapour return
line to the shore; excess pressures are more rapidly controlled using this confguration. As the tank flls
and the vapour space above the cargo is reduced the loading rate may have to be slowed considerably.
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There are procedural differences for loading other cargoes such as ammonia. The gas is introduced
at the top of the tank instead of the bottom, as ammonia is the lightest of all gases carried. It will also
react with carbon dioxide to form solid carbonates that can be a problem with the ships IG combustion
generator as the gas will react with the carbon dioxide in the IG. Also, ammonia is diffcult to ignite and
it can be introduced directly into the tank air atmosphere, although some terminals require nitrogen
to be used in the purging sequence. Static formed at the spray rail nozzles is a concern, therefore it is
never introduced by this method in an air flled tank atmosphere.
The procedures for loading pressurised or semi-pressurised gas carriers are similar to those for
refrigerated vessels. However, there are procedural differences in the phases due to equipment and
construction variations.
As these vessels are not normally equipped with IG plants, inert gas must be supplied by the shore
before gassing up. The construction of the tank allows a large vacuum to be drawn that could be as
high as 80%. Drawing a vacuum ensures that atmospheric changes are effciently controlled and may be
broken with air, inert gas or vapour depending on the operation.
Cargo compressors are used to prepare the tanks for the cargo, or when going to a liquid free state, to
reduce the tank atmosphere below the fammable limits.
On a ship arriving with heels from previous cargo, the heel is to be measured for quantity and an
analysis conducted for cargo compatibility. This will involve sampling the heel. Check for incompressible
gases, which should normally be at 1.5% to 5% by volume.
Vessels changing grades, having to purge and cool, should ensure phase separation is maintained and
incompressibles are minimised.
As you might now assume, this is a highly specialised job requiring considerable knowledge of gases and
their properties. In order to fully appreciate stowage principles in this area of tanker operations, you
would be well advised to complete a gas course.
An aspect of gas carrier operation that ensures safe carriage of the products is reliquefaction. This
requires a fundamental understanding of the gas laws. The reasons for a change of state of a substance
from a gas to a liquid, and vice versa, are germane to the processes and daily operation of a gas carrier.
Terms such as enthalpy (meaning a measure of heat within a substance) and critical point (meaning, in
water, the temperature/pressure relationship where water vapour density equals density of water - that
is there is no interface - and occurs at 374C at 222 bar) are the language of gas carriers.
Reliquefaction in laymans terms is reliquefying the boil-off gases and returning them to the cargo tank,
thereby minimising cargo loss. Cargo boil-off occurs in the ullage space above the liquid in the tank.
The vapour is drawn off and compressed, which causes it to heat up, then condensed, where the cargo
is cooled by evaporation of a refrigerant and returned to the tank. The vaporised refrigerant, which
contains the extracted heat from the cargo, is compressed, whereupon its temperature rises.
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It is then cooled using sea water and returned to the condenser to extract the heat from the
compressed reliquefed cargo vapours.
Solid Ballast and Stability Information
Solid ballast is not normally to be used in double bottom spaces in the cargo area. Where, however,
because of stability considerations, the ftting of solid ballast in such spaces becomes unavoidable, then
its disposition is to be governed by the need to ensure that the impact loads resulting from bottom
damage are not directly transmitted to the cargo tank structure.
Stability Information
The information booklet is to contain a summary of the ships survival capabilities.
Shipside Discharges below the Freeboard Deck
Shipside Discharges
The provision and control of valves ftted to discharges led through the shell from spaces below the
freeboard deck, or from within the superstructures and deckhouses on the freeboard deck ftted with
weathertight doors, are to comply with the requirements of 13.4, Part D, except that the choice of
valves is to be limited to :
One automatic non-return valve with a positive means of closing from above the freeboard
deck; or,
Where the vertical distance from the summer load waterline to the inboard end of the
discharge pipe exceeds 0.01L, two automatic non-return valves without positive means of
closing, provided that the inboard valve is always accessible for examination under service
Non-return Valves
The automatic non-return valves referred to in IGC 2.3.1 are to be of a type acceptable to the Society
and to be fully effective in preventing admission of water into the ship, taking into account the sinkage,
trim and heel in Survival requirements in IGC 2.9.
3.13 Conditions of Loading (IGC 2.4)
Damage survival capability is to be investigated for all anticipated conditions of loading and variations
in draught and trim. The survival requirements need not be applied to the ship when in the ballast
condition (the cargo content of small independent purge tanks on deck need not be taken into account
when assessing the ballast condition), provided that any cargo retained on board is solely used for
cooling, circulation or fuelling purposes.
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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will be able to understand the basic gas calculation and cargo
discrepancy issues.

Fig. 14 - LPG Carrier
4.1 Introduction
Liquefed gas whether LNG or LPG has defned characteristics for safe carriage and therefore the
calculations required are relatively simple. In fact if you go to the web you can fnd an online LNG
calculator which will automatically provide all conversions based on an input of tonnes, cubic meter and
so on. Because, the limitations are well defned it is possible to put automatic systems onboard for the
cargo offcer to easily identify the amounts of cargo on board at any time.
Further on you will fnd a simple cargo calculation for an LNG cargo. The cargo offcer will be guided by
the practices required by a particular charter and the ship owner operator when calculating the amounts
of cargo onboard and the consumption rates during the voyage. Remember the charter party will lay
down the limitations on all amounts to be loaded and the acceptable burn-off or loss during the voyage.
The calibration tables in use should be certifed as correct by either:

1. National Measurement Authority
2. Classifcation Society
3. Recognized cargo surveying company

Both trim and list correction tables should be available. Where the ship is ftted with a computerised
cargo monitoring measurement system the incorporation of trim and list corrections within the
computer programme is also acceptable. There should be evidence from past cargo calculation sheets,
either manual or computerised, which indicate that trim and list corrections are applied. On occasions
when the ship may be upright and on even keel this should be identifed as zero trim and zero list.
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This is applicable to ships which use foat gauges for fnal cargo measurement calculations. There
should be evidence from past calculation sheets that corrections are made to compensate for densities
which are different from that used when calibrating the foat gauge.

Where tank or tape expansion/contraction may be a factor in cargo calculations, there should be
evidence that corrections are known and applied.

Where foat type gauges are employed, both the stowed and bottom reading should be referenced. In the
case of other types of gauge, e.g. radar, then the correct bottom reading for each tank should be available.

Calibration should be against either manual measurements or, normally, a reference instrument.
Any instrument used for checking the calibration of the ships temperature measuring equipment must
have a certifcate of accuracy and should check carried out by a competent body ashore.
Any reference pressure gauge must be of a type which has a certifcate of accuracy which should also be
calibrated by a competent body ashore.
4.2 Cargo Measurement
We discussed this issue and covered a number of points relating to the measurement of gas cargoes to
which the ships equipment will be heavily relied upon. This area of the Surveyors work may be closely
controlled by the principal or frm the work is being undertaken for.
4.3 Tank Measurements
Manual gauging when the vessel is at rest is by far the most accurate method of determining quantities
on board and this may also be the case for chemical cargoes carried in gas carriers. Note: Terminal
constraints may require closed loading, sampling and ullaging at all times and therefore automatic sensing
equipment is essential if not mandatory. All gauging requires calibration and is open to electrical and
mechanical failure or discrepancy, giving less accurate performance.
There are many types of measuring devices available and the Surveyor should view all remote sensors
with suspicion. However, there are times when, due to port regulations or the nature of the cargo, (i.e.
highly toxic), remote/automatic readouts will be the preferred method. In this case the calibration of
the equipment should be scrutinised.
4.4 Automatic Gauging
Automatic tank gauging installed in ships tanks, with remote readouts located at the tank top or in the
cargo control room, provide a convenient method of checking loading rates and instantaneous quantity
readouts during the loading or discharging operation. Closed operational control is required. Trim and
list correction tables are usually prepared for use with automatic gauges and, in the case of heated cargo
expansion, tables may also be given for the tapes.
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Fig. 15 - Control room for all remote sensing equipment including oil discharge monitoring, pump controls and
reliquefaction plant control
Common types of automatic gauges in use are:
The metal foat secured to the end of a tensioned steel measuring tape which is housed above
the deck. This type may be affected by tank pressure in vessels ftted with inert gas systems.
A pressure sensor situated at a fxed point near the bottom of the ships tank. The pressure is
converted to a depth measurement that depends on the density of the liquid in the tank at the
time of measurement.
Ultrasonic systems, using the principle of measuring the time taken for a high frequency sound
signal to be transmitted and refected back to the transmitters from the surface of the liquid.
This time is then converted into a distance equal to the ullage.
Radar, where tank ullaging gauges detect the surface echo. Systems such as SAAB use fast high
accuracy signal technology where the signal is fltered in a digitally controlled analog flter. The
flter removes any echoes smaller than a threshold value, followed by a narrowing flter applied
to the frequency corresponding to the surface echo. The remaining frequency is compared
with the frequency calculated in the previous sweep, resulting in a very accurate signal with a
frequency of only a few hertz. This method allows high accuracy.
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4.5 Ballast
Tanker ballasting operations have become critical in many aspects including pollution control, and
increasingly critical in other areas such as structural concerns.
In the wake of environmentally imposed regulations, vessel operators have, on one hand, been dictated
to with respect to environmental controls but, on the other, have had cargo operations simplifed, as
ballast has become almost completely separated from the cargo. In gas carriers this has been and is very
necessary with cryogenic cargoes.
Ballasting operations involve many aspects, not least of which is stability. Ballast spaces need to be
examined for potential dangers, as they are near to, but not next to, the cargo tanks. As a result these
spaces may be neglected, but they can provide a good indication of any fatigue induced in the hull
structure and therefore they need to be periodically inspected. This is normally carried out by the
Classifcation Surveyor at periodical or docking surveys.
4.6 Cargo Discrepancy
In the event of a discrepancy between ship and shore fgures, there should be a specifc written
procedure available for your principal detailing the steps to be taken to resolve the difference prior to a
note of protest being issued. Examples of cargo non-conformance may include discrepancies in quantity,
quality and temperature etc.
4.7 Quantity
To fully understand how a gas reacts under pressure you need to know something about the Gas Laws.
It is not the purpose to teach the Gas Laws at this stage and a Surveyor is usually only interested in
ensuring that the quantity is on board that is expected to be on board or that the amount received by the
terminal is within acceptable limits, as indicated at the departure port, minus boil or burn off.
However, and there are always the howevers, you will need to know a little about them to feel
comfortable when involved in calculations.
So we will endeavour to describe the basic principles as follows:

4.8 The Gas Laws
To have full understanding more reading should be undertaken concerning Boyles Laws, G. Lussac and
Avogadro. We will address the calculation as if it were an ideal gas.
A law relating the pressure, temperature, and volume of an ideal gas
Many common gases exhibit behaviour very close to that of an ideal gas at ambient temperature and
pressure. The ideal gas law was originally derived from the experimentally confrmed Charles law and
Boyles law. Let P be the pressure of a gas, V the volume it occupies, and T its temperature (which must
be in absolute temperature units, i.e., in Kelvin).
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Then the ideal gas law is stated as:
pV = nRT where R = 8.314 J mol
then the following holds true.
For example:
A tank contains 3000M
of gas at 1 atmosphere and at a temperature of -120C.
How much gas is in the tank? If the gas is Methane, what is its mass?
We assume an ideal gas behavioural characteristics then
n = pV / RT
Where p = 1 atmosphere = 1.013 bar = 1.013 x 10
And V = 3000m
And T = 153 K
Where K = Kelvin, which is when all molecular motion stops = to -273C by conversion from C to K
273 - 120 = 153.
Therefore, n = 1.013 x 10
x 3000
8.314 x 153
= 238.91 x 10
1 mole of Methane has a mass of 16 g
Therefore the mass in the tank = 238.91 x 103 x 16
= 3822.5 kg
AND - Calculating the Vapour Density
What is the vapour density of methane gas at a pressure of 4 bar and at a temperature of -100C?
The Relative Molecular Mass (RMM) of Methane is 16.
To fnd how many molecules are present in 1 m
Apply n = pV
Then 4 bar = 4 x 10

And V = 1 M
And R = 8.314 J mol
And T = -100C ( 273 -100) = +173K
Therefore n = 4 x 10
x 1 = 278 mole
8.314 x 173
And as each mole has a a mass of 16 g then the mass of 1M
of methane = 278 x 16 = 4440 g which
equals 4.44 kg.
Therefore the Vapour Density of Methane, at 4 bar and at -100C is 4.44 kg m
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There are also calculations for Vapour Pressure and graphs containing Enthalpy Diagrams. Enthalpy is
a measure of heat within a substance and can be used to represent the thermodynamic characteristics
of refrigerants and other substances which are commonly subjected to change of phase in the
liquid-vapour and gas ranges. As a surveyor you should not be involved in this, but it is still worth
at least knowing that these graphs exist and are consulted by gas engineers when understanding the
reliquefaction processes such as the equilibrium conditions for carriage of Ammonia.
Fig. 16 - The Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for a refrigeration plant
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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will have a basic understanding of the problems associated with
the carriage of liquefed gasses.
5.1 Introduction
Records show that gas carriers are probably the safest ships afoat. This reputation has only been tainted
by a few notable incidents since their inception before the 60s. The newest generation of carriers are
very sophisticated. Due to the upsurge in building programmes as a result of global reliance on alternative
sources of energy, not least driven by environmental concerns, the technology now fnding its way into
these ships is state-of-the-art and very reliable having been proven over many years of operation.
Lets look at the obvious issues with gas cargoes.
Gas is very fammable. This is the single factor that most scares the public and causes operational
diffculties when ignorance prevails. As a Cargo Surveyor wishing to participate in this sector of
the industry you should make yourself aware and attend the many gas carrier courses available to
fully understand the operations on board. The ships crews operating these ships are required to be
certifcated by endorsement to sign on and therefore are well appraised of any problem that might
affect their safety. The golden rule is: dont operate any equipment, open any door, enter any space, or
touch any button without prior confrmation and attendance of the responsible offcer.
The fash point of LNG is 175C (Methane being the major constituent).
There are two categories of liquefed gas transported in the marine mode:
1. Those that when mixed with air become fammable; and
2. Those which are both fammable and toxic.
The frst is the most common and includes hydrocarbon in general such as LNG, Butane Butadiene,
Ethylene, Propane and Propylene. The second category has the toxicity issue - e.g. Propylene Oxide,
VCM, Methylene Chloride and Ammonia - all chemical gases conjuring an immediate warning. It takes
little understanding to realise that these types of cargoes are capable of doing damage to your health
if no attention is paid to safety of all operations when handling these commodities. Having said that
unlike chemical tankers, gas carriers are very much hands off when dealing with the cargo. The pipeline
is connected and tanks are loaded under totally closed conditions. Why? Because the cargo is either
under pressure or very, very cold (cryogenic) and possibly toxic!
So - the same rules apply with respect to other liquid cargo tankers no naked lights, no non-
intrinsically safe equipment and so on.
In all methods of containment, the commodities are carried under pressure, that is above atmospheric
pressure, and all ullage spaces above the bulk of the cargo in the tanks contains only cargo vapour.
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During any stage of the cargo operations the existence of a fammability mixture within the system
is not possible as along as air is not allowed to enter. Any ingress of air, which because the system is
under pressure would need to be as a result of malfunction or injected under pressure, may cause a
fammable situation to develop. Remember, the system includes the space surrounding the primary
containment, so, if there is cargo leakage into this, or if it is not properly inerted to maintain a non-
fammable monitored atmosphere, a dangerous situation could develop. The possibility of an explosion
is therefore very remote but nevertheless the single most important factor of safety which is attended
to throughout the voyage.
Toxicity is secondary to fammability but, as discussed, is as important with particular cargoes. As
all cargoes are loaded under totally closed conditions the danger of toxicity usually presents itself in
conjunction with a fre safety issue. If there is a leak into the void or surrounding area of the primary
containment, careful consideration will be necessary to determine the toxicity characteristics of the
particular cargo.
Because the cargo is under pressure and possibly cryogenic, the primary containment structure is
susceptible to operational mishaps. These can be catastrophic but, because of the critical nature of the
cargo handling and transfer procedures, routines are built in to afford a degree of safety to mitigate any
risk. It can be no other way there is only one way and the right way in accordance with regulation and
structural integrity. Ship personnel who decide to move out of the safe operating envelope risk damage
to the ship and/or risk of life or limb. You, as the attending cargo surveyor, should feel comfortable with
all the risks or you should not be involved in the operation. Ignorance can be just as dangerous as over
The following list of commodities will highlight some of the more notable characteristics relating to
inherent dangers.
Commodity BOILING
(Rel. to Air)
% Volume
Methane -162 0.55 -175 595 5.3 14.0
Ethylene -104 0.975 -150 453 3.0 34.0
Propane -42 1.55 -105 468 2.1 9.5
N butane -0.5 2.09 -60 365 1.5 9.0
I butane -12 2.07 -76 500 1.5 9.0
Vinyl chloride -14 2.15 -78 472 4.0 33.0
Ammonia -33 0.59 -57 615 14.0 28.0
Ethylene Oxide 10.7 1.52 -18 429 3.0 100.0
Propylene -48 1.48 -108 453 2.0 11.1
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Outwardly, over the spectrum of cargoes, there is little correlation between their volatility and
fashpoint. The fammable ranges vary dramatically and are relatively broad. A mistake most make
with respect to LNG and LPG is whether it will sink or rise to dissipate into the atmosphere. This is
a frefghting parameter which should be well understood in the event of an incident involving pooling
liquefed gas and the application of water. Also, many explosions have occurred in smaller vessels with
leaking propane installations due to the fact that propane is heavier than air and sinks into the bilges.
One turn of the key to start the engine and boom! Look at the table above in the vapour density
column those lighter than air, i.e. less than 1, rise and those greater than 1 sink.
Contamination is not normally a problem tank to tank. The containment systems are such that
common bulkheads are not an issue. Each tank is independent and therefore a minor problem, such
as small leakage on one tank, should not affect the other. Any leakage should be contained in the
secondary barrier or void surrounding the problem tank. Contamination can occur due to oversight in
piping or valve positioning/isolation control.
5.2 Overfll Protection for Cargo Tanks
Although it is not directly related to cargo characteristics it can be linked with an associate
operational problem.
As we have learned, a cargo can enter the cargo tanks through a number of conduits such as load/
discharging piping, reliquefaction return lines and spray lines. These are regarded as primary sources
and can result in overfll if not operated or monitored properly. Cargo may also enter the tanks via a
secondary means from the vent or vapour lines as a result of the frst event of overfll along the primary
route. Therefore it is essential that, to mitigate the risk from the secondary, the primary overfll must
not be allowed to occur.
How can overfll occur?
1. Incorrect positioning of isolation valves in the discharge sequence. Full tanks are not isolated.
Discharging product enters the other tanks loading, spray or reliquefaction lines.
2. More than one tank is being discharged simultaneously into a common manifold. One tanks pump
trips causing bypasses of the non-return to that tank, causing an increase in volume in that tank.
3. Incorrect operation/positioning of the loading valves and, in the case of LPG refrigerated vessels
without vapour returns, with fows from the reliquefaction plant being mis-directed into and full
tank this may also occur whilst on passage.
Overfll situations have been experienced more often during the discharge operation than at any other
time. This hazardous situation can be, and in most cases now is, eliminated by introducing trips to the
main cargo pumps activated from the overfll protection. This assumes that the vessels pumps are not
already protected by other level sensing equipment, such as independent level sensors (IMO limitations
varies - 98% is an industry standard but there are exceptions depending on type of containment which
can be flled to 99.5% or 98.5%), ESD system activation at high liquid levels, vessels post 1980 with IMO
ESD systems to trip cargo pumps and compressors and ships with pressure vessels of a capacity less
than 200M3 and where the MARVS can never be exceeded.
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In the event of an overfll shut down the sequence of restart is by necessity a risky situation. Careful
consideration should be paid to the reason for activation. All valves should be closed, and the start-up
sequence fully applied once the problem has been assessed and any failure in equipment or procedural
routine has been investigated and put right. This will constitute a non conformity with respect to the
safety management system initiating follow-up, to ensure the situation does not occur again.
5.3 Cargo Handling Equipment
a. ESD Extension Pendant
Any device that enables the activation of the ships ESD system from a shore position may be known
as a pendant. This may be an electronic device, a pneumatic device connected by means of air
hose to the ships ESD system or a mechanical device operated by means of a pull cable.
These should all be in good working order.
b. Cargo Monitoring Equipment & Systems
In your tour of the deck you should be making a mental, if not written, note of the physical condition
and maintenance of the deck equipment such as:

Pipelines showing signs of leakage or repair
Manifold pipelines not marked with tank or pump number
Valves seized, diffcult to operate or having wheels or indicators missing
Bonding straps broken or damaged
Stripping systems that have been modifed by ship staff to maintain operations
Cargo pump controls in poor condition
Vent system drain cocks seized or damaged
Electrical conduit or cable trays in poor condition
(hanging cables, exposed cables, missing clamps, gas tight fttings, etc)
Flame screens are damaged
Gas tight seals are damaged
Instrumentation damage or inaccuracy
Air lock alarm system faulty
Motor room ventilation faulty
Compressors not operational
Instrumentation not operational
Gas sample / alarms in detection area
Gas detection heads not operational
Booster pumps not operational

5.4 Ballast Tanks and Other Spaces
Normally you would not attend to this area but it may cause you grief if any part of the system is malfunc-
tioning. If you are required to enter a ballast tank or void space all the rules regarding tank entry apply.
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Fig. 17 Fully-Pressurized LPG Carrier
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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will be able to understand the basic sampling procedures and
safety features of sampling a liquefed gas carrier cargo.
6.1 Introduction
Both ship and shore independent internal sampling procedures carried out in the gas industry are as per
the ICS Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefed Gas) and follow the ISO International Standard 4257.
Sampling is carried out for two basic reasons:
1. Prior to cargo transfer are safe conditions present?
2. Does the cargo meet agreed specifcations during and within the custody transfer processes?
Lets look further at the principles of sampling, the required level and number of samples, and tank
conditions necessary for cargo transfer.
Another issue to ponder is the lack of information provided to the ship. Consignments of LPG
may be carried as fuel gas with a specifc calorifc value. Provided that this was maintained, there
is no specifc sensitivity information to many impurities. Other cargoes of LPG may be destined
for cavern storage and therefore have limitations on maximum methanol content in any effort to
protect underground permafrost or water table conditions. Interested parties, therefore, require all
the conditions of carriage including sensitivities and hazards of the cargo. A lack of such information
leads to each party requiring their own samples, increasing the potential for incident. Sampling of
gas cargoes should be minimized by cooperation of all the interested parties. Any analysis of the
cargo should be agreed from a representative sample. Automatic sampling devices further reduce the
requirements for manually drawn samples.
There is always an element of risk involved with sampling gas cargoes, whether it is related to pressure
or temperature. However, provided internal sampling procedures on both the ship and the shore
are carried out by trained personnel familiar with the operation and equipped with fully compatible
instruments, the risks can be mitigated. Having said that, the risk of an incident is much greater when
personnel are taking samples from areas unfamiliar to them, particularly if mis-matched connections
are utilised. Surveyors are required to take samples from the ships tanks and it is this process that can
be a cause for concern. To highlight this, an incident occurred in 1988 when a surveyor unscrewed a
ball valve from a pressurised tank of LPG. It was not the sampling point, fortunately the release of LPG
was quickly contained. Again, as the attending surveyor you should never touch any ships equipment
without acknowledgement of the responsible ships offcer.
To further this mishap, SIGTTO recommended that all connections are standardised, thereby minimising
the potential risks involved in the sampling of liquefed gas cargoes. Also, all gas sampling equipment
should be constructed with a corresponding male connector.
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6.2 Liquefed Gas Sampling Procedures
As the attending surveyor about to take samples in the presence of the responsible ships offcer, you
should be presented with a sampling connection which is isolated by two standard ball valves, ftted at least
one metre apart. The required separation is as a precaution against hydrate forming in the primary valve.
The sampling connection should be found in a locked position so as to prevent it being unscrewed by
the normal action of making/ breaking connections. You should also fnd an unobstructed space around
the sampling connection, allowing easy access for ftting the sample cylinder. When the connection is
not in use it should be screw plugged with a soft washer to protect the sealing face. A label should
clearly state which tank and which level (top, middle or bottom) is to be sampled for that point source.
Fully refrigerated ships require a sample to be obtained from the pump discharge and you should fnd a
standard connection point ftted on the pump discharge line.
You should be presented with closed loop sampling
facilities. That is one that does not allow the product
to come in contact with the outside atmosphere. In
most cases, unless this is your staple bread and butter,
you will not possess the necessary sampling equipment
but you may have the sampling equipment provided by
the terminal generally anything other than stainless
steel equipment should be view with suspicion.
So the procedures; all venting, purging or ullaging
of sample containers must be carried out in a safe
area having careful regard to wind and weather
conditions. When you are taking the samples you
should consider the health hazards of the product
as well as the fammable nature of the product.
There should also be absorbent or dispersant
material available, e.g. a hose could be used to
carry the vapour to a water surface or spray area
when dealing with Ammonia.
In consideration of toxic commodities such as VCM,
Butadiene, the release of the material to the
atmosphere should be prevented by using a closed
loop system, or obtained by connecting the valve of
the container outlet to a vapour sampling point or
venting system.
Some products require a nitrogen blanket or pad (Propylene/Ethylene Oxide). This would necessitate
the sample being drawn from the tank bottom or liquid bulk as the vapour space above the cargo should
contain adequate nitrogen pressure to maintain quality and/or fre control.
Fig. 18 - LPG Closed Loop Sampler
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As previously indicated, the standard/type sample containers should be constructed of recognised
material e.g. Stainless steel, and be ftted with inlet and outlet valves to allow through-fow purging
with suitable inert gas (Nitrogen) prior to use. Helium is also recognised as being suitable for use with
gas chromatography analysers but it is expensive, and therefore nitrogen is accepted in industry practice.
Containers are ftted with an internal ullage tube to ensure that a safe working ullage will always be
present for the particular liquefed gas being sampled.
A bursting disc is incorporated to provide protection of the sample cylinder; it is ftted at the ullage
tube end of the cylinder. Alternatively it may be incorporated into the valve assembly.
The connection T piece
incorporates a bleed valve
with swivel joint attached
to the sample cylinder inlet
valve which terminates at
a male connection. This is
the end you connect to the
ships female sampling point.
When connecting to the
ships sampling point a
pressure seal is made by
a metal or bonded washer
ftted to the male connection,
which seals against the
surface surrounding the
threads of the female end,
but not on the thread.
Fig. 19 - T Connector
Once connected the following procedure should be followed to take samples.
Consult the onboard information relating to the product and terminal procedures. Observe all safety
and health precautions - don protective clothing, i.e. gloves, goggles and breathing apparatus.
The responsible Ships Offcer (usually Chief Offcer) should be present when any samples are being
drawn. Follow his/her lead but be acutely aware that he/she should also be following all the required
safety precautions and fully understand the sampling procedure.
When drawing liquid samples, suffcient vapour space must be allowed for in the sample container.
This allows for liquid expansion due to the temperature increase. Once the product is removed from
the tank it will begin to heat up and therefore expand. You can confrm the adequacy of the vapour
space by holding the sampler upright after flling (i.e. ullage tube at the top) with top valve opened until
only vapour (rather than liquid) is expelled.
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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will have a basic knowledge of the operational documentation
required to operate a gas carrier and its cargo.
7.1 Introduction
Although much of what is in this chapter relates to the operational aspect of gas carriers,
documentation is a direct consequence of those operational procedures and as such we need to touch
on the various topics.

The Surveyor will invariably be contracted to do a specifc job. It may be that he/she has continuity
of employment with the contractor or principal. If this is the case there is usually an accepted level
of understanding between the Surveyor and the hiring party as to what is expected. This is often not
the case for many surveying jobs outside the aforementioned conditions and where a cargo survey is
requested, usual industry practices should be followed. This may include the use of OCIMF and or CDI
inspection/survey guidelines. We will cover these later.
There are a number of documents, which can be referenced in the Surveyors quest for information,
including MARPOL Annex II. Annex II relates to chemical tankers and, as we have seen, some gas carriers
cross the soft boundary between gas and chemical carrier for the cargoes they carry. It is important
to understand Annex II in relation to these types of ships. Many companies have produced their own
product information guides, which can assist in ensuring that all cargoes are correctly stowed, carried and
discharged, and the ships personnel will be very familiar with their own document control and application.
It is also a requirement under the so called International Safety Management (ISM) Code.
Fig. 20 - The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
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With respect to MARPOL, one may ask: Why should I be interested in pollution control, if Im only
here to ensure that the product is loaded or discharged correctly as per the Principals instructions?
Surely this is the responsibility of the ship? Half right! If you want to continue to act on behalf of the
shipper, charterer or receiver, you will be expected, if not required, to exercise responsibility in this area
even, though the responsibility does rest with the ship.
At the beginning of this module we talked a little about the gas carrier; gas carriers are not like other
ships and come in many different varieties, from LNG and LPG to combination chemical/gas carriers.
Since their inception many innovative designs have emerged to meet a need as countries have entered
into the gas arena. As a result, the ability to load, transport and deliver depends, in many cases, on an
assumption or acceptable level of risk. The vessels are sophisticated in order to meet the challenge,
pushing the frontiers of knowledge and development to their limits. The most obvious advancements
have been in the size of the vessels, demonstrating an ability to meet demand through technology and
shipbuilding skills, and to control the cargo from source to destination through new tank designs and/ or
improved reliquefaction methods.
Environmental concerns have overshadowed most of the tanker industry, and the gas carrier trade has
not been immune. On the one hand, gas is perceived as environmentally friendly as an energy source
but, on the other, most ports shudder at the idea of having a gas terminal within their jurisdictions. In
the wake of many notorious mishaps, regulations surrounding the trade restrict what is, and what is
not, acceptable practice. In defning operational practices it became apparent that gas carrier cargoes
and their shippers needed to demonstrate safety. As we have seen, SIGTTO and OCIMF provide that
common meeting place for those involved in the trade to show due diligence is being accounted for and
that the industry was, and is, accountable. To that end Documentation Control is necessary, as evidence
that responsible care is very much apart of the processes within all aspects of the industry. CDI
(SIGTTO) and OCIMF provide the necessary checks to the system through their inspections.
In an effort to highlight the amount of documentation and related procedures, the following is a
snapshot of the reference documentation and notes a ship Inspector would be making regarding the
inspection of a gas carrier.
7.2 Cargoes
Obviously this is an area of extreme importance as it is the cargo that defnes all the procedures and
processes undertaken ensuring the safe care, management and control of the cargo.
The generic names of cargo(es) handled by the ship at the terminal and on board should be indicated in
all cargo documentation. Individual grade names are not normally used by inspectors, as this information
may be commercially sensitive when lodged on international databases. Examples of names used in the
trade could be:
Liquefed gas
Chemical gases (Gases also listed in the IBC code)
Petroleum products (e.g. naphtha)

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Make yourself aware of any details of voyage repairs, crew change, change of ownership/management etc.
which may impact on the ships operation.
If you are surveying a gas carrier for any other reason than purely cargo on, cargo off - e.g. P&I work
you may be more extensively involved in ascertaining specifc documentation on board. From this
perspective you should determine the validity of all certifcates with respect to the expiry date and any
endorsements on the certifcates. Original certifcates should be sighted and any photocopies should
not be accepted, except in exceptional circumstances. You may accept a photocopy when there is clear
evidence that the original certifcate(s) has been removed from the ship by the agent (or other offcial)
for the purpose of port entry / clearance and there is no possibility of sighting the original certifcate
prior to completion of the inspection. When you make an assessment based on a photocopy of a
certifcate, a comment should be made in your report of that assessment.
It should be recognised that other documentation that is solely related to jurisdiction can only be
obtained after inspection by the relative authority - e.g. the US Letter of Compliance can only be
obtained after USCG inspection within the USA. If it, or any other certifcate appears to be suspicious
then this must be indicated in your report. It is not for you to challenge the authority of the certifcate,
but to make reference to your concern and leave it with your principal.
A word on the use of ships cranes and other cargo handling appliances.
You should fnd a registry of all the equipment on board with its appropriate testing requirements and
certifcation. If you are at all concerned about the state of the lifting appliances ask the ships personnel
to verify the testing certifcation. You may be on board as a port captain/superintendent, and this may
have consequences as to whether, or not, the ship is capable of working cargo. Many ports have union
directives by which, if the equipment is found defective and the proof of adequate documentation
covering testing cannot be provided, the union representatives will stop all cargo operations.

