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MARCH 2012

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Join us on our visit to the dyno
gurus UK HQ to nd out why it
is a major player in the market
Aerodynamics
Is CFD blowing away wind tunnels?
Seven experts debate the future
Ford aims for new generations in new
markets with the EcoSport, the rst
One Ford car to be developed in South
America, and the rst to be built in India
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Could Quebecs new crash
test facility be the most
accurate in the world?
Transport Canada
Euro 6
The 2014 regulations are fast
approaching. Be prepared with
the latest technology
Froude Hofmann
Chris Biggs
The junior exec against which
all others are judged. The 2012
model features great advances
BMW 3 Series
The return of the facility test.
In this issue: can Germanys
ATP retain ve-star status?
ATP
Chevrolets global
vehicle line director
has taken big steps
to improve small cars
EcoSport EcoSport
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CONTENTS CONTENTS
008 Ford EcoSport
This SUV is a milestone for Ford. We
attended the cars unveiling in New Delhi,
one of the companys key target markets
COVER STORY
004 BMW 3 Series
Major advances in a major international
product. Find out how the new 3 Series has
been developed for a new world
012 Automotive Testing Expo India
Indias foremost auto testing event takes place
in Chennai, March 6-8. Read our taster of the
exhibitors and technology on show
WHATS NEW
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 001
030 Euro 6
With Euro 6 implementation a mere 30
months away, now is the time to invest in
emissions testing technology
036 Aerodynamics
A panel of experts debate: are CFD advances
making wind tunnels redundant?
042 Interview: Chris Biggs
Chevys global vehicle line director reveals
how the brand is making a fresh start in
the world of small cars, with an eye to
international penetration
048 Smash lab
Transport Canadas new crash test facility in
Blainville is claimed to be the most accurate
and reliable in the world and you can use it
056 Site visit: Froude Hofmann
Discover how Froude Hofmann earned its
stellar reputation in dynamometer technology
FEATURES
008
030
048
042
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
061 Innovative powertrain testing systems
065 Frequency domain technique for simulation
068 Virtual preparation for Le Mans
070 Testing in Arctic conditions
072 Lab-to-line test systems
074 Euro 6 emissions challenges
077 Products and services directory
It looked so promising: a cheap
sorry, very cheap car for
a massive population enjoying
increasing wealth and keen to
join the motoring world. At about
US$1,900 for a new car, how
could it fail? I was among those
impressed by the ethos of the Tata
Nano, its pared-down features, and
how so much could be had for so
little. Indeed, Ive been itching to
drive one.
Sadly, not so many shared
my enthusiasm, with sales
considerably lower than expected.
Curiously, the problem was its
remarkable price, which gave rise
to an image of being a poor mans
car. The alternative of buying
a more prestigious but older
car was nding favor. Happily,
a higher specication, improved
dealerships, and attractive
nancing are creating a rise in
demand, though time will tell if the
production capability of 250,000
units a year will be reached. It just
goes to show that logic has no
place in the automotive sector.
However, keen to get in on the
strengthening rupee, many other
manufacturers are developing cars
created with India and other new
markets in mind. And the great
news is that they have access to
a growing number of Indian
proving grounds and test facilities,
due to massive investment by the
likes of NATRiP, which has nalized
six facilities around the country.
For track work, there is the Kari
Motor Speedway, and even time
on the shiny new Buddh
International Circuit can be
negotiated. Meanwhile, Maruti
Suzuki is investing millions in an
R&D center in Haryana that will
become its global research hub,
complete with tracks, and Daimler
Indias commercial vehicle division
is also investing heavily in test
tracks near Chennai.
India is now one of the most
exciting automotive markets in
the world, and big events such
as Automotive Testing Expo India
and Auto Expo are giving glimpses
into the potential of this area.
A prime example is the modern,
youthful Ford you see on this
issues cover. Forward-thinking
design, great quality, dynamics
worthy of the blue oval badge,
and made in India.
I just hope they make it
expensive enough.
Adam Gavine
CONTENTS
014 Read
A weighty problem
016 Theodore
EMC is not as easy as ABC
018 10 questions: Mustang
Donald Ganzhorn, chief engineer of
Mustang Dynamometer, discusses being
a social techie and growing concerns
020 Ask Alex
Our resident automotive lawyer
considers the toughest test of a vehicle
020 Recall roundup
The latest vehicle roundup news
from the rst quarter of 2012
022 Proving ground news
Keith Read brings you proving
ground news from around the world
027 Facility test
The return of the regular facility test scores.
ATP scored the full ve stars back in 2003:
can it retain the honor?
096 Testbed legends
A tribute to the Mercedes-Benz NAFA,
a clever car that conceived a smart generation
REGULARS
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Editors note
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 002
The views expressed in the articles and technical papers are those of
the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the publisher. While
every care has been taken during production, the publisher does not
accept any liability for errors that may have occurred. ISSN 1751-0341.
This publication is protected by copyright 2012. Automotive Testing
Technology International USPS 018-628 is published quarterly in
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Design team
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Contributors
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070
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www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
33
BMW embraced new markets and new
approaches to testing in the development
of its premium sedan
WORDS BY JOHN CHALLEN
004
BMW
WHATS NEW
WHATS NEW
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
Given the breadth of BMWs
product portfolio, the fact
that, every year, the 3 Series
sedan accounts for one-fth of the
companys global sales is an
impressive one. It is also the reason
why more time was spent on, and
more attention paid to, the seventh
generation of the car, otherwise
known as F30, than ever before.
F30s lengthy development period
(four years from when work rst
started to production) was used to
consider new approaches to testing.
Martin Sautter, responsible for small
vehicle architecture and integration
at BMW, reveals that many elements
of the program were tweaked in a bid
to increase efciency, mirroring one
of the key aims of the vehicle itself.
We had a very small number
of mule vehicles, but a lot of new
systems, he explains. Using
experience from previous test
005
procedures we were able to reduce
the number of these initial vehicles
to just ve. Our new philosophy is
putting the money into fewer but
more state-of-the-art mule vehicles
for initial evaluations.
It was at this early stage in
proceedings that the decision was
taken to concentrate more on virtual
test methods much earlier in the
program than BMW would typically
expect to. We made a lot of
WHATS NEW
006
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
simulations, and one of the main
challenges was to get the results
of the hardware testing on the
prototypes to interact closely with
the virtual evaluations we had done
previously, says Sautter.
This was the focus of the
different teams that we put together;
we had to have engineers that work
on the hardware working together
with the simulations team much
more closely than they have before.
The new process we devised is called
integrated validation and testing,
thereby bringing results from the
virtual world together with the real
data we get from hardware testing.
Sautter says that this fresh
approach to simulation helped to save
BMW a lot of time and money on
prototype vehicles, but neglects to
put a gure on the nal bill. BMW
applied the same philosophy from its
F30 mules to its prototype vehicle
range, which arrived 30 months prior
to SOP. The 200, more mature,
models were also fewer than in a
standard BMW program, despite the
fact that the development map took a
different direction. The standard
facilities were visited test sites
around Munich, the Nrburgring, the
USA and Scandinavia but evaluation
in Asia become a major priority.
We had a major focus on China,
more than for any other BMW
development program in the past,
reveals Sautter. China is a very
big market for us, and therefore
we undertook some specic testing
on the trafc conditions, which are
very different to what we have
experienced in the past, and how
our customers there use the car in
Chinese megacities. With Sautter
expecting China to be one of the top
three markets for the new 3 Series,
it was important to have a greater
presence than with previous test
programs. BMW conducted two
years of continuous development in
China using an unspecied number
of the 200 prototypes, ne-tuning
everything from fuel compatibility
to dynamics to crash behavior.
The ofcial literature about the
new 3 Series details an emphasis
on sporting prowess, elegance, and
comfort. Sautter explains that focus
was placed on certain areas of the
cars underpinnings early on in the
program to achieve these goals.
For F30, we concentrated on driving
dynamics, for which we developed
a very stiff, but very lightweight,
body-in-white, he says of the car
benchmarked against the Mercedes
C-Class, Audi A4, Lexus IS, and the
Inniti G37. We used this to carry
out the main test and renement
work for the cars new damper
system. F30 has linear dampers,
which give very good ride comfort
and sporty behavior, as well as a very
good chassis. Familiar facilities were
used to hone the new variable
dampers, namely ATP Papenburg,
and the Nordschleife.
F30 is bigger than its predecessor,
but clever material choice means the
car is lighter in some cases by up
to 50kg (110 lb). One of our top
priorities was to cut weight because
we had made the car bigger to gain
