Evaluation and remediation

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Evaluation and remediation

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Idaho State Aligned

Learning Continuum

Release 1.0

Northwest Evaluation Association

Learning Continuum

Table of Contents

Section 1 Introduction

Section 2 Goal Translation to Norms Chart

Mathematics

Section 3 Number Sense

Section 4 Estimation and Accurate Computation

Section 5 Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving

Section 6 Concepts and Principles of Measurement

Section 7 Concepts and Language of Algebra, Functions, and

Mathematical Models

Section 8 Concepts and Principles of Geometry

Section 9 Data Analysis, Probability, Statistics

Reading

Section 10 Word Analysis

Section 11 Vocabulary

Section 12 Literal Comprehension

Section 13 Interpretive Comprehension

Section 14 Evaluative Comprehension

Section 15 Literary Analysis

Language Usage

Section 16 Writing Composition and the Writing Process

Section 17 Writing Composition and Structure

Section 18 Correctness and Clarity: Grammar and Usage

Section 19 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Punctuation

Section 20 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Capitalization

Section 21 Correctness and Clarity: Conventions-Spelling

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Northwest Evaluation Association

Introduction to the Learning Continuum

Purpose of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum began as a cooperative partnership with one of NWEAs member

districts, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Its development is an example of how a spark of an idea can

become a tool that benefits teachers across the country.

For years, teachers using NWEAs Achievement Level Tests or Measures of Academic Progress

have been getting valid and useful data on their students. But, they have also continually asked

us the same question, How do I actually put this information to use in my classroom? In

response to this need, and driven by our commitment to improve the learning experience for all

children, we developed the NWEA Learning Continuum, which is but one answer to this

question.

The purpose of this document is to help guide instruction based on reports from an Achievement

Level Test or computerized Measure of Academic Progress. The Learning Continuum enhances

a teachers ability to provide targeted instruction for individual students or groups of students. It

is not intended to be a replacement for district curriculum or standards that are already in place.

Development and Organization of the

Learning Continuum

We developed the continuum by looking at curriculum from an analytical point of view. NWEA

researched each and every test item in our item banks (over 15,000 items) in mathematics,

reading, and language usage. We used only the items that had successfully passed field testing

and were available for use on tests. As we reviewed each item, we looked at the difficulty of the

items, the skills and concepts being assessed, and any new vocabulary or symbols that were

introduced. By doing this, a learning continuum of these skills and concepts began to unfold.

Thus, this document was born.

The Learning Continuum contains separate sections for each subject (mathematics, reading, and

language usage). Within each subject are the main goal strands commonly found in standards

and curriculum documents. The goal strands are then broken down into ten-point RIT bands.

Within each band, sub-categories, which further divide the content within the goal area, break

down the skills and concepts found in the NWEA item banks. Skills that cross several RIT bands

appear at the earliest RIT band where they are prominently seen, and these skills are not repeated

in the following RIT bands. Therefore, it is important to not only focus on the RIT band where

the student is functioning, but to watch for any holes that may have appeared earlier in the

continuum.

Only skills and concepts showing up in the NWEA item banks are listed in this document. We

realize that many districts have additional topic areas that will not show up here. We encourage

them to use the Learning Continuum as a tool to supplement the documents already in use by a

district.

3

Primary Use of the Learning Continuum

Given a students (RIT) achievement score (e.g. a mathematics RIT score of 187), teachers

identify the portion of the Learning Continuum (e.g. mathematics RIT scores between 181-190)

that represents the childs instructional level. The skills and concepts listed at RIT ranges below

that should be ones the student knows and has mastered.

A teacher uses the students overall RIT score as the starting place, then finds the appropriate

RIT band within each goal area. As the teacher works on specific goals, he/she can use the

Learning Continuum as a guide to watch for differences in students achievement levels.

These RIT bands can be helpful in preparing for flexible small group instruction within a

classroom. By putting students together who have similar instructional needs, a teacher can

better meet the needs of all students. Our goal is to create maximum growth for all students,

whether they are in the lowest quartile or the highest quartile. As students master the skills and

concepts within a RIT band, they can be shifted to another flexible group.

Educators should be aware of the achievement differences of students. For too long, school

districts have used a students age (grade level) as the primary criterion for selecting instructional

materials and lessons. We believe that a students current achievement level should be the

dominant consideration when grouping for instruction, selecting materials, and providing

instruction. The Learning Continuum will help teachers know when it is time to move a student,

or students, beyond the conventional curriculum at a particular grade level and when it is time to

develop skills that may have been presented in earlier grades.

In creating the Learning Continuum, we have attempted to create one continuous document

representing skills and concepts as they progress in difficulty. Their order is not based on any

one districts curriculum. One important note about the mathematics portion of the Learning

Continuum is that all skills and concepts are listed together in one document, regardless of the

typical grade level we see them introduced. Therefore, elementary, middle school, and upper

courses such as algebra and geometry content are included together. There is a natural

progression that can be followed from one RIT band to the next. We challenge you to think

outside the box in using this document.

If a students RIT score is borderline between two RIT bands, use the lower one first. Based on a

students performance, teachers can do further assessments to determine where the student is and

should be.

Other Uses of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum will have many uses, and we urge districts in the NWEA community to

explore these uses and report back to us on their experiences. Some possible uses of the

continuum are:

Materials Selection As teachers begin to explore the diversity of students performance

levels within a class, it will become necessary to get better at sharing materials. The

4

Learning Continuum can guide teachers in finding more appropriate materials for

students at the extreme ends of the spectrum.

Sharing Resources Following on the heels of materials selection is the ability to know

who to go to for getting appropriate materials for students. We encourage districts to

develop better ways to share resources, not only within a building but also across

buildings.

Gifted and Talented, Title I, and ESL Programs We hope the Learning Continuum will

serve as a guide to constantly push the envelope with all students in order to help them

grow as much as possible.

Curriculum Planning The continuum may become an invaluable resource during

curriculum development or program revision.

School Improvement Planning Knowledge of student achievement relative to the

Learning Continuum will likely raise questions about how we group for instruction, how

we use instructional time, how we structure our schools, how we organize our staff, and

how we design our facilities.

Monitoring Student Progress The Learning Continuum can be used as a guide to keep

track of where students are on the continuum. Checklists can be made from the document

to assist with this tracking.

Individual Education Plans We should always focus on the targeted growth we, as

educators, want a student to make. The Learning Continuum can help us identify specific

skills that will ensure students growth.

Parent Conferencing The continuum may help parents think of activities that will

engage their child in additional learning. It may also help parents better understand their

childs academic status and progress.

Future of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum began as a collaborative effort among NWEA members and will now

evolve as a result of the efforts and contributions of all who use it. This first edition is only the

beginning of what promises to be a substantial contribution to the future of education. As always,

NWEA client members will be called upon to share their ideas, insights, and the products of their

work so that all NWEA members can benefit from an improved product and expanded services

related to the Learning Continuum.

We have enclosed a fax-back form to gather your initial reactions to the Learning Continuum.

We are eager to hear from you and urge you to share with us so that all educational agencies

within the NWEA community, and the children they serve, may benefit from your experiences.

5

6

Northwest Evaluation Association

Goal Score Translation Chart

This chart is useful in translating the Hi, Av, and Lo goal scores from the NWEA class report. It is built

from the 2002 Achievement Level Test norms with the traditional breakdown of Lo equal to percentile

scores < 33, the Hi equal to percentile scores > 66, and Av equal to percentile scores between 33 and 66.

To use, find the students grade on the chart below and then find the descriptor for the goal that you are

referencing. Use the students overall RIT score as another guide. Refer to the Learning Continuum for

detailed skills and concepts that should be further assessed and instructed. There is a chart for each

subject. Seasons are broken down within the charts.

Mathematics

Fall Winter Spring

Grade

Level

Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi

2 < 173 173 182 > 182 < 178 178 188 > 188 < 183 183 193 > 193

3 < 185 185 196 > 196 < 190 190 200 > 200 < 195 195 205 > 205

4 < 196 196 206 > 206 < 200 200 210 > 210 < 203 203 214 > 214

5 < 204 204 215 > 215 < 207 207 219 > 219 < 210 210 223 > 223

6 < 209 209 222 > 222 < 212 212 225 > 225 < 215 215 229 > 229

7 < 214 214 228 > 228 < 217 217 232 > 232 < 220 220 236 > 236

8 < 220 220 235 > 235 < 223 223 239 > 239 < 226 226 243 > 243

9 < 223 223 238 > 238 < 230 230 244 > 244 < 236 236 250 > 250

10 < 226 226 241 > 241 < 236 236 248 > 248 < 245 245 255 > 255

Reading

Fall Winter Spring

Grade

Level

Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi

2 < 170 170 186 > 186 < 176 176 191 > 191 < 181 181 195 > 195

3 < 183 183 197 > 197 < 188 188 201 > 201 < 192 192 205 > 205

4 < 194 194 206 > 206 < 197 197 209 > 209 < 200 200 212 > 212

5 < 201 201 213 > 213 < 203 203 215 > 215 < 206 206 218 > 218

6 < 206 206 218 > 218 < 208 208 220 > 220 < 211 211 222 > 222

7 < 210 210 222 > 222 < 212 212 224 > 224 < 214 214 226 > 226

8 < 214 214 226 > 226 < 216 216 228 > 228 < 219 219 230 > 230

9 < 217 217 228 > 228 < 218 218 230 > 230 < 220 220 231 > 231

10 < 219 219 231 > 231 < 220 220 231 > 231 < 220 220 232 > 232

Language Usage

Fall Winter Spring

Grade

Level

Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi Lo Av Hi

2 < 172 172 187 > 187 < 177 177 192 > 192 < 183 183 196 > 196

3 < 187 187 199 > 199 < 191 191 203 > 203 < 194 194 206 > 206

4 < 197 197 208 > 208 < 199 199 210 > 210 < 202 202 213 > 213

5 < 204 204 214 > 214 < 205 205 216 > 216 < 207 207 218 > 218

6 < 208 208 219 > 219 < 210 210 221 > 221 < 211 211 222 > 222

7 < 211 211 222 > 222 < 213 213 224 > 224 < 214 214 225 > 225

8 < 215 215 225 > 225 < 216 216 226 > 226 < 217 217 227 > 227

9 < 217 217 226 > 226 < 217 217 228 > 228 < 218 218 229 > 229

10 < 218 218 228 > 228 < 219 219 229 > 229 < 219 219 229 > 229

Number Sense includes ratios, proportions, fraction-decimal relationships,

exponents, number theory, place value, and the relationship between numbers.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Whole Numbers

Match sets of objects to numerals 0-40 to demonstrate an understanding of one-to-one

correspondence

Identify and count numbers 0-20

Identify and order ordinal numbers (first to tenth)

Fractions

Identify equal parts of a region (halves, thirds, fourths)

Represent fractions by using models and drawings

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Compare and order numbers and sets of objects 0-10

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Whole Numbers

Identify missing numbers in a series through 100

Identify the number that is one more than, one less than, 10 more than, and 10 less

than a given number

Count objects that are grouped into tens and ones

Fractions

Identify one-half of an object from a picture

Place Value

Identify and understand the place value and value of each digit in numbers through the

hundreds

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Order numbers 0-100

Money

Identify value of a penny, nickel, dime, and quarter

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Whole Numbers

Compare two or more sets of objects (up to ten objects in each group) and identify which set

is equal to, more than, or less than the other

Count and write by 10s to 100

Distinguish between odd and even numbers

Count by 2s to 20

Round 2- and 3-digit numbers to the nearest hundred and tens

Fractions

Identify one-half of an object or set

Identify fractional parts of a region or group

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

1

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Write numerals in expanded form through the thousands place

Money

Identify value of a one dollar bill

Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Whole Numbers

Identify one more and one fewer

Count and write by 2s and 3s

Round 2- and 3-digit numbers to the nearest hundred and tens

Identify the value of Roman Numerals using I, V, and X

Factorization/Divisibility

Apply rules of divisibility by 5

Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers each of which is less than 100

List some common multiples of two whole numbers

Fractions

Separate regions into sub regions that are equivalent (halves, thirds, fourths)

Read, shade, and write fractional parts of a group

Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)

Decimals

Identify the greater or lesser of two decimals

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Match number words to numerals to the ten thousands place

Identify and understand the place value and value of each digit in numbers through the

hundred thousands

Add whole numbers using place value

Identify and understand place value for decimals (tenths, hundredths, and thousandths)

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Order sets of objects 0-20

Identify the greater or lesser of two numerals

Order numerals through 999

Identify the numeral that comes before, between, or after any given numeral through 999

Compare and order fractions

Compare and order decimals to the hundredths place

Money

Identify the coins: pennies, nickels, and dimes

Identify the value of a penny, nickel, dime, quarter, and one dollar bill

Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

Combine and identify equivalent values of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

Make change to $1.00 by counting on or subtracting

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Whole Numbers

Order numerals through 9999

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

2

Count and convert to dozens

Round 4- and 5-digit numbers to the nearest hundred thousand, thousand, hundred or ten

Factorization/Divisibility

Identify numbers as prime or composite

Apply rules of divisibility by 2s

Complete a factor tree for a number (prime factorization)

Understand and demonstrate that many whole numbers break down in different ways (e.g.,

12 = 4 x 3 = 2 x 6 = 2 x 2 x 3)

Identify the least common multiple of two whole numbers

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Write equivalent fractions using pictorial representation

Write improper fractions from picture presentations

Find equivalent fractions using multiples and factors

Write mixed numbers as improper fractions and improper fractions as mixed numbers

Identify the least (lowest) common denominator of two fractions

Express a fraction as a decimal and vice versa

Solve proportions using the cross product method

Decimals

Write a decimal for a shaded region (to tenths place)

Round decimals to the nearest whole number

Identify and understand place value for decimals (tenths, hundredths, and thousandths)

Money

Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $100.00

Percents

Model percents using a 10 x 10 grid

Write a decimal or fraction as a percent and vice versa

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Identify the number and written word for ordinal numbers

Write numerals in expanded form through the hundred thousands

Match word names to numerals through billions

Identify place value using model to count

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Compare and order fractions and mixed numbers

Exponents

Exponential representation of 3 multiplied numbers (2x2x2)

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Whole Numbers

Round to the nearest millions and billions

Write the Roman numeral equivalent of Arabic numbers 1-2000 and vice versa

Factorization/Divisibility

Apply rules of divisibility

Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers each of which is less than 100

List the prime and composite numbers less than 50 in a word problem

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

3

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)

Write the missing number in two equivalent ratios

Use a number line to identify a fractional point

Decimals

Write a decimal for a shaded region (hundredths)

Write a terminating decimal as a fraction or mixed number

Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, hundredth, or thousandth

Multiply a decimal by multiples of 10, 100, or 1000

Percents

Write a decimal or fraction as a percent or vice versa

Integers

Order integers on a number line

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Understand and identify the place value and value of each digit in numerals through the

billions

Write the word name for a decimal and vice versa

Write numerals in expanded form through the hundred billions

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Order numbers from least to greatest and greatest to least

Compare and order numbers through the billions

Order decimals and fractions to the hundred thousandths

Identify the greater or lesser of 2 integers

Ordering integers that include fractions and wholes

Ordering exponential values

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Write whole number in exponential form and compute the power of a number

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Factorization/Divisibility

Understand and use rules of divisibility

Identify the greatest common factor of two whole numbers: list the factors or prime

factorization

Identify the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Write improper fractions from picture presentations

Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)

Compare and order fractions and mixed numbers

Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line

Decimals

Round monetary amounts to the nearest single coin or bill which could be used to pay for a

purchase up to and including $20.00

Write the decimal equivalent of a fraction and label as repeating or terminating

Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, or hundredth

Write a terminating decimal as a fraction or mixed number

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

4

Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, hundredth, or thousandth

Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line

Percents

Express a fraction as a decimal and as a percent

Integers

Identify the greater or lesser of 2 integers

Order integers on a number line

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Understand and identify the place value and value of each digit in numerals through the

billions

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Compare and order fractions with the same denominator and with different denominators

Order decimals to thousandths; identify the greater or lesser of two decimals to thousandths

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Order of powers

Write a whole number or a decimal in scientific notation

Write a number expressed in scientific notation in standard form

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Model and write numerical fractions

Change a fractional numeral to its simplest form (lowest terms)

Understand the concept of ratio using concrete and pictorial models

Determine if a pair of ratios is equal or not equal using the equivalent fractions method

