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# D EVELOPMENT OF M ATHEMATICS IN I NDIA

Jy
anayanam (Finding Rsines)

K. Ramasubramanian
IIT Bombay

February 2013

Outline
I

Introduction
I
I

## Approach in earlier Siddh

antas
The need for sine values

Aryabhat
. as sine table

## I The verses in Aryabhat

.ya
I

I
I

Geometric approach
Analytic approach

uryasiddh
anta

series for sine

## His sine table & ingenious way of computing it

Introduction
Computation of Rsines: Approach in earlier siddhaantas
I Var
ahamihira has given the following Rsine values and relations in his
Pa
ncasiddh
antik
a (c. 505):1
R sin(30 )

R sin(45 )

R sin(60 )

R sin(90 )
R sin(A)
2

## R sin (A) + R cos (A)

 
A
R sin
2

=
=
=

R
2
R

3
R
2
R

(1a)
(1b)
(1c)
(1d)

R cos(90 A)
2

R
 
1
1
[R sin2 (A) + R vers2 (A)] 2
2

The above Rsine values (1) and relations (2)(4) can be derived using the
bhuj
a-kot.i-karn
aya and trair
asika (rule of three for similar triangles).
. a-ny
Equations (2)(4) can be used to compute all 24 tabular Rsine values.
1

Pa
ncasiddh
antik
a of Var
ahamihira, Ed. by T. S. Kuppanna Sastry and
K. V. Sarma, Madras 1993, verses 4.15, pp. 7680.

(2)
(3)
(4)

Introduction
The need for sine values
I

## The following verse, in Yajur Ved

anga
Jyotis.a indicates how
Jyotih.s
astra forms an integral part of Vedic studies

## :vea:d.a :he ya:a.a:TRa:ma: a.Ba:pra:vxa.a.aH

k+a:l;a:nua:pUa:v.ya.Ra ;a.va:a.h:ta.a:(a ya:a.aH
ta:sma.a:a.d:dM k+a:l+a.va:Da.a:na:Za.a:~:Ma
ya.ea .\$ya.ea: a.ta:SMa :vea:d .sa :vea:d ya:a:m,a
I

## The deep concern of Samanta,

a 19th century astronomer of
Orissa, gets clearly mirrored in his work Siddh
anta-darpan.a

## na.a:~tea k+a:l;a:va:ya:va:k+.l+na.a ya.a dx:#Za.a:~:a: a.sa.;d .a

(ra.Ea:ta:sma.a:tRa:v.ya:va:&+ a.ta.=;a.pa ;
a.C+d;a:tea ta.a ;Da:ma.RaH
ta:sma.a:de:Sa.a kx+. a.taH . . .
I

Thus time was an integral part of the dharma, and the action
was considered incomplete if performed at inappropriate times.

Introduction
The duration of a year, month, etc ?
I

## They naturally form the reference frame in the background

of which the motion of Sun, Moon, etc. are observed.

## The revolution of Sun constitutes a year.

S3
S2

S1
A
Earth spinning
on its axis

Introduction
Lunar month and Tithi
Sun (in conjunction
with Moon)

suklapaksa

Earth

krsnapaksa

M1

M2

## Figure: Lunar month consisting of sukla and kr..sn.a-paks.as.

Introduction
Determination of time from shadow measurement

t = (R sin)


R cos z
R sin .
cos cos

## If and are known ( = f (, )), then t is known.

Introduction
Signal achievements of Kerala Mathematicians
I

sin x = x

x5
x3
+
...,
3!
5!



1 1 1
Paridhi = 4 Vy
asa 1 + + . . .
3 5 7

(6)

r
i
cos M dM
d h 1  r
dt
sin
sin M = q R
2
dt
R
1 Rr sin M

## and many more remarkable results are found in the works of

Kerala mathematicians (14th16th cent.)
2

(5)

## The quotation marks indicate the discrepancy between the commonly

employed names to these series and their historical accuracy.