The following is a list of other manuals and documents relating to cargo operations which should be
available on board.
1) Safety Management System documentation (or equivalent).
2) Loading and stability data - must correctly refect the ships name and be endorsed with fag approval.
3) Damage / survival stability data guidelines.
4) Data on cargo loading limitations.
5) Procedures and Arrangements Manual (applicable if ship has IPP NLS Certifcate) .
6) ICS Tanker Safety Guide Liquefed Gas.
7) Liquefed Gas Handling Principles On Ships and In Terminals .
8) International Gas Carrier (IGC) / Gas Code (GC) / Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefed
Gases in Bulk (EGC) as appropriate for the age of the ship.
9) International Code for Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code) - applicable for
ships with NLS Certifcate only.
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10) Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk
(BCH Code) - applicable for ships with NLS Certifcate only.
11) Chemical Compatibility Chart or Guide.
12) International Safety Guide for Operation of Oil Tankers and Terminals.
13) Ship to Ship Transfer Guide (Liquefed Gases).
14) Effective Mooring/MEC3.
15) Mooring Equipment Guidelines.
16) Guide to Pressure Relief Valve Maintenance and Testing.
17) SOLAS Convention, with applicable amendments - should be the edition or editions applicable
to the ship, based on year of building.
18) International Safety Management Code.
19) Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution (MARPOL 73/78 Consolidated Edition) with
applicable amendments.
20) ICS Guide to Helicopter / Ship Operations.
21) Medical First Aid Guide for use in Accidents involving Dangerous Goods this guide may be as
contained in the IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) supplement or
as a separate book.
22) International Medical Guide for Ships (or equivalent).
The ship must have on board a chemical compatibility chart or some other guide to the chemical
properties and compatibilities of liquefed gases. A chart should provide as a minimum, showing details
of chemicals which, if mixed, will produce a reaction which may be unsafe. Examples of acceptable
charts are published by SIGTTO. Guides, which may be in hard copy or computer based, providing
details of reactivity between individual gases and or materials, are also acceptable, provided the level of
information given meets that given on SIGTTO Compatibility Charts.
7.3 Qualifcations of Ships Personnel
You should be aware that the Certifcation of the Master and offcers must be valid for the ship and Flag
State Endorsement. The Certifcate of Competency / License of the Master and deck offcers must be
valid for the size of ship and trading location. The Certifcate of Competency / License of engineering
offcers must be valid for the type and power of the ship.
Certifcates Held
If you are not familiar with certifcate of competency nomenclature which permits a person to sail
on ships, the following will assist. Note that different fags may have differing titles, nevertheless, they
should all follow the STCW terminology:
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Deck Department:
Class 1: Entitles the holder to act as Master on a ship of any size, with unlimited trading range.
Class 2: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Mate on a ship of any size with unlimited trading or may
entitle the holder to act as Master on a ship but with restrictions on size or trading area.
Class 3: Entitles the holder to act as offcer in charge of a navigational watch on a ship of any size with
unlimited trading but may also entitle the holder to act as Chief Mate, or possibly Master, on a
ship but with restrictions on size or trading area.
Class 4: Entitles the holder to act as offcer in charge of a navigational watch on any ship.
Engine Department:
Class 1: Entitles the holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship of any power.
Class 2: Entitles the holder to sail as Second Engineer on a ship of any power but may also entitle the
holder to act as Chief Engineer on a ship with a restriction on power.
Class 3: Entitles the holder to act as offcer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power
but may also entitle the holder to act as Second Engineer, or possibly Chief Engineer, on a ship
with a restriction on power.
Class 4: Entitles the holder to act as offcer in charge of an engineering watch on a ship of any power.
An Endorsement must be in the form of a stamp and note on a certifcate of competency / license OR a
reference of training and at least six months relevant experience can be accepted.
For the Master and Chief Mate, a course certifcate or a relevant stamp and notation in a seamans book
must be produced as evidence of attendance at a ship handling course. This is particularly relevant because
of the considerable risk involved in manoeuvring such ships in and around loading platforms and buoys.
English Profciency
This can be a much overlooked area of cargo operation but it is an extremely important concern when
undertaking cargo transfer where all instructions must not be confused. The Master, deck offcers and
engineer offcers (in particular the gas engineer) should be able to demonstrate a level of profciency in
English, both spoken and written, which will enable them to exchange communications relevant to the
safety of life at sea and ship / shore liaison.
Ratings who form part of the deck watch must have a certifcate to indicate that they meet the
minimum mandatory training requirements. If your attendance is probing the validity of such
certifcation, you should be able to fnd evidence from on board certifcation and records that persons
newly employed on board are made familiar with shipboard equipment, operating procedures and other
arrangements needed for the proper performance of their duties.
The vessel may be under an Enhanced Survey System and a Class Report will indicate any issues of
structural failure and/or damage.
Records of tank inspection/condition should also be available as part of the documentation. Other conditions
pertaining to statutory requirements may have been imposed by Flag State or Port State inspections.
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They will indicate the condition of the tank in general within the following parameters:
1. GOOD - Minor spot rusting
2. FAIR - Local breakdown and or light rusting over 20% of the area, but less than defned for Poor.
3. POOR - General breakdown of coating over 20% and areas of hard scale over 10%
4. Substantial Corrosion is defned as areas where 75-100% of acceptable corrosion margins are wasted.
5. Inspectors must be particularly aware of Class extensions to structural items, full details of
which must be recorded in the remarks.

Within the scope of the Safety Management System under the ISM Code, operating manuals should
be clearly related to type of ship and the company providing them. The information in the operations
manuals must also be in a language or languages understood by the responsible ships personnel.
Operating manual(s) should contain procedures for various shipboard operations. These may include,
but not be limited to, the following:
Navigation procedures
Engine Room operations
Cargo operations
Deck operations etc.

You may also fnd operating manuals which are computer maintained; they are acceptable. In addition,
you should also fnd all safety procedures for potentially hazardous shipboard operations, which may
Permit to work systems
Emergency procedures
Wearing of protective clothing and equipment
Working aloft
Helicopter operations
Hygiene etc.

Examples of such shipboard management procedures (which may be included in the operating manuals) are:

Ship reporting requirements
Compliance with fag and class requirements
Crew arrangements
Work schedules to prevent fatigue
Shipboard meetings
Crew appraisals
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7.4 Mooring
Procedures for safe mooring should be contained in a Company Manual. As a critical component of
cargo operations the mooring procedures should include:

Safety precautions during mooring operations
General mooring arrangements
The avoidance of mixed moorings in the same service
Same service lines of similar length
Use of tails
Correct layering on drums
Correct reeling on drums
Testing of brakes etc.
Care, maintenance and renewal of mooring lines

The actual mooring of the vessel is of prime importance and the system should address the following:
Moorings of differing materials or lengths are not to be used in the same service.
Self tensioning winches should not be used in automatic mode.
When synthetic tails are ftted to wires they should be at least 25% stronger than the wire and
not longer than 11m.
The angle of dip between ship and shore should not be excessive.
Mooring ropes turned up on bitts should have two round turns around both posts before the
rope is turned up in a fgure of eight.
Stoppers are of the correct type for the moorings in use.
A reduced manning situation is only acceptable in cases where the mooring equipment and
layout has been designed for the purpose. As a guide there should be at least:

o A competent person to supervise the operation at each mooring station.
o A person to tend each winch control which is in operation.
o A person to tend any rope being hove in on a drum end, with a second person available
to clear bights of rope away from the winch area and apply stoppers as required.
o Suffcient persons available to run out the moorings.

The mooring winches must be available for starting without the need for the engine room staff
to increase the power generation on board.
There must be evidence of a written programme for the regular maintenance and inspection of
the mooring equipment.
Within the mooring equipment maintenance programme there should be a section dedicated to
the systematic testing of the winch brake holding capacity. The test refers to the rendering point
of the winch.
All lines on drums must be reeled onto the winch drum in the correct direction, i.e. pulling
against the fxed point of the brake when under tension. This requirement may not apply to
drums ftted with disc brakes.
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In general moorings should NOT be considered satisfactory if:

o Synthetic ropes have multiple splices;
o Synthetic ropes have strands damaged or cut;
o Synthetic ropes have signs of abrasion burning;
o Synthetic ropes are tainted with oil, paint or detergents;
o Wire ropes show signs of poor maintenance;
o Wire rope shows dry or darkened areas or other signs of corrosion;
o Wire rope has more than two broken strands in a length equal to 8 diameters of the wire;
o Wire rope shows signs of wear around the eye;
o The securing arrangement (anchor point) to a winch is unsatisfactory;
o There is a tendency towards separation of the strands or wires.

7.5 Cargo Transfer Operations
Prior to any operation undertaken you should ensure that the IMO (or equivalent) Ship / Shore Safety
Checklist with gas supplement and if applicable, the chemical supplement, has been completed and that
all agreed parameters within the Ship / Shore Safety Checklist are being complied with.