Write the missing number in 2 equivalent ratios

Solve proportions using the cross product method

Factorization/Divisibility

Identify the least common denominator for 3 or more fractions: list the multiples or prime

factorization

Decimals

Identify and order decimal and fractional coordinates on a number line

Relate fractions to decimals

Write a decimal or mixed decimal for a fraction (2/3=0.66)

Percents

Write a ratio (fraction) as a percent and a percent as a ratio (fraction): denominators of 100

Integers

Understand the meaning of integers

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Match word names to numerals to the hundred thousands in decimals

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Order a set of integers from least to greatest

Place numbers in correct order on a number line

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Identify and use powers of 10

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

5

Number Sense NWEA, 2003

6

Square Roots

Evaluate expressions using square roots

Absolute Value

Definition and application of absolute value

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Define ratio

Write ratios in a variety of ways

Decimals

Write a decimal or mixed decimal for a fraction

Write a whole number or a decimal in scientific notation (negative exponents)

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Write numerals in expanded form through the billions

Understand and identify place value and value of each digit in numerals through the hundred

billions

Square Roots

Identify perfect squares in a list of numbers and calculate the positive square root of a

perfect square

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Integers

Understand the meaning of integers

Square Roots

Evaluate expressions using square roots

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Evaluate powers with a negative exponent

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Percents

Change a percent to a fraction (including mixed numbers)

Square Roots

Understand properties of square roots

Irrational Numbers

Define irrational numbers

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Evaluate power of zero

Factorization/Divisibility

Identify the lowest common multiple of numbers in their prime factored state

Set Notation

Use inequalities to represent set notation

Estimation and Accurate Computations includes estimation, addition,

subtraction, multiplication, division of whole numbers, fractions, decimals,

percents, and positive and negative numbers, use of exponents, roots,

logarithms and matrices.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores lower than 150

Whole Numbers

Identify fact families with sums 0-18 in horizontal format

Understand the concept of subtraction using symbols; subtract two numbers in vertical

format

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Whole Numbers

Combine sets through manipulative and pictorial addition problems

Add three 1-digit numbers

Add 2-and 3-digit numbers with no regrouping

Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number with regrouping

Understand the concept of multiplication using symbols; recall multiplication facts with

one factor as 1,2,3,4,5 and other factor 0-9

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Whole Numbers

Separate sets through manipulative and pictorial subtraction problems

Add a 2-digit number and a 2-digit number with no regrouping

Subtract a 1-digit number from a 2-digit number with no regrouping

Subtract a 2-digit number from a 2-digit number with no regrouping

Subtract 2-and 3-digit numbers with no regrouping

Decimals

Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Whole Numbers

Add 1- and 2-digit numbers with regrouping

Add two 2-digit and 3-digit numbers with regrouping

Subtract two 2-digit numbers with regrouping

Understand the concept of multiplication using concrete objects

Add 2-, 3- and 4-digit numbers with regrouping

Multiply a 2- or 3-digit number by a 1-digit number with no regrouping

Multiply a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with regrouping

Divide a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with remainder

Multiply a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number

Fractions

Estimation and Accurate Computations 1 NWEA, 2003

Add fractions with like denominators

Decimals

Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Whole Numbers

Subtract a 2-digit number from a 3-digit number with a single regrouping

Identify the division facts related to a multiplication fact with one factor as 1,2,3,4,5 and

the other factor 0-9

Understand the concept of division using concrete objects

Subtract a 3- or 4-digit number from a 4-digit number with regrouping

Use strategies to develop computational fluency with multiplication: zero property,

property of one, arrays, doubles, nine patterns

Multiply a 3-digit by a 1-digit number with regrouping (including zero)

Multiply three 2-digit numbers (one is 10)

Identify the division facts related to a multiplication fact

Divide a 2-digit number by a 1-digit number with no remainder (basic facts to 9)

Solve one-step word problems involving division

Add 2 or several multi-digit numbers with regrouping

Subtract multi-digit numbers with regrouping

Divide a 3-digit or 4-digit number by a 1-digit number

Divide a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with no remainder

Add multi-digit numbers without using a calculator

Multiply multi-digit numbers

Fractions

Subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping

Decimals

Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

Add decimals to hundredths place using both horizontal and vertical format (not the same

number of digits)

Subtract decimals to hundredths place (not the same number of digits)

Multiply a decimal by a whole number

Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa

Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to

$10.00

Compute and count change up to and including $5.00 (addition and subtraction only)

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Whole Numbers

Solve one-step word problems involving multiplication

Subtract multi-digit numbers with regrouping

Multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with no regrouping

Multiply a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with regrouping

Subtract multi-digit numbers without using a calculator

Estimation and Accurate Computations 2 NWEA, 2003

Multiply a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number with regrouping

Multiply a 3-digit number or 4-digit number by a 2-digit number or 3-digit number with

zeros

Add whole numbers using place value

Fractions

Express 1 in many different ways (1/1, 2/2, 4/4)

Subtract fractions with like denominators

Add fractions having unlike denominators, answer in lowest terms

Decimals

Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of digits)

Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of

digits)

Compute basic operations with monetary amounts up to and including $20.00

Add decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without regrouping

Subtract decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without

regrouping

Multiply a decimal by a decimal, vertical form (tenths or hundredths)

Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to

$10.00

Compute half price greater than $20.00

Percents

Find a percent of a number (6% of 30)

Exponents

Identify the base and the exponent of a given numerical expression and calculate its value

Order of Operations

Evaluate numerical expressions using the order of operations

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Whole Numbers

Understand the concept of division using pictorial representation

Use front-end estimation strategy for multiplication and division

Divide a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with a remainder

Subtract multi-digit numbers without using a calculator

Multiply by multiples of 10 and 100 with an emphasis on mental math

Divide a 3-digit number by a multiple of 10

Divide a 3-digit number by a 2-digit number (no zeros)

Fractions

Add mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping

Subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping

Subtract mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping

Multiply a fraction by a fraction; answer in lowest terms

Multiply mixed numbers

Decimals

Add decimals to hundredths place using both horizontal and vertical format

Subtract decimals to hundredths place

Estimation and Accurate Computations 3 NWEA, 2003

Compute and count change greater than $20.00

Subtract decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator

Compute and count change up to and including $10.00 (addition and subtraction only)

Solve written word problems involving the addition or subtraction of monetary amounts

Percent

Find a percent of a number

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Whole Numbers

Divide a 3-digit or 4-digit number by a 1-digit number

Use multiplication as a check for division

Multiply by multiples of 10 and 100 with an emphasis on mental math

Divide a 4-digit number by a 2-digit number

Fractions

Add fractions with like denominators, answer in lowest terms

Add mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping

Multiply a whole number by a fraction

Divide a fraction by a fraction

Divide a mixed number by a whole number or a fraction

Decimals

Add decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator

Multiply a decimal by a decimal, factors to thousandths

Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa

Compute basic operations with monetary amounts up to and including $20.00

Integers

Add integers with like signs

Add integers with unlike signs

Add several integers

Multiply integers with unlike signs

Divide integers with unlike signs

Squares

Calculate the square of any number less than 100

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Whole Numbers

Develop computational fluency with division facts

Divide multi-digit numbers using a calculator

Introduce the math strategy of compatible numbers in estimating for all four operations

Fractions

Add and subtract fractions with like denominators; change improper fractions to mixed

numbers

Subtract fractions having unlike denominators, answer in lowest terms

Add and subtract whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers

Use estimation to solve problems involving mixed numbers

Estimation and Accurate Computations 4 NWEA, 2003

Divide a whole number, fraction or mixed number by a mixed number

Decimals

Subtract whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

Write a number sentence to solve one-step word problems involving the operations of

addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions and decimals

Subtract decimals through hundred-thousandths with a calculator

Multiply a decimal by multiples of 10, 100, or 1000

Divide a whole number (or decimal) by a decimal to thousandths

Integers

Divide integers, like signs

Percent

Find the percent one number is of another (20 is what % of 90)

Find a number from a percent (4 is 9% of what number)

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Whole Numbers

Divide a 2-digit number or a 3-digit number by a 1-digit number with remainder

Divide multi-digit numbers using a calculator

Fractions

Add fractions having unlike denominators with answer reduced to lowest terms

Subtract fractions having unlike denominators with answer reduced to lowest terms

Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators with regrouping

Add and subtract mixed numbers with unlike denominators with regrouping

Add and subtract whole numbers, fractions, and mixed numbers

Multiply a fraction by a fraction; answer in lowest terms

Multiply mixed numbers

Divide a fraction by a fraction

Divide a mixed number by a whole number or a fraction

Multiply three factors using fractions, mixed numbers, and whole numbers in any

combination, answer in lowest terms

Divide a whole number, fraction, or mixed number by a mixed number

Decimals

Add whole numbers and decimals to the hundredths place (same number of digits)

Subtract decimals to the hundredths place (not the same number of digits)

Subtract decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without

regrouping

Subtract a decimal from a whole number

Multiply a decimal by a decimal, factors to thousandths place

Divide a decimal by a whole number and vice versa

Divide a whole number (or decimal) by a decimal to thousandths place

Compute and count change greater than $20.00

Integers

Add integers with unlike signs

Add several integers

Estimation and Accurate Computations 5 NWEA, 2003

Estimation and Accurate Computations 6 NWEA, 2003

Multiply integers with like signs

Divide integers with like signs

Percents

Find the percent one number is of another (8 is what % of 20?)

Find a number from a percent (20 is 45% of what number?)

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Evaluate expressions using the order of operations that include exponents

Find products by applying rules for exponents

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Fractions

Multiply a whole number by a fraction

Integers

Subtract integers, subtracting a negative

Exponents

Understand and use the rules of exponents, including negative exponents

Roots

Simplify an expression containing imaginary roots

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Integers

Use the additive inverse property to solve problems

Use order of operations rules

Logarithms

Solve logarithmic functions

Properties

Identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational,

and real numbers

Matrices

Multiplication of matrices

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Fractions

Add and subtract rational numbers with unlike denominators (may involve integers)

RIT scores above 270

Fractions

Multiply a mixed number by a whole number, fraction, or mixed number

Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving includes a variety of

strategies such as guess and check, logical reasoning, using formulas,

and working backwards to solve simple and multi-step problems in all

mathematical areas.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (addition and

subtraction)

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Solve simple addition word problems

Understand the concept of addition using concrete objects

Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (any operation)

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Solve simple subtraction word problems

Use a problem solving process (as defined by text)

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Solve simple addition word problems

Write number sentences using addition

Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (addition and

subtraction)

Solve simple word problems using addition and subtraction

Solve one-step word problems involving addition or subtraction of four or fewer

digits

Solve one-step word problems involving division

Identify extra information or missing information that is necessary to solve word

problems

Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make

a model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, or Find a pattern

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Identify the correct information to solve addition and subtraction word problems

Solve one-step word problems involving multiplication and division, including

money

Estimate the answers to word problems

Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (all four operations)

Mathematical Reasoning and

Problem Solving 1 NWEA, 2003

Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make

a model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work

backwards, Solve a simpler problem, or Draw a diagram

Solve word problems involving any combination of basic operations on whole

numbers (one-step problems)

Write a number sentence to solve one-step word problems involving the

operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions and decimals

Use a number line to write number sentences using subtraction

Solve multi-step word problems involving any combination of basic operations

Solve one- and two-step word problems involving any combination of basic

operations on whole numbers, decimals, and fractions

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Translate verbal statements into equations (all four operations; several operations)

Estimate the answers to word problems

Solve written word problems involving the addition or subtraction of monetary

amounts

Solve word problems involving customary and metric measurement

Solve word problems involving distance, rate and time

Use logic to solve problems

Solve word problems using proportional reasoning

Solve geometry problems by making a drawing or diagram

Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a

model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,

Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, Write an equation, or Logical

Deduction

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Solve practical word problems involving perimeter and area of a square, rectangle

or triangle

Solve practical problems involving the mean (average) of a set of numbers

Solve one- and two-step word problems involving any combination of basic

operations on whole numbers, decimals, and fractions

Determine the discount price and sale price

Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a

model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,

Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, or Write an equation

Calculate the cost of one item or the unit cost using a proportion

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Choose and use an appropriate problem solving strategy: Draw a picture, Make a

model, Guess and test, Make a list, Make a table, Find a pattern, Work backwards,

Solve a simpler problem, Draw a diagram, or Write an equation

Write and solve an equation using ratios, given a word problem

Write and solve an equation for a word problem

Mathematical Reasoning and

Problem Solving 2 NWEA, 2003

Mathematical Reasoning and

Problem Solving 3 NWEA, 2003

Solve simple interest problems (amount x rate x time)

Use estimation to determine if solutions to word problems are reasonable

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Use logic to predict outcomes

Work backwards to solve problems

Solve multi-step problems involving computation

Find correct mathematical expressions to represent word problems

Find simple interest earned

Find commission and total pay

Find missing numbers in a diagram by using patterns

Use map scales to solve problems

Solve if-then logic problems

Solve complex word problems involving ratio, percent, discount, sale price,

rounding and estimation, averaging, length, volume, rate, calendars, probability,

money, and time

Given the answer to a problem, determine the question

Formulate expressions and equations to model problem solving situation

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Solve complex word problems involving rate, ratio, percent, averages, and sale

price

Solve problems involving regression equations

Manipulate problems with time and a half and overtime wages

Use of symmetry to determine grouping properties

Use a matrix to identify given figure on a graph

Write the converse of a geometric statement

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Solve problems involving ratio of a side of a figure to its area, perimeter, or

volume

Determine proportional parts of a number

Use proportional relationships to determine lengths of sides of a figure that are

represented by algebraic relationships

Solve complex word problems with surface area, area, circumscribed figures,

Pythagorean Theorem, consecutive integers

Use clues given in word problems to decode correct answer

Determine correct formula needed to solve problem

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Solve complex geometry, algebra, and probability problems

Solve problems involving successive discounts and rate of interest

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Solve problems involving successive discounts and rate of interest

Concepts and Principles of Measurement includes customary and

metric units of measure around time, money, size, temperature, and

weight, and the use of them in both calculating and estimating

measurements.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Length, Weight, Volume

Compare objects by shape, size, height or length (larger, smaller, taller, shorter,

longer)

Measure length with metric measures using a graphic of a ruler(centimeters)

Time, Temperature

Choose the appropriate tool: clock to measure time, calendar to measure days and

months, thermometer to measure temperature, ruler to measure length

Measure temperature with customary measures

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Time, Temperature

Order periods of time (days of the week, months of the year, etc.)