(7)

Aryabhat
.yas Rsine table
I

In the Gtik
a-p
.ya (verse 12), we find the
3
following verse that gives a table of Rsine-differences
(expressed in arcminutes):

ma: a.Ka Ba: a.Ka :P+ a.Ka ;Da: a.Ka :Na: a.Ka Va: a.Ka
.z+ a.Ka h:~.Ja .~k+.a.k ;a.k+.Sga .~.Ga:a.k ;a.k+.Gva
;Gl+a.k ;a.k+.g{a h:k+.a ;Da:a.k ;a.k+..ca
.~ga ZJa z * : a :P C k+.l;a:DRa.\$ya.aH
225, 224, 222, 219, 215, 210, 205, 199, 191, 183, 174,
164, 154, 143, 131, 119, 106, 93, 79, 65, 51, 37, 22,
and 7these are the Rsine-differences [at intervals of
2250 of arc] in terms of the minutes of arc.
I
3

In Aryabhat
. as notation:

ma 25;

&

; a.Ka 200;

This verse is one of the most terse verse in the entire Sanskrit literature
that I have ever come across. Only after several trials would it be ever
possible to read the verse properly, let also deciphering its content.

The verses in Aryabhat
.ya presenting the algorithm
I

Aryabhat
. a presents two approaches to construct the sine table
in two successive verses (11 & 12).

## The first verse giving the geometric approach goes as:

.sa:ma:vxa.a:pa:a=; a.Da:pa.a:dM ;
a.C+nd;a.a:t,a ;aa:Bua.ja.a:t,a . ca:tua:BRua.ja.a:Ea:va
.sa:ma:.ca.a:pa.\$ya.a:Da.Ra:
a.na tua ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DeRa ya:Tea:.a:
a.na
I
I
I
I
I

.sa:ma:vxa.a:pa:a=; a.Da:pa.a:dM ;
a.C+nd;a.a:t,a divide the quadrant of a circle
;aa:Bua.ja.a:t,a . ca:tua:BRua.ja.a:Ea:va into (right) triangles & rectangles
.sa:ma:.ca.a:pa.\$ya.a:Da.Ra:
a.na the Rsines of equal arcs
ya:Tea:.a:
a.na one can find as many as one wants

notes: A:~ya.Ma k+a:a=;k+a:ya.Ma .\$ya.ea:tpa: aa:va:~tua:ma.a.a:mea:va :pra: a.ta:pa.a:a.d:tMa
(k+=;NMa) tua na :pra: a.ta:pa.a:a.d:ta:m,a, :pra:de:Za.a:nta.=;pra: a.sa.;d :tva.a:t,a k+=;Na:~ya A:Ta:va.a

A.a:.ca.a:yeRa:Na

. . . Ce+d;a:kM

na v.ya.a:K.ya.a:na:ga:}ya:m,a

The verses in Aryabhat
.ya presenting the algorithm
I

expounds different possible interpretations of the word
vis.kambh
ardhe which is quite edifying:
I
I

## ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:Da.Ra:va:ya:va:tva.a:t,a na ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DRa:ma: a.ta:a=;.cya va:tRa:ntea

;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DeRa .sa: a.ta .\$ya.a:Da.Ra:
a.na ;
a.na:Spa:d;a:ntea ;
a.na:a.Ra:tea ;a.h ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DeRa
Za:k+.a:tea .\$ya.a k+.pa:
a.ya:tua:m,a, na.a:nya:Ta.a k+.Ta:m,a? ya:sma.a:du:+.m,a
:pa:a=;DeaH :Sa.*.+ a:ga.\$ya.a ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DeRa:na .sa.a tua:ya.a
Ganita. verse 9

## He then explains how to go about drawing the diagram

-

ya.a:va.a.a:va:t,a :pra:ma.a:Na:pa:a=;a..c
/ /
C+a :a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DRa:tua:yea:na k+.k
R +.f:k
e +.na
ma:Nq+l+ma.a:
a.l+K.ya ta:d
, d
.a:d:Za:Da.a ;a.va:Ba.jea:t,a .tea . ca d
.a:d:Za:Ba.a:ga.aH .=:a:Za:yaH I+ a.ta
:pa:a=;k+.pya.aH

...