You may fnd cargo transfer operation information in the form of a ships plan, a statement or a diagram.
Some ships, due to the materials of construction and products carried, may be exempt from this
requirement. The Administration or Class Society may have issued a statement to this effect.
Information on the operation of the cargo plant should give specifc guidance on the operation of all
components comprising the cargo handling system. Information may be contained in manufacturers
manuals. The areas covered should include:

Tank layout;
Pipeline diagrams;
Operation of pumps, tank and other valves, high level alarm and emergency shut down systems,
ballast system, relief valves and vent system, reliquefaction plant, tank cleaning system (if
applicable) and the cargo monitoring system.

Any computer system, or the programme used on a standard personal computer, must be approved by
a competent authority. Do not rely on non-approved stability programmes developed on board these
are not acceptable. The system should include damage stability assessment and any stability limitations
involved with the current operational instructions.

Within the cargo documentation for a particular voyage you should fnd a completed stress and stability
calculation for the current cargo operation. This may either be written form or may be stored on a
computer. Ask for a copy as soon as possible. You should also see that each duty offcer has signed the
cargo operation plan to confrm that they have read and understood it.
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A log or other records should be maintained, detailing all cargo operations in chronological order.
The details recorded may include, but not be limited to, the following:

Starting / stopping cargo or grades,
Starting / stopping tanks,
Pressure and temperatures,
Loading / discharge rates,
Delays due to ship or shore,
Sampling, etc.

The recorded fgure in the cargo log may be amperage, back pressure, discharge rate or hydraulic pressure.
Ensure that a full description of the physical and chemical properties necessary for the safe transfer and
containment of each product intended to be loaded / transferred is available to you.
Also confrm that the following additional information is on board:
Emergency procedures - action to be taken in the event of spills or leaks;
Counter measures against personal contact;
Firefghting procedures and frefghting media;
Procedures for cargo transfer, gas freeing, ballasting, tank cleaning and changing cargo grades are available;
Special equipment needed for the safe handling of the particular cargo;
Information on the minimum allowable inner hull steel temperatures - except for Type C tanks;
A written procedure for warming-up the cargo;
Operational information for the cargo plant;
Manufacturers / technical information for the cargo handling equipment;
Manufacturers / technical information for the cargo monitoring equipment;
Cargo system drawings, electrical drawings, pipeline diagrams, mimic diagrams are available,
updated and readable;
Test certifcates are available for the cargo tank pressure relief valves;
Information indicating the allowable loading limits for each product to be carried.
Make sure you see the cargo monitoring instrumentation or control safety devices which may
be overridden by a key, switch etc., and check that any fexible cargo hoses are fully certifed and
pressure tested.
Check you can fnd the following related to the control systems:
A cargo tank pressure relief valve test kit is on board;
Testing of relief valves is carried out at regular intervals and tests recorded;
There are records indicating:
o ESD systems, including manifold valves, are tested prior to commencement of cargo transfer;
o Regular testing of air lock alarms and interlocks;
o Regular testing of high level alarms;
o Testing/function of independent high level shutdown system;
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o Cargo tank flling valves are tested, at intervals not exceeding one week;
o Regular testing of high and low pressure alarms; and
o Inspection/checking of inert gas system non-return valves.
As the attending surveyor you should observe the following during the transfer operations:
Cargo flling limits are available and being followed;
A record of cargo activities is maintained in port;
Records of cargo tank levels are maintained;
Records of cargo pump performance are maintained;
A deck watch is maintained throughout the cargo transfer operation;
When applicable, fame screens for specifed cargoes are available;
Condensers or re-heaters have been pressure tested; and
Calibration checks have been carried out on cargo plant instrumentation.
In your tour of the main deck you should be able to note that the:
ESD fusible elements are in satisfactory condition;
All high and low pressure alarms appear to be in a good operational condition;
Tank dome fttings appear in good order;
Hold space seals, if ftted, appear in good order;
When not in use, sample points are closed and capped;
Means for the connection of sampling equipment appears to be satisfactory;
Sampling is achieved by a closed loop system or the length of sampling line is suitably short;
Local pump controls are accessible;
Local pump controls appear in good condition;
Electrical equipment, glands and seals appear well maintained;
Suitable weather protection is provided for electrical fttings on deck;
Cargo pipework is isolated from ordinary steel to prevent brittle fracture, where appropriate;
Cargo pipework insulation is intact;
Cargo and vapour pipelines are free to move inside supporting collars;
Expansion bellows are correctly supported and aligned with the pipes they are connected to; and
General condition of expansion devices appears satisfactory;
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Fig. 21 - The Tank Dome covered electrical motor to drive the submerged cargo pump
Type C Cargo tank and tank penetration are through the dome.
Fig. 22 - Sampling points on the tank dome.
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Fig. 23 - One of two Main pressure relief valves onto of the tank dome.
Fig. 24 - The Main Crossover located above the manifold. It is the distribution point for liquid / vapour.
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In particular the pipework condition should show that:
Pipework electrical bonding arrangements appear in good condition;
There are NO apparent leaks from cargo pipework;
Cargo pipework does not appear to be heavily corroded;
Cargo pipework does not have temporary repairs;
All other aspects of cargo pipework and supports appear in good condition;
Cargo piping system has NO screwed-in pipe connections of greater than 25mm;
Liquid and vapour systems are totally separate;
When applicable, segregation between grades is achievable without risk of liquid or
vapour contamination;
Manifold reducers are correctly rated for pressures achievable during loading and discharging;
Manifolds not in use have fully bolted blanks ftted;
A local pressure gauge is ftted outboard of manifold valves;
Manifold pressure gauge(s) appears to be in a good operating condition;
Liquid spill containment arrangements at the manifold are adequate and suitable for the
temperature of cargoes the ship may carry;
Safe access is provided for connecting and disconnecting arms / hoses;
The manifold area is clear of any obstructions which may interfere with the safe automatic
release of a hard arm;
A temperature sensor is ftted at or near the manifold;
The minimum permitted cargo temperature is marked;
The cargo compressor room is ftted, with all bulkhead seals in good apparent condition, all
required safety features appearing to be present and the ventilation system operating correctly;
Reliquefaction compressors and associated equipment appear fully operational and all protective
devices appear operational;
A means of hydrate control is provided (normally methanol or ethanol); and
Procedures are available detailing when freezing point depressants may be used and stocks of
freezing point depressants are provided.
In discussion with the on-duty offcers you can get a good sense of their knowledge and capabilities.
Talk to them; you may be educated. They should be able to tell you about all the shipboard operations
and cargo handling, tank environmental control procedures, precautions required for reactive cargoes,
the requirements of self-reactive cargoes (inhibitor with certifcate may be required), hazards associated
with sloshing loads; hazards associated with thermal loads, pollution categories related to MARPOL
Annex II, cargo reliquefaction procedures, hazards associated with toxic cargo, spillage disposal
procedures and ship to ship cargo transfer operations in line with SSTG (Liquefed Gases) requirements
to name a few.
With respect to calculating the amount of cargo on board, there are a number of instruments required
to protect personnel.
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All Calibration Tables utilized for quantity calculation must be calibrated. This calibration is usually
undertaken at the building stage and approved either by Class or by a 3rd party with specifc expertise
in this feld. These Tables should bear an approved stamp and indicate that they are calibrated in specifc
units (cubic metres every decimetre, etc.). Trim and list corrections must also be available if required
and applied. When Float corrections and expansion factors for tanks and tapes are available, they must
also be applied where appropriate.
Readable and up to date plans, showing accurately the location of cargo measurement instruments,
sensors, pressure gauges, thermometers etc., should also be available onboard.
All Gauging Systems should be fully operational, and calibration checks with stowage and grounding
reference heights available and marked at sampling points as applicable.
With pressure relief valves the pilot valve serial number corresponds to the safety valve serial number.
If pressure relief valves with variable settings are ftted to the cargo tanks, the high pressure alarm for
each cargo tank is correctly set for the safety valve setting in use, the correct setting is displayed at the
location of each pressure relief valve, and the correct setting is displayed in the cargo control station /
room (if provided).
The vapour space of each cargo tank is provided with a pressure gauge and there must be records
indicating that calibration checks are carried out between the ships vapour space pressure gauges and a
certifed reference instrument.
If pressure relief valves (the pilot valve serial number corresponds to the safety valve serial number) with
variable settings are ftted to the cargo tanks, the high pressure alarm for each cargo tank is correctly set
for the safety valve setting in use, the correct setting is displayed at the location of each pressure relief
valve, and the correct setting is displayed in the cargo control station / room (if provided). Changes to the
set pressure of the pressure relief valves is normally recorded in the ships log book.
Also in relation to the cargo check that:
1) The atmosphere in the hold spaces is controlled using dry inert gas or dry air.
2) The same density or reduction tables for cargo calculations are used at both loading and
discharging ports.
3) If Bill of Lading is based on shore measurements, instructions are provided in the event of
cargo measurement discrepancy. The ship tenders a letter of protest when the difference in
ship / shore cargo fgures is 0.5% or greater. Industry standards dictate the allowable level of
discrepancy. There should be a specifc written procedure available in the event of a discrepancy
between ship and shore fgures, detailing the steps to be taken to try to resolve the difference
prior to a note of protest being issued.
4) Pressure/temperature requirements at receiving terminals are available on board.
5) There is a written instruction for cargo conditioning at sea.
6) A Company manual contains procedures for reporting any cargo non-compliance.
7) The Master has the operational instructions for the execution of the voyage.
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Certain cargoes of a chemical nature carried in gas carriers require the use of additional equipment
such as fame screens etc. You will fnd those applicable to cargoes listed on the Certifcate of Fitness
such as: Diethyl Ether, Ethylene/Propylene oxide and their mixtures, Isoprene, IsoPropyamine, Mono-
Ethylamine, Pentanes, Pentenes, Vinyl Ethyl Ether and Vinyl Chloride.
7.6 Oil Record Book
Every tanker of 150 tonnes gross and above is provided with an oil record book, Part Two of which
relates to the cargo and ballast operations on board. Usually, this is not of any consequence to the
cargo Surveyor and it lies in the domain of the port state control inspector to ensure that the vessel is
complying with MARPOL. However it is important where a claim arises as it indicates where, when and
how a cargo/ballast transfer was undertaken.
In addition to the oil record book, chemical/product tankers are required to keep a Cargo Record Book
which indicates all operational procedures undertaken with respect to the properties of the individual
cargoes including category listing and any pre-wash requirements. This document can be a valuable
source of operational information should you be tasked with surveying damaged/contaminated cargo.