more interior space and to integrate
the head-up display, recalls Sautter.
We added a lot of metal, so we had
to compensate with lightweight
options. We used a lot of ultra-high-
strength steel in load areas, and in
the C-pillar we have hot-formed steel.
These were areas where we used a lot
of simulation work to optimize the
body. For the exhaust, we used a new
high-strength steel, which enabled
us to make the system lighter, and
we also used some aluminum parts.
Sautter states that more simulation
work did help to save time and
money, but that physical testing was
still essential. We carried out some
fatigue testing on the test track and
also on rigs, where we devised
specic tests for the new materials
that we were using, he explains.
And, he says, despite streamlining
on manpower by using more and
more simulations, the project still
had 1,000 dedicated test engineers
at its peak.
One of our top priorities
was to cut weight because
we had made the car bigger
to gain more interior space
ABOVE: The F30
is larger than its
predecessors. This is
partly because interior
space is critical to
success in China
BELOW: The
dashboard is angled
7 toward the driver
for a focused feel
Need for speeds
The new 3 Series features the rst appearance in
its class of an eight-speed automatic gearbox,
which indicates one place where the savings made on
development vehicles was offset.
The main challenge was the cost of getting a gearbox
designed for a 5 Series [to t] into a 3 Series, admits
Sautter, who adds that from a testing point of view, the
biggest hurdle was on the software side, getting the
parameterization right. We had to work very closely
with the supplier to ensure that all the software features
work, which meant intensive application and testing.
This also meant [doing similar work] for the whole range
of 3 Series engines, and that is when you need a lot of
competent people and engineers doing their jobs.
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www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
WHATS NEW
The all-new EcoSport will be the driver
for Fords growth in India and beyond
WORDS BY SATNAM SINGH
EcoSport EcoSport
The EcoSport is the latest
One Ford global product set
to expand Fords footprint
in the worlds fastest growing auto
markets, including India. The car
which will be sold in nearly 100
markets worldwide will be
produced at ultra-modern assembly
plants in India and Brazil, and other
markets yet to be announced.
The new EcoSport reects our
commitment to serve our customers
with the cars and trucks they truly
want and value, says Alan Mulally,
president and CEO of Ford. India
is an increasingly important auto
market, and EcoSport will play
a key role in Fords aggressive global
plan to achieve a 50% increase in
worldwide sales by the middle of
the decade to eight million vehicles
a year. Asia-Pacic and Africa is
expected to deliver 60-70% of that
target. He also assures that the
Ford
model will be launched in India
with a high level of localization.
The EcoSport is the second of
eight products Ford plans to bring
to India by the middle of the decade.
We are investing US$142 million
in setting up the platform for
manufacturing EcoSport at our
Chennai plant, reveals Michael
Boneham, president and managing
director of Ford India. The compact
SUV ts in the current product
009
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
WHATS NEW
range between the Figo small car
and the Fiesta B-segment sedan in
the Indian market. Its compactness
is likely to make it a success on the
crowded Indian roads. With the
road presence of a larger vehicle,
EcoSport is small enough for the
city, yet strong and rugged enough
for trips to the mountains or
countryside. The new model will
eventually be sold in nearly 100
markets around the world.
Ford is also bringing EcoBoost
powertrain technology to India for
the rst time, in the form of its
newest and smallest ever EcoBoost
engine. With only three cylinders
and 1 liter of displacement, the
latest EcoBoost engine will provide
fuel-efcient power for the EcoSport
as fuel economy plays a key role
for the success of any model in the
Indian car market. Despite its small
capacity and size, the engine delivers
ABOVE: The cars
lines were penned at
Fords design center
in Camaari, Brazil,
which is now part of
a global network of
Ford design studios
collaborating on new
global products
performance to rival a traditional
1.6-liter petrol engine, with less
than 140g/km of CO
2
. The EcoBoost
engines feature direct injection,
turbocharging, and other
technologies, and replace larger
engines with no loss of performance
and with lower fuel consumption.
This new engine will also be
made available in Ford models
in China, Europe, North America,
and other regions.
010
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
Developed at Fords Dunton
Technical Centre in the UK, this
direct-injected EcoBoost engine
features a new compact, high-
performance turbocharger design.
The extremely fast response of the
turbocharger and its ability to reach
nearly 250,000rpm results in
virtually no turbo lag and peak
torque of 170Nm from 1,300-
4,500rpm.
Ford has made certain
innovations in the engine to suit the
Indian conditions. The EcoBoost
engine also features an exhaust
manifold cast into the cylinder head,
which lowers the temperature of the
exhaust gases and in turn enables the
engine to run with the optimum fuel-
to-air ratio across a wider rev band.
An advanced split cooling system
reduces fuel consumption by
warming the engine more quickly
and unique to the 1-liter engine
cast iron has been selected for the
block, reducing the amount of energy
needed for warm-up by up to 50%
The 1-liter EcoBoost is one of the most
technically advanced and efcient engines
Ford has ever designed and produced
Joe Bakaj, vice president of global powertrain engineering at Ford
over aluminum. Intelligent ancillaries
such as a variable air-conditioning
compressor and oil pump also reduce
demand on the engine improving
economy and emissions and
special coatings for engine
components and intricate
development of engine geometry
result in minimal frictional losses.
Like its larger capacity siblings, the
1-liter EcoBoost engine will use twin
independent variable camshaft
timing (Ti-VCT) to further improve
performance and economy. Ford has
also employed an all-new camshaft
actuator to speed up response times
without sacricing durability.
Ford believes these innovations
combined with optimized engine
mounts will deliver a truly rened
performance feel, perfected during
447,000 miles of tests including
224,000 miles of durability trials and
6,000 miles of environmental testing.
Fitted with a long list of innovative
technologies, the 1-liter EcoBoost is
one of the most technically advanced
ABOVE: The cast-iron
EcoBoost engine is
light and lean ideal
for the emerging
markets Ford is keen
to penetrate
WHATS NEW
and efcient engines Ford has ever
designed and produced, says Joe
Bakaj, vice president of global
powertrain engineering at Ford.
This new engine demonstrates
Fords laser focus on improving fuel
economy without compromising
performance. It will be an engine
that not only surprises and delights
our customers but also offers them
great value in the lower cost of
ownership.
Ford believes that this
combination of attributes will make
the EcoSport appealing in growth
markets such as India and Brazil.
EcoSport is the rst One Ford
product to be designed and
developed in South America by
a global team, marking that regions
increasing importance in Fords
worldwide product development. The
creativity behind the EcoSport was
sparked in Brazil, a nation dominated
by compact cars that has become one
of the worlds key emerging markets
as India is fast becoming.
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WHATS NEW
their products domestically.
There is also an invaluable
free-to-attend technology
workshop on each morning
and afternoon of the show
featuring speakers from
around the world who will
be sharing their knowledge
of the latest automotive
testing techniques.
The inaugural event in
February 2010 welcomed
nearly 4,000 visitors from
Indias car and component
manufacturing industry.
As N. Prabu, deputy manager
of engineering at Renault
Nissan said in Hyderabad,
From a vehicle
manufacturers perspective,
its great to have the
equipment suppliers all
under one roof.
Why not pay a visit? Entry
is free, and the experience is
invaluable. To register, simply
visit www.testing-expo.com/
india and ll in your details.
and AVL, Automotive Testing
Expo India 2012 is a must-
attend event for any automotive
test engineer.
Highlights for visitors will
include: the announcement
of an agreement between
Olympus, TRL, and Xcitex
that will see the companies
pool their strengths to deliver
turnkey impact test facilities;
the launch of Honeywells
completely digital TMS 9250
digital telemetry torque
measurement system; and the
CT-1000, which its developers,
Control-Tec and Drew
Technologies, claim is the
ultimate data acquisition and
telematics system. In addition,
Automotive Test Systems is set
to reveal plans for its facilities
in Chennai, including setting up
an NVH lab with a state-of-the-
art listening studio and a tire
test lab that will provide the
tire industry and OEMs in India
with an opportunity to test
Expo highlight
The TRL/Olympus/Xcitex
stand will incorporate a
regular live impact sled test
to showcase the quality of
all the components of the
system: a TRL sled, Olympus
cameras, and Xcitex motion
analysis software.
Activated from a central
control booth, the working
4m sled will be red on
a regular basis. Visitors can
follow the entire workow
sled setup, control, and
operation, review the quality
of the video footage, and
perform detailed 3D motion
analysis at the stand,
demonstrated and discussed
by experts from each of the
partner companies.
Following a tremendously
successful launch in
Hyderabad in 2010, this years
Automotive Testing Expo India
is set to be an even bigger event.
For 2012 the show, which takes
place on March 6, 7, and 8,
moves to Chennai, one of the
main automotive manufacturing
regions of India and home to
BMW, Caparo, Ashok Leyland,
Nissan, Daimler India, Ford
India, Hyundai Motor
Engineering, Hindustan Motors,
Mahindra & Mahindra, and
many more.
Over 120 exhibitors will
display technology covering
every aspect of automotive test
and evaluation, including test