Tell and write time to the hour and half hour using analog and digital clocks

Identify and interpret a calendar

Read a Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometer to the nearest degree

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Length, Weight, Volume

Determine more capacity or less capacity

Measure length with customary measures (inch)

Measure weight with customary measure (pounds)

Measure capacity to the nearest cup, pint, quart, and gallon and do appropriate

conversions between these units

Estimate and measure the length of an object to the nearest metric and customary

measure using a picture of a ruler

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Find the perimeter of a figure using units

Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)

Time, Temperature

Tell time to the quarter hour using analog and digital clocks

Tell time to the nearest 5 minutes using analog and digital clocks

Compute simple conversions among units of time: seconds, minutes, hours, days,

weeks, months, years

Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003

1

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Length, Weight, Volume

Measure weight with metric measures with units provided (grams)

Measure length to the nearest inch, foot, and yard and do appropriate conversions

between these units

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Develop area readiness by counting squares and blocks

Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)

Find the perimeter of a polygon with 5 or less sides (no formula)

Time, Temperature

Tell time to the nearest one minute on analog and digital clocks

Compute word problems with time and calendars

Determine elapsed clock time (no remaining with addition and subtraction)

Determine elapsed clock time (any operation with renaming)

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Length, Weight, Volume

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer

Select the appropriate metric and customary unit to measure an object or distance

Perform conversions between linear units in the customary system; also as

necessary in addition or subtraction problems

Perform conversions between units of capacity in the customary system; also as

necessary in addition or subtraction problems

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Estimate and verify the area of a figure using square units (counting)

Find the area of irregular shapes; using square units

Find the perimeter of polygons

Time, Temperature

Identify time relationships: minutes in an hour, hours in a day, days in a week,

weeks in a year

Ratio

Understand the concept of ratio using concrete and pictorial models

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Length, Weight, Volume

Find the volume of a figure using cubic units

Perform conversions between units of mass in the metric system; also as

necessary in addition or subtraction problems

Select appropriate unit of measure for length and area

Find the volume of rectangular solids using the formula

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Find the perimeter of a square or rectangle using the formula

Solve practical word problems involving perimeter and area of a square, rectangle

or triangle

Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003

2

Calculate the area of a triangle

Time, Temperature

Compute basic operations with units of time (include basic concept of time zones)

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Length, Weight, Volume

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Calculate the area of irregular shapes

Understand the effects of changing dimensions on perimeter and area

Time

Compute word problems with time and calendars

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Length, Weight, Volume

Measure length with metric measures (centimeter)

Measure length with customary measures (inch)

Select the appropriate unit of measure for length, area, and volume

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Length, Weight, Volume

Find the volume of a pyramid

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Find the perimeter of a square or rectangle using the formula

Find the perimeter of polygons

Calculate the area of a parallelogram and rectangle

Calculate the area of a triangle

Time, Temperature

Convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit

Subtract Fahrenheit temperatures

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Calculate the area of a parallelogram and rectangle using algebra tiles

Understand the effects of changing dimensions on perimeter, area, and volume

Compare volume of different dimensional containers

Units

Select appropriate unit of measure

Precision

Actual versus precise measurements

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Length, Weight, Volume

Find volume of cones and rectangular prisms and cylinders

Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003

3

Concepts and Principles of Measurement NWEA, 2003

4

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Find area of inscribed figure by using midpoints and endpoints

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Understand that area of a square equals side squared

Find the perimeter with use of variables

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Length, Weight, Volume

Find volume of cylinder using knowledge of radius versus diameter

RIT scores between 281 and 300

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Solve problem using ratio of rectangular areas

Concepts and Language of Algebra, Functions and Mathematical

Models includes patterns, functions, solving equations, order of

operations, properties, simplifying expressions and continues up

through more difficult skills in Algebra specific content

Skills and Concepts

RIT score between 151 and 160

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Find and extend patterns

Recognize and extend a pattern: shape, color and size

RIT score between 161 and 170

Solving Equations, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Solve for missing numbers in an addition or subtraction sentence

Determine what operation is needed to solve a word problem (any operation)

RIT score between 171 and 180

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Recognize and extend a pattern: shape, color and size

Compare objects by shape, size, height, or length (larger, smaller, taller, shorter,

longer)

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Solve for missing factors in a multiplication or division sentence

Evaluate a numerical equation involving more than one operation

Use > or < symbols to compare two numbers

Properties

Identify the associative, commutative, identity and zero property of multiplication

Demonstrate the associative, commutative, and zero property of addition

RIT score between 181 and 190

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Find and extend patterns, both increasing and decreasing

Complete a number pattern

Complete a table according to a rule

Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Find a pattern

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Solve for missing addends in an addition or subtraction sentence

Use inverse operations to find missing equation

Identify missing elements in number sentences

Properties

Identify the associative, commutative, identity and zero property of multiplication

Concepts and Language of Algebra,

Functions and Mathematical Models 1 NWEA, 2003

RIT score between 191 and 200

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Count and write by 4s

Find and extend patterns

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Identify and understand the greater or lesser of two numerals (use the symbols <

and > through 999,999)

Use symbols of inequality, < and > to write and complete number sentences

Solve simple addition problems with n as an addend or sum

Solve simple multiplication problems with n as a multiple or product

Solve simple division problems with n as a quotient or divisor

Solve whole number equations with any operation

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Use of a function machine to determine input and output

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Evaluate an expression involving more than one operation (order of operations)

Use the basic properties of multiplication to write an algebraic expression that is

equivalent to a given algebraic expression

Solve equations involving more than one operation

Multiply and divide polynomials

Solve equations involving rational numbers (addition and subtraction)

Properties

Use strategies to develop computational fluency with multiplication: zero

property, property of one, arrays, doubles, nine patterns

Use the basic properties of addition to write an algebraic expression equivalent to

a given algebraic expression

Understand the properties of integers: commutative, associative, identity, zero

property of multiplication, distributive property of multiplication over addition,

and inverse property of addition

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Use logic to solve a problem involving a function table

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Solve decimal equations (one step, addition and subtraction)

Solve integer equations (one step, multiplication and division)

Evaluate expressions using the order of operations (may include parentheses or

exponents)

Solve quadratic equations

Properties

Understand the properties of integers: commutative, associative, identity, zero

property of multiplication, distributive property of multiplication over addition,

and inverse property of addition

Concepts and Language of Algebra,

Functions and Mathematical Models 2 NWEA, 2003

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Complete a function table according to a rule

Recognize and continue a number pattern and/or geometric representation (e.g.

Fibonacci sequence, triangular numbers)

State a rule to explain a number pattern, including arithmetic progression

Investigate geometric patterns and relationships and describe them algebraically

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Solve for missing addends in an addition or subtraction sentence

Use boxes or other symbols to stand for any number in expressions or equations

Solve whole number equations with one variable (multiplication and division)

Solve integer equations (one step, all four operations)

Solve equations involving more than one operation

Solve one-step linear equations in one variable using addition, subtraction,

multiplication, and division with integer solutions

Simplify numeric expressions by applying properties of rational numbers (e.g.

identity, inverse, distributive, associative, commutative)

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Using whole numbers, complete a function table based on a given rule

Graph linear functions, noting that the vertical change (change in y-value) per unit

of horizontal change (change in x-value) is constant

Identify linear equation for a straight line

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Write an algebraic expression to model a situation

Evaluate an algebraic expression for given values

Explore equivalent ratios involving missing variables

Use the correct order of operations to evaluate numeric and algebraic expressions

Simplify and evaluate expressions that include positive and negative integral

components

Simplify polynomials by combining like terms

Use the rules of exponents to multiply and divide monomials

Solve simple linear equations and inequalities over the rational numbers

Create a table of (x, y) values for the given linear equation and graph the function

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Students analyze a given set of data for the existence of a pattern and represent

the pattern algebraically and graphically

Determine whether a relation is defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a

symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion

Use a function table to determine inverse variation

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values

Concepts and Language of Algebra,

Functions and Mathematical Models 3 NWEA, 2003

Solve a system of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and interpret

the answer graphically

Graph a linear function in two variables using the slope-intercept method and

identify intercepts

Solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and identify the solution

set

Understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those

slopes are related

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials

Apply basic factoring techniques to second- and simple third-degree polynomials,

including finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the

difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions

Find the difference of two squares

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Simplify embedded expressions before solving linear equations and inequalities in

one variable

Solve problems that use variables in expressions describing geometric quantities

by solving for one variable

Solve equations with variables as exponents

Use the rules of exponents to multiply polynomials by monomials

Derive linear equations by using the point-slope function

Find the slope given two points on the line of a given graph

Write the equation of a line when given the graph of the line, two points on the

line, or the slope of the line and a point on the line

Simplify monomials containing integer powers and roots

Find the solution set for inequalities that include absolute values

Identify the equation of a parabola

Simplify expressions containing cube roots

Solve expressions containing factorials

Find the number of possible solutions for a system of equations

Cube a binomial

Quadratic Formula and Equations

Solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square

Know the quadratic formula and demonstrates its proof by completing the square

Identify discriminant and roots

Use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and

solve quadratic equations

Graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x-intercepts

Concepts and Language of Algebra,

Functions and Mathematical Models 4 NWEA, 2003

Concepts and Language of Algebra,

Functions and Mathematical Models 5 NWEA, 2003

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent

variables in a relation that is defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a

symbolic expression

Analyze properties and relationships of functions (e.g. linear, polynomial,

rational)

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Find the slope of a line parallel to a given line

Find the x-intercept of a given equation

Solve equations with fractions as exponents

Analyze a graph to identify the appropriate system of equations

Determine the vertex of a parabola

Determine which of several equations can be factored

Determine commonalities between three given equations of lines

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Identify the region defined by a linear inequality

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

Concepts and Principles of Geometry includes properties of two- and three-

dimensional objects, points, rays, lines, and angles including congruency,

similarities, and transformations, surface area, the coordinate plane,

trigonometry and the Pythagorean Theorem

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Identify and name the plane figures: circle, triangle, and square

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent figures (using same size and shape terminology)

Identify figures that are similar, have the same shape

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Identify and name solid figures: can (cylinder) and cone

Relate and compare plane figures to solid figures

Identify sides and corners (vertices) on solid figures

Contrast open and closed figures

Identify cylinder (can) attributes

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent figures

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Classify and sort solid figures

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent figures using terminology

Symmetry and Transformations

Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns) by identifying the

figure that will fit in a certain space

Direction and Distance

Identify position concepts: over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle,

bottom

Coordinate

Graph ordered pairs in the first quadrant

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Identify and name the plane figures: circle, triangle, square, and rectangle

Recognize solid figures: cube (box)

Identify characteristics of plane figures (sides and corners)

Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003

1

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent figures, angles, and line segments

Identify similar figures (same shape, may or may not be same size)

Symmetry and Transformations

Identify figures with line symmetry

Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns)

Identify types of transformations (slides, flips, and turns)

Line Properties and Terminology

Identify points on a line

Identify the correct label for a line

Coordinate

Graph ordered pairs in the first quadrant

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Recognize solid figures: sphere (ball)

Identify and name solid figures: cube, cylinder, cone, rectangular prism, and sphere

Identify characteristics of plane figures (sides and corners)

Symmetry and Transformations

Identify figures with line symmetry and symmetrical parts

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify position concepts: (over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle,

bottom)

Describe and measure right angles

Identify right angles

Identify intersecting, parallel lines

Identify the diagonal of a circle

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Identify faces, edges, and corners (vertices) on solid figures

Identify polygons: triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, and octagon

Identify quadrilaterals: square, rectangle, and parallelogram

Identify, name, and analyze solid figures: cube, cylinder, triangular pyramid and square

pyramid (faces, edges, and vertices)

Symmetry and Transformations

Identify mirror-images

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent figures, angles and line segments

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify points, lines, line segments, rays, planes, and angles

Identify the diameter of a circle

Identify intersecting, parallel, and perpendicular lines

Calculate the surface area of a rectangular prism

Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003

2

Identify angles according to their measure: right, obtuse, and acute

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Identify faces, edges, and corners (vertices) on solid figures

Contrast open and closed figures

Identify polygons: triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon

Identify quadrilaterals: square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus

Analyze solid figures: triangular pyramid and rectangular pyramid (faces, edges, and

vertices)

Congruency and Similarity

Identify similar figures (same shape, may or may not be the same size)

Identify congruent polygons and their corresponding sides and angles

Symmetry and Transformations

Identify types of transformations (rotation)

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify points, lines, line segments, rays, and angles

Identify angles: right, obtuse, and acute

Identify when two intersecting lines are perpendicular

Identify properties of similar figures

Measure angles using a protractor

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Analyze solid figures: rectangular prism, triangular prism, triangular pyramid, square,

pyramid (faces, edges and vertices)

Classify polygons by sides and angles

Congruency and Similarity

Identify congruent triangles according to corresponding parts (SSS, SAS, ASA)

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify the center, radius and diameter of a circle

Measure angles using a protractor

Classify angles: supplementary and complementary

Classify angles: adjacent, vertical, corresponding, and supplementary

Find the missing angle measurement in a triangle when two angles are known

Analyze circles: center, chord, diameter, radius, arc, semicircle, and circumference

Coordinate

Graph ordered pairs in all four quadrants (coordinate geometry)

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Symmetry and Transformations

Understand meaning and representation of a dilation

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Classify triangles by sides (equilateral, isosceles, and scalene) and angles (acute, obtuse,

and right)

Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003

3

Classify polygons by sides and angles

Identify and discriminate between regular and irregular polygons

Find the missing angle measurement in a triangle when two angles are known

Solve word problems involving similar polygons

Identify the base angles of a triangle

Know the definition of the hypotenuse of a triangle

Calculate the circumference of a circle using the formula

Coordinate

Find location of coordinates on a number line

Locate the vertex on a coordinate grid

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Congruency and Similarity

Construct congruent segments and angles

Symmetry and Transformations

Identify symmetry of a sphere

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify properties of parallel lines

Construct angle bisectors

Use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the measure of one side of a right triangle when

the other two sides are known

Identify angle bisectors

Solve problems regarding relationships among chords of a circle

Calculate the surface area of a rectangular prism and cylinder

Coordinate

Determine endpoints and midpoint of a line on a coordinate graph

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Congruency and Similarity

Solve problems involving properties of similar triangles

Symmetry and Transformations

Solve problems involving rotations (turns) and reflections (flips)

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify properties and slope of lines

Identify plane

Identify midpoint and endpoint

Identify perpendicular bisector

Identify properties of polygons (rhombus, parallelogram)

Relationship of size of angles and corresponding sides of a triangle

Trigonometry

Find sin and cosine of a given angle

Coordinate

Derive and solve problems involving use of ordered pairs to determine area of a figure

Know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including

rotations, translations, and reflections

Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003

4

Concepts and Principles of Geometry NWEA, 2003

5

Determine the axis of symmetry of a linear graph

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify the correct definition of a postulate

Solve problems using two chord power theorem

Identify and solve problems involving right triangles using the trigonometric functions

and the Pythagorean Theorem

Use of distance formula to determine type of triangle using coordinates

Solve problems regarding relationships among chords, secants, tangents, inscribed

angles, central angle, arc, and inscribed and circumscribed polygons of circles

Measure and compare angles in degrees

Solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, and surface area of

common geometric figures

Determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area, and volume of common

geometric figures and solids

Find and use measures of sides and interior and exterior angles to identify figures and

solve problems involving polygons

Know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including

rotations, translations, and reflections

Find the surface area of a polyhedron and cylinder

Find the diameters when given the area of a circle

Trigonometry

Use graph to identify trigonometric functions of angles

Find cosine, sine, and tangent of any given angle

Use law of cosines

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Congruency and Similarity

Prove that triangles and other polygons are congruent or similar using algebraic,

coordinate, and deductive proofs

Geometric Properties and Terminology

Identify number of diagonals of regular polygons

Informally prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of

complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles

RIT scores between 281 and 290

Symmetry and Transformations

Solve problems involving volume with rotational transformation

Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics Students determine the

mathematical probability of events, calculate measures of central

tendency, and work with combinations and permutations. Interpret and

predict information from charts, graphs, and tables.