## Also provides an example

x +.ta:h:ta.a:Za:na:sa:*
+;a
va:sua:d:h:na:k

## e ;a.va:Sk+.}Ba.a:DeRa ;a.k+.ya:t,a :pra:ma.a:Na.a:

a.na .\$ya.a:Da.Ra:
a.na
u

The verses in Aryabhat
.ya presenting the algorithm
:pra:Ta:ma.a:a.a:pa.\$ya.a:Da.Ra:d;aE.+nMa Ka:a.N
/
q+tMa ;a.d
:ta.a:ya.a:DRa:m,a
ta:tpra:Ta:ma.\$ya.a:Da.a:ZEa:~tEa:~tEa.+na.a:
a.na Zea:Sa.a: a.Na

The first Rsine divided by itself and then diminished by the quotient will
give the second Rsine-difference. The same first Rsine, diminished by the
quotients obtained by dividing each of the preceding Rsines by the first
Rsine, gives the remaining Rsine-differences.
Let B1 = R sin (2250 ), B2 = R sin (4500 ), ..., B24 = R sin (90 ), be the twenty-four
Rsines, and let 1 = B1 , 2 = B2 B1 , ..., k = Bk Bk 1 , ... be the
Rsine-differences. Then, the above rule may be expressed as4
2

k +1

B1
B1
(B1 + B2 + . . . + Bk )
B1
B1
B1

(8)
(k = 1, 2, . . . , 23).

(9)

## This second relation is also sometimes expressed in the equivalent form

k +1 = k

(1 + 2 + . . . + k )
B1

(k = 1, 2, . . . , 23).

(10)

From the above the discrete version of the harmonic equation follows
k +1 k =
4

Bk
B1

(k = 1, 2, . . . , 23).
0

(11)

The verses in Aryabhat
.ya presenting the algorithm
The following verses in S
uryasiddh
anta (II. 1722) give the values of the 24 jy
as:

## x +.ta.a .+pa:BUa: a.ma:Da.=:Ra:vaH

/
.Da:k
ta.va.a: a(;a:na.ea:*:;a:
a.b

Ka.a:*:;a:.
Ea :pa.*.

a:ZUa:nyea:Za.a ba.a:Na.+pa:gua:Nea:nd:vaH

*.Ea:k+a:a.Z
//
C+d:+pa:mua:na.a:nd:vaH
ZUa:nya:l;ea:.ca:na:pa.
;a.va:ya:a:nd:a: a.ta:Dxa:ta:ya.ea gua:Na.=;nDra.a:}ba.=:a: a(;a:naH
x

+;a:k+.ta:d:~:a:k+aH

mua:
a.na:Sa:q:a:ma:nea.a.a: a.Na ..ca:nd:a: a.

*.a.a::a.va:Sa:ya.a:[a.a: a.Na k
u +*+.
:pa.
=:a: a(;a:na:ga.a: a(;a:naH

.=;nDra:pa.
*.a.a::k+.ya:ma.aH

va:~va:d ;a:*:+ya:ma.
a:~ta:Ta.a

x +.ta.a::ZUa:nya.\$va:l+na.aH
k

:Sa:f
, :pa.
*.a:l;ea:.ca:na:gua:Na.aH
+\$va:l+na.aH
ya:ma.a:a.d;va:a.

+.yaH
na.a:ga.a:a.d;Za: a.Za:va:

+.yaH
. ca:nd;nea.a.a: a.
+;a:va:

.=;nDra:ZUa:nya.a:NRa:va.a:
+;a:yaH

x
+.yaH
.+pa.a: a.
+;a:sa.a:ga.=;gua:Na.aH va:~va: a.
+;a:k+.ta:va:
:pra.ea:Jaa.ea:tk
+.mea:Na v.ya.a:sa.a:Da.Ra:t,a o+tk
+.ma.\$ya.a:DRa:a.pa:Nq+k+aH

The 24 jy
a values have been given using the Bh
utasankhy

a system.