simulation, NVH analysis,
engine and emissions testing,
vehicle dynamics testing, and
materials testing.
With exhibiting companies
such as MTS Systems, Horiba,
National Instruments,
Automotive Test Systems,
India insight
One of the worlds fastest-growing automotive markets is home to one
of the industrys fastest-growing events: Automotive Testing Expo India
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
1310 Kalamazoo Street
South Haven, Michigan 49090
Phone: 269.639.7229 Fax: 269.639.7306
Developers of Engine and Powertrain Testing Accessories
WWW.APPENGINC.COM
Dynamometers
-Small Engine Dynamometers
-Gasoline/Diesel Dynamometers
-Types of Dynamometers
-New and used Dynamometers
Engine Handling
-Dynamometer Risers
-Engine Handling Carts
-Engine Cart Receivers
-Small Engine Test Stands
-Engine Handling Accessories
Drive Line Components
-Torsional Couplings (Voith
Kusel)-Driveshafts
-Driveshaft Guards
-Flange Adapters
-Flywheel Systems
Fuel Systems
-Diesel Fuel Systems
-Fuel Supply Systems
-Fuel Measuring Systems
-Fuel Tempering Systems
Cooling Systems
-Engine Coolant Cooling
-Engine Oil Cooling
-Oil Tempering Systems
-Combination Systems
-Dynamometer Cooling Systems
Actuator Systems
-Standard Duty Throttle Actuators
-Heavy Duty Actuators
Froude Hofmann
Blackpole Road, Worcester, WR3 8YB, United Kingdom
sales@froudehofmann.com| Tel: +44 (0) 1905 856 800
ADVANCED FLEXI BI LI T Y, ADVANCED SI MULATI ON, ADVANCED ENGI NEERI NG
FROUDE HOFMANN has developed and supplied the ultimate in vehicle chassis and powertrain testing
technology with its multi -vehicle test system able to exceed emission standard accuracy and correlation,
while achieving the flexibility to test the latest innovations in driveline technology in motorcycles,
electric vehicles and 4x2 or 4x4 medium duty vehicles. The four rollers are each independently
controlled by separate motors and accurately synchronised to provide through the road simulation. The
ability to test hybrid and kinetic energy recovery systems is enhanced with the flexibility to test Traction
Control Systems, ABS brake systems, cornering simulation and collision avoidance systems . Combined
with Froude Hofmanns vDriver
TM
real world road simulation package and automated robot driver, testing
technology has been re-engineered to a new advanced level of accuracy, repeatability and flexibility.
www.froudehofmann.com
FROUDE HOFMANNENGI NEERI NGSUCCESS
THE ULTIMATE IN ADVANCED VEHICLE POWERTRAIN TESTING
FROUDE HOFMANN has developed and supplied the ultimate in vehicle chassis and powertrain testing
technology with its multi-vehicle test system able to exceed emission standard accuracy and correlation, while
achieving the flexibility to test the latest innovations in driveline technology across a range of applications
from motorcycles to electric vehicles and 4x2 or 4x4 medium duty vehicles. The ability to test hybrid and
kinetic energy recovery systems is enhanced with the flexibility to test Traction Control Systems, ABS brakes,
cornering simulation and electronic driver assistance systems, such as collision avoidance. Combined
with Froude Hofmanns vDriver
TM
real world road simulation package and automated robot driver, testing
technology has been re-engineered to a new advanced level of accuracy, repeatability and flexibility.
resized.indd 1 09/02/2012 15:56
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 014
No one can deny the enormous strides
that auto makers around the world,
specically those in the massive US market,
have made in designing and producing
engines that are far more fuel-efcient than
those of 25 or 30 years ago. Driven by the
twin demands of diminishing oil reserves
and the need to reduce climate-damaging
emissions, engineers have all but surpassed
themselves with their achievements to
date and the encouraging prospects
for future models.
But there is a problem, a big problem.
And its particularly serious in the USA,
where gas prices are still incredibly low
compared with fuel costs in Europe and many
other major vehicle-using territories. Despite
great improvements in engine fuel efciency,
actual mpg gures in the USA are nowhere
near as good as they should be because
not being too bashful about it cars have
become more muscular and obese.
Its taken an economist at the Michigan
Institute of Technology (MIT), which is
renowned for its work in the automotive
sector, to highlight the statistics that show
two key facts. One, when gas prices are too
low, customers demand big, powerful, and
thirsty automobiles; and two, auto makers
have given in to this demand with little or
no apparent regard for the consequences.
So who is the whistle-blower? His name
is Dr Christopher Knittel, who joined the
faculty at MIT last year having taught
previously at UC Davis and at Boston
University. Knittel received his BA in
economics and political science at the
California State University, Stanislaus,
an MA in economics at UC Davis, and a PhD
in economics at UC Berkeley. And, because
he is a research associate at the National
Bureau of Economic Research, his views
clearly carry (without being facetious)
a lot of weight.
In a powerful presentation entitled
Automobiles on Steroids he points out that
between 1980 and 2006 the average fuel
economy of autos sold in the USA improved
by just over 15%. But the average curb
weight of those vehicles increased by
26% and horsepower shot up by 107%.
However, if Americans were today driving
cars of the same size and power that was
typical in 1980, the CAFE for the nations eet
of autos would have jumped from an average
of 23mpg to about 37mpg, well above the
current CAFE of around 27mpg. The 10mpg
discrepancy comes, says Knittel, as a result
of most of the technological progress in fuel
efciency having to compensate for the
increased weight and higher horsepower.
It has, therefore, in effect been wasted.
In terms of the environment, he points
out that with the transportation sector
producing more than 30% of US greenhouse
gas emissions, turning the full improvement
in fuel economy would have produced
notable environmental benets. Indeed,
had cars in the USA remained at roughly
the same weight and power as those of 1980,
Actual mpg gures in the USA are
nowhere near as good as they
should be because cars have become
more muscular and obese
A WEIGHTY PROBLEM
OPINION
the country would already be boasting a eet
average economy some 1.5mpg better than
the CAFE target of 35.5mpg set by President
Obama for achievement in 2016.
Interestingly, Knittel does not hold the
auto industry entirely responsible for the
wasted benets. Quite the opposite. He
praises the development and introduction
of turbocharging and efcient fuel-injection
systems that have replaced carburetors.
He points out that most vehicles now have
multiple camshafts that enable a smoother
ow of fuel-air mixture into the engine and
exhaust gases out. He applauds variable-
speed transmissions, dual-clutch
developments and gearboxes with six,
seven or eight ratios that optimize
engine performance.
Whats more, he says that because there
has been no [government] incentive to direct
these innovative technologies toward
reducing overall fuel consumption, he can
nd little fault with the auto makers. He
cites the 30% reduction of gas prices (when
adjusted for ination) as counter-productive
and believes that raising gas taxes is the
best way to reduce automotive emissions.
Knittel has this message to all auto
manufacturers: now is the time to shift
your focus to making vehicles more efcient
for the sake of overall efciency not
performance. It can be done without
sacricing weight or performance.
That, of course, is a message long-
advocated in Europe and, in many cases,
comprehensively adopted. Former F1 race car
designer Gordon Murray has been telling us
for many years that the fastest, easiest and
cheapest route to cutting fuel consumption
and reducing CO
2
emissions is to cut the size
and weight of our cars.
Surely its time now for the US authorities
to listen to Murray and Knittel and act.
Keith Read spent many years as
communications manager at MIRA before
becoming an industry commentator
OPINION
The issue of EMC is something that we
all need to understand. Im no expert
on EMC, but it is an important part of the
vehicle development process.
As a mechanical engineer, I dont trust
anything I cant see, and todays complex
automobiles require us to control things
we cant see or suffer the consequences.
Five decades ago, the worst that could
happen with electromagnetic interference
might be poor AM radio reception. Now
the consequences can be catastrophic.
EMC design and testing in the automotive
arena have come a long way, but it is clear
that the state-of-the-art must improve
rapidly. The current state is to manage EMC
at the component, systems, and vehicle level.
Electrical components must be designed
to minimize electromagnetic emissions and
maximize immunity to external emissions
(from other vehicle components or the
external environment).
Today there are few analytical, physics-
based tools to simulate EMC using both
circuit simulation and electromagnetic
theory. That leaves the bulk of the work
to testing compliance at the component,
systems, and vehicle levels, including
wiring harnesses.
Things get even more difcult as hybrids,
PHEVs, and BEVs become more prevalent.
With the addition of high-power, high-
voltage electronic devices, complexity
grows exponentially. I experienced this
rst hand while conducting Car of the
Year judging: starting up a new BEV, the
right rear passenger window decided
to lower itself!
Whether this was due to a software
error, bus communication problems, or
electromagnetic interference, Ill never
know. One thing is certain: my experience
demonstrates how critical EMC will be
in this brave new world.
Toyotas unfortunate experience
last year with unintended acceleration
demonstrates the high stakes associated
with failures we dont understand.
Imagine the potential consequences
with the advent of autonomous vehicles.
Product liability attorneys will have a eld
day making manufacturers prove that
something unexplained cant happen.
Its only a matter of time before sunspots are
blamed for vehicle failures in plaintiffs suits.
EMC must be taken seriously. This is
a mysterious subject that Automotive
Testing Technology International will allow
readers to understand better. As they say,
an ounce of prevention