7.7 The Procedures and Arrangements (P&A) Manual
As related to specifc gas carriers certifed to carry NLS, the P&A Manual indicates that the vessel
complies with the requirements of Annex II and describes all cargo/ballast handling arrangements and
operational procedures, including tank cleaning and slop management.
The manual is also of particular interest in that it dictates what can and cannot be carried on a
particular tank vessel, consistent with the certifcate of ftness. Check this manual if there is any doubt
as to the capability of the vessel to transport a liquid cargo.
7.8 IBC and BCH Codes for Chemical Cargoes
There is a need to understand these codes in relation to gas carriers with a certifcate of ftness to
carry cargo that fall under these codes. As previously indicated, the purpose of these Codes is to lay
down suitable design criteria, construction standards and safety measures for ships carrying bulk liquid
chemicals and liquefed gas, so as to minimise the risk to personnel, ship and environment.
All Codes are adopted under the provisions in SOLAS. Specifc application of each Code with respect
to ship type, tank type or cargo containment etc, is found within each. It is important that the Surveyor
applies the correct Code when differing opinions arise concerning stowage of a particular commodity.
Propylene Oxide (a possible gas carrier cargo) is covered under the IBC Code.
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7.9 Cargo Specifc Documentation
Bill of Lading Quantity
Measured at the loading port shore tank(s) this survey is carried out by shippers Surveyor without
reference or consultation with the ships offcers. Even if consulted, to require the offcers to inspect a
maze of piping and storage tanks over which they have no control or expertise would be burdensome
and time-consuming, if not impossible.
Faced, therefore, with a surveyed quantity which will eventually appear on a bill of lading, the vessel
must, as accurately as possible, measure the quantity actually received onboard by ullage, and should this
differ by any amount a protest should be lodged by the master (or agent acting on his behalf) setting out
the details of the difference. The protest may have the following wording:
Please note that this letter is in lieu of the clausing by me of the bill of lading in respect of the
aforementioned difference.
It is my understanding that this procedure is in accordance with your own request, and in respect
of any claim which may arise out of such difference this letter shall be regarded by you as
evidence of the quantity in dispute just as if same had been endorsed on the bill of lading.
Phrasing in the letter is important. Legally the cargo bill of lading should be claused in order to warn
the buyer that receipt of full quantity cannot be expect as stated on the bill of lading. In practice, such
clausing would prevent that document from being traded and negotiated through a bank for letter of
credit purposes.
By phrasing the letter of protest as above, it suggests that the carrier is implementing a shippers
request, who in turn, would be expected to provide that document to any interested party involved in
the sale and purchase of the goods. In practice this works well, but legally fawed. Any damages sustained
by the consignee, without the carriers involvement would mean the protest is settled between the seller
and buyer. Should the shipper refuse to sign the protest, then the master or agent would have no option
but to clause the bill of lading accordingly.
All bills of lading are in the main issued pursuant to an agreed charterparty stating the terms, clauses,
conditions and exceptions at the time of fxing. In the event of a cargo damage dispute, the charterparty
and bill of lading are the governing documents predicating liability where the conditions of the charter
will be less onerous to the carrier than the conditions of the bill of lading. Therefore, in the companys
interest, the master and his agent must ensure that the bill of lading includes details of the charterparty,
including the names of both contracting parties and the date the contract was made. Blank spaces are
provided in the companys bills for such insertions. However, if another format of bill is presented for
signature, such as a Shippers or Charterers form, which does not have such provisions the clause on
the following page should be typed upon it:
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This bill of lading is issued pursuant to a charterparty between:
_________________ and __________________ dated __________________
All the terms, conditions, clauses and exceptions contained in said charterparty apply to this bill of lading and
are deemed to be incorporated herein.
The above clausing leaves no doubt in a buyers mind that in the event of a dispute he too would be
bound by the conditions as contained in the charter.
Vessels Loading / Discharging Ullage Reports
These reports should be compiled accurately. The method of calculation should be the same for loading
and discharge. The reports form the basis of any repudiation of shortage. Its incumbent upon the
carrier to prove, beyond doubt, that no cargo was lost on voyage. In certain instances, the accuracy
of tank calibration tables may be suspect when determining the actual quantity of cargo, but it may be
contended that any inherent error would be applied to the departure and arrival ullages and, as such,
the fnal results of both may be compared with accuracy to determine whether or not cargo was lost on
voyage. Based upon ullaged quantities an all in - all out defence is sound and this comparison would
be more accurate than comparison measurements of two dissimilar shore tanks taken by different
surveyors using different methods of gauging and calculation (i.e. bill of lading and out-turn quantities).
However, there is one mitigating circumstance and certain immunities that can be claimed by a carrier,
which may provide the framework for a sound defence.
It has become common practice in the trade to allow an acceptable cargo handling loss of 0.5% of
the total (co-mingled) quantity. However, it should be borne in mind that this granting should strictly
(insofar as any rule exists) operate on the difference between the shore fgures at the loading port and
the shore fgures at the discharging port, or possibly the pre-discharging ullages.
It doesnt normally operate on the ships own fgures for ullages after loading and before discharging; there
should not be a loss as great as 0.5% on those fgures. While many companies would not condone a loss
on voyage if caused by negligence or fault on the part of the vessel, in the practical aspects of cargo claims
it is preferable to handle a claim for shortage rather than face a contamination claim for that same quantity.
In the event of a voyage loss exceeding 0.25% as measured by ullage between the loading and
discharging port, this will be known perhaps during the course of the voyage but defnitely just after
the vessels arrival, when the ullages are calculated. As soon as an excessive loss is noticed (>0.25%)
the reason for that loss should be communicated quickly and in confdence. As the attending cargo
Surveyor you may, or may not, be aware of such an event. While the urgency or gravity of the situation
must be left to the discretion of the master, a timely explanation would be expected to answer any
claims from the interested parties.
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In voyage losses, the Hague/Visby Rules establish the responsibilities, immunities, liabilities and rights
afforded a carrier under bills of lading. The Rules provide that neither the carrier nor the vessel shall
be responsible for loss or damage arising or resulting from wastage in bulk or weight, or any other loss
or damage arising or resulting from wastage in bulk or weight, or any other loss or damage arising from
inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods. In this respect we can consider that all liquid cargoes fall
into two main categories - volatile or viscous.
The frst category includes the likes of methanol, ethanol, benzene, toluene, xylene, and chlorinated
solvents, which have the inherent quality of volatility causing evaporation. The second, includes
products such as lubricating oils, vegetable oils, and any high molecular weight chemicals that have
the inherent quality of viscosity causing clingage to the sides of the vessels tanks. Additionally, in the
case of non-uniform cargoes like palm oil which stratify or layer, it may also have the inherent quality
of sedimentation or precipitation on voyage, which could give rise to sediment remaining solid in the
bottom of the tank after completion of discharge. This is not usually a concern in gas carriers.
Empty Certifcates
Once it is established that no cargo was lost on voyage, an empty certifcate, signed by consignees
Surveyor (you) proves that all cargo was delivered. In the event that you are instructed not to sign,
the master may issue one himself, signing same along with the cargo offcers signature and clausing
consignees Surveyor refuses to sign.
This is not an insurmountable problem for the carrier as it would be vigorously contended that if
cargo interests do not issue an empty certifcate, nor lodge a claim in writing for cargo remaining on
board (ROB), within the required time, then those omissions would constitute prima facie evidence of
complete delivery.
Where it is found that some cargo remains in the tank after discharge, you can clause the certifcate
accordingly. Subsequently, when a claim is lodged it will be impossible to challenge that quantity
remaining on board and undelivered. There are two ways in which the vessel may assist in mitigating the
claim. If the trim and list corrections to a dip have a minus value then your attention should be drawn
to that fact and such allowances should be applied in order to ascertain the actual volume of the wedge.
In any event the vessel will use every argument that comes to mind to lessen the quantity estimated
ROB. When handling viscous animal or vegetable oils in particular, the cause of the cargo ROB may
be entirely outside the vessels control. Provided that Shippers/Charterers heating requirements
have been complied with, then the cargo should remain in liquid condition and, therefore, pumpable.
Vegetable oils may precipitate sediment on voyage and this sediment will most probably have a higher
melting point than the oil in the bill of lading. This might be used in defence against a claim.
It would also be stressed to claimants that the most critical time of discharge is during stripping. If
the receivers stop the discharge for their own purposes during this period, the pump is liable to lose
suction and/or the cargo will cool rapidly due to its small volume being in contact with a relatively large
area of cold tank surface. These notations, when applicable, entered into the vessels port statement of
facts and endorsed empty certifcate, will leave some room for negotiation on the value and proximate
cause of the quantity ROB.
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7.10 Cargo Spillage
Looking at this from both sides of the fence, apart from the usual precautions to minimise damage by
pollution, be aware that a claimant will exaggerate the estimated quantity spilt in order to add more
weight to a claim. Obviously if there is an apparently unexplained loss between arrival ullage and shore
receipts then this becomes partly explained if a claimants Surveyor overestimates the quantity spilt. In
order to counter a liability the vessel will usually make a notation in the port log, or statement of facts
as to the vessels estimate of spillage, which in most cases will be found to be less than claimed.
7.11 Slopping of Cargo at Discharge Port
This is not normally the practice found on gas carriers but in the event of a chemical cargo being carried
it could present itself.
The practice of slopping cargo into drums or slop tanks ashore before commencement of bulk
discharge into storage, presents the vessel and owner with a diffcult problem. If the frst pumpings
are discoloured or contaminated it would not be prudent to mix them with sound bulk cargo, for
that would be risking total contamination of the entire consignment which would be prejudicial to the
carriers interests. During the slopping operation, the vessels personnel will have little or no control
and this may be the only mitigating factor. Legally, such contamination would suggest that the vessel was
not cargo-worthy and in effect a claim for unseaworthiness might succeed.
Whenever slopping is carried out it is usual for the consignee/receiver to lodge protest against the
vessel and in due course they would bring a claim against the vessels owners for full value of the
slopped quantity. In the majority of cases the slopped quantity is not a total loss but has intrinsic salvage
value, which should lessen the amount claimed, bearing in mind that it is the claimants responsibility in
law to mitigate damage however caused.
It should be noted that the customary allowance of 0.5% does not apply to slopped quantities or cargo
ROB as these are explained losses which cannot be construed as customary.
It is, therefore, advisable that whenever large quantities, say more than one metric tonne, are slopped,
the vessel should lodge protest such as the following:
In accordance with your request we have regulated our pumping equipment in order that
you may isolate the frst pumpings of __________ from vessels tank __________. We assess
the quantity of frst pumpings at __________ but stress that the vessel has no control over the
quantity so isolated.
Please be advised that in the event of a claim being lodged against vessel or owners for damage,
if any, sustained to the frst pumpings, it is incumbent upon cargo interests to prove damage by