## Computation of the Rsines and the arcs

;
a.l+a.a:Bya:~ta.va:nea.a.a:a.aH ga:ta.a .\$ya.aH

Zea:Sa:taH

:pua:naH

a:a &+ta.a:~ta.va:ya:mEaH
ga:ta:ga:}ya.a:nta.=.*+.

; a.[a:pea:t,a

## d.eaHk+ea: a.f.\$yea na:yea:de:vMa .\$ya.a:Bya:(

a.a:pMa ;a.va:pa:yRa:ya.a:t,a

## By dividing the minutes [of arc] by 225, the number of jy

as that have
elapsed is obtained. Multiply the remainder by the difference between the
(tabular) Rsine values of the elapsed and the next, divide by 225 and add
the result to the elapsed jy
a, to obtain the b
ahu and kot.i. From the jy
as
the arcs can be obtained by the reverse process.

## Suppose Si represent the length of the 24 segments P0 Pi , in minutes

of arc and Ji , the jy
a corresponding to it. Since the jy
a corresponding
to the nearest arc lengths Si and Si+1 on either side of S are known,
the jy
a corresponding to S is obtained by the rule of three.
jy
a S = Ji +

r (Ji+1 Ji )
.
225

(12)

## Computation of tablular Rsines (Tantrasangraha)

;a.va:
a.l+a.a:d:Za:k+ea:na.a .\$ya.a .=:a:Zya:.Ma:Za:Da:nuaHk+.l;aH
A.a:d;a.\$ya.a:Da.Ra:t,a ta:ta.ea Ba:
e .sa.a:DRa:de:va.a: a(;a: a.Ba:~ta:taH

tya:
e ;a.d
:ta.a:ya:Ka:Nq;\$ya.a ;a.d
:ta.a:ya.a .\$ya.a . ca ta:d;au: a.taH
ta:ta:~tea:nEa:va h.a:=e;Na l+b.DMa Za.ea:DyMa ;a.d
:ta.a:ya:taH

## Ka:Nq;a:t,a txa:ta.a:ya:Ka:Nq;\$ya.a ;a.d

:ta.a:ya:~ta:d;au:ta.ea gua:NaH
txa:ta.a:yaH

.~ya.a:t,a ta:ta:(
Ea:vMa . ca:tua:Ta.Ra:d;a.aH

k
+.ma.a:d
, gua:Na.aH

The jy
a of one-eighth of the arc, corresponding to a r
asi (expressed) in minutes, is 1000
short of that (length of the arc in minutes). The quantity obtained by dividing the first
jy
ardha by 233 12 , and subtracting it from the same, is the dvityakhan
a. This
. d.ajy
added to it (the first jy
a) is the second jy
a. The result obtained by dividing that (the
second jy
a) by the same divisor (233 21 ) is to be subtracted from the second khan
a.
. d.ajy
This is the tr.tyakhan
a. This added to the second is the third gun
. d.ajy
. a. From that, the
fourth gun
a
etc.
have
to
be
obtained
in
order.
.

(rea:M na.a:ma va:a=;:a:na.Ma ;a.h:ma.a:a.d;veRa:d:Ba.a:va:naH ta:pa:na.ea Ba.a:nua:sUa:+.a.ea ma:Dya:mMa ;a.va:
a;d
d.ea:h:na:m,a 1

## ; a.Da:ga.a.\$ya.ea na.a:Za:nMa k+.M C+a:Ba.ea:ga.a:Za:ya.a:a.}ba:k+a

//
mxa:ga.a:h.a.=:ea na:=e;Za.eaY:yMa va.a.=:ea .=;Na.ja:ya.ea:tsua:k H 2
mUa:lM ;a.va:Zua.;d
M na.a:l+~ya ga.a:nea:Sua ;a.va.=;l;a na.=:aH A:Zua:
a;d
:gua:a.a ..ca.ea.=;(ra.aH