Skills and Concepts

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Data Analysis

Use pictographs or bar graphs to compare quantities

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Probability and Prediction

Determine an outcome and make a prediction (single event)

Data Analysis

Represent and compare data (e.g. largest, smallest, most often, least often) by

using picture graphs, pictures, or simple bar graphs

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Probability and Prediction

Interpret a table and make predictions (chance)

Predict the likely number of times a condition will occur based on an analysis of

data

Data Analysis

Complete and interpret simple picture graphs, bar graphs, line graphs or tables

using the key to indicate the quantity represented by each symbol

Identify least and greatest values represented in bar graphs and pictographs

Complete and interpret simple picture graphs, bar graphs or tables

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Probability

Predict whether common events are certain, likely, unlikely, possible, impossible,

fair or unfair

Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner

Data Analysis

Solve simple word problems based on data from picture and bar graphs

Solve problems using information from a bar graph

Construct and interpret line graphs involving problem solving

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Probability and Prediction

Develop concept of chance and make predictions for events (ex. rolling a number

dice)

Combinations and Permutations

Solve problems involving combinations or permutations

Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 1 NWEA, 2003

Statistics

Use tallies to record data

Compute averages with a given set of data

Data Analysis

Solve problems using information from a bar graph

Solve multi-step word problems with pictographs, bar graphs, or line graphs

Construct, and solve word problems involving line graphs

Construct and solve word problems involving circle graphs

Construct and solve word problems involving information from a table

Read and interpret dual bar graphs and dual broken-line graphs

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Probability and Prediction

Compute simple probability outcomes

Determine the probability of an outcome (multiple events)

Use the counting principle to determine probability

Statistics

Solve practical problems involving the mean (average) of a set of numbers

Data Analysis

Solve problems using information from a picture graph (symbol may represent

more than one)

Interpret data given in percent form on a circle graph and broken line graph

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Probability and Prediction

Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner

Combinations and Permutations

Solve problems involving arrangements

Data Analysis

Read and interpret information from a graph

Interpret Venn Diagrams

Make predictions from a graph

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Probability and Prediction

Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner

Predict outcomes using probability

Combinations and Permutations

Use a tree diagram to determine the number of possible outcomes of an event

Statistics

Know the concepts of mode, median, and mean; compute and compare them in

simple examples to demonstrate that these measures of central tendency may

differ for a given set of data

Data Analysis

Interpret data given in horizontal and vertical bar graphs to solve problems

Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 2 NWEA, 2003

Data Analysis, Probability, and Statistics 3 NWEA, 2003

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Probability and Prediction

Determine the number of possible outcomes of an event

Permutations and Combinations

Solve problems involving combinations and permutations

Statistics

Calculate range, mode, median, and mean

Data Analysis

Read and interpret information in a table

Read and interpret information from a graph

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Probability and Prediction

Predict outcomes using a six-sided cube

Combinations and Permutations

Find how many different ways a set can be ordered

Data Analysis

Use a graph to predict some future point in time

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Probability and Prediction

Calculate basic probability theoretically and use results to make predictions

Data Analysis

Analyze graphs

RIT scores between 261 and 300

Combinations and Permutations

Perform complex combinations in problem solving situations

Data Analysis

Read and interpret box and whisker plots

Word Analysis Students understand relationships between words and

can use component structures and clues from context to decipher word

meaning.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150

Phonological Awareness

Recognize initial consonant h/p

Recognize short vowels a/o

Recognize plurals

Recognize basic sight words

New Vocabulary: ending sound, match, find

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Phonological Awareness

Recognize the correct use of the plural s ending

Match upper and lower case letters

Decoding Strategies

Recognize beginning sounds ch/cl/c/s

Structural Analysis

Identify the correct prefix (un-, dis-, in-, con-) to use with simple base words

Know the two word meanings of simple contractions, such as its = it is

New Vocabulary: missing word, prefix, choose

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Phonological Awareness

Recognize short vowels a/i

Recognize ending sounds n/t

Identify simple rhyming words

Decoding Strategies

Recognize vowel digraphs ew, eu, oi, ey

Recognize beginning sounds cr, bl, kn

Combine simple word family endings with beginning sounds to form words

Structural Analysis

Use word endings -et, -er, -le, -e to find word meaning

Use picture clues to form simple compound words

Identify compound words

Recognize when to change y to i and add ending

Identify the correct usage of prefixes (non-, un-, dis-, re-) with the same base

word

Know the meaning of the prefix un

Identify the correct suffix or prefix to use with the same base word (-less, -ful,

-ing, -er)

Word Analysis/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Know the meaning of the suffix -er

Know the two word meanings of simple contractions such as youre = you are

Put upper case letters in alphabetical order

Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes

Find the root word

New Vocabulary: compound word, poem, rhyme, root or base word, vowel, letter, story

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Phonological Awareness

Recognize medial vowel sounds ow/ short i, and the -ed ending

Recognize which letters are vowels

Match the words in phrases and simple sentences

Recognize one-syllable rhyming words

Decoding Strategies

Recognize beginning blends gr/ fr/ sc

Structural Analysis

Choose the compound word that is missing in a sentence

Know the meaning of simple compound words

Identify the correct usage of prefixes: un-, con-, dis-, in-, extra-, over-, re-, trans-,

pre-, de-

Know the meaning of prefixes: dis-, un-, re-

Identify the correct usage of suffixes: -er, -less, -ful, -ary, -able, -y

Know the meaning of suffixes: -er, -less, -ful, -ary, -able, -y

Know the correct usage of comparative suffixes: -er, -est

Put words in alphabetical order

Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes

Find the root word when used with simple prefixes and suffixes

New Vocabulary: underlined, suffix

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Structural Analysis

Find the word with the correct prefix in a complex sentence

Identify word using correct suffix to complete sentence

Identify the two words that make up a contraction

Divide words into syllables

Find the pairs of 2 and 3 syllable words that sound alike

Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes

Identify the root or base word in a multi-syllable word

New Vocabulary: contraction, directions, definition

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Phonological Awareness

Find the word that rhymes with a non-phonetic spelling

Identify same ending sound within a list of several words

Identify same ending sounds

Word Analysis/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Word Analysis/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Structural Analysis

Identify and/or form compound words

Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes

Given a root word definition find word that means ______

Given a prefix definition, identify the word meaning ______, with a variety of

prefixes from which to choose

Given the root meaning, identify word meaning______, with a variety of suffixes

from which to choose

New Vocabulary: alphabetical order, syllable

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Structural Analysis

Form multi-syllable compound words

Identify word that, with correct prefix, becomes its own antonym

Identify suffix which will give new meaning to specified word

Root Words, Suffixes, Prefixes

Identify base or root word in multi-syllable words

New Vocabulary: antonym, multi-syllable

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and

extended thinking.

Vocabulary Students gain a basic understanding of word meanings

and can use clues from context to decipher word meaning.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150

Context Clues

Associate single words with pictures

New Vocabulary: picture, word

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Context Clues

Match a picture with a sentence

Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word using simple vocabulary

Use context to find a missing word in a simple sentence

Make inferences from context

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Recognize word pairs with similar meanings

Use context to determine which of 4 words means the same as underlined word in

sentence (synonym)

New Vocabulary: missing word, choose, sentence

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Context Clues

Use a picture to identify a word or sentence

Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word in short sentences

Use context to find a missing word in simple and compound sentences

Use context to find multiple meanings when given a word list

Use word context to define evaluative meaning

Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Find the opposite meaning of simple words

Identify simple homonyms

Recognize the correct usage of simple homonyms

Recognize word pairs with similar meanings in longer sentences

Multiple Meanings

Use multiple meanings to define simple words

New Vocabulary: compound word, opposite, root or base word, story

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Context Clues

Use a picture to identify a word

Use context to determine which of 4 words means the same as underlined word

from paragraph of 20-30 words

Vocabulary/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Use context through complex sentences and phrases to find the meaning of an

unfamiliar word

Use context and inference to find a missing word

Use context to find the meaning of idiomatic phrases

Use context to find meaning of compound words

Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word

Demonstrate acquisition of more specific vocabulary

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Find the opposite meaning of a word

Recognize pairs of word opposites

Recognize word pairs with similar meanings in complex sentences and paragraphs

Multiple Meanings

Understand the correct meaning of a word that can have multiple meanings

Use context to understand multiple meanings within a passage

New Vocabulary: homonym, synonym, underlined, incomplete, paragraph, passage

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Context Clues

Demonstrate knowledge of increased vocabulary within the context of a sentence

or paragraph

Find a sentence which does not use a multiple meaning word correctly

Use context to determine the meaning of a word in a paragraph

Choose which of four sentences best expresses the meaning of idiomatic

expression

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Identify the word which is opposite of a given word

Identify words that are not antonyms (Term is defined in question. Identify the

antonym in context.)

Find the synonym for the word underlined in sentence

Identify which two words are synonyms as defined in a multiple sentence

question

New Vocabulary: nonsense, antonym, directions, definition

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Context Clues

Use context to determine meaning of specific word in paragraph of 30-60 words

Identify which of four words is the defined synonym for underlined word in

sentence

Know vocabulary with/ without context

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Given a sentence with a missing word, identify correct missing word from a list of

homonyms

Find pairs of words that are synonyms (defined in question)

Find groups of words with meaning that is similar to a given word

New Vocabulary: similar to

Vocabulary/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Vocabulary/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Context Clues

After reading a paragraph of 50-75 words, use context to determine meaning of a

specific word in paragraph

Given a complex sentence, determine which of four words is synonym (not

defined) for underlined word

Knowledge of vocabulary with or without context within a complex paragraph

Recognize and understand a variety of word referents

Recognize and understand sentences containing explanatory phrases, sometimes

set off by commas

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Identify sentence which means the opposite in a paragraph of 50-75 words

Choose word missing in the sentence when all choices are homonyms

Multiple Meanings

Use context of an advertising passage to figure out a word that has multiple

meanings

New Vocabulary: advertisement, magazine, article, recipe

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Context Clues

After reading a sentence with a paragraph of 75-100 words, use the context of the

sentence to find the meaning of specific word

After reading a story, find the word in the story which means about the same as

underlined word

Increased vocabulary within the story or passage

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Find words with opposite meanings within the context of a story or passage

New Vocabulary: label, selections, introduction

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and

extended thinking.

Literal Comprehension Students can recall, identify, classify, and

sequence details, facts, and stated main ideas from a variety of written

materials, and can interpret directions.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Sequencing

Format: Read approximately 30-word passages

Follow straightforward sequence of events

Use clue words supplied: first, next, last, before, after, later

Identify what happened after another event

Identify what happened last in a sequence of events

Reading for Detail

Format: Read short passages up to 40 words

Locate answers by finding exact words from question

New Vocabulary: last, after, story

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Locating Information

Use a sign: understand the meaning of information

Use a title: determine the content of a book

Use a simple index (one word descriptors, each on one page): page numbers

where information can be found

Use a table of contents: identify which story is found on a particular page

Reading Directions

Format: Read short simple sentences

Follow 3-6 steps, no more than 60 words

Find literal detail in simple directions

Determine the purpose of simple directions

Sequencing

Format: Read up to 70 word passages where clue words are rarely supplied

Identify what happened after another event

Identify what happened first or last

Recognize first or last in a subset of events from a passage

Reading for Detail

Format: Read short passages up to 50 words, which range from very short, simple

sentences to longer more complex sentences

Locate answers by finding exact words in passage

Recognize pronoun substitutions for nouns

Combine details from two simple sentences to arrive at answer

Understand the meaning of details to generalize an answer

Discriminate between similar sentences and details to find an answer

Isolate details necessary to answer question when given many details

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

New Vocabulary: after, book, first, directions, sentences, poem, index, table of contents,

sign, passage

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Locating Information

Use table of contents:

Find page number for a particular story

Determine which part of a book information can be found

Reading Directions

Format: Read some complex sentences in passages that include up to 7 steps, 60

words

Determine what to do before or after specific steps

Understand directions in a simple label

Find detail in simple directions

Sequencing

Format: Read up to 150 word passages with clue words rarely given

Determine first or last event from list of events in scrambled order

Recognize simultaneous events (when this happens, something else happens)

Recognize first in order of events when written not in actual order of occurrence

Identify what happens first in a subset of events from a longer passage

Recognize what happens after another event when reading a schedule

Identify what happens next or second, clue words supplied

Paraphrase events, recognizing first or last in order

Discriminate small but important details in ordering events

Reading for Detail

Format: Read longer passages, some up to 100 words; at upper RIT ranges,

passages contain less familiar content and more difficult vocabulary

Isolate details necessary to answer a question when given many details

Find exact words in a passage to answer a question

Recognize pronoun substitution for noun

In a letter, understand I and the author are the same person

Recognize important details when in a sentence with complex phrasing (no longer

simple, straightforward sentences)

Combine details from several sentences or rephrase details to answer a question

Identify the speaker in a short one-speaker passage

Use important details to generalize an answer

In a longer passage with longer, more complex sentences and more difficult

vocabulary, locate important details necessary to answer a question

Understand the relationship between details

Discriminate between details that are and are not stated in a passage

Use reasoning, word clues, and recognition of pronoun meaning to identify

speaker in a short passage containing more than one person

New Vocabulary: before, second, paragraph, following, letter, label, note, article, list

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Locating Information

Use an index:

More complex with main topics and subtopics

Information listed on multiple pages

Use a table of contents:

Understand that page number listed is the beginning page and that

information continues on subsequent pages

Use chapter title to determine content and page number to read

Use a title: Use word clues to determine content

Use a weather report: Paraphrase information

Use a sign or announcement: Understand the meaning of information

Use a bibliography:

How to read

Understand the meaning of (ed.) for editor

Reading Directions

Format: Read more complex sentences with up to 9 steps and 100 words

Find literal detail in how to directions

Understand literal detail in directions to a place using left or right or compass

directions

Determine what to do before or after certain steps

Understand directions on a typical label

Infer the purpose of written directions

Find the detail in a typical recipe

Determine the order of simple directions

Sequencing

Determine correct order of events when presented in scrambled order

Paraphrase order of events in a longer passage (up to 150 words)

Use clue words and reasoning skills to determine order of events when written out

of order of occurrence (understanding flashbacks)

Reading for Detail

Format: Read passages frequently around 100 words, containing a variety of

descriptive sentences and vocabulary, rich with detail

Isolate small but significant details necessary to answer a question

Understand sentences containing explanatory phrases set off by commas (my dog,

Spot my friends, Jane and Sally), recognizing that they are not items in a list

Understand relationships between details, combining details from several

sentences to form an answer

Recognize and understand pronouns substituted for nouns

Note he/she pronoun use to determine gender

Isolate significant detail, combine with prior knowledge to answer a question

Discriminate between details which are and are not stated in a passage

Determine who is the speaker in a passage

New Vocabulary: recipe, instructions, order of events, information, describe, ad,

bibliography, editor, character

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Locating Information

Use a table of contents:

Locate information on multiple pages

Use clue words from chapter title to determine contents

Use a list of facts: Use to find information

Use a schedule:

Understand the format, how days, events, and times are listed

Read to understand how long particular events last

Understand when events start

Use an index:

Meaning of see and see also

Organized in main topics and subtopics

How drawings, photos, and maps are listed

Difference between pages separated by commas or by hyphens (45, 48,

50-53)

Use an advertisement:

Determine what is being advertised

Locate and understand specific details in ad

Use reference materials: Determine best source of information (dictionary,

encyclopedia, television program guide, almanac, field guide, atlas)

Use a recipe:

Determine number served

Determine amounts of ingredients

Use a glossary: Understand relationship between dictionary and glossary

Use a title: Use clue words to determine content

Reading Directions

Format: Read some adult vocabulary, vocabulary difficulty increases as RIT

increases with up to 12 steps and 200 words

Understand specific detail in a typical recipe

Analyze detail in directions:

Determine important information in directions

Determine missing steps in a set of directions

Given directions and actions taken, determine which part of directions not

followed correctly

Understand directions on a label containing adult vocabulary

Determine purpose of directions

Understand directions in a recipe written in paragraph rather than list format

Understand directions on a test or worksheet

Sequencing

Format: Determine order of events in a passage containing more difficult

vocabulary, more complex phrasing, or less familiar content

Determine sequence of events in a passage containing a flashback

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Paraphrase order of events in passage containing more complex vocabulary,

phrasing, or figurative language

Use re-reading and cross checking to determine specific order of events

Determine which event comes before another

Determine which events occur simultaneously

Use reasoning and word clues to determine sequence of events in a passage

contain a flashback

Determine order of events when presented in a scrambled order (more complex

sentences, less direct language than previous RIT levels)

Determine which comes last from up to 9 events presented in scrambled order

Determine which occurs first AND last from events presented in scrambled order

Find first in a subset of events in the middle of a passage

Use re-reading and cross-checking to identify the order of events in a passage up

to 200 words

Reading for Detail

Format: Read passages containing rich detail, vocabulary, description, and

complex phrasing with extensive vocabulary necessary to understand meaning of

detail

Locate specific details in a passage to discriminate between similar answer

choices

Recognize significant details when paraphrased

Recognize and understand detail referenced by this, that, these, or those

Recognize and understand characters when referred to alternately by name and by

descriptive phrases

Understand and interpret significant details

New Vocabulary: literature, advertising, schedule, statement, announcement, biography,

entries, chapter, introduction, comparison, glossary

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Locating Information

Use a table of contents:

Use chapter summaries to determine contents

Use clue words from chapter title to determine contents

Determine the LAST page of a chapter (if chapter 2 begins on p. 20,

chapter 1 ends on p. 19)

Use an announcement: (lengthy and detailed, containing common abbreviations,

and adult level vocabulary)

Find and understand information

Use an advertisement:

Find and understand specific information

Determine what is being advertised

Understand abbreviations and shortened phrases in a classified ad

Use a food label: Determine the relative amounts of ingredients

Use reference materials:

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

Determine the best source of information (encyclopedia, catalog,

advertisement, magazine article, picture book)

Understand information contained in a dictionary entry

Use a bibliography:

How it is organized

How to read information (author, title, publisher, etc.)