Chris Theodore has more than 30 years


experience in automotive development,
including stints at each of the Big Three
in the USA
EMC IS NOT AS EASY AS ABC
OPINION
EMC design and testing in the automotive
arena have come a long way, but it is clear
the state-of-the-art must improve rapidly
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 016
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Headquarters: ACS / Madison, WI / USA / P 608.663.1590 / acs-us@acscm.com / www.acscm.com
ACS is a single-source provider of fully integrated facility and equipment solutons, serving the internatonal
engine- and vehicle-testng markets. We specialize in the comprehensive design, constructon, integraton, and
commissioning of development and producton test facilites for engine, vehicle, and components manufacturers.
Learn about this test facility and more at:
htp://www.acscm.com/CaseStudies.aspx
018
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
How did you start working with
dynos?
At the age of 16, I designed and built my
rst dynamometer test-stand system. By
the age of 18, I was in the eld repairing
and working on dynamometers. When
I was 22, prior to graduating from college
with a degree in electrical engineering,
I bought Mustang Dynamometer with my
brother, Dean. Dynamometers have been
in my blood and under my ngernails for
as long as I can remember.
What is your favorite part of the job?
Im a social techie, so I love helping
people use technology to solve complex
problems. I really like to work directly
with our customers and my creative
team of application engineers to develop
innovative solutions and then watching
the positive reactions of our customers.
And your least favorite?
I wish there were more than 24 hours
in a day. I dont like leaving the ofce
without completing the work I have
scheduled for the day.
What is your proudest career
achievement to date?
Creating a multinational company that
innovates, engineers, and manufactures
some of the most advanced testing
equipment in the world. Im proud of
assembling, leading, and working with
a team of brilliant mechanical, software,
and systems engineers.
What are your goals for the next
ve years?
Growing the company both domestically
and internationally through acquisition,
partnering, and expansion of existing
markets with new product innovations.
We have a lot of traction with turnkey
installations with many customers.
I also want to bring some new virtual
vehicle simulation toolbox technologies
to market for our transmission and
powertrain product groups for advanced
simulation of vehicle inputs to the
traditional and hybrid transmission
and powertrain.

What could legislators do to make
your working life easier?
From a product development standpoint,
it would be helpful if legislators could
provide a product development fund to
create monetary incentives for companies
to expand their workforce based on new
product development. The product
development fund should have a simple
set of guidelines based on a ratio of jobs
1
0

Q
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
S
Donald
Ganzhorn
Chief engineer and vice president, Mustang Dynamometer
PCB Automotive Sensors Division
Toll-Free in USA 888-684-0014
E-mail automotivesales@pcb.comI www.pcb.com/auto
ISO 9001 Certified I A2LA Accredited to ISO 17025
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Measurements?
www.pcb.com/microphone
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vibration, acoustics, force, pressure, load,
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019
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
created, with respect to new product
development, and to the amount of
money received.
What are the trends in your eld?
As a multi-tiered dynamometer supplier,
were seeing trends in several of our
product areas. Control systems are
moving away from proprietary hardware
and data-acquisition systems, and are
operating with off-the-shelf hardware.
Were noticing a high demand for hybrid
powertrain testing systems with battery
simulation and hardware-in-the-loop,
and for fast-responding, low-inertia
dynamometers that develop a higher
torque-to-inertia ratio. Many companies
are also trying to reduce track testing
in favor of more advanced component
testing in a controlled environment with
a dynamometer system.
Could a powertrain be developed
purely on a dyno?
Yes, we rst performed this with Allison
Transmission in 1999 using hardware-in-
the-loop to develop a two-mode parallel
hybrid electric transmission powertrain.
The system had 22 modes of control
operation. The control system was rst
developed and tested in MatLab with
Allison, prior to the mechanical and
electrical engineering stage of the project.
Because it was a hybrid system, we also
controlled the battery simulator to the
powertrains electric motors. The test
stand performed Common DC Bus
automated testing, or the operator used
a drivers trace and throttle pedal to
drive the simulated vehicle. NVH was
monitored, durability tested, shift
calibration tables were developed,
and performance validated.
What is the big news at Mustang?
Our new 31,000ft
2
expansion is now
completed and operational, bringing our
facility up to 100,000ft
2
. We also have
an exciting project in progress building
a helicopter main mast and tail-rotor
transmission test stand for the military.
Our 10-test-cell transmission repair
facility at Anniston Army Depot is also
nearing completion.
What will you be showing at
Automotive Testing Expo India?
We will be focusing on turnkey full-engine,
chassis and powertrain emissions
certication systems, calibration
systems, and R&D systems. We will
also be discussing the importance
of production-testing equipment for
the development of complete vehicles
and vehicle components.
1
0

Q
U
E
S
T
I
O
N
S
Dynamometers have been in my
blood and under my ngernails
for as long as I can remember
Chambers
Temperature and Climate
Head Wind, up to Climatic Wind Tunnels
Rain and Solar Light
Altitude
NVH
Corrosion
e.g. for Exhaust Emissions Analyzing, SHEDs
Test Beds
Engines from XS to XXL
Gearboxes
HVAC Components
Vehicle/Engine Heat Exchangers
Supply Modules for all kinds of media
Shift to
best in energy performance
We provide test systems for shared success
Imtech Deutschland
|
Centre of Competence Environmental Simulation/Test Bed Engineering
|
Hammer Str. 32
22041 Hamburg/Germany
|
Phone +49 40 6949 2527
|
Fax +49 40 6949 2513
|
sales.umsi@imtech.de
|
www.imtech.de/umsi
A
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G
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S
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Alexander M. Geisler is a partner at Duane Morris.
He has 20 years of experience in the automotive sector
and is retained by OEMs, Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers,
test facilities and engineering companies. He is our
resident legal columnist. Alex can be reached at
amgeisler@duanemorris.com, +44 207 786 2111
(London) and +1 215 979 1000 (Philadelphia).
ASK ALEX
020
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
If asked, I would say the courtroom. I say if asked
because strictly speaking I wasnt. In a break from
tradition, this question comes not from the readership of
Automotive Testing Technology but from its very pages. The
question appeared on the Ask The Experts page in the
November/December 2011 issue (p14). It prompted some
interesting offerings from the panel, including the Mexican
rocky road and the Dubai dessert melter, both of which
sound like ice cream sundaes. David Streeter from MIRA
had a lateral view, suggesting that virtual sign-off is the
toughest test.
Now, those who have experienced 3g on the edge of
the Nrburging might contest this, but I maintain that
the courtroom offers the toughest test of a vehicle. The
courtroom is a unique test chamber. You could be forgiven
for thinking it has similarities to a wind tunnel, but these
are supercial. The rst key difference is of course
lifecycle. The vehicle under scrutiny in a courtroom is
a post-catastrophe vehicle. It has been in the real world
and something sinister has happened to it. That
intervening event or agent may well prove to be pilot
error, but this has to be proved. Now of course in most
jurisdictions the onus of proof is on the plaintiff. Fine,
but now imagine a US courtroom and a wall-size blow-up
picture of the index vehicle with A and B pillars destroyed
and a grotesquely deformed roof. So much for the burden
of proof.
The next difference is legislation. In the testing
environment the governing legislation is largely
bureaucratic, with minimum tests for different territories,
differing type approval processes and such like. In the
courtroom, the prevailing legislation and governing case
law are all about liability, causation, and damages. Then
nally, of course, there is the test instrumentation. In some
countries it will be a single judge, maybe even one with
an engineering background. But in other jurisdictions it
will be a lay jury.
Of course there are countless tales of competent
courts dispensing excellent justice. But these make less
entertaining anecdotes than the goings-on within the less
efcient tribunals. One notoriously belligerent English
judge dispenses his own version of Noise, Vibration, and
Harshness. And then there are the eccentrics. One of
my favorite such tales is the judge dealing with a case
on the Isle of Wight. My expert gave an impressive, albeit
high-speed, dissertation about ride and handling. But
the accident happened in Ventnor, interrupted the judge.
Why are you telling me about Ryde and
Shanklin?
What is the toughest test
of a vehicle?
A
L
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X

G
E
I
S
L
E
R
Alexander M. Geisler is a partner at Duane Morris.
He has 20 years experience in the automotive sector and
is retained by OEMs, Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers,
test facilities and engineering companies. He is our
resident legal columnist. Alex can be reached at
amgeisler@duanemorris.com, +44 20 7786 2111
(London) and +1 215 979 1000 (Philadelphia)
recall round-up
The latest automotive recall news for
Europe and North America during the
rst quarter of 2012
Make Model(s) Concern
BMW Diesel-engined
1 Series, 5 Series,
7 Series, X3 and X5
Risk of re
BMW 5, 6 & 7 Series,
Alpina B5 & B7
Short circuit may occur
MINI Cooper S, John
Cooper Works and
All 4 Countryman
Risk of re
Volvo V70, S80, XC60,
and XC70
Possibility of loss of drive
Mercedes-
Benz
E-Class and CLS Steering may become heavy
Mercedes-
Benz
ML Cruise control may fail to deactivate
Mercedes-
Benz
Atego Risk of re
Rolls-
Royce
Ghost Short circuit may occur
Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione Rear wheels may lock up
Chevrolet Cruze Engine may stall
Audi A3 Fuel may leak
Toyota Lexus RX300 and
RX400h
Steering may be affected
Honda Civic Type R Short circuit may occur
Volvo C30, S40, V50 & C70 Fluid may leak into wiring harness,
which may cause re
Mercedes-
Benz
Sprinter Control may be lost
Volkswagen T5, Passat, Golf,
Tiguan, Eos &
Scirocco
Fuel may leak
Koni Shock absorber
models 30-1720
and 30-1721
Driver may lose control
Ford Fiesta Fumes may enter passenger
compartment
Yamaha VMAX Engine may fail
Toyota Verso Panoramic roof glass may detach
Mitsubishi Outlander GS45X Rear wheel and hub may detach
Ford F-150 & F-250 Risk of re
Citron C3 & DS3 Airbag may not deploy correctly
Citron C3 & DS3 Engine may cut out
Citron C3 & DS3 Suspension xings may loosen
The most important dates for
your diary in 2012
Die wichtigsten Termine fr
Ihren Kalender 2012
I am impressed with the Expo.
There are a lot of good ideas here.
We have to look at the ideas of suppliers
and other OEMs. We want to be the best
so we have to think about everything
Dr Gerrit Kiesgen,
general manager, BMW