*:
Za:
u +k+.Na.eRa na:gea.(;a.=H 3

ta:nua.ja.ea ga:BRa.ja.ea ; a.ma.Ma (ra.a:ma.a:na.a .sua:Ka.a .sa:Kea Za:Za.a .=:a.a.Ea ;a.h:ma.a:h.a.=:ea :vea:ga:aH

:pa:
a.Ta ; a.sa:nDua.=H 4

a va:l;a
C;a:ya.a:l+ya.ea ga.ja.ea na.a:l;ea ;
a.na:mRa:l;ea na.a:a.~ta
/// .sa:tk
u +.le .=:a.a.Ea d:pRa:Na:ma:Bra.a:*:

M na.a:ga:~tua:*:+na:Ka.e
;Da.a.=:ea yua:va.a k+.Ta.a:l;ea:lH

## ta:tpa.=:a:a.d:k+.l;a:nta.a:~tua ma:h.a.\$ya.a ma.a:Da:va.ea:a.d:ta.aH .~va:~va:pUa:vRa:a.va:Zua.;d

e tua ; a.Za:.a:~ta:tKa:Nq+ma.Ea:a.vRa:k+aH 7

I+ a.ta

I Here the values of the 24 Rsines are given up to the thirds in the Kat.apay
notation.
I For instance, consider the first Rsine given by sres..tham
ama varis..th
an
am
. n
. .
The three words here stand for 22, 50 and 224 respectively. Hence the value of
the first Rsine is: 2240 5000 22000 .
I The values of the other Rsines are deciphered in a similar manner. These have
been arrived at by considering terms up to 11 in the series expansion of sin
which was also derived by M
sin =

5
7
9
11
3
+

+ ....
3!
5!
7!
9!
11!

I

## A quadrant is divided into 24 equal parts, so that each arc bit

0
0
= 90
24 = 3 45 = 225 .

## A procedure for finding R sin i, i = 1, 2, . . . 24 is explicitly

given. Pi Ni are known.

## The R sines of the intermediate angles are determined by

interpolation (I order or II order).

I

## The content of the verse in Aryabhat

.ya translates to:
R sin(i + 1) R sin i = R sin i R sin(i 1)

R sin i
.
R sin

## The values of the 24 Rsine differences themselves are

explicitly noted in a verse.

I

## Approximation used by Aryabhat

. a is 2(1 cos ) =

## In the recursion relation provided by Nlakan.t.ha we find

1
1
225 233.5 (= 0.0042827) .

1
225

1
225 .

= 0.00444444.

Comment on Aryabhat
. as Method (Delambre)

## Commenting upon the method of Aryabhat

. a in his monumental
5
work Delambre observes:
The method is curious: it indicates a method of calculating the
table of sines by means of their second differences. . . . The
differential process has not up to now been employed except by
Briggs, who himself did not know that the constant factor was
the square of the chord . . . Here then is a method which the
Indians possessed and which is found neither amongst the
Greeks nor amongst the Arabs.6

5
. . . an astronomer of wisdom and fortitude, able to review 130 years of
astronomical observations, assess their inadequacies, and extract their value.
Prix prize citation 1789.
6
Delambre, Historie de lAstronomie Ancienne, t 1, Paris 1817, p.457; cited
from B. Datta and A. N. Singh, Hindu Trigonometry, IJHS 18, 1983, p.77.

