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VECTOR MACHINE

A Support Vector Machine is a binary classifier; it aims to classify two classes of


instances by finding the maximum separating hyper plane between the two (Smitha et al, 2011). For
this reason SVM tends to generalize better. With the basic design of Support Vector Machines, it
can only discriminate between two classes. In order to allow for the classification of more than two
classes, one of the following methods can be employed. One such method is the "one-vsone"
method which creates one binary classifier for each pair of classes. If for our case, for example three
classes are there then three binary classifiers are created. Support Vector Machines in their simple
form, are called linear classifiers. It is possible however to create a nonlinear SVM by increasing the
dimensionality of the feature space, and by using the so-called "kernel-trick". It is thus possible to
find a separating the hyper plane in a higher dimensions where such a hyper plane would not exist
in lower dimensions. There are many choices for which kernel, to use. The standard choices are the
linear kernel (which is otherwise called as dot-product kernel), the polynomial kernel and the
Gaussian Kernel. The Gaussian Kernel is the special case of RBF kernel. In the standard case, the
distance used, is the Euclidean distance. In the RBF kernel, the parameters determine, the width of
the kernel, and d(x, y) is the distance metric.

Another intelligent classification technique to identify normal and abnormal slices of
brain MRI data based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) was proposed
(Selvaraj et al., 2007). LS-SVM had a higher accuracy of classification over other classifiers. The
number of false negative in LS-SVM was very low compared to SVM and a high degree of
sensitivity of the classifier to abnormal images. Due to automatic defects detection in MR images of
brain, extensive research is being performed. A Novel automatic brain tumor detection method
using Gabor wavelets was proposed (AmirEhsan Lashkari, 2010). The neural network had been
trained using back propagation algorithm and training process was continued until the Mean Square
Error (MSE) became constant with about accuracy of 98.15%. This work has some limitations
because of using all 3 modalities T1, T2_weighted and PD MR Images. The designed brain cancer
detection and classification system by Joshi et al., (2010) use conceptually simple classification
method using the Neuro Fuzzy logic. Texture features are used in the Training of the Artificial
Neural Network. Co- occurrence matrices at different directions are calculated and Grey Level Co-
occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features are extracted from the matrices. This system provides
precision detection and classification of astrocytoma type of cancer.

In work related to content based image retrieval (CBIR), automatic x-ray image
classification was proposed with multilevel feature extraction (global, local and pixel features) used
SVM classifier. The result of accuracy with SVM was 89% when compared with KNearest
neighbour with 82% (Mueen et al., 2007).

This work compares the performance of conventional ANFIS network and extreme-
ANFIS on regression problems proposed by Jagtap and Pillai in 2014. ANFIS networks incorporate
the explicit knowledge of the fuzzy systems and learning capabilities of neural networks. This
learning technique overcomes the slow learning speed of the conventional learning techniques like
neural networks and SVM without sacrificing the generalization capability. The structure of
extreme-ANFIS network is similar to the conventional ANFIS which combines the fuzzy logic's
qualitative approach and neural network's adaptive capability. As in the case of ELM, the first layer
parameters of the proposed learning machine are not tuned. Performance on two regression
problems shows that extreme-ANFIS provides better generalization capability and faster learning
speed.

Neurofuzzy networks have become a powerful alternative strategy to develop fuzzy
systems, since they are capable of learning and providing IF-THEN fuzzy rules in linguistic or
explicit form. Amongst such models, ANFIS is recognized as a reference framework, mainly for its
flexible and adaptive character. In this paper, we extend ANFIS theory by experimenting with a
multi-net approach wherein two or more differently structured ANFIS instances are coupled to play
together. Ensembles of ANFIS (E-ANFIS) enhance ANFIS performance skills and alleviate some of
its computational bottlenecks. Moreover, they promote the automatic configuration of different
ANFIS units and the a posteriori selective combination of their outputs.