GM sells MESA
UK facilities report boom
LONDON Three UK proving
grounds have reported booming
business with record turnover.
MIRA saw revenue increase in
2011 to almost US$64.5 million
from US$57 million in 2010
itself a record year.
A big increase in defense
contracts has, says MIRA CEO
Dr George Gillespie, helped to
boost earnings. We have a
forward-looking order book of
US$30.5 million. In the sectors
we serve were not seeing any
signs of a double-dip recession
just continued growth.
Bruntingthorpe Proving
Ground started 2012 by winning
the MIA Business Excellence
Award for services to the
high-performance engineering
industry as well as planning
consent from its local authority
to develop an innovation park
(pictured above) within its
670-acre site a former USAF
Cold War airbase.
Bruntingthorpes managing
director, Dave Walton, said, Our
new, ultra-modern development
will bring opportunities and
commercial benets to what is
a thriving industry one that
is contributing greatly to the
national economic recovery.
Millbrook also reported a
record year in 2011. Neil Fulton,
head of sales and marketing,
said, All areas did exceptionally
well, especially vehicle test and
durability, and powertrain and
emissions. We have seen
powertrain test labs running
around the clock and an
unprecedented number of
vehicles on our tracks. In 2011,
there was 75% more track-based
vehicle activity than in 2010.
Fulton also revealed plans
to upgrade the emissions and
vehicle safety facilities.

DEARBORN Sue Cischke
has retired after a 35-year
career in the automotive
industry. Since joining Ford
in 2001, Cischke has served
as the companys top
environment and safety ofcer
and was appointed group VP
of sustainability, environment,
and safety engineering. But it
was at Chrysler that she started
her career and held various
key positions,
including general
manager of
scientic labs
and proving
grounds.
Its been an honor to work
35 years in the auto industry
and dedicate my career to
delivering ever-safer and
more efcient vehicles to
our customers, she said.
Aberdeen Test Center
www.atc.army.mil
ACTS
www.acts.de
Arctic Falls AB
www.arcticfalls.se
Arctic Testing Services
www.arctictesting.
Arjeplog Test Center
www.arjeplogtestcenter.com
ATP Papenburg
www.atp-papenburg.com
Bosch
www.bosch.us
CERAM
www.ceram-mortefontaine.fr
Cooper Tire and Vehicle
Test Center
www.tvtc.us
Dayton T. Brown
www.daytontbrown.com
Deance Testing
and Engineering
www.deancetest.com
IDIADA
www.idiada.com
Gerotek Test
Facilities
www.gerotek.co.za
Keweenaw Research Center
www.mtukrc.org/school.htm
Magna Steyr
www.magnasteyr.com
MGA Research
www.mgaresearch.com
Michigan Proving Ground
www.testprofessionals.com
Millbrook
www.millbrook.co.uk
MIRA
www.mira.co.uk
Nevada Automotive
Test Center
www.natc-ht.com
PMG Technologies
www.pmgtest.com
Prodrive
www.prodrive.com
Prototipo
www.prototipo.org
Smithers Winter
Test Center
www.wintertesting.com
Southern Hemisphere
Proving Ground
www.shpg.co.nz
Southwest Research
www.swri.org
TNO Automotive
www.automotive.tno.nl
Transportation Research
www.trcpg.com
P
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G
R
O
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S
MESA General Motors
has nally sold off the
last 3,200 acres of the
Mesa Proving Ground in Arizona
for US$265 million. The land
will be developed for housing.
Mesa was opened in 1953
to complement GMs Milford
Proving Ground in Michigan
the industrys rst dedicated
automobile test facility, dating
from the early 1920s and
provide year-round hot-weather
testing. GM sold the rst 1,800
of the sites 5,000 acres in 2004.
In July 2009, the General
joined the US Army at its Yuma
Proving Ground, Arizona,
opening a new hot-weather test
facility there. The auto maker
signed an agreement to
co-develop and administer
the site with the Army.
Despite defense cuts, the
Yuma Proving Ground was the
US Armys busiest test center in
2011, clocking up 2.77 million
direct labor hours, which
accounted for 30% of the
Armys total test workload.
YPG spokesman Chuck
Wullenjohn said the record-
breaking feat was largely due
to a huge increase in vehicle
testing done by the Combat
Automotive Division, which
accumulated 1.07 million labor
hours, a 6% increase on 2010.
He expects the level of testing to
remain steady this year: There
arent going to be any huge
increases or decreases.
Proving ground directory
MORE GROUNDS ARE LISTED AT
WWW.AUTOMOTIVETESTINGTECHNOLOGYINTERNATIONAL.COM
If you would like your facility to be included in the Automotive Testing Technology
International proving grounds directory, please contact Jason Sullivan on:
+44 1306 743744, or email: jason.sullivan@ukipme.com
Former Chrysler proving ground manager retires
KIKUGAWA Yamaha is reviving its plan to build a fth test
facility in Japan. Work on the Kikugawa proving ground
which was due to start in 2009 and be completed toward the end
of 2012 but fell victim to the recession will start soon but with
a reduced budget.
The facility will cover 121 acres its largest in terms of area and
feature a 1.18-mile closed course. This is shorter than the originally
planned 1.86-mile track. Yamaha will use the test facility to develop
its high-performance and small-displacement motorcycles intended
for developing markets. It will be far from a conventional, at race
speed track as it will incorporate dusty and hilly sections to
simulate real-world conditions.
Yamaha revives fth test facility
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
022

INDIANA Half a mile long
and visible from space, the
Studebaker arboreal sign at its
former proving ground now
owned by Bosch is causing
some concern. The 5,000 red
and white pine trees, planted by
the Civilian Conservation Corps
in 1938 some 12 years after
Studebaker opened the site,
have survived without a
maintenance budget. But thats
about to be put right with the
help of a US$2,500 endangered
places grant to preserve and
maintain the sign.
Tree time at Studebaker
Bigger and better
than ever before
Noch grer,
noch besser

There are many manufacturers


of machinery and parts, and it is
very interesting. I didnt think
it would be so large. It is such
an interesting place
Bernd Eberle,
project manager,
BMW M GmbH

ASAM (Association for Standardisation of


Automation and Measuring Systems) will once
again jointly host the Open Technology Forum
at Automotive Testing Expo Europe 2012.
Following the huge success at Automotive
Testing Expo last year, ASAM has put together
a comprehensive three-day Open Technology
Forum with presentations from leading OEMs
and Tier 1 and 2 suppliers.
The Open Technology Forum is free of
charge to attend, and will commence each
morning of the show.
Europes leading automotive testing,
evaluation and quality engineering trade fair
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Register for your FREE entry pass/badge NOW online at
www.testing-expo.com
June 12, 13 and 14, 2012
Stuttgart Messe, Stuttgart, Germany
www.testing-expo.com
AUTOMOTIVE TESTING EXPO EUROPE 2012
Abinger House, Church Street,
Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1306 743744
Fax: +44 (0) 1306 877411
email: expo@ukipme.com
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Focused Relevant
Unmissable
Zielgenau Relevant
Ein Muss

It is useful, with a lot of exhibitors.