## Infinite series for the sine function

I

The verses giving the series for the sine function is7

;
a.na:h:tya . ca.a:pa:va:geRa:Na . ca.a:pMa ta.a:tP+l;a:
a.na . ca
h:=e;t,a .sa:mUa:l+yua:gva:gERaH ;aa.\$ya.a:va:gRa:h:tEaH k+.ma.a:t,a
. ca.a:pMa :P+l;a:
a.na . ca.a:Da.eaY:Da.ea nya:~ya.ea:pa:yRua:pa:a= tya.jea:t,a
.ja.a:va.a:yEa, .sa:*:" +h.eaY:~yEa:va ;a.va:d.a:
a.na:tya.a:a.d:na.a kx+.taH
I

N0 = R

D0 = 1
(R)2

Ni+1 = Ni (R)2

N1 = R

D1 = R 2 (2 + 22 )

.ja.a:va.a =

N0
D0

## Di = Di1 R 2 (2i + (2i)2 )

N3
N2
1
[N
D1 ( D2 { D3 . . . })]

Yuktidpik
a (16th cent) and attributed to Madhava

I

## Expressing the series using modern notation as described

as described in the above verse
Jv
a = R

R (R)2 (R)2
R (R)2
+
...
R 2 (2 + 22 )
R 2 (2 + 22 ) R 2 (4 + 42 )

## Simplifying the above we have

Jv
a = R

(R)3
(R)5
(R)7
+

+. . .
R 2 6 R 4 6 20 R 6 6 20 42

Further simplifying


3 5 7
Jv
a=R
+

+ . . . = R sin
3!
5!
7!

## Derivation of sine series

In the Figure EC is arc of length s, which is divided into n parts.
Let Cj Cj+1 be the (j + 1)th arc bit.
js
n

ECj =

Bj = Cj Pj bhuj
a-jy
a

I
I

Kj = Cj Tj kot.i-jy
a
Sj = EPj sara.

Similarly we have,

Sj+1 = EPj+1 .

## Derivation of sine series

Let Mj+1 be the mid-point of the arc-bit Cj Cj+1 and similarly Mj the
mid-point of the previous (j-th) arc-bit. Consider the arc EMj+1 . Let
the bhuj
ajy
a of this arc EMj+1 be denoted by Bj+ 1 . Thus we have
2

Sj+ 1 = EQj+1

Similarly,

Bj 1 = Mj Qj

Kj 1 = Mj Uj

Sj 1 = EQj

2
2
2

2
2
2

## The full-chord of the equal arc-bits

Cj Cj+1 = Mj Mj+1 = .

s
n

## Derivation of sine series

Expression for the (first order) Rsine-differences cosine

## The triangles Cj+1 FCj and

OQj+1 Mj+1 are similar. Thusa

Kj+ 1 ,
Bj+1 Bj =
2
r
Kj Kj+1 = Sj+1 Sj

Bj+ 1 .
=
2
r
a Cj+1 Cj
OMj+1

Cj+1 F
OQj+1

FCj
Qj+1 Mj+1

## We define the Rsine-differences (khan.d.a-jy

a) j by
j = Bj Bj1 . With the convention that 1 = B1 , from the
above we have

j =
Kj 1 .
(13)
2
r

## Derivation of sine series

Expression for the (first order) Rsine-differences cosine

## Similarly, the triangles Mj+1 GMj

and OPj Cj are similar and we
get


Bj+ 1 Bj 1

Kj 1 Kj+ 1

= Sj+ 1 Sj 1
2
 2
=
Bj .
r

2
2

2
2

Kj ,

## Derivation of sine series

Expression for the second order Rsine-differences sine

## From this, we get the second order Rsine-difference (the

differences of the Rsine-differences called khan.d.a-jy
antara).8
j j+1 = (Bj Bj1 ) (Bj+1 Bj )

 
Kj 1 Kj+ 1
=
2
2
r 


=
Sj+ 1 Sj 1
2
2
r
 2
Bj .
=
r
8

(14)

This formula for the second order Rsine-difference, when dividing the
quadrant into 24 parts, is nothing but the well-known relation given in the

1

Aryabhat
.ya gives the approximate value 2250 for the
2
quantity r ; Nlakan.t.ha (Tantrasangraha

10
nkara,

## value 233 2 for the divisor, and Sa

in his commentary Laghuvivr.tti,
refines it further to 2330 3200 .