Recognizing simple listing of magazines

Use a list: Meaning of information

Reading Directions

Find detail in a typical adult language recipe

Understand complex directions involving multiple variables (if you want this, do

that, if you want something else, do something else)

Understand typical medicine or product labels

Understand vocabulary specific to typical recipes and product labels

Find detail in complex, multi-step directions containing adult language

Paraphrase complex directions

Understand complex directionsmust find one detail, then re-read to incorporate

previous information

Use skills that progress in difficulty:

Skim, scan to locate details

Re-read specific parts

Combine two or more sets of information to complete understanding

Paraphrase

Sequencing

Format: Read longer and more complex sentences where the content becomes less

familiar and the difficulty of the vocabulary increases (soon after this happened,

that happened)

Read passages where word clues are less direct: from first, later, and finally to

after the frost, in the spring, when they had eaten lunch

Use indirect word clues to determine sequence of sentences from scrambled order

Determine which event came second or next from sentences in scrambled order

Determine sequence of key events from complex paragraph

Determine events that occur after or simultaneously in longer, more complex

paragraph

Determine first event from a sequence of events written in the middle of a

paragraph

Use key words to paraphrase order of events

Use re-reading and cross checking to identify order of events

In a paragraph of unfamiliar content and vocabulary, determine what comes next,

after another event

Use direct word clues to determine what comes before

Determine what comes first in a paragraph containing a flashback

Reading for Detail

Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar

content, extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001

Isolate small but significant detail necessary to answer a question in long, detail-

filled passages

New Vocabulary: indicated, series of events, chronological order, definition, dictionary,

sequence, description, catalog, journal, report

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Locating Information

Format: Read passages that are lengthy, detailed, and contain adult vocabulary.

They are typical examples one would find everyday, not specific to children

Use an announcement: Find and understand specific information

Use a handbook: Find and understand specific information

Use a shipping and handling chart: Recognize, know it by name

Use a phone book:

Yellow pages: how to read, find, and understand specific information

White pages: how to use guide letters

Use a catalogue:

Use summary information to determine which product to purchase

Find and understand specific information

Use an index:

Organization of topics

Using increased specificity of terms to locate information

Understand page list format, difference between use of commas and

hyphens (43, 57, 60-62)

Use a bibliography:

Find and understand information in an annotated bibliography

Use a glossary: How to use

Use a field guide: Find and understand specific information

Use a dictionary: How to use to find word meaning

Reading Directions

Synthesize/paraphrase directions

Follow multi-step directions containing adult vocabulary where the outcome is

not obvious

Follow detail in typical medicine or product label

Synthesize intention of directions

Understand small but significant detail in directions

Sequencing

Format: Read passages that contain unfamiliar content, adult vocabulary, few

word clues, longer sentences, and complex phrasing

Paraphrase sentence order from passage with phrases like just before this

happened, that happened and after this happens but before that happens

Determine last, first, and next, paraphrasing events from passage

Use indirect word clues to determine the order of scrambled sentences

Determine what comes after another event

Determine the sequence of events in a subset of events in the middle of a passage

Paraphrase the sequence of events in a complex passage

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001

Reading for Detail

Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar

content, extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing

Locate small but significant detail in a detail-filled passage

Understand and interpret significant detail

Understand and paraphrase significant detail

Discriminate between details which are and are not stated in a passage

Locate more than one detail in a detail-filled passage

New Vocabulary: guide, handbook, selections

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Locating Information

Read passages where details being located are more specific and less obvious,

requiring careful reading or re-reading

Use an announcement:

Find and combine specific pieces of information

Find and understand specific, detailed information

Compare specific pieces of information

Use a weather report: Find and understand small but significant details

Use sports scores: Understand commonly used abbreviations

Use a recipe: Find and understand small but significant details

Reading Directions

Understand intent of directions

Synthesize complex directions

Sequencing

Summarize events in correct order

Use reasoning to determine the correct order of scrambled sentences

Determine what comes after in passages with complex phrasing (just before he

did this, he did that)

Use word clues and reasoning to determine what comes first when sentences

contain flashbacks or are not written in exact time order

Reading for Detail

Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content,

extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing

Isolate information not stated in a detail-filled passage

Paraphrase and interpret significant detail

Locate specific detail in a long, detail-filled passage

Locate and interpret several details in a detail-filled passage

New Vocabulary: publications, editorial

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 8 NWEA, 2001

Literal Reading Comprehension/Idaho 9 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Reading Directions

Synthesize/paraphrase directions

Reading for Detail

Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content,

extensive vocabulary, complex sentence phrasing

Locate, paraphrase, and interpret multiple details in a detail-filled passage

New Vocabulary: none

Interpretive Reading Comprehension Students can make reasonable

predictions before, during, and after reading, can draw inferences

necessary for understanding, can recognize cause-effect relationships,

and can summarize and synthesize information from a variety of

written materials.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Use simple details to make simple inferences

Summarize and Synthesize

Determine the main idea of a simple factual section

Cause and Effect

Identify or determine simple cause and effect relationships

New Vocabulary: missing word, story, paragraph, sentence

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Infer the qualities or purposes of a list

Draw conclusions based on information in a story about events taking place

Prediction

Predict future events based on the simple details of a story

Summarize and Synthesize

Determine the main idea of a simple story

Cause and Effect

Identify, determine, or infer simple cause and effect relationships in simple

situations

New Vocabulary: questions, main idea, riddle, list, passage

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Make inferences by noting specific details in multi-paragraph selection

Infer the qualities or purposes of a list

Make inferences using details in an advertisement

Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters

Infer answers to riddles by noting details

Draw conclusions based on information in a story as to what will probably

happen next

Predictions and Generalizations

Predict future events based on a multi-paragraph passage

Summarize and Synthesize

Look at details to determine and refine the main idea of 30-50 word paragraph

Identify the topic sentence in a simple paragraph

Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Create a topic sentence for a simple paragraph

Determine the main idea by selecting the best title for a story or passage

Refine and explain the main idea of a selection

Cause and Effect

Format: Read short passages with relatively simple sentences and basic

vocabulary where cause and effect are stated in same sentence with some clue

words supplied (because, so)

Determine cause and effect relationship in a passage containing extraneous

information

Identify causes and effects stated in different sentences

Identify causes and effects implied, not stated directly

New Vocabulary: title, cause, facts, effect, opinion, ad, describes, author

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Draw conclusion based on interpretation of information read

Infer conclusion from prior information

Predictions and Generalizations

Predict what will happen next in a multi-paragraph passage

Generalize from specific information within the passage

Summarize and Synthesize

Summarize a short passage of 100-150 words

Determine main idea in different genre

Identify the main idea of a poem

Make inferences about main idea of a personal note

Determine main idea from a variety of nonfiction

Identify topic sentence

Infer best title for a story or passage

Cause and Effect

Format: At lower RITs, read simpler passages, vocabulary, and content; at higher

RITs, read more complex content in passages

Identify basic cause and effect relationships, stated in same or adjoining sentences

Use clue word because supplied in answer choices to help focus thinking

Identify implied cause and effect relationships

New Vocabulary: predict, outcome, statement, poem, article, conclude, summary,

problem

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Draw a conclusion based on interpretation of information read

Predictions and Generalizations

Generalize a statement from specific information within the passage

Summarize and Synthesize

Summarize a longer passage by outlining

Infer main idea from a variety of genre

Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Infer main idea from textbook page

Infer main idea of article from newspaper or magazine

Cause and Effect

Format: Read passages with complexity of content and vocabulary

that include some clue words like since and so and because

Identify cause presented at beginning of passage relating to effect presented

at end of passage

Determine cause and effect of a variety of events

New Vocabulary: summarize, conclusion, cause and effect, central idea, compare,

selection, introduction

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Make inferences from announcements

Make inferences about directions on labels

Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature

Make inferences from information found on book flap

Make inferences from textbook technical reading

Form a conclusion based on interpretation of information from a variety of

sources

Predictions and Generalizations

Predict future events based on prior conclusions drawn

Summarize and Synthesize

Identify main idea in magazine articles or stories from other sources

Cause and Effect

Read slightly longer passages, with more difficult content and vocabulary which

use clue words since and because of

Demonstrate combining several pieces of information to understand the cause and

effect relationship

Identify which is the cause and which is the effect when given a situation

New Vocabulary: infer, solution, prediction, announcement, biography, explanation,

chapter, legend, topics, characteristics, main characters, assume, library, speaker

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Draw Conclusions/Inferences

Make inferences from catalog selections

Make inferences from handbooks

Make inferences from a science fiction passage

Draw a conclusion from the passage by inferring the interpretation of the

information read

Identify conclusion to story

Predictions and Generalizations

Create prediction for recipe

Predict outcome from advertisement

Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Interpretive Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Summarize and Synthesize

Identify why author chose title

Identify main idea in newspaper and other articles

Restate lengthy passage through summarizing

List specific information in systematic order and give a general summary

Cause and Effect

Read longer passages, with more difficult content and vocabulary

Identify which is not the effect of a stated cause

New Vocabulary: implied, inferred, premise, impression, contrast

RIT Scores above 221

Cause and Effect

Read passages with more difficult, less familiar content and vocabulary

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and

extended thinking.

Evaluative Reading Comprehension Students understand fact,

opinion, bias, assumptions, and elements of persuasion, and can

evaluate the quality and validity of written material. Students can

compare works, evaluate conclusions, and apply what is learned to real

life experiences.

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length,

complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores below 150

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify common words, generally nouns

Identify word that belongs in broad category based on type

Identify word not like the others, based on type

New Vocabulary: none

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify general category name for specific word based on type

Identify items belonging to a category based on use

Identify items that do not belong to a category based on use

New Vocabulary: thing

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Format: At beginning of range, distracters very different from correct answer

choices. As RIT increases, distracters become more similar, requiring the use of

more specific vocabulary

Identify which item is not like the others based on type or use

Identify which item is not a member of a broad category or group

Complete a simple analogy, matching a common tool to the user

Identify which item is a member of a category based on type or use

Identify category name for a specific item

Fact and Opinion

Read information presented in one or two very simple statements

Distinguish fact from that which is inferred

New Vocabulary: sentence, page, missing word, belongs

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Format: Read simple text, generally less than 50 words, basic vocabulary, where

the speaker/writers opinions are stated directly and obviously

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Determine speaker/writers opinion or way of thinking about a topic

Understand meaning of the word bias

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify which are not members of a group based on defined characteristics

Identify the group name or category in which it belongs when given a noun

Identify which noun is not like the others

Identify which word belongs in the same category when given a list of descriptive

words

Identify another member of the group when given a group name

Identify which sentence is not on a specific topic

Generalize how items or ideas are alike

Find relationships between words based on analogous relationships (things to eat

hunger)

Fact and Opinion

Format: Read information presented in short simple paragraph

New Vocabulary: story, paragraph, bias, passage, writer

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Determine why a simple story is fiction

Determine which statement is untrue based on information given in a short,

simple passage

Determine which person would be more likely to have more relevant information

when given an event described by different people

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Read simple text, generally less than 75 words, basic vocabulary where the

speaker/writers opinions stated directly and obviously

Determine what the writer wants the reader to notice, care about, or feel

Determine which words persuade the reader or catch the readers attention

Determine the purpose of an advertisement

Determine to which senses certain words appeal

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Apply logic to analyze simple relationships

Identify which sentence does not relate to a story topic

Identify analogous relationships between words

Identify lists of words that all belong to the group when given a category name

Distinguish between factual and inferential observations when given a simple

situation

Determine probable common use of a list of items

Tell how items on a list are all alike

Identify items that belong in a named group

Identify which items do not belong to a group, based on secondary attributes

Identify how phrases are alike based on what they tell

Identify which word is not a member of a group or category based on specific

definitions

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Classify types of writing based on purpose

Fact and Opinion

Format: Read information presented in short simple paragraph where the

paragraphs get longer with more detail and vocabulary as RIT increases

Given a short paragraph, distinguish a factual statement about the information

from statements of opinion

Compare and Contrast

Given factual paragraph, compare information (how are they alike?)

New Vocabulary: classified as, describe, idea, list, ad, make-believe, advertisement,

definition, label, facts

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Determine the most qualified source of information

Determine which facts best support a conclusion or an opinion

Determine the most valid conclusion when given a simple event or situation

Distinguish what is true or factual from what might be inferred when given a

simple passage

Determine the validity of opinions based on facts given in a short simple passage

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Format: Read longer passages, up to 100 words, where situations are still fairly

straightforward, with basic vocabulary

Determine the purpose of an advertisement or other persuasive writing

Determine what the writer wants the reader to notice or care about

Recognize techniques used in ads or other persuasive writing to persuade readers

Distinguish facts from persuasive elements in an advertisement

Infer errors in a characters thinking that lead to stereotyping when given a basic

scenario

Infer who is speaking/writing based on his/her opinions or way of thinking

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify words belonging to the same category based on attributes of the words

themselves

Identify which item belongs to a group based on secondary attributes

Identify which sentence does not relate to a more specific topic when given

sentences all relating to a general topic

Identify which word is not a member of a group or category based on information

in a passage or specific definitions

Identify which items belong in a common group when given words that may have

multiple meanings

Determine simple logical relationships (if then)

Determine where information will most likely be found based on attributes

Determine category names for words in up to three different categories

Determine how sentences are all alike (main topic)

Determine which would not be attributes of another item when given words, some

with multiple meanings

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Determine analogous relationships

Fact and Opinion

Format: As RIT increases, difficulty of vocabulary increases, longer sentences or

passages are used, and content becomes less familiar and more difficult

Distinguish what is fact from that which is inferred when given a short passage

Know the meaning of the words fact and opinion

Determine if statements are true, false, fact, or opinion

Identify factual statements made based on information found in a longer passage

Identify word clues that signal an opinion

Compare and Contrast

Compare and contrast animate and inanimate

New Vocabulary: opinion, conclusion, valid, appeal, descriptions, detail, accuracy,

attitude, phrase

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Infer/evaluate content based on small sample of writing

Infer/evaluate what is important to a character

Infer/evaluate characters feelings or interests

Determine which facts do or do not support a conclusion

Given a simple passage, distinguish what is true or factual

Determine the most qualified source of information

Evaluate and prioritize reasons

At upper range of RITs, determine which fact supports more than one conclusion

Determine which statement best supports a specific conclusion

Determine statements that cannot be concluded from information in a passage

Use logical reasoning to determine the validity of a statement

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Format: Read longer passages, generally less than 150 words but some longer

where the difficulty of vocabulary increases as RIT increases

Recognize persuasive techniques or methods

Determine to whom an ad will appeal

Determine how an ad gets your attention

Determine the effectiveness of persuasive arguments

Determine the action the ad persuades the reader to take

Infer errors in reasoning that lead to stereotypical thinking

Infer beliefs, opinions, or way of thinking of speaker, writer, or character

Understand and apply meaning of bias

Recognize bias or assumptions as opinions

At upper range of RIT

Generalize type of people who would agree or disagree with specific opinions

Understand the meaning of assumption or underlying assumption

Understand why people have different opinions or ways of thinking

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify which word belongs in a group based on implications of words,

definitions provided, or interpreting multiple meanings or words

Identify which sentence does not relate to a more specific topic when given

sentences all relating to a general topic

Put ideas in appropriate groups when given two category names

Match information in a passage with informal outline of information

Identify items not like others based on secondary attributes provided in written

definitions

Combine information written in a passage with information from experience to

determine how one thing is like or unlike another thing

Identify topics that could be added to an existing outline

Identify which word is not like the others based on secondary attributes

Find common attributes of a defined list of items

Fact and Opinion

Identify which specific words are opinions

In a longer passage, distinguish which statements are facts from those that are

opinions

Identify word clues that signal fact, not opinion

Determine that which is fact from that which is inferred

Analyze a passage to determine proportion of fact or opinion

Compare and Contrast

Contrast information (how are they different?) when given a factual paragraph

Locate appropriate information to compare or contrast in longer passages with

unfamiliar content

New Vocabulary: comments, persuasion, technique, editorial

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Format: Read passages that are generally longer, with much detail, extensive

vocabulary, and less familiar content

Evaluate relative importance of information

Determine which statement or detail best supports a specific conclusion

Determine most qualified source of information

Determine most valid conclusion based on information in a passage

Distinguish facts that can be concluded from that which is opinion or inferred

when given a longer, more detailed passage

Determine additional information needed to evaluate information in a passage

Use logical reasoning to determine the validity of a conclusion

Note the clue word probably meaning not conclusively

Determine which statement or detail does not support a conclusion

Identify faulty reasoning leading to a conclusion

Evaluate the quality of information used to support a conclusion

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

As RIT levels increase, differences between distracters and correct answer choice

become less obvious, require more thought

Read passages that vary in length, while difficulty of vocabulary tends to increase