It gives us some ideas
Vincent Jacquier,
mechanical chief engineer,
PSA Peugeot Citron
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www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
FACILITY TEST
that in a worst-case scenario,
an unconscious driver wont
be left undiscovered by others
during a night-time durability
run, for example.
In short, TCS is by far the
most comprehensive and safest
means of proving ground
control that this reviewer has
experienced. And by linking
it to its booking and billing
systems, ATP has made its
administrative life easier, too.
In the future, such a system
could be the basis for fully
autonomous proving ground
operation, improving safety
yet further.
In terms of the tracks
themselves, its still all here:
the real-world durability routes,
on which cars can be driven by
ABD robots if desired; the vast
dynamics pad (now with the
option of a recently introduced,
in-house-developed ADAS test
vehicle); the brake-test area
applications. But once the
systems on board, the test
driver no longer has to notify
the dispatcher each time he
moves from one test track
to another, as his position is
automatically relayed to the
screens in the control room.
Moreover, the driver need no
longer monitor the radio to
listen out for the positions of
other cars up to 70 of them
at peak times leaving him
free to concentrate on driving.
If a driver has an accident,
they can press an emergency
response button on the TCS
microphone, which will sound
an alarm back at the control
room. The system also has
a number of automatic
emergency detection alarms
built in that detect incidents
such as a car leaving the paved
track or becoming stationary
in an unexpected location. This
provides additional reassurance
Back in 2003, we
were blown away by
Automotive Testing Papenburg
(ATP), the vast proving ground
just west of Bremen in northern
Germany. We called it probably
the nest proving ground in
Europe, and one of the best in
the world. Praise indeed!
Almost a decade later, theres
no sign of ATP resting on its
laurels. There has been steady
investment in new facilities and
equipment, with more planned
in the short and medium term.
Perhaps the most important
addition of recent years is the
TCS is by far the most
comprehensive and safest means
of proving ground control that
this reviewer has experienced
GPS-based Trafc Control
System (TCS). Co-developed
with Bosch, BMW, and
Volkswagen, this monitoring,
messaging, data-recording,
and emergency-detection system
was implemented for the rst
time at Papenburg, some 2.5
years ago.
We watched an ATP
technician t the required
antenna, black box, in-car
screen, microphone, and power
supply to a Mercedes test car
in a little over ve minutes,
although up to 15 minutes may
be required for the trickiest
Nine years after its rst visit,
Automotive Testing Technology
returns to the ATP proving
ground to see if the German
giant has still got what it takes
WORDS BY GRAHAM HEEPS
028
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
FACILITY TEST
Verdict

ATP remains hard to fault, not


least because its management
is anything but complacent.
If the plans for new tracks and
refurbishment works all come
to fruition, the competition
will have an even harder job
keeping pace.
with different friction strips
(there are plans to rebuild
this area with a more efcient
ooding system, too); and
above all, the 12.3km (7.6-mile)
high-speed oval, with its 4km
(2.5 mile) straights and hands-
off-at-250km/h (155mph), up
to 49.7 banked ends.
This signature track remains
a big draw for ATPs customers
some 300 of them in 2011
with 60% booking time on the
oval, where the straights are
scheduled to be resurfaced
within the next couple of years.
Theres no upper speed limit,
making it an attractive place
not just for AMG to run its hot
Mercs, but for tuning companies
to run their highly modied
cars and SUVs in relative safety.
The fastest recorded speeds to
date more than 400km/h
(250mph) were set by a RUF
9ff Porsche and a 1,407bhp
Pontiac Firebird!
Tire companies a crucial
client base for ATP also use
the oval to develop high-speed
rubber, as well as the UNECE
117-certied rolling noise and
wet-grip tracks. Forthcoming
changes to standards mean
that the former will need a new
surface in the coming years.
In the case of the latter, ATP
acknowledges that the wet-
handling facility used for
the grip tests has some
shortcomings: its very at, has
constant-radius curves, and is
irrigated by water sprays not
always ideal in a windy location.
To rectify them, plans are
in place to construct a new
wet-handling track at the
southern end of the 780ha
facility, which will have some
elevation change, more dynamic
curve combinations (including
some faster, wider corners), and
a ood-based irrigation system.
With the necessary nancing
still to be put in place, no date
has yet been set for completion.
And given the investment
required, ATP is consulting
extensively with its customers
to ensure the design will meet
their every need, before it gives
the green light for construction
to begin.
Another proposed new,
tire-related investment concerns
rolling resistance measurement.
With the introduction of
environmental labeling to tires
sold in the EU from November
2012, ATP knows it will need to
acquire a tire rolling resistance
test bench in order to offer
services in this area. The next
facility to be added to the roster
good health. Following the
bankruptcy of former co-owner
Karmann in 2009, the company
is now 100% owned by Daimler
subsidiary MBtech. It rode out
the economic downturn with
a temporary period of short-
time working and has
diversied its business to
generate other income streams.
It performs contract testing
(at ATP and elsewhere), hosts
car club and small-scale
motorsport events at weekends,
hosts visiting groups in an
old Routemaster bus, and has
developed a proving ground
consulting business to share
its experience of building and
operating a test facility with
external clients, particularly
in developing markets.
Plans are in place to construct
a new wet-handling track at
the southern end of the facility
ABOVE: The workshops at ATP are
available for customer use, and are
extensively stocked with equipment
will, however, be a new NVH
test track, which is being built
by an ATP customer and will
be completed later this year.
With this and other
investment projects in the
ofng, such as the introduction
of a new ambulance planned
for this summer, ATP is in
EURO 6 STANDARDS
sense
Three companies reveal how they are preparing OEMs
for the Euro 6 standards that come into force in 2014
WORDS BY SAUL WORDSWORTH
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 030
031
EURO 6 STANDARDS
The legislation for Euro 5 Phase 2 was implemented
from September 2011, and the more stringent
Euro 6 will begin in September 2014. Once this
comes into force member states must refuse the approval,
registration, sale, and introduction of vehicles that do not
comply with the tougher new emissions limits. OEMs are
hastily preparing.
The NOx emissions reduction [dictated by] Euro 6 will
increase the health benets by approximately 60-90% over
Euro 5, says Nikolaus Steininger, Enterprise and Industry
Directorate-General at the European Commission. Europe
as a whole welcomes any initiative that reduces pollution
from vehicles.
New emissions standards are always a challenge, adds
Walter Puetz, director for certication,environment, and
regulatory affairs at Daimler. The key is to make customers
understand that our engines are as clean as all other
engines. The process may cost us a little but if it means
making engines cleaner today, thats a good thing.
Euro 6: The facts
There are two major changes in the move to Euro 6 from
the current Euro 5. The rst is the introduction of a solid
particle number standard (PN) for positive ignition (PI)
gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles. This level was
nalized in December 2011. The decision was to set the
limit as 6 x 10
12
particles per kilometer for three years and
to reduce this to 6 x 10
11
(the same level as Compression
ignition vehicles) from September 2017. The decision to
delay implementation of the lower limit gives manufacturers
of light-duty vehicles sufcient time to develop improved
injection/combustion technology and vehicle calibrations
to avoid the use of particulate lters that would adversely
affect fuel consumption and CO
2
emissions. The second
change is the requirement to more than halve the current
NOx standard for compression ignition vehicles from
180mg/km under Euro 5 to 80mg/km under Euro 6.
The introduction of the new PN standard for gasoline
direct injection (GDI) vehicles will require research and
development into direct injection systems and combustion
if the use of particulate lters is to be avoided. For some
vehicles, however, it may be necessary to install particulate
lters in order to meet the new limits, especially bearing in
mind future requirements to demonstrate compliance
under off-cycle driving (when the engine is tested in an
unknown random test and also for in-service compliance),
which can be expected under new procedures currently
under discussion. Meanwhile the reduction of the NOx
LEFT: Gasoline direct
injection engines such
as Fords EcoBoost
V6 may require further
research to avoid the
need for particulate
lters to be tted
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
New emissions standards are
always a challenge...the process
may cost us a little but if it means
making cleaner engines today,
thats a good thing
limits for compression ignition vehicles is likely to require
the use of aftertreatment systems for some vehicles. The
aftertreatment could be LNT (lean NOx trap) or SCR
(selective catalytic reduction), depending on the vehicles
specication and duty.
Number crunching
Horiba Group has been a key supplier of exhaust emissions
measurement systems for certication and R&D for more
than 40 years, and its Automotive Test Systems (ATS)
division is a leading supplier of engine test systems,
driveline test systems, brake test systems, wind tunnel
balances, and emissions test systems.
Horiba developed the rst production-level solid
particle number counting system, the MEXA-1000SPCS,
says Les Hill, ATS product planner at the company. This
was to meet the initial draft specications and procedures
introduced by the PMP [Particle Measurement Programme],
a working group that was formed to study low-level PM
emissions and to develop new instruments and procedures
for its measurement. Further modications and renement
of the specications and procedures enabled a new model
[MEXA-2000SPCS] to be developed that is much smaller
and simpler in design.
According to Hill, the introduction of the PM and PN
standards for GDI vehicles means that some chassis
dynamometer test cell systems are now being upgraded for
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_Tacho ATTI Anz en 58x250.indd 1 11.01.12 11:43
BELOW: The AVL
iGeneration is claimed
to enhance every
aspect of emissions
testing, from improved
gas analyzers to
more accurate and
optimized sampling
systems
Euro 6 more than halves the
permitted NOx emissions limits
for diesel vehicles
033
EURO 6 STANDARDS
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
measurement by the installation of dilution tunnels, PM
samplers, and PN counting systems.
The extension of the PN standard to the PI direct
injection gasoline vehicles means this parameter will be
critical for the development and calibration of these
powertrains in the engine test cell stage, he says.
Accordingly, Horiba has recently introduced a new model
[MEXA-2100SPCS] that is designed to measure the PN
from the raw, undiluted exhaust gas without the need for
the CVS and dilution tunnel equipment that is necessary
for the chassis dynamometer based certication. Similarly,
the reduction of NOx emissions for Compression ignition
vehicles will require improved instrumentation for the
measurement of nitrogen compounds.
In addition to the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared)
analyzer that has been available for many years, Horiba
has introduced a new type of analyzer (MEXA-1400QL-
NX) that uses a mid-infrared energy source called the
Quantum Cascade Laser, which has become commercially
available in the last few years.
The MEXA-1400QL-NX measures the NO, NO
2
, NH
3