the vessel and is also their responsibility to mitigate such damage howsoever caused.
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The cargo interests are placed on notice of their responsibilities and should ensure that slopping is kept
to a minimum, the damage is mitigated and cargo claim lessened. This will not solve the overall problem,
as proximate cause may still be attributed to the vessels unsuitability at the commencement of the voyage.
Take heed of the aforementioned and do not get coerced into slopping for the sake of good order.
You must ensure that samples taken at the manifold are indeed suspect or positively contaminated, i.e.
discoloured etc.
7.12 Receiving Protest
Within the required time, protest for loss or damage, and the general nature of the loss or damage,
will be given to the vessel/agent or owner to protect the parties interests, even if they only suspect
that in due course a claim may materialise against them. About 50% of the initial notices of claim have
no substance but even so cannot remain unchallenged for the absence of repudiation as this could be
construed as tacit acceptance of liability. If the vessels master is aware of certain favourable facts, these
may be appended as a repudiation on the notice of claim provided it is pre-fxed Without Prejudice.
If the facts are unknown it will most likely be counter-signed as follows:
I acknowledge receipt of the above Note of Protest but repudiate same under terms,
conditions, clauses and exceptions of governing C/P and terms, conditions clauses of bill of
lading issued pursuant to that C/P.
or Receipt acknowledged only without prejudice to liability.
7.13 Lodging Protest
Whenever it is suspected that the action (or inaction) of another party may be prejudicial to the vessel
or owners interests, a note of protest should be lodged to that party. A signature of receipt should be
obtained from the recipient. If this is not forthcoming the protest should be sent recorded delivery
to the recipients place of business. Protest notes may take a variety of forms. In the context of cargo
claims a few are itemised:
Difference between bill of lading and ships loaded ullage fgures.
Difference between bill of lading (or ships loaded ullage fgures) and that quantity called for on
the NOR (Notice of Readiness) (Deadfreight).
If cargo is suspected to be off-spec on loading (the company is to be notifed and bills of lading
not to be released until Charterers have consulted with Owners).
If cargo remains onboard after discharge and it is suspected that the cause is outside vessels control.
Slopping of cargo in excess of one tonne or if slopping is carried out arbitrarily or in such a way
as to be prejudicial to vessels interests.
If cargo is loaded outside the temperature range agreed, or in excess of the maximum
temperature allowed by the classifcation society or tank coating manufacturer.
If shoreline at loading or discharging port is suspected to be contaminated.
If spillage is seen ashore anywhere between vessels rail and the storage tank.
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As previously stated, your action in the event of a claim initiated by the receiver or carrier will depend
on your Principal. In any case, step very carefully and surely. Ensure all documentation has been
completed accurately.
7.14 Summary
In this section we have covered a considerable amount of information pertaining to gas carrier
products. Contamination of the cargo can result for many reasons. Hence, the reason for the need
to detail the process from shore-to-ship then ship-to-shore. Following the process as laid down by
the ship and the terminal from start to fnish will give you a good understanding of the areas where
contamination could occur.
It has not been the intention to give a complete gas carrier course, but it is however, obvious that this is a
specialised area of surveying that needs additional training to undertake. Not only should initial training be
undertaken, but recurrent/refresher training is imperative to stay abreast of changes in the feld.
Throughout the Module you will have noticed that stowage of gas and chemical cargoes and subsequent
handling is very much regulated. The capabilities of those in the responsible positions onboard soon
become apparent when interpreting and applying the laid-down procedures without endangering
personnel, property or the environment.
As the attending cargo Surveyor, you enter an area of cargo work that requires your fullest attention to
the smallest of details. Due to the hazardous nature of many chemical cargoes, stowage is of paramount
importance. When things have gone wrong leading to contamination or systems failure, it is usually
attributed to incorrect stowage. Check the stowage yourself and do not take what the vessel has
decided as gospel.
Fig 25 - The Tank Dome
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Learning outcome:
At the end of this chapter the learner will know who the vetting organisations are and the
parameters under which they operate.
8.1 Introduction
Many charterers, shippers and commodity majors will not allow their products to be placed in
a vessel unless a vetting has proved that an acceptable level of compliance has been achieved,
and maintained, to the requesting organisation. The vessel must meet minimum standards both
operationally and statutorily. In nearly all cases, the vetting requirements imposed on most tankers
are assumed to be mandatory.
Inspection and vetting of oil & chemical tanker and LPG carrier operations have, for the past 25
years, helped to improve operating standards. The LNG trade has not been subjected to vetting
because the ships have, more often than not, been operated on dedicated trades between dedicated
Due to the upsurge in environmental concerns, and associated changes in trading patterns to countries
seeking to improve their fuel consumption effciency, LNG carriers are now trading to ports where they
have not previously called. This has caused charterers, buyers and terminal operators concern that the
condition, operation and ownership of these vessels are of an acceptable standard.
Lessons have been learned from the oil/chemical and LPG industry that are now in the process of
being applied to through vetting of LNG ships.
Inspection regimes have, for the most part, been undertaken by the Oil Company International
Marine Forum (OCIMF) and The Chemical Distribution Institute (CDI - M).
OCIMF was formed in 1970 in the wake of the Torrey Canyon disaster. It is a voluntary organisation
of worldwide oil companies providing a forum for participants interested in the safe movement at
sea and terminaling of crude, petroleum products, chemical and liquefied gas. The organisation has
authored more than 40 codes of practice and guidelines covering tanker and terminal operations,
and it maintains a reporting procedure called the Ship Inspection Reporting Programme (SIRE).
Each company has an inspection/vetting regime that ensures chartered vessels meet pre-described
standards. Once an inspection has been conducted the Surveyor/inspector completes a report,
which is then placed on a database and made available to other organisations and government
authorities interested in tanker operations.
The Ship Inspection Report Programme (SIRE) programme was launched in 1993 to address
concerns of sub-standard shipping. Like the CDI regime, it is a tanker risk assessment tool for use
by Charterers, ship operators, terminal operators and government bodies concerned with shipping
safety. It provides up-to-date information with a focus on tanker industry awareness of tankship
quality and safety standards.
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Since the regime was introduced, over 45,000 inspection reports have been generated and placed on
the database. Currently there are over 10,000 active reports on more than 4000 vessels which have
been conducted within the last 12 months. Access to the SIRE database registers an average of 1600
report hits per month.
The uniform inspection protocol required by the systems as in the CDI regime, is predicated by
the following:
Vessel Inspection Questionnaire (VIQ)
Uniform SIRE Inspection Report
Vessel Particulars Questionnaire (VPQ)
Electronic Access to the SIRE system, both dial-up and via the internet.
SIRE Enhanced Report Manager (SERM)
Inspection reports are maintained for a period of 12 months and archived for 2 years. There is
a cost to accessing the database. OCIMF members, bulk oil terminal operators, port authorities,
canal authorities, oil, power, industrial or oil trader companies which charter tankers can log in as
a normal operation for their business. It is free of charge to Governmental bodies which supervise
safety and/or pollution prevention of oil tankers (such as PortState Control, MOUs, etc.).
The Chemical Distribution Institute (CDI) operates as a non-profit making foundation. CDI
is managed by a Board of Directors which establishes policy and is responsible for the overall
affairs of the foundation.
CDIs objectives are similar to OCIMF in that both regimes strive to improve the safety and quality
performance of marine transportation and storage for the chemical industry.
The Society of International Gas Tanker & Terminal Operators Ltd (SIGTTO) is the guiding authority
when dealing with gas carriers and it works closely with CDI in setting vetting parameters and
enhancing safe operating standards. To date CDI and OCIMF have chosen to stay on separate
courses, which does not help the Owner/operators except for exchange of information relating to
vessel particulars.
They also strive to:
Provide companies with cost effective systems for risk assessment, thus assisting their
commitment to Responsible Care and the Code of Distribution Management Practice.
Provide the industry with an independent organization for training, qualification and
accreditation of inspectors, and provide databases on which inspection information can be
Provide a single set of accurate, reliable and consistent inspection data which companies can
use with confidence.
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In 1978 a number of prominent gas companies recognised that loss of confidence in the industry in
one part of the world would undermine confidence elsewhere and threaten the reputation of the
industry as a whole. They set out to establish a framework of standards and best practice for the
then emerging liquefied natural gas (LNG) businesses.
Public confdence in the safe transportation and handling of liquefed gas is essential for its acceptance
and growth as a major component of world energy supplies. SIGTTO was therefore formed as an
international organization through which all industry participants can share experiences, address
common problems and fnd agreement for best practices and acceptable standards.
SIGTTO is incorporated as a non-profit making company, registered in Bermuda. The Society has
grown to more than one hundred members and collectively represents most of the worlds LNG
businesses and more than half of the global liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) business. The Society has
observer status at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and is now acknowledged as the
authoritative voice of the liquefied gas shipping and terminals industries. Impartiality and integrity
are key constituents to its operations on safety matters, by specifically promoting high standards and
best practices among all industry members throughout the world, thereby maintaining confidence in
the safety of the liquefied gas industries and acceptance as responsible industrial partners.
The international transportation chain for liquefied gas is dependent upon all parties sharing a
common single interest to ensure technical integrity and operational security.
8.3 The International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Concerns
As we have mentioned previously, most of what you do on board ship today is affected by security
protocols. As the attending surveyor, you will have to conform to all the requirements of the ISPS
code as it relates to the ship and the terminal. Some of these requirements are very restrictive and
may inconvenience you. Understand that these security measures are in place to protect you and
the crew.
As an example, you may wish to consider the following in your daily routines as a surveyor:
The Foreign object as it is related to the ISPS Code:
suspect packages not belonging to the ship or persons on board; and
spare parts and equipment not ordered or expected, etc.
This seems simple on the face of it but what if you decide to leave your bag in a place that is not
acceptable, i.e. indicating to the C/O Is it ok to leave my belongings here? You could stop the
cargo operations by this single thoughtless act. This is only one item under the Code and you may
be searched on arrival at the terminal and/or ship. Conform to the requests at all times, otherwise
you could be refused entry.
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8.4 Conclusion
This field of surveying is complex and requires an in-depth understanding of gas carrier operations.
One cannot be expected to know everything about each trade with in the industry and invariably
you will find that Surveyors specialise in a particular area of the gas trade such as LPG or LNG,
depending on the local terminals.
There are many cross-links between all tanker operations, which provide a window on the tanker
in general. However, particular attention needs to be paid in the area of health and safety as many of
the commodities are harmful and insidious, requiring the Surveyor to be on guard at all times; there
can be no lapse of concentration.
Those entering this field of surveying have a tool-belt. The number of tools and the ability to