Determine how assertions of persuasive writing are supported

Determine to whom and to what feelings ads appeal

Determine what the writer wants the reader to believe about their product or

service

Determine information not given in an ad

Understand meaning of the word discrimination

Infer beliefs, opinions, ways of thinking, or assumptions of writer or characters

Generalize type of people who would agree or disagree with specific opinions

Compare and contrast opinions or assumptions of characters

Infer errors in reasoning that lead to stereotypical thinking

Infer assumptions reader can make from a passage

Generalize opinions or assumptions of writer

Discriminate between fact and bias

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Demonstrate using alphabetical order to the fourth letter

Find words that are like or different from the others based on secondary attributes

when given definitions of similar or related words

Identify words that belong to the same group based on implications, connotations,

multiple meanings, or secondary attributes when given more difficult vocabulary

words

Identify analogous relationships

Find commonalities in a set of distinct descriptions

Determine which would be logical explanations for events

Fact and Opinion

Analyze passage for opinion, inference, value judgment, or fact

Distinguish unsupported opinion from fact

Determine content of passageproportion of fact to opinion

Distinguish that which is fact from that which is inferred

Identify a sentence as being an editorial comment or part of a factual news story

Compare and Contrast

Locate multiple pieces of information to compare or contrast

Determine what information is being compared

New Vocabulary: evaluate, assumption, logical argument, factual, unbiased, propaganda

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Format: Read longer passages with more detail, more extensive vocabulary, and

less familiar content

Evaluate whether or not an argument is consistent

Determine which conclusion is supported by facts in a passage

Determine which fact or detail supports a conclusion

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001

Evaluative Reading Comprehension/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001

Identify faulty reasoning leading to a conclusion

Identify a conclusion not supported by facts or details in a passage

Evaluate reasoning leading to a conclusion

Evaluate the quality of information sources

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Read passages where topics are less familiar, with rich, varied vocabulary

Determine purpose of persuasive ad or argument

Determine persuasive techniques or methods

Determine tone or effect of persuasive writing

Analyze persuasive statements

Determine to whom or what feelings persuasive writing will appeal

Incorporate higher level thinking to understand topics and to differentiate between

answer choices

Infer assumptions of writer or character

Generalize opinions or assumptions of writer

Generalize people likely to agree or disagree with opinion or assumption

Recognize difference between discriminatory and non-discriminatory statements

Recognize statements or thinking not assumed by the writer

Categorize/Classify Information, Thinking Skills

Identify words that belong to the same group based on implications, connotations,

multiple meanings, or secondary attributes given more difficult vocabulary words

Identify the sentence that does not related to the specific topic in a long, complex

passage

Find commonalities in a set of distinct descriptions

Fact and Opinion

Use word clues to distinguish opinions from fact

New Vocabulary: observation, contradict

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Evaluate Validity/Authors Conclusions

Determine the most qualified source of information

Analyze the reasoning used to support a conclusion or opinion

Determine which conclusion is supported by facts or details in a passage

Use logical reasoning to arrive at a conclusion

Persuasive Elements, Propaganda, Bias, Assumptions, Stereotypes

Format: Read passages with complex topics, some quite difficult vocabulary, and

more complex distracters that require more thought to determine correct answer

choice

Understand the meaning of the word stereotype

Infer and generalize assumptions of writer

Imply purpose of persuasive writing

New Vocabulary: analyze, stereotype

Literary Analysis Students respond to stories based on well-know

characters, themes, plots, and settings

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length,

complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Story Elements

Infer the setting of a simple story by noting details that tell time or place

New Vocabulary: story

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Literary Devices

Determine the mood or tone of a simple passage

Infer actions, characteristics, emotions, or qualities of characters

Story Elements

Identify the problem in a story

Determine how a problem was solved

Authors Purpose/Technique

Determine the authors purpose for simple forms of writing

New Vocabulary: passage, sentence, problem, sign, list, poem, fairy tale

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Genre

Identify the basic form of writing/genre selection

Identify the format of poetry

Identify the rhyming characteristics of poetry

Literary Devices

Determine the mood or tone of a 50-75 word passage

Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters

Story Grammar

Compare and/or contrast people in a passage

Compare and/or contrast events and details of a story

Story Elements

Identify characters in a simple story

Infer the characters emotions

Infer the setting by noting specific details

Identify the problem in a story

Determine an appropriate resolution to a problem

Authors Purpose/Technique

Determine the authors purpose for writing in a 50-75 word selection

Determine how an authors words or techniques influence the readers feelings

Literary Response/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

New Vocabulary: describe, missing word, paragraph, authors purpose, ad, letter, fable,

report

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Genre

Recognize personal note writing

Distinguish between fantasy and realistic fiction

Identify realistic fiction

Read for details in folk tales

Distinguish between descriptive and realistic writing

Understand the characteristics of legends and myths

Understand poem structure

Literary Devices

Determine word choice that develops mood

Understand the meaning of a metaphor used in a story

Identify use of simile in a writing, not by name

Make inferences from a variety of personal narratives

Make inferences from a fable

Make inferences about characters in a variety of literature

Infer who is the narrator

Make inferences from poetry

Make inferences from riddles

Story Grammar

Compare and contrast characters, both major and minor characters

Story Elements

Determine point of view of main characters

Determine main characters and quality of each character

Organization of paragraph by location, main idea, and sequence of events

Identify problem and its resolution

Identify settingwhere, and when

Identify theme or moral in a multi-paragraph passage

Identify how to resolve problem

Authors Purpose/Technique

Determine authors point of view

Determine how author develops characters through word choice and story

sequence

New Vocabulary: theme, action, setting, predict, author, solve, purpose, make-believe,

mood, point of view, tone, moral, character, legend, fantasy, diary, note

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Genre

Recognize personal narrative

Distinguish between fiction and nonfiction writing

Analyze and gain understanding of legends

Literary Response/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Literary Devices

Use imagery, humor, rhymes to develop interest

Use of devices by author such as word choice to create mood

Determine word choice to develop mood and voice

Recognize elements of foreshadowing

Understand meaning of idiom used in the story

Identify an onomatopoeia element in the story

Make inferences from personal narratives within the context of the story

Make inferences about directionality

Make inferences about characters from a variety of literature

Infer who is narrator by the descriptors of the story

Make inferences from different types of poetry

Story Grammar

Determine point of view of various characters

Identify realistic elements vs. nonrealistic elements in a story

Story Elements

Identify the problem and the resolution within a long passage

Identify setting - where, when - from the descriptors within the passage

Identify major and minor themes of the passage

Authors Purpose/Technique

Use first person and word choice to hold readers attention

Determine authors strategy for creating the piece of writing

Draw complex conclusions about characters

Infer how author developed characters through word choice, story sequence

Identify humor and reason for its use

New Vocabulary: fiction, subject, event, conflict, appeal, narrator, main point, main

character, detail, solution, short story, folktale

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Genre

Recognize newspaper writing and personal note writing

Distinguish between fiction and nonfiction writing in lengthy passages

Identify historical fiction

Identify realistic fiction

Determine purpose of lengthy folk tales

Understand the content of poems with figurative language

Recognize elements of a fable

Literary Devices

Use devices such as humor, exaggeration, word choice to create mood

Use devices by the author such as word choice and complex descriptors

Infer the story structure as a literary device

Understand meaning of idioms used in the story

Understand the imagery in the writing

Understand and explain the meaning of metaphors used in the story

Literary Response/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Understand the meaning of symbolism in stories

Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature

Story Grammar

Determine purpose of dialogue

Story Elements

Determine the complex point of view of the author or characters through character

descriptions

Identify the problem and articulate the resolution

Identify main conflict

Identify exaggeration

Identify a complex problem and list possible resolutions

Authors Purpose/Technique

Infer how author develops characters through story sequence

Recognize the use of suspense to get the readers interest

New Vocabulary: application, opinion, plot, exaggeration, speaker, science fiction,

personal narrative, autobiography, historical fiction, non-fiction, mythology

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Genre

Identify vivid and descriptive writing

Recognize autobiographical writing

Use writing as a rule for giving directions

Understand form and general characteristics of folk tales

Understand the structure of poetry by its rhyme and length of lines

Recognize science fiction

Recognize a book review

Literary Devices

Use the story structure as a literary device

Determine how author develops character traits through inference

Use descriptive dialogue to develop tone

Recognize foreshadowing as a literary device in writing

Find a figure of speech and explain

Understand the authors purpose in use of similes

Understand the meaning of symbolism in stories

Identify exaggeration and understand its impact on story line

Story Grammar

Use figurative language, sequence of events, word choice, suspense, imagery that

creates complex interest

Recognize dialogue that provides a variety of purposes and information

Story Elements

Describe complex character descriptions

Understand complex problems and develop one or more solutions

New Vocabulary: intent, irony, suspense, simile, figure of speech, dialogue, metaphor

Literary Response/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Literary Response/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and

extended thinking.

New Vocabulary: personification, alliteration, method of characterization, flashback,

literary device, narration, exposition, memoir

Writing Composition and the Writing Process Students use skills

needed to begin writing, drafting, and revising and using editing and

proofreading skills.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Prewriting Skills

Use short complete sentences

Identify a brainstormed single word list about a given topic

Use Drafting and Revising Skills

Identify correct word order in 4-6 word sentences

Choose correct word to complete a sentence

Form question order of simple sentences

Choose a simple 2-4 word main topic

Add simple details to topic

Describe a given picture in a simple sentence

Identify gerund phrases

Add details as appropriate to a given topic

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Use imperatives

Use capitals at the beginning of the sentence

Use present participles

Use verb phrases

Categorize words

Write letters to a specific audience

Use capitals for title of names

Use periods

Use superlatives correctly

Use exclamations for emphasis

Use third person pronouns

Spell irregular verbs correctly

Align subjects and direct objects

Align subject-verb agreement

Use nominative case

Use capitals for holidays

Use rhyming words in poetry

Use apostrophes for contractions

Use future tense

New Vocabulary: sentence, letter, picture, period, capital letter, misspelled, proofread,

missing word, choose, list, question, correct order

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Prewriting Skills

Choose main topic

Select purpose of writing

Recognize genre

Determine audience

Drafting and Revising Skills

Create 5-8 word sentences with correct syntax

Revise to stay on topic

Use vivid descriptors that denote tone and mood

Draft mood and tone in the detail selection

Categorize main ideas and supporting details

Use vivid adjectives and adverbs

Combine simple sentences to create compound sentences

Add adverbs to describe action

Use imaginative language to support topic

Choose language appropriate for audience

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Capitalize names of countries

Spell 3-4 syllable words

Edit out off-topic sentences

Punctuate correctly

Use comparative words

Capitalize professional titles

Use interrogatives

Create strong sentence beginnings

Use verbs correctly (present perfect, future)

Edit for subjectverb agreement

Use strong conclusions

Write directions

Use dashes correctly

Edit for pronoun-antecedent agreement

Proofread for tense agreement

Use commas in a series

Use apostrophes for possessives

Use quotation marks

Write personal letters

Use prepositional phrases

Use capitals with initials

Use capitals with titles

Use paragraphing strategies

Use independent clauses correctly

Avoid double negatives

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

New Vocabulary: underlined, phrase, describe, story, question mark, incomplete

sentence, topics, main topic, outline, complete sentence

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Prewriting Skills

Create a simple outline

Write in a selected genre (i.e. a simple fairy tale)

Create starter sentences

Categorize around a main topic

Select appropriate sentences for topic

List sentence details

Pre-write sentences that convey purpose of topic

Drafting and Revising Skills

Use compound and complex sentences

Use a variety of modifiers

Use infinitive phrases for emphasis

Use figurative language (simile, metaphor)

Use vivid descriptor phrases

Combine simple sentences to form complex sentences

Vary sentence order

Vary word order

Use sentences of 8-10 words to vary language

Use details for effective sentences

Vary sentences to show same meaning related to topic

Use correct word order in interrogative sentences

Use precise nouns and verbs

Create word list of strong nouns and verbs

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Capitalize first word of sentence

Use periods with abbreviations

Capitalize greetings and personal titles

Capitalize inside quotations

Use comparative phrases

Use commas for introductory words (i.e. well, no)

Use commas between two main clauses

Use descriptive writing mode

Write business letters

Use commas in adverbial clauses

Identify subject from predicate

Use past participial phrases

Use correct compass points

Use compound personal pronouns

Use correct indentation

Use auxiliary verbs correctly

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Capitalize literary titles

New Vocabulary: comma, initials, compound sentence, main headings, punctuation mark,

exclamation point, poem, book report, fairy tale, directions, advertisement, mood, catalog

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Prewriting Skills

Select point of view (i.e. I, He, You)

Choose a mode of writing

Use clear descriptors

List details in outline form

Determine tone and mood

Choose tone by determined audience

Outline main topic with descriptors

Organize sentences for paragraphs

Create a list of possible word choices

Select main headings for outline

Choose subject and brainstorm (i.e. word lists, webbing, free writing)

Drafting and Revising Skills

Revise and replace misplaced modifiers

Use figurative language to describe

Use creative figures of speech

Write to stay on purpose

Use symbolic language

Create a variety of sentences, simple, compound, and complex

Use phrases and multi-word modifiers to enhance details

Use adjective and infinitive phrases

Begin topic with strong sentence starters

Use a variety of genres

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Capitalize royal titles, professional titles, and personal titles

Use similes for comparison

Identify suffixes

Use slang words for a direct purpose

Proof for spelling errors

Use commas between city and state

Edit sentence fragments

Use correct return address format

Capitalize government bodies

Use parallelism between subject and direct object

Use appositives

New Vocabulary: comparison, point of view, persuasive argument, narrative, description,

quotation marks, syntax, title, revising, first draft, editing

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Prewriting Skills

Choose formal or informal language

Select purpose of paragraph

Choose syntax that illustrates point of view

Outline expository mode

Drafting and Revising Skills

Use participial phrases in correct word order

Use of figurative speech in context

Select the best title for a piece of work

Use precise language

Correct use of transitional expressions

Use vivid descriptors

Use adverbial clauses in complex sentences

Avoid run-on sentences

Use sentence variety

Use correct word order when using adjective phrases

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Use capitals in magazine, newspaper, essay and titles

Use commas in letter closure

Punctuate introductory dependant clauses

Capitalize inside addresses

Punctuate non-essential parenthetical phrases with commas

New Vocabulary: run-on sentence, formal and informal language, composition, simile,

subheading, detail, subdetail, style, figure of speech, suffix, capitalization, caret (editing

mark), research report, apostrophe

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Prewriting Skills

Create comprehensive outlines

Use compound sentence selection

Outline verbiage for imaginative stories

Categorize using main topic as guideline

Drafting and Revising Skills

Revise syntax for correct order

Use subject-verb agreement

Use a variety of sentences from simple to complex

Use infinitive phrases to denote emphasis

Use subordinating clauses

Edit for misplaced modifiers

Combine sentences to make compound and complex

Use parts of a news story for complete description of an event

Write strong conclusions

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Use commas in a series of participial phrases

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

Composing and Writing Process/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001

Use strong topic sentences with strong verbs

Use capitals in a letter closure

Use abbreviations in appropriate places

New Vocabulary: tone, summary, synonym, personification, metaphor, fantasy, complex

sentence, rough draft, personal narrative

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Prewriting Skills

Select words based on main topic

Outline a complex topic selection

Choose appropriate words for a selection

Evaluate possible point of views (i.e. personification)

Choose vivid descriptors

Select method for brainstorming

Drafting and Revising Skills

Use exaggeration to make statement

Use adverbial clauses

Ask leading questions

Use gerund phrases

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Use complex sentence order in paragraph

Use verb phrases

Use exaggerated figures of speech for emphasis

New Vocabulary: nonparallel construction, sentence fragment, faulty tense change, irony,

exaggeration, fragment

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Drafting and Revising Skills

Use metaphors as a figure of speech

Use Editing and Proofreading Processes

Identify strong adverbs

Identify indefinite pronouns

Use metaphors for emphasis

Conjugate irregular verbs correctly

New Vocabulary: none

Writing Composition and Structure Students work with sentences and

paragraphs, use the correct form for their writing, and understand

composition forms.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Variety of Formats

Identify sentence types: statement, command, question, and exclamation. The

vocabulary and sentence length increase in difficulty throughout the increased

RIT range.