and N
2
O concentrations from the engine exhaust with a
lower limit of detection and wider dynamic range than
other infrared-based instruments. Its performance will be
very important in the research and development of engine
combustion as well as the research and development of a
number of exhaust aftertreatment devices such as CRTs
[continuous regenerating traps], LNTs, and SCRs that are
expected to be used for Compression ignition light-duty
vehicles to meet Euro 6 and beyond.
Analysis
Cambustion is a spin-off company from the Cambridge
University Engineering Department, and was formed in
1987 with the invention of a fast FID for measurement of
Cost and speed
Cost will be an issue with Euro
6, especially for diesels. Data
from the Euro 5 impact assessment
was used to evaluate the impact of
a second step of emissions limits.
The data suggested that the cost of
ensuring a diesel vehicle meets the
proposed Euro 6 limit value for NOx
will be 213 more than for Euro 5.
The industry knows this so in
principle [the cost] applies to all
of them equally and should not
lead to a big price distortion,
says Nikolaus Steininger of the
European Commission. It would
mean the price gap between diesel
and petrol cars will become a little
bigger but this is compensated for
by CO
2
regulations, which come
into force around the same time
as Euro 6; they favor diesel engines
and as a result competing effects
cancel each other out.
Euro 6 will be a race of
technology and marketing, says
Walter Puetz of Daimler. The
ones who rst have their portfolio
moved forward in fullling Euro 6
legislation will promote this and
catch some additional market
share because customers are
becoming more and more sensitive
to emissions and want to be as
clean as possible, where
affordable. We want our customers
to understand that these engines
are as clean as all other engines.
Its an important step for us to
demonstrate that we are capable of
meeting all emissions standards.
transient HC emissions. This occurred just as researchers
were grappling with the (then) new technology of
sequential fuel injection and three-way catalytic converters.
Given increasing demands from legislators worldwide
to control emissions to lower levels, Cambustion is
continuing to develop new products and invest in its test
facilities to help vehicle manufacturers meet these new
requirements through control of engine-out emissions and
exhaust aftertreatment.
Euro 6 more than halves the permitted NOx emissions
limits for diesel vehicles and will almost certainly require
the addition of aftertreatment systems such as LNTs or
SCRs, says Mark Peckham, the director of Cambustion.
ABOVE: An emissions
test cell at Horibas
test center in
Obuerursel, Germany
TOP RIGHT AND
ABOVE RIGHT:
Horibas MEXA-
1400QL-NX analyzer
uses a Quantum
Cascade Laser
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 034
EURO 6 STANDARDS
These new aftertreatment requirements will drastically
increase the cost and complexity of emission control for
vehicle manufacturers, making diesel-engined vehicles
more expensive for the consumer. Many OEMs (and
Cambustions Engineering Services division) are actively
evaluating and applying such technology to meet the
legislative requirements.
The prevailing Euro 5b legislation for diesel PN has
already meant the tting of DPFs to most diesel passenger
cars, and Cambustion has been heavily involved in the
implementation of this technology. DPF development
requires repeatable and reliable systems for evaluating
DPF characteristics, and Cambustion has developed a
diesel particulate generator (DPG) that can help vehicle
manufacturers, lter substrate manufacturers, and catalyst
coaters optimize their products. The DPG enables rapid
loading of soot onto a DPF to allow pressure-drop and
regeneration characteristics to be assessed without use of
an engine dyno or vehicle chassis rolls.
Peckham believes the most challenging aspect of Euro
6 for gasoline vehicles is the proposed application of a
(staged) PN limit applied to GDI vehicles. Such engines
generally emit higher numbers of nanoparticles than
conventional port-fuel-injected gasoline engines, but the
suggestion that such particles may pose a public health
risk has brought about this legislation, and now engine
researchers and calibrators are investigating methods of
meeting the stringent number standard.
The use of gasoline particulate lters (GPFs) has been
proposed, but considerable efforts are also being made to
optimize direct injection hardware and calibration, states
Peckham. Cambustions DMS500 fast-response particulate
analyzer is being used by OEMs and suppliers across the
world to investigate measures to improve the engine-out
particle number and hence avoid the use of additional
aftertreatment to control GDI particle emissions.
Measurement
AVL Emission Test Systems GmbH is, according to its
company ofcials, the worlds largest privately owned
independent company for the development of powertrain
systems with IC engines as well as instrumentation and
test systems. Uwe Krummenhler is chairman of its
management board.
We believe our emissions measurement system, the
iGeneration, meets the current and future challenges of
the industry, he says. It is already the technology leader
and will soon be the most used system and reference. We
were able to prove our ability to fulll future legislations,
and this is why emissions legislators the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and TV decided to go for the
AVL emissions test solution. Our particulate measuring
device PSS/APC a combination of the conventional
gravimetric particulate sampler and rst for EU5+
implemented advance particulate counter enables our
customers to upgrade their existing testbeds to be ready
for Euro 6.
The iGeneration is claimed to have improved every
aspect of emissions testing, from improved gas analyzers
to more accurate and optimized sampling systems. The
testing requires less oor space and has a lower total cost
of ownership. iGeneration certainly appears to have the
backing of Dr Werner Kummer, manager of Audis exhaust
gas and endurance test center at Ingolstadt.
Productivity and availability are two of the most
important requirements for an exhaust gas measurement
system, he explains. I generally appreciate the increased
repeatability and detection sensitivity of the AVL
iGeneration devices as well as the possibility of a complete
remote-controlled maintenance down to analyzer level.
ABOVE: The
Cambustion DMS500
fast particulate
analyzer combines
electrical mobility
measurements of
particles with
sensitive electrometer
detectors, to give
ouputs of particle
size, number and
mass in real time
These new aftertreatment
requirements will drastically increase
the cost and complexity of emission
control for vehicle manufacturers
Analyzers launched
With Euro 6 due to come into force from 2014,
a new limit on the particle number emissions
of gasoline direct injection vehicles is imminent,
coupled with the tightening of NOx limits for diesels.
As with many emissions challenges, two routes
are available; either to reduce engine emissions
through calibration and strategy optimization, or to
use aftertreatment to reduce engine out emissions
to acceptable tailpipe levels.
Many tens of thousands of dynamometer hours
have been expended investigating NOx and
particulate emissions, and the Cambustion DMS500
fast-response particulate analyzer and the CLD500
fast-response NOx analyzer represent two valuable
tools for effective engine and aftertreatment
development. See page 74 for more detailed
information.
0.0E+00
5.0E+11
1.0E+12
1.5E+12
2.0E+12
2.5E+12
3.0E+12
0 10 20 30 40 60 70 80 90 100
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
Pre-catalyst Lambda
Air Fuel Ratio excursions cause
varying particle emission
End of catalyst heating strategy
causes increased particle emission
Vehicle Speed
P
a
r
t
i
c
l
e

N
u
m
b
e
r
P
r
e
-
c
a
t
a
l
y
s
t

L
a
m
b
d
a
Time (s)
Particle Number from PMP / CPC
Particle Number from Cambustion DMS500
Particle number emissions from a 1.6 litre GDI vehicle during NEDC
Established in 1987, our products are used in over 25 countries worldwide.
Our customers include vehicle OEMs, Tier 1s, engineering consultants, universities and researchers.
www.cambustion.com
DPF Testing Systems Fast response Emissions Analyzers
Key development tools for Euro 6 and other transient test cycles
Unique insights into engine and aftertreatment behaviour from fast response emissions data:
Cyclical NO
X
for SCR dosing
Particle number calibration
DPF Testing Systems
In-cylinder residuals
Cyclical EGR DPF/GPF efficiency
Cyclical AFR
EGR control