## Derivation of sine series

Expression for the desired Rsine-difference

j j+1 =


2
r

Bj .

(15)

## Now, if the sum of the second-order Rsine-differences, are subtracted

from the first Rsine-difference we have,


1 (1 2 ) + (2 3 ) + . . . + (j1 j ) = j .
(16)
From (48) and (49) we get,
1


2
r

(B1 + B2 + + Bj1 ) = j .

(17)

## Thus we conclude that the desired Rsine-difference is obtained by

subtracting the sum of Rsine-differences from the first
Rsine-difference.

## Derivation of sine series

Desired Rsines and Rversines from Jy
a-sankalita

## We can sum up the Rversine-differences, to obtain the sara,

Rversine, at the midpoint of the last arc-bit as follows:




Sn 1 S 1 =
Sn 1 Sn 3 + . . . . . . S 3 S 1
2
2
2
2
2
2

(Bn1 + Bn2 + . . . + B1 ) .
=
r

(18)

## In the same way, the last pin.d.a-jy

a can be expressed as follows:
Bn = n + n1 + . . . + 1
= n1

 2

## [(B1 + B2 . . . + Bn1 ) + (B1 + B2 . . . + Bn2 ) + . . . + B1 ]

r
 2
[Bn1 + 2Bn2 + + (n 1)B1 ] .
(19)
= nB1
r

Note: (51) & (52) express the Rversine and Rsine in terms of
summation and repeated summation of Bi s - (They are Exact !)

## Derivation of sine series

Considering the limit n large or

s
n

very small

## Better approximations to the Rsine and Rversine of any desired

arc can be obtained by taking n to be very large or, equivalently,
the arc-bit ns to be very small.

## The Rversine Sn 1 Sn and the Rversine S 1 0. Hence,

2

S = Sn

B = Bn

s
(Bn1 + Bn2 + . . . + B1 )
(20)
nr
 s 2
s
[(B1 + B2 + . . . + Bn1 )
nr
+ (B1 + B2 . . . + Bn2 ) + . . . + B1 ].(21)

Here B and S are the Rsine and Rversine of the desired arc s.

The larger the value of n, the more accurate the results will be.

## Derivation of sine series

First approximation to Rversine in the limit n large or
I

s
n

very small

## As a first approximation, we take each pin.d.a-jy

a Bj to be equal
to the corresponding arc itself, that is
Bj

js
n

(22)

## Using this we obtain for the Rversine

 s h
s
s
si
S
(n 1)
+ (n 2)
+ ... +
n
n
n
nr  2
s
1
[(n 1) + (n 2) + . . . + 1].
(23)
=
r
n

## on the right hand side of

the above equation, we obtain
S

1
r

 s2
2

(24)

y

## is that of the natural

numbers
(1)
Vn = n + (n 1) + + 1.
This can be easily obtained from the series figure
(sankalita-ks

. etra), to be
(1)

Vn
I

n(n + 1)
.
2

(26)

## The second summation (dvitya-sankalita)

is given by
(2)

Vn

(25)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Vn + Vn1 + . . . + V1

(1.2)
n(n + 1) (n 1)n
+
+ ... +
2
2
2

(27)

(2)

Vn

n(n + 1)(n + 2)
1.2.3

(28)

y

## Similarly the general k -th (repeated) summation is stated to be 9

(k)

Vn

(k1)

+ Vn1

(k1)

Vn

n(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k )
.
1.2.3. . . . (k + 1)

+ . . . + V1

(29)

## What is needed for the evaluation of the Rsines and Rversines is

the value of these summations for large n. Clearly, for large n,
(k )

Vn

(k 1)

nk +1
1.2.3. . . . (k + 1)

(30)

## As we noted earlier, the result for the second (repeated) summation is

given in Aryabhat
.ya, Gan.ita 21. The general result for the k -th (repeated)
ayan
. a Pan.d.ita (c.1350) in his Gan.itakaumud,
summation is also given by Nar
3.19.