Determine genre (i.e. poem, letter, story, ad, etc.)

Choose audience when writing a friendly letter

Use rhyme in some poetry

Use correct structure in letter writing

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

Identify off-topic sentences

Choose specific phrases to finish sentence

New Vocabulary: poem, letter, story, ad, statement, command, question, exclamation,

style, sentence, rhyme, book, paragraph

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Variety of Formats

Use all four sentence types

Focus on sentence question structure

Write in the imaginative mode

Write clear directions

Write concise telephone messages

Define the parts of narrative writing

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

Identify topic sentence

Identify correct paragraph

Given four sentences choose the one that does not belong

Choose a sentence to add to the paragraph that is on-topic

Use strong concluding sentences

When given four simple sentences choose the best sentence order

Choose the first sentence for the paragraph

Use strong topic sentences

Use correct greetings in a friendly letter

Use correct format for business letters

Use correct capitalization in greetings and closures

New Vocabulary: missing word, first, ending, last, greeting, describe

Composition Structure/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Variety of Formats

Write a job application paragraph

Select appropriate titles for reports

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

When given a 4-6 sentence paragraph, choose the off-topic sentence

When given a series of short sentences, choose the group that iterates one idea

Appropriate Format

Use indentation for new paragraph

Focus on declarative sentence structure

When given four simple and compound sentences, choose the chronological order

Choose sentence order when writing directions

New Vocabulary: topic sentence, best order, correct order, chronological order, parts of a

letter, passage, complete sentence, main idea

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

Use strong topic sentences

Plan for strong conclusions

When given a 5-8 sentence paragraph, edit for off-topic sentences

When reading a short story choose the best ending

Choose the correct paragraph that best explains an action

Focus on imperative sentence structure

Answer standard questions when writing a news story

Appropriate Format

Use correct letter format

Develop paragraph with specific details

Edit paragraph format for fragment and run-on sentences

Variety of Elements

Use imagery in poetry

New Vocabulary: title, information, review, authors purpose, narration, persuasion,

sequence, composition

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

Focus on exclamatory sentence structure

Choose the best definition for the term topic sentence

Appropriate Format

Combine sentences into paragraph structure

Look for patterns of organization in a paragraph

Order sentences into a concise paragraph

Give directions in a systematic order

Use correct business letter structure

Define parts of a research paper

Define purposes of poetry (i.e. feelings, moods, expressions)

Composition Structure/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Composition Structure/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Define paragraph by genre

Identify parts of the newspaper

New Vocabulary: exclamatory sentence, encyclopedia, supporting detail

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Appropriate Style and Vocabulary

Choose best opening paragraph in a narrative piece of writing

Use of vocabulary of declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamatory terms

Appropriate Format

Use standard forms of indentation

Review several paragraphs and choose the best organization

Determine the pattern of organization in a lengthy passage

Details

Select clear details for paragraph

Composition Forms

Write limericks

Define composition forms in lengthy passages

Variety of Components

Edit sentences into multi-paragraphs

Determine method of organization (i.e. order of events, from examples to main

idea, go from main idea to examples)

New Vocabulary: limerick, formal essay, drama, declarative sentence, imperative

sentence, interrogative sentence, tone, mood, pattern of organization

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Variety of Formats

Write in the persuasive mode

Variety of Elements

Determine mode by reading a lengthy passage

Composition Forms

Select sentences that support topic sentences

Select sentences that support conclusion

Identify all four sentence forms within a lengthy paragraph

Variety of Components

Identify topic sentence when it is not the first sentence of the paragraph

New Vocabulary: descriptive writing, incomplete sentence

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Composition Forms

Find the four sentence types within a given paragraph

Variety of Components

Edit sentences to create complete paragraphs

New Vocabulary: none

Basic Grammar and Usage Students show understanding of basic

sentence patterns, phrases and clauses, word forms, verb tenses,

subject-verb agreement, and pronoun-antecedent agreement.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Variety of Sentences

Format: Short sentences, 4-6 words, using very basic vocabulary

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Format: Statements, questions, and commands

Recognize a complete sentence

Arrange words in order to form a complete sentences

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Third person singular or plural subject - present participle

Second person singular subject - present participle to use as first word in a

question

Subject-verb agreement in a short simple sentence

Noun Forms

Recognize the regular plural form of a noun (add s)

Recognize simple irregular plural nouns

Recognize that a noun is to be used as a direct object

Noun-Pronoun Usage Agreement

Use objective pronouns correctly: me, us, them

Use nominative pronouns correctly: he, she, or they

Use possessive pronouns correctly: her

Noun-Pronoun Antecedent

Understand that pronouns take the place of nouns

Identify the pronoun used to take the place of a singular thing

Verb Tenses

Recognize the correct use of past tense verbs (add ed)

Recognize the correct use of past progressive (was __ing)

Recognize the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs

Irregular Verb Forms

Determine the correct common irregular verb form to use in a short, simple

sentence

Adjective Forms

Recognize the correct use of comparative adjectives -er and -est

New Vocabulary: underlined, missing word, more than one, complete sentence, Standard

English, pronoun, correct

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Variety of Sentences

Format: Short sentences, 210 words, basic vocabulary

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Format: Statements, questions, and commands

Select words to form a complete sentence

Recognize a complete sentence

Recognize words that do not form a complete sentence

Recognize a complete question

Recognize word order that makes sense (syntax)

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Third person subject - linking verb

Singular subject - verb phrase

Third person plural and second person singular - correct present participle to

use as the first word in a question

Noun Forms

Recognize the regular plural form of a noun

Recognize simple irregular plural nouns

Recognize regular plural nouns needing es ending

Recognize the correct use of a singular possessive noun

Identify a noun

Pronoun Forms

Understand the meaning of possessive pronouns used in a sentence

Noun-Pronoun Usage Agreement

Use objective pronouns correctly: us, him, her, them

Identify the pronoun used to take the place of a compound or singular subject

Recognize correct and incorrect use of demonstrative pronouns them and

those

Use nominative pronouns correctly: he, she, we

Use indefinite pronouns correctly: all, some, none

Use the pronoun I correctly in a compound subject

Use objective pronouns correctly in compound direct objects: ___ and us

Use possessive pronouns correctly: hers, his

Noun-Pronoun Antecedent

Recognize that ___ and I = we

Use the correct pronoun to match the number and gender of the subject: he, they,

him

Identify the noun in one sentence replaced by a pronoun in another

Verb Tenses

Recognize the correct use of present tense verbs (will ____)

Recognize the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs

Recognize past tense verbs used correctly in sentences

Recognize the correct use of present progressive verbs (is __ing)

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence

Distinguish which sentence tells past tense

Recognize the correct use of a past tense helping or auxiliary verb

Identify the correct irregular past tense form of a verb

Irregular Verb Forms

Format: Single word verbs only in this RIT range

Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence (range of difficulty from

come/came to catch/caught)

Determine the correct verb forms to use in a compound or complex sentence

Adjective Forms

In a short, simple sentence, use an adjective that tells what kind

Use comparatives good, better, best correctly

Use comparative er correctly

Use superlative est correctly

Adverb Forms

Use adverbs telling how

Recognize phrases that tell where or when

Use comparative adverbs telling how correctly

Recognize the correct use and meaning of a prepositional phrase containing

under

Understand the meaning of a phrase telling when

Phrases

Format: Short, simple sentences with basic vocabulary

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct use of negative phrase doesnt have

New Vocabulary: noun, past tense, wrong, word order

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Variety of Sentences

Format: Sentences become more complex, with more difficult vocabulary; simple

paragraph

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Format: Statements, questions, and commands

Recognize word order specific to a question

Identify/recognize complete sentences with adverb phrases or nouns of direct

address at beginning (comma in sentence)

Select words in two places to form a complete sentence

Identify a group of words as an incomplete sentence

Identify sentences containing more than one idea

Identify a group of words that do not form a complete sentence requiring very

careful reading

Subject-Verb Agreement

Identify the subject and predicate of a sentence

Recognize word order necessary to form a complete sentence

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Singular or plural subject - verb phrase

Compound subject or third person plural subject - linking verb or present

participle

Third person singular subject - auxiliary verb

Third person singular or plural subject main verb

First person plural subject main verb

Noun Forms

Recognize a regular plural noun used in a sentence

Recognize an irregular plural noun used in a sentence

Recognize the irregular plural form of a noun

Recognize the correct plural spelling of a noun ending in y

Noun-Pronoun Usage/Agreement

Identify the pronoun used to take the place of ___ and me

Use possessive pronouns correctly: their

Use reflexive pronouns correctly: myself, themselves

Identity pronouns used to replace singular or plural things: it, them

Use objective pronouns correctly: her, him

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject (___ and

I)

Use nominative pronouns correctly by matching gender

Use indefinite pronouns correctly: everyone

Identify pronouns used to replace singular or plural nouns: her, they

Noun-Pronoun Antecedent

Use the correct pronoun in a sentence to match number, gender, thing in a

previous sentence: it, her, they, he, his, himself

Identify the noun in one sentence referred to by a nominative or possessive noun

in another

Verb Tenses

Recognize a sentence that tells past action or events

Identify the correct past tense form of common irregular verbs

Recognize or determine the correct use of common irregular past tense verbs

Recognize or determine the correct use of past tense helping or auxiliary verbs

Determine the correct use of a verb phrase

Recognize the correct use of gerunds

Recognize the correct use of regular past tense verbs

Determine the correct verb tense to use in a sentence

Recognize or determine the correct use of future tense verbs and verb phrases

Identify which word is a verb

Irregular Verb Forms

Determine which verb to use in a sentence

Determine which verb phrase to use in a sentence

Determine which verb to use in a sentence that has an auxiliary verb

Identify the past tense of an irregular verb

Adjective Forms

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Use comparative adjectives (-er, -est) correctly

Use comparatives good, better, best correctly

Identify a word describing a noun in a sentence

Recognize the correct use of comparative adjectives

Use superlative adjectives correctly

Adverb Forms

Understand that adverbs can tell where, when, or how;

Identify adverbs that tell where

Use ly adverbs correctly

Understand the meaning of a phrase telling where

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: cant anybody;

doesnt any; have never had any

New Vocabulary: subject, predicate, incomplete sentence, run-on sentence, phrase, verb,

plural, question, paragraph, singular, action word, verb phrase, clause

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Variety of Sentences

Format: Sentences in this RIT range often begin with prepositional or adverb

phrases

Recognize that sentences can tell past, present or future actions

Identify a sentence that tells past action

Identify a sentence that tells future action

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Recognize sentences that are complete and not complete

Complete sentences with the correct phrase

Recognize complete sentences containing only a noun and a verb

Identify a simple sentence

Identify the correct word order to form a sentence

Identify a group of words as an incomplete sentence

Identify two sentences with different word order but the same meaning

Turn a clause into a complete sentence

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Compound subject linking verb

Compound subject verb phrase

Third person singular subject main verb

Plural subject auxiliary verb or verb phrase

Noun Forms

Identify a word as a noun

Identify which is the noun in a sentence

Recognize the correct plural form of a noun used in a sentence

Recognize plural nouns needing the es ending

Recognize a noun that is not plural

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

Recognize the irregular plural form of a noun

Identify which is not a correct irregular plural noun

Recognize the correct use of a singular possessive noun

Noun-Pronoun Usage/Agreement

Use possessive pronouns correctly: their, theirs, his, hers, its

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of she/her as subject or object

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject or in a list

Identify the pronoun used to take the place of names in the objective case: them

Use reflexive pronouns correctly: themselves

Recognize the correct use of whom (With whom are you?)

Verb Tenses

Identify the past tense of a verb

Determine which verb to use in a question that has an auxiliary verb at the

beginning of the sentence

Recognize or determine the correct use of regular past tense verbs

Determine the correct verb to use in a sentence with auxiliary verbs

Tell the meaning of past tense of a verb

Determine the correct verb to use to tell future actions

Irregular Verb Forms

Identify common irregular past tense forms of verbs

Recognize more difficult irregular verb forms

Recognize or determine the correct use of irregular past tense verbs

Adjective Forms

Use comparatives bad, worse, worst correctly

Use comparatives more, most correctly

Use comparative adjectives (-er, -est) correctly

Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms

Use adjectives telling what kind

Adverb Forms

Use adverbs telling when correctly

Use comparative adverbs telling when

Phrases

Understand the meaning of a phrase telling why

Recognize phrases telling how or where

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: isnt any; has no;

doesnt have; havent any

Subject and Predicate

Identify the subject of a sentence

Identify a complete sentence where the predicate is written first

Recognize where to divide a sentence between the subject and the predicate

New Vocabulary: simple sentence, comparative forms, suffix

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 6 NWEA, 2001

Variety of Sentences

Sentences have more complex syntax and phrasing, more difficult vocabulary

Identify sentences that tell past, present, or future

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Identify compound sentences

Identify sentence patterns (some articles and possessive pronouns used in short,

simple sentences): nounverb, noun-verb-noun

Change the word order and keep the same meaning

Add a phrase to form a complete sentence

Verbalize what sentence part is needed to form a complete sentence: subject,

object, adjective, or subordinate clause

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Singular subject linking verb

Singular subject main verb

Plural subject linking verb

Plural subject auxiliary verb

Noun Forms

Recognize the correct plural form of a noun

Understand the meaning of a singular possessive noun

Recognize the correct irregular plural form of a noun

Identify which word is not a plural noun

Recognize the correct use of a plural noun in a sentence

Distinguish possessive nouns from contractions

Recognize a collective noun as being singular, distinguishing it from plural nouns

Pronoun Forms

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of nominative, objective, possessive, and

demonstrative pronouns

Use objective pronouns correctly in a complex sentence: Everyone except ___

Recognize correct and incorrect use of their, theyre, and there

Use reflexive pronouns correctly: themselves

Noun-Pronoun Antecedent

Identify the noun replaced by a pronoun

Replace more than one noun with the correct pronouns, matching gender and type

of pronoun: nominative, objective, and possessive

Use the correct pronoun in one sentence to match the number and gender in

another: them

Verb Tenses

Understand the tense and meaning of verbs, replace with similar verbs of the same

tense and meaning

Determine the correct verb tense to use in a sentence

Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence: irregular verbs, verbs used

with auxiliary verbs

Identify present tense verbs

Determine the correct verb phrase to use in a sentence

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 7 NWEA, 2001

Irregular Verb Forms

Format: Difficulty of vocabulary increases in this RIT range

Determine which verb to use in sentences with or without auxiliary verbs

Adjective Forms

Use comparatives less, least correctly

Understand the meaning of comparative adjectives

Identify adjectives used in a sentence

Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms

Adverb Forms

Understand that adverbs can tell where, when, or how;

Identify adverbs that tell when

Use comparative adverbs correctly

Understand the meaning of comparative adverbs

Phrases

Vocabulary: prepositional phrase

Identify a prepositional phrase

Recognize a phrase telling which

Clauses

Understand the intended meaning of a particular clause

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: no more than; hasnt

any

Recognize that two negatives in a sentence is not Standard English

Use nt contractions correctly

Subject and Predicate

Name the two main parts of a sentence

Run-On Sentences/Fragments

Recognize complete and incomplete sentences (first time this term appears)

Recognize a group of words as an incomplete sentence or a question

New Vocabulary: fragment, compound sentence, prepositional phrase, present tense,

adjective, nonstandard English, linking verb, adverb, possessive, dependent clause

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Variety of Sentences

Understand that sentences tell past, present, or future

Identify which sentence tells past

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Identify sentence patterns (sentences with articles, simple adjectives): noun-verb,

noun-verb-noun, noun-verb-verb

Identify a sentence as simple or compound

Complete sentences correctly with words or phrases

Recognize sentences with clear meaning and correct form

Name the part of the sentence needed to complete a sentence: adjective to

complete the linking verb

Recognize complete complex sentences

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 8 NWEA, 2001

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

First person singular subject main verb

Identify a singular subject by recognizing form of the verb in the predicate

Noun Forms

Recognize which is not a correct irregular plural noun

Identify a plural possessive noun

Distinguish plural nouns from singular collective nouns, nouns that end in s, and

possessive nouns

Identify a noun that is an idea or a feeling, not just a person, place, or thing

Pronoun Forms

Identify which word in a sentence is the pronoun

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of reflexive, nominative, possessive, and

objective pronouns

Understand the meaning of a pronoun: all of us = we

Use nominative case pronouns correctly

Use nominative pronouns correctly in compound subjects

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of I in a compound subject or in a list

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of reflexive pronouns: themselves, itself,

herself, ourselves

Use indefinite pronouns in a phrase correctly: ___ of the people were (few,

each, one, either)

Verb Tenses

Determine the correct verb form to use in a sentence

Identify the verb form not used correctly in a sentence

Recognize verbs that have the same form for both present and past tense

Understand that there are names for various parts of speech; identify which word

in a sentence is the verb

Determine which verb to use in a sentence in which the auxiliary verb is separated

from the main verb

Understand the meaning of a complex verb phrase

Determine which verb form is correctly used in a complex sentence

Irregular Verb Forms

Identify troublesome irregular verbs (lie/lay, sit/set, etc.)

Adjective Forms

Recognize that adjectives are words that describe things

Use comparatives -y, -ier, -iest correctly

Understand that there are names for various parts of speech; identify which word

in a sentence is the adjective

Understand the use of the adjective-forming suffix -al when added to nouns

ending in tion (inspiration, inspirational)

Understand that comparative er means to compare two things

Understand the correct use of good as an adjective, not an adverb

Adverb Forms

Format: Longer sentences, more difficult vocabulary

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 9 NWEA, 2001

Recognize correct and incorrect use of adverbs, including comparative adverb

forms

Recognize correct and incorrect comparative adverb forms for words ending in

ly

Phrases

Recognize what part of the sentence a prepositional phrase modifies

Recognize a prepositional phrase used as an adjective

Recognize the meaning of a verb phrase

Clauses

Identify the main clause in a sentence

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct use of negatives hardly and scarcely

Subject and Predicate

Identify the subject of a sentence

Run-On Sentences/Fragments

Identify sentence fragments

New Vocabulary: modifies, main clause, plural possessive, irregular verb, simple

sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, compound-complex sentence

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Identify sentence patterns (sentences containing adjectives and helping verbs):

noun-verb, noun-verb-noun, noun-linking verb-noun

Determine the correct verb forms or verb phrases to use in compound or complex

sentences

Subject-Verb Agreement

Recognize the correct use of subjects or verbs in the following cases:

Complex subject (one of the __s, all of the __s) linking verb

There linking verb plural noun

Indefinite pronoun linking verb

Noun Forms

Understand the meaning of a plural possessive noun

Recognize the correct possessive form of a word

Distinguish a possessive noun from a plural noun or a noun used as a contraction

with s for is

Recognize the correct irregular plural form of nouns not commonly used (Latin

roots like data-datum; open compounds like lady in waiting)

Distinguish irregular plurals from words that are not plural

Pronoun Forms

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of nominative and objective case

pronouns in complex sentences

Use nominative pronouns followed by a noun correctly: We boys will

Use nominative pronouns correctly as the first word in a compound subject

Use indefinite pronouns correctly: ___ of the girls is (many, some, either,

several)

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 10 NWEA, 2001

Basic Grammar and Usage/Idaho 11 NWEA, 2001

Distinguish that used as a pronoun from that used as an adjective

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of who, whos, and whose

Verb Tenses

Recognize sentences in which the subject of the sentence is the doer of the

action

Irregular Verb Forms

Determine which verb to use in a sentence with or without an auxiliary verb

Identify correct form of less commonly used irregular verbs

Adjective Forms

Recognize correctly and incorrectly used comparative forms, use tricky context

clues to determine correct use

Phrases

Recognize a simple noun phrase

Recognize and identify a prepositional phrase containing in, toward, with,

around, into

Clauses

Identify a dependent clause

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of negatives hardly and scarcely

Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence: havent anything

Subject and Predicate

Identify the predicate of a sentence

Identify the part needed to complete a sentence: subject, object, or adjective to

complete the linking verb

Verbalize that a predicate contains a verb

New Vocabulary: noun phrase, dependent clause, possessive noun, conjunction

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Sentence Structure/Type/Kind

Identify a complex sentence

Noun Forms

Recognize the correct plural spelling of a noun ending in y when just an s is

added

Recognize the correct plural forms of irregular and not frequently used plurals

Noun-Pronoun Antecedent

Recognize clear or unclear pronouns-antecedents

Phrases

Recognize and identify a prepositional phrase containing within

Recognize adverb and adjective phrases

Negative Forms

Recognize the correct and incorrect use of negatives hardly and barely

Recognize the correct use of only one negative in a sentence with complex

phrasing: has nothing; arent any; hasnt he ever; isnt any; scarcely had we

New Vocabulary: adverb phrase, adjective phrase, pronouns antecedent

Punctuation Students understand end punctuation, comma usage,

apostrophes, enclosing punctuation, and underlining for titles

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Use Commas Appropriately

Correctly place commas in the date

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Use question marks on 3-4 word interrogative sentences

Use periods on imperative sentences

Use periods on declarative sentences

Use exclamation marks on exclamatory sentences

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes in contractions with verb and not

New Vocabulary: comma, contraction, punctuate, right mark, sentence

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas in a series

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Identify punctuation never used at the end of the sentence

Use question, period, or exclamation mark at the end of 5-8 word sentences

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes in singular possessives

New Vocabulary: punctuation mark, exclamation point, question mark, apostrophe,

period

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas in personal greetings

Use commas in introductory words, (i.e. well, no, sorry)

Use commas between two main clauses

Use commas after introductory clauses

Use commas after introductory adverbial clauses

Use commas in a letter closing

Use commas after direct address

Use commas between city and state

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Use correct end punctuation on a collection of sentences

Use question marks correctly when writing a friendly letter

Appropriate Marks in Dialogue

Use quotation marks for direct conversation

Punctuation/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes in irregular contractions

New Vocabulary: letter, ownership

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas around parenthetical phrases

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Use correct end punctuation in 8-10 word sentences

Mark each end punctuation correctly when writing a multi-paragraph friendly

letter

Appropriate Marks in Dialogue

Use quotation on both sides of split direct conversation

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes in pronoun contractions

Use Underlining for Titles

Underline book titles

Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage

Use commas in dependant clauses

Use commas between two main clauses

Use commas in a compound sentence

Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage

Use commas after participial phrases

Use commas after an introductory adjective phrase

Use commas around appositives

New Vocabulary: quotation marks, possession, address, phrase, salutation, colon,

semicolon

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas after a direct address in an imperative sentence

Use commas after participial phrases in a lengthy paragraph

Use commas in non-essential parenthetical phrases

Use commas around interrupting phrases contained within the sentence

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Identify different meanings of the same sentence when end punctuation is

changed

Identify incorrect end punctuation

Identify periods when given a paragraph

Appropriate Marks in Dialogue

Use quotations in titles

Use parentheses around non-essential phrases

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes in possessive plurals

Use apostrophes with helping verb and not

Punctuation/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Punctuation/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage

Use commas between two main clauses in a complex sentence

Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage

Use commas after participial phrases in a lengthy paragraph

New Vocabulary: parentheses, hyphen, rough draft

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas in a direct quotation

Use commas around non-essential phrases

Use Appropriate End Punctuation

Identify correct punctuation in a 16-20 word compound sentence

Use correct punctuation when sentence ends with an abbreviation

Identify correct punctuation in a 5-7 sentence paragraph

Appropriate Marks in Dialogue

Use quotations in quoted material

Use single quotation inside quotation marks

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes for subject and helping verb contractions

Use Underlining for Titles

Underline movie titles

Underline magazine titles

Dependent and Independent Clauses/Comma Usage

Use commas between two main clauses in a compound complex sentence

New Vocabulary: possessive noun

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Use Commas Appropriately

Use commas to separate adverbial introductory clauses in a complex sentence

Use Apostrophes

Use apostrophes for plural possessives in a compound sentence

Use Underlining for Titles

Underline play titles

New Vocabulary: plural possessive

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Prepositional, Participle and Appositive Phrases/Comma Usage

Use commas around dependant clauses in compound, complex sentences

New Vocabulary: none

Capitalization Students can use beginning capitalization, and can

properly capitalize proper nouns, adjectives, and the pronoun I.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Proper Nouns

Particular place names: cities, vacation spots, rivers, states

Days and months

Family, personal, or professional titles: Dr., Uncle __, Rev., Miss, Mrs.

Names of people

Holidays

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Format: Short sentences, simple vocabulary

Capitalize the first word in the sentence

Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I

Vocabulary capitalized

Lack of capital for I the only error to identify

New Vocabulary: capital letter, capitalized, underlined, sentence, missing words

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Proper Nouns

Particular place names: states, city and state (both)

Names of people: first, middle, and last

Nationalities

Street names

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Capitalize the first word in the sentence

Capitalize Dear in a letter greeting

Capitalize Love in a letter closing

Capitalize only the first word in a sentence of common nouns

Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I

Generalize the rule: always capitalize I

Identify or correct several errors including I in one sentence

Fundamental Rules/Nouns

Differentiate between common and proper nouns

Correctly capitalize up to four words in the same sentence

Identify nouns correctly or incorrectly capitalized

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

Abbreviated professional and personal titles: Mr., Mrs., Dr.

Initials

Book titles

Professional titles (Mayor ___, Congressman ___)

New Vocabulary: pronoun, name

Capitalization/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Proper Nouns

Names of people: full name, including initials and titles

Places: countries, cities, states, vacation spots

Pets names

Historical events

Course names

Names of organizations

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Capitalize the first word in the sentence

Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter

Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a short group of sentences

Recognize a group of words as a sentence and capitalize the first word

Capitalize first word and names

Identify a sentence in which the first word is not correctly capitalized

Capitalize only the first word in a sentence without proper nouns

Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I

Identify or correct several errors including I in one sentence

Identify I errors twice in the same sentence

Fundamental Rules/Nouns

Format: Towards the end of this range, some of the items require reading multiple

sentences in one passage

Identify nouns correctly or incorrectly capitalized

Correctly capitalize up to four words in the same sentence

Distinguish between common and proper nouns

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

Capitalize first word of a quotation

Book or movie titles

Professional titles

New Vocabulary: greeting, letter, title, note, list

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Proper Nouns

Places: rivers, mountains, countries, states, cities, monuments, buildings, points of

interest

Organizations and government bodies

Peoples full names, including initials and titles

Identify a proper noun

Company and product names

Nationalities and languages

Team names

Fundamental Rules

Format: Most of the items in this range require correct identification of more than

one capitalization error, either missing capitals or incorrect capitals

Distinguish between common and proper nouns

Capitalization/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Generalize rules of capitalization

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Capitalize the first word in the sentence

Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter

Capitalize only the first word in a sentence without proper nouns

Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a group of sentences

Capitalize first word and proper nouns

Fundamental Rules/Pronoun I

Identify the sentence not capitalized correctly (I the error)

Identify I errors twice in the same sentence

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

Capitalize the first word in the sentence and the first word of a quotation

Verbalize the rule telling which word in a quotation is always capitalized

Book, movie, TV show, magazine titles: know which words to and not to

capitalize

New Vocabulary: direct quotation, proper noun, place, phrase, address, magazine

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Proper Nouns

Full names, including titles and initials

Particular places, points of interest, buildings, monuments

Teams, organization, government bodies

Countries and continents

Historical events and eras

Companies, stores, products

Classes, schools

Ships

Identify proper nouns

Fundamental Rules

Format: Most of the items in this range require correct identification of more that

one capitalization error, either missing capitals or incorrect capitals

Format: Longer passages in many of the items

Generalize rules of when to capitalize the first word: sentences, poems, letter

greetings

Differentiate between similar common and proper nouns

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Capitalize the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter

Capitalize the first word in the sentence

Capitalize only the first word in a multi-word greeting or closing

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

Capitalize first word of a quotation

Distinguish sentences using quotations that are not capitalized correctly

Capitalize the first word in the sentence and the first word of a quotation

Capitalize the first word in the sentence, the first word of a quotation, and proper

nouns

Capitalization/Idaho 3 NWEA, 2001

Capitalize the beginning of each sentence in a group of sentences, including

quotations within sentences

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

Radio and TV station initials

All titles: which words should and should not be capitalized

Compass directions: when they are correctly and incorrectly capitalized

New Vocabulary: closing, book title, paragraph

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Proper Nouns

Countries, nationalities, languages

Holidays, special events

Places, rivers, parks, bridges, monuments

Artistic groups

Buildings, businesses, stores

Fundamental Rules

Format: Most items also call on finer distinctions between common and proper

nouns, depending on how they are used in the sentence (Mother, my mother)

Format: Sentences contain various combinations of correctly and incorrectly used

capital letters, generally relating to use in quotations, but also first words in

sentences, proper/common nouns, capitalizing multiple sentences in a paragraph

All titles: what to capitalize and what not to capitalize

Generalize capitalization rules

Fundamental Rules/Beginning Capitalization

Capitalize only the first word in the greeting and closing of a letter with no proper

nouns

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

In a quotation, capitalize only the first word if the sentence continues past the part

identifying the speaker

Compass directions when to and not to capitalize them

Full names, including titles

New Vocabulary: none

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Proper Nouns

Full names, professional and family titles

Holidays and special events

Nationalities, languages, countries, continents

Towns, cities, particular geographic locations (___ Valley, Mt. ___)

Organizations, clubs, teams, groups

Classes, courses

Religions

Capitalization/Idaho 4 NWEA, 2001

Capitalization/Idaho 5 NWEA, 2001

Fundamental Rules

Format: Sentences contain various combinations of correctly and incorrectly used

capital letters, generally relating to use in quotations, but also first words in

sentences, and proper/common nouns

Distinctions between common and proper nouns, depending on how they are used

in the sentence (Mother, my mother)

Generalization of capitalization rules classifying types of nouns that should be

capitalized

When to capitalize family relationships

Adjectives, Titles, Sentence Beginnings

In a quotation, capitalize only the first word if the sentence continues past the part

identifying the speaker

All titles

New Vocabulary: none

Spelling Students show understanding of forming words from letters

according to accepted standard usage.

Skills and Concepts

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Accuracy and High-Frequency Words

Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by

applying basic rules of phonics

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Conventional Rules

Recognize words misspelled when endings added: double final consonant, add -

ed; drop e, add ing

Accuracy and High-Frequency Words

Format: Short, one- or two- syllable words, frequently used words

Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by

applying basic rules of phonics

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Conventional Rules

Recognize misspelled common compound words

Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions

Identify two words misspelled in one sentence

Recognize the correct spelling of a plural noun: change y to i and add -es

Recognize a sentence in which all words are correctly spelled (up to 8 words)

Recognize an incorrectly used homograph in a sentence

Accuracy and High-Frequency Words

Format: One- or two-syllable words, with some of three-syllables at upper RIT

range

Recognize words misspelled when endings added: double final consonant, add -

ing; drop e, add ing

Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)

Recognize the correct spelling of root words with suffixes added: -ous, -y, -less, -

ing, -ed

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Conventional Rules

Format: Many longer words: three and four syllables

Format: Less frequently used words

Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions

Recognize the correct spelling of ui words

Recognize the correct spelling of ie or ei words

Spelling/Idaho 1 NWEA, 2001

Spelling/Idaho 2 NWEA, 2001

Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)

Recognize correct application of basic spelling rules:

Change y to i and add ending

Change f to v and add es

Drop final e and add ing, -ed, or ous

Recognize correct and incorrect spellings of root words with affixes: un-, -ly, a-,

dis-, -able, im-, mis-, -ful, -ness

Recognize the correct spelling/pronunciation of words ending in th or the

High-Frequency Spelling Words

Recognize common words that have been misspelled, either by sight or by

applying basic rules of phonics

Recognize the correct spelling and use of homographs

Recognize the correct spelling and use of the contraction its

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Conventional Rules

Distinguish the correct spelling of a word from incorrect versions

Identify which word is or is not spelled correctly

Application of Rules (prefixes/suffixes)

Recognize correctly and incorrectly applied basic spelling rules when adding

endings or affixes

Recognize when to double final consonant before adding ending

High-Frequency Spelling Words

Format: Generally more difficult, commonly misspelled words

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Conventional Rules

Troublesome spelling patterns:

-ance/-ence

ei/ie

-ary/-ery

plural form of words ending in o

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Conventional Rules

Tricky, troublesome words

Distinguish which homograph is not correctly used

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