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036
AERODYNAMICS
As the industry intensies its demands on technology to provide greater cost
savings, it is the ideal time to revive the debate about whether CFD technology
will ever fully replace the use of wind tunnels. Automotive Testing Technology
speaks to industry leaders to discover their thoughts on the matter
WORDS BY KARL VADASZFFY
movement
Fluid
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
037
The introduction of CFD to the automotive
industry may have received a mixed reception 20
years ago, but the past ve years have seen its use
become more widespread. While its use in testing has not
yet replaced wind tunnels, CFD technology has indeed
become more accessible because its usability has become
simpler and computers have become cheaper. Plus, users
have noted improved functionality and accuracy, which
has led to advanced capability and reliability. As David
Mann, team leader of aerospace and automotive at ANSYS
UK, says, CFD is now an essential tool in the design
process, without which the modern car could not exist.
A bold claim, and one that Manuel Henner, simulation
manager for fan system and airow management at Valeo,
agrees with: CFD really does broaden the range of
applications for a product, he says.
But although Henner recognizes the need for CFD, he
acknowledges the benets of physical testing. Simulation
has enabled us to reduce the number of tests, but physical
tests are still needed to validate quality and accuracy of
simulation methodologies, and for nal qualication.
There is a strong focus on CFD throughout the industry,
but wind tunnels continue to play a major role in day-to-
day testing. At TitanXs Mjllby R&D center, CFD coexists
with wind tunnel testing. Heat transfer coordinator
Ludovic Vaugarny explains the importance of tunnels to
its cooling systems research: We continuously upgrade
and keep our tunnels up to date to remain competitive,
and have the correct tools for product development.
Wind tunnel facilities at the Swedish site include
thermal performance, fan testing, and climatic testing.
The purpose of thermal performance testing, the 36 year
old comments, is to control the level of performances of
our heat exchangers. We can, for example, test radiators
with water or glycol, up to 7kg/s coolant ow and 10kg/s
airow, up to 300kW, and charge air coolers with up to
0.7kg/s charge airow, 3 bar relative pressure, 250C
[482F] charge air temperature and 130kW.
In the companys CWTs, where the focus is on heavy-
duty activity including trucks, buses, and genset, the
vehicle is tested as in its real environment. They can be
tested between -20C (-4F) to +45C (113F) ambient
temperature, up to 150km/h (93mph) wind speed and
vehicle speed, the ability to brake up to 420hp on a two-
wheel chassis dyno, play with the humidity, and simulate
sun effects with solar lamps totalling 66,000W.
movement
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
AERODYNAMICS
LEFT: CSTB
engineers
recommend CWTs
for calculating
two-phase ow such
as rain, snow and dust
Bringing aerodynamics and vehicle
dynamics together
In 1990, the RUAG Automotive
Wind Tunnel Emmen (AWTE)
was one of the rst facilities to
use a moving belt system to
simulate reality more accurately.
This resulted in a major
improvement of the correlation
between wind tunnel and road
data. More than 20 years later,
another big step has been taken
at RUAG. Using its unique shaker
system, researchers and developers
now have the possibility to
investigate the aerodynamic
response of a vehicle, not only for
stationary conditions, but also for
dynamic pitch and heave motions.
The interaction of aerodynamic
effects with vehicle dynamics
an issue affecting performance,
comfort, driveability and safety
was found to change signicantly
when considering transient
aerodynamic effects rather than
using static or quasi-static data
only. New methods based on
these ndings are on the brink
of becoming established in
development processes of OEMs.
A customers experimental
study in the AWTE, supported by
a signicant CFD effort, allowed
it to develop a model of the
motion-dependent aerodynamic
effects, which can now be used
to assess vehicle behavior prior to
road tests with improved reliability.
These ndings will be presented
at the SAE World Congress 2012.
CFD is now an essential
tool in the design process,
without which the modern
car could not exist
David Mann, ANSYS
European tunnels
To those who believe wind tunnels are a dying breed,
Carlo Panzeri, manager of CWTs for Fiat Group says, In
Europe, a lot of manufacturers are upgrading or building
new aerodynamic and CWTs so that results become even
more precise and accurate. So wind tunnels are most
certainly a very relevant part of testing today.
And its with testing in tunnels that Panzeri reminds us
the latest European rules for fuel consumption and
pollution reduction can be met: There is a huge push for
us in the industry to reduce aerodynamic drag. CFD might
be useful in the very beginning of the process, but it cant
help us do this effectively.
At CSTB in France, Jean-Paul Bouchet, who is team
leader for transportation and severe climatic conditions
activities, agrees that CFDs main benet is at the beginning
of the development process. He says there are many
benets to the use of CWTs when exploring aerodynamics,
aero-acoustics, two-phase ow (rain, snow, and dust), and
thermal problems: They provide reliable readings and
lead engineers to effective solutions.
FGAs Panzeri explains that work on CWTs reduces the
number of physical road tests needed. The 36-year-old
Italian says, A lot of testing is no longer completed on the
road. For example, we can test at -30C [-22F], so we dont
have to wait for winter or go somewhere else in the world.
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039
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
Consequently, engineering time is reduced. Christa
Hornreich, team leader of testing methodology for CWTs
at BMW, agrees that CWTs provide constant and repeatable
conditions all year round during the development process,
resulting in savings of time and resources.
The next steps in CFD
Valeos Henner recognizes that processes have changed to
speed things up, but he looks to what has happened with
CFD to quantify this: Fifteen years ago the development
time for a car was ve or six years, he explains, now its
less than one year and many manufacturers want it done
in six months. With simulations we can change a design
far more easily and reduce the number of standard tests.
However, as specications become more demanding,
test complexity increases, and we have to look at measuring
simultaneous phenomena, such as thermal radiation,
aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. Sometimes highly
sophisticated techniques are needed to provide detailed
measurements, with numerous local recordings of data,
possibly with transient ows.
Despite the benets, Sylvain Aguinaga, an aerodynamic
engineer at CSTB, acknowledges that there is a downside
to CFD. Nowadays, especially with the rise of Opensource
codes such as OpenFOAM, anyone can make CFD; a lot of
start-ups offer to perform CFD simulations in very
complex cases. One day, if Moores law is still right,
computers will enable us to simulate those cases using
DNS (direct numerical simulations), which means
modeling the ow with a close-to-perfect model, but this
is currently so consuming of computer resources that it
can be applied only to model things such as pipe ows.
Meanwhile, we have to simulate the ow in CFD using
RANS [Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes] or LES [large
eddy simulation] models, which are less expensive in
terms of computer resources but paradoxically more
complex in terms of the physics involved, adds Aguinaga.
If you look at CFD codes such as Fluent or OpenFOAM,
you have dozens of models for RANS simulation and LES
to model uid turbulence. Im not referring to more complex
simulations involving multiphase ow or heat transfer,
when its even more difcult. So there isnt yet a universal
model. Moreover, some models are excellent in academic
cases but perform poorly for a complex ow such as a car.
ANSYS UKs Mann, however, believes CFDs attractions
are more all-encompassing: There are improvements in
cost and productivity along with enhanced scope for
undertaking aerodynamic design, he says. CFD provides
results without the need for physical geometry; all that is
required is a CAD model or faceted geometry such as STL
[stereo lithography format]. There are no limitations to the
dimensions of the computational model analogous to
constraints of the walls of a wind tunnel, which introduce
an articial error to the results.
Modications to geometry can be made easily by using
a parametric model or mesh morphing, he continues,
and these technologies can be linked to automatic
optimization tools to search for the optimum geometrical
shapes based on criteria of your choosing. Scenarios such
as overtaking, cornering, and acceleration, which cannot
be practically set up in any wind tunnel, can be modeled.
The future of tunnels
So, will the result of continued developments in CFD be
the extinction of wind tunnels?
TitanXs Vaugarny sees the need for both methods: To
do good CFD simulation, the most important thing is to
have correct inputs and these inputs come from wind
tunnels when doing an initial calibration of the model.
Henner at Valeo reveals, There isnt a major argument
among experts of experiment and CFD about one replacing
the other. The argument is more among non-specialists
who may see potential savings. There will be more CFD,
but it will always be validated by experiments.
ABOVE: ANSYS
attributes much of
modern automotive
progress to CFD
LEFT: Hornreich does
not believe that CFD
advances will ever
make BMWs wind
tunnels redundant
BELOW LEFT:
Physical testing at
TitanXs Mjllby site
AERODYNAMICS
CSTBs Bouchet says that, in some cases, physical tests
are more reliable. Whatever the future of computational
tools, wind tunnels will never be redundant, he afrms.
CFD requires very large computing resources and a
considerable investment of time. In addition, two-phase
ows are still poorly modeled due to the complexity of
phenomena for example, the problem of liquid lms with
separations, drops, and splashing. Were a long way off
CFD being able to do this on its own.
BMWs Hornreich suggests that the day CFD acts alone
will likely never be seen: In terms of detailed information
about the functionality of certain measures, only a real test
can give a reliable answer. An example is the cooling
system, where a critical testing scenario is dynamic driving.
Todays CFD tools are unable to do precise calculations on
3D transient thermal processes. Looking to the future, it
might be possible, but one also has to take into account the
cost and resources required for complex CFD calculations.
Although Mann agrees that CFD and wind tunnels are
Mercedes-Benz invests in test tunnels
Mercedes-Benz has
inaugurated two new
climatic wind tunnels at
its technology center in
Sindelngen that are designed
to bring extreme weather
conditions indoors.
The tunnels are housed in an
18m-high (59ft) building, which
covers an area of 70 x 60m (230
x 197ft). One of the tunnels is a
cold tunnel, with a temperature
range of -40 to +40C (-40
to +104F), and the hot tunnel
offers a temperature range
of -10 to +60C (14F to 140F).
Each tunnel is equipped with
an integrated twin-axle roller
dyno that enables speeds
of up to 265km/h (165mph).
Special sensors and an
effective air extraction system
mean that fuel-cell vehicles
can also be subjected to tough
test programs in the tunnels.
Around two-thirds of the
building is taken up by two
test rigs and their associated
ofces, including the control
room. The test rigs are
designed with an overall
output of 600kW; under
overload conditions even
780kW is possible for short
periods. As a result, top speeds
of up to 265km/h (165mph)
are possible. The maximum
tractive force of the
dynamometer is 12,000N per
axle, under overload 20,000N.
During braking tests, the
rollers produce a similarly
high