use them will determine a persons suitability for the work. Personnel at sea are required by their
administrations to have completed endorsements to their certificates of competency. The Surveyors
in this field should, as a minimum, possess the same level of certification, training for which can be
obtained from marine institutions around the world offering a choice of oil, COW, IG, chemical and
gas courses. Try to undertake as many different courses as possible to expand your knowledge.
8.5 Other Issues
Professional Negligence / Malpractice
A word about Professional Negligence / Malpractice. One might ask: What has this got to do with
safety? Read on! The Act of Professional Negligence must be viewed in the light of safe practices.
A surveyor should never jeopardise his/her safety to expedite a process. If the practice becomes unsafe
and an incident occurs, it might not just be a case of cleaning up the mess, but someone, somewhere is
going to start digging. As a Surveyor, you are bound by normal practices of the trade and it is this which
will be your only fall back should things go side-ways. To step outside normal practices of the trade
may be necessary where safety is compromised, but you must be sure of what it is you are about to do.
To move outside the box resulting in possible death to someone could have severe repercussions. You
may be found criminally or civilly negligent, both or which are career stoppers!
Negligence is the failure to exercise or act with care appropriate to the situation; to cause harm
or loss by a breach of the duty by a reasonably prudent or ordinarily careful person.
Negligence per se is a legal nightmare and the division between civil and criminal negligence even
more nebulous. It has been said that criminal negligence is something more than a slight degree
of negligence necessary to support civil action of damages and is negligence of a degree such as
to be deserving of punishment. Without getting into the legalese of determining fault, the marine
Surveyor should ensure that ordinary practices of the profession are adhered to. To deviate without
reasonable care or cause is to leave yourself wide open to liability.
Collection of facts and adherence to the normal industry practice will shield you from challenge
and, therefore, it is imperative that you understand the cargo under survey. Forget about liabilities;
a departure from normal or safe practices within the petroleum, chemical and gas industry can kill.
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Malpractice - is negligence or dereliction of professional duty resulting in injury, and the failure to
exercise the customary care, skill or knowledge of a professional. It is important to understand that
self-interested commercial gain is not wholly at the centre of the surveying practice.
One could argue that if no commercial gain is achieved then the business will not succeed. The
point here is to distinguish between self-interested commercial gain at the expense of the normal
professional practices and care and control to achieve a commercial gain. A cargo that could
possibly be contaminated by non-compatibility of adjacent cargoes could not only arrive off-spec
due to bulkhead fracture but could jeopardise the safety of all on board. At times, in an effort to
expedite the cargo operation, Surveyors may be asked to bend the rules. This is a very unwise
practice, which can only lead to contempt and ultimate disaster.
To that end this area of surveying is very satisfying and, although very technical in nature, allows
the marine surveyor the opportunity to work with people in the marine industry who are for the
most part very much in tune with the work they do, out of necessity. This industry does not suffer
fools lightly, as much is at stake. If you intend to do this work, study hard and keep your eyes and
ears wide open!
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Appendix A
The following are some definitions which would be required to appreciate the application of
survey requirements.
Boiling Point: The temperature at which a product exhibits a vapour pressure equal
to the atmospheric pressure.
Cargo Area: The part of the ship which contains the cargo containment system and
cargo pump and compressor rooms, including deck areas over the full
length and breadth of the part of the ship over the above-mentioned
spaces. Where ftted, the cofferdams, ballast or void spaces at the
after end of the aftermost hold space, or at the forward end of the
forwardmost hold space, are excluded from the cargo area.
Cargo Containment The arrangement for containment of cargo including, where ftted, a
System: primary and secondary barrier, associated insulation and any intervening
spaces, and adjacent structure if necessary for the support of these
elements. If the secondary barrier is part of the hull structure it may be
a boundary of the hold space.
Cargo Control Room: A space used in the control of cargo handling operations.
Cargoes: Products listed in IGC Chapter 19, carried in bulk by ships subject to
the requirements of the Gas Codes in relation to the age of the ship.
Cargo Service Spaces within the cargo area used for workshops, lockers and storerooms
Spaces: of more than 2m in area, used for cargo handling equipment.
Cargo Tank: The liquid tight shell designed to be the primary container of the cargo
including all such containers, whether or not associated with insulation,
or secondary barriers, or both.
Cofferdam: The isolating space between two adjacent steel bulkheads or decks.
This space may be a void space or a ballast space.
Control Stations: The spaces as defned in 3.4.1 IGC. This does not include space
containing special fre-control equipment which can be most practically
located in the cargo area.
Flammable Products: Those identifed by an F in column f of the IGC Code.
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Flammability Limits: The conditions defning the state of fuel-oxidant mixture at which
application of an adequately strong external ignition source is only just
capable of producing fammability in a given test apparatus.
Gas-Dangerous The space or zone as specifed in:
Space or Zone:
a space in the cargo area which is not arranged or equipped in
an approved manner to ensure that its atmosphere is at all times
maintained in a gas-safe condition;
an enclosed space outside the cargo area through which any
piping containing liquid or gaseous products passes, or within
which such piping terminates, unless approved arrangements
are installed to prevent any escape of product vapour into the
atmosphere of that space;
a cargo containment system and cargo piping;
a hold space where cargo is carried in a cargo containment system
requiring a secondary barrier;
a hold space where cargo is carried in a cargo containment system
not requiring a secondary barrier;
a space separated from a hold space by a single gastight steel boundary;
a cargo pump room and cargo compressor room;
a zone on the open deck, or semi-enclosed space on the open deck,
within 3m of any cargo tank outlet, gas or vapour outlet, cargo pipe
fange or cargo valve or of entrances and ventilation openings to
cargo pump rooms and cargo compressor rooms;
the open deck over the cargo area and 3m forward and aft of the
cargo area on the open deck up to a height of 2.4m above the
weather deck;
a zone within 2.4m of the outer surface of a cargo containment
system where such surface is exposed to the weather;
an enclosed or semi-enclosed space in which pipes containing
products are located;
a compartment for cargo hoses; or an enclosed or semi-enclosed
space having a direct opening into any gas-dangerous space or zone;
a space which contains gas detection equipment complying with
13.6.5 (IGC) and a space utilizing boil-off gas as fuel and complying
with Chapter 16 (IGC) are not considered gas dangerous spaces in
this context.
Gas-safe Space: A space other than a gas-dangerous space.
Hold Space: The space enclosed by the ships structure in which a cargo
containment system is situated.
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Independent: Describes a piping or venting system, for example, that is in no way
connected to another system and where there are no provisions
available for the potential connection to other systems.
Insulation Space: The space, which may or may not be an inter-barrier space, occupied
wholly or in part by insulation. Inter-barrier space means the space
between a primary and a secondary barrier, whether or not completely
or partially occupied by insulation or other material.
MARVS: The Maximum Allowable Relief Valve Setting of a cargo tank.
Permeability The ratio of the volume within that space which is assumed to be
of a Space: occupied by water to the total volume of that space.
Primary Barrier: The inner element designed to contain the cargo when the cargo
containment system includes two boundaries.
Secondary Barrier: The liquid-resisting outer element of a cargo containment system
designed to afford temporary containment of any envisaged leakage of
liquid cargo through the primary barrier, and to prevent the lowering of
the temperature of the ships structure to an unsafe level.
Relative Density: The ratio of the mass of a volume of a product to the mass of an equal
volume of fresh water.
Separate: Describes a cargo piping system or cargo vent system, for example,
that is not connected to another cargo piping or cargo vent system.
This separation may be achieved by the use of design or operational
methods. Operational methods are not to be used within a cargo tank
and are to consist of one of the following types: removing spool pieces
or valves and blanking the pipe ends arrangement of two spectacle
fanges in series with provisions for detecting leakage into the pipe
between the two spectacle fanges.
Tank Cover: The protective structure intended to protect the cargo containment
system against damage where it protrudes through the weather deck,
or to ensure the continuity and integrity of the deck structure.
Tank Dome: The upward extension of a portion of a cargo tank. In the case of
below-deck cargo containment systems the tank dome protrudes
through the weather deck or through a tank cover.
Toxic Products: Those identifed by a T in column f in table of Chapter 19 (IGC).
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Vapour Pressure: The equilibrium pressure of the saturated vapour above the liquid
expressed in bars absolute at a specifed temperature.
Void Space: An enclosed space in the cargo area external to a cargo containment
system, other than a hold space, ballast space, fuel oil tank, cargo pump
or compressor room, or any space in normal use by personnel.
IGC Code: The International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships
Carrying Liquefed Gases in Bulk.
Fig 25 - C Type LPG/Ethylene Carrier dome.
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Appendix B
The following principal publications are regarded as instruments in the acquisition of primary
knowledge in the area of tanker work. The application of these publications is, for the most part,
statutory. There are a number of good publications about but one should be very cognisant of their
validity in current practices and ship design.
SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Chapter 11-2 Part D and Chapter VII Part B and C, IMO
(International Maritime Organisation) publication.
MARP0L73/78 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, IMO
(International Maritime Organisation) publication. Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution
by Oil and Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk.
The International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals 4th Edition, OCIMF (Oil Company
International Marine Forum) publication. Regarded by many as the bible in the oil trade.
International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals
in Bulk (IBC Code), IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication. The stowage
reference for chemical carriage for vessels built after 1 July 1986.
International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals
in Bulk (BCH Code), IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication. The stowage
reference for chemical carriage for vessels built after 1 July 1986.
The Existing Ships Gas Code (ESG Code), IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication.
The stowage reference for liquefed gas carriers for ships built before 1976.
Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefed Gases in Bulk (GC Code),
IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication. The stowage reference for liquefed gas
carriers for ships built between 1976 and 1986.
International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefed Gases in
Bulk (lGC Code), IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication. The stowage reference
for liquefed gas carriers for ships built after 1 July 1986.
Liquefed Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals, 2nd Edition.
The Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO).
Tanker Safety Guide Liquefed Gas 2nd Edition, International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) publication.
Ship To Ship Transfer Guide Liquefed Gas 2nd Edition, OCIMF/ICS.
Ship To Ship Transfer Guide Petroleum, OCIM/ICS.
Clean Seas Guide for Oil Tankers, International Chamber of Shipping.
The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) 2010 Edition (inc Amdt 35-10) is
currently in force since 1 January 2012, IMO (International Maritime Organisation) publication
Please note that the IMDG Code, 2012 Edition will come into force on 1 January 2014 for two
years and may be applied voluntarily as from 1 January 2013.
G S Marton, Tanker Operations A Handbook for Ships Offcers.
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