## Derivation of sine series

Second approximation to Rsine in the limit n large or

s
n

very small

## We now substitute our first approximation to the expression for

pin.d.a-jy
a-s Bj , we get,
  2  3
1
s
B s
[(1+2+. . .+(n1))+(1+2+. . . (n2))+. . . ].
r
n
(31)

## the second order

3
repeated sum, and an estimate of this is given to be n3! . Thus we
obtain
2 s 3
B s 1r 1.2.3
(32)

## Note: We note that the first correction obtained to the

Rsine-arc-difference (jy
a-c
ap
antara-sam
ara) is equal to the earlier
. sk
1 s2
correction to the Rversine (sara-sam
sk
a
ra)
.
r 2 multiplied by the arc
and divided by the radius and 3.

## Derivation of sine series

Second approximation to Rversine in the limit n large or
I

s
n

very small

a that we got is
 3
js
 2
js
1 n
Bj

.
n
r
1.2.3

(33)

## Introducing this in (53), we obtain

   2
1
s
S
[(n 1) + (n 2) + . . .]
r
n
 s   1 2  s 3  1 
[(n 1)3 + (n 2)3 + . .(34)
.].

nr
r
n
1.2.3

## The first term in (67) was already evaluated. An estimate of the

4
the second term n4 . Hence we get,
S

1
r

s2
1.2


1 3
s4
r
1.2.3.4

(35)

## Derivation of sine series

Successive higher order corrections : in the limit n large or

s
n

very small

## Again, if we use the corrected pin.d.a-jy

a-s in the expression for the
Rsine, we obtain
B

  2  3
s
1
[(1 + 2 + .. + (n 1)) + (1 + 2 + .. + (n 2)) + ..]
s
r
n
 4  5
1
s
+
r
n


 3
1
(1 + 23 + ... + (n 1)3 ) + (13 + 23 + ... + (n 2)3 ) + ..

1.2.3
 2 3
 4
1
s
1
s5
s
+
,
(36
r
1.2.3
r
1.2.3.4.5

## The above process can be repeated to obtain successive higher

order corrections for the Rversine and Rsine.

## Instantaneous velocity of a planet

The manda-phala or equation of centre correction
I

P0 mean planet

P true planet

0 mean longitude

MS true longitude
called the
manda-sphut.a.

A (direction of mandocca)

P (planet)

Q
0

P0
0

ms

## The true longitude of the planet is given by

r

sin M
= 0 sin1
R
where M (manda-kendra) = 0 longitude of apogee

## The second term in the RHS, known as manda-phala, takes care

of the eccentricity of the planetary orbit.

## Instantaneous velocity of a planet

Derivative of sin1 function

## The instantaneous velocity of the planet called t

atk
alikagati is
given by Nlakan.t.ha in his Tantrasangraha

as follows:

## . ca:nd;ba.a:hu:P+l+va:gRa:Za.ea: a.Da:ta:aa.\$ya:k+a:kx+. a.ta:pa:de:na .sMa:h:=e;t,a

ta.a k+ea: a.f:P+l+
a.l+ a.a:k+a:h:ta.Ma :ke+.nd;Bua: a.+.a=;h ya:a l+Bya:tea
If M be the manda-kendra, then the content of the above verse
can be expressed as
r
dM
i
cos M
d h 1  r
dt
sin
sin M = qR
2
dt
R
r
1 R sin M

(37)

## Instantaneous velocity of a planet

Derivative of the ratio of two functions

## Some of the astronomers in the Indian tradition including Munj

proposed the expression for manda-phala to be
r
sin M
R
,
= 
r
1 cos M
R

(38)

## According to Acyuta, the correction to the mean velocity of a planet to

obtain its instantaneous velocity in this case is given by
2
r
sin M
R
!
cos M +
r
R
1
cos M
dM
R


,
r
dt
1 cos M
R

r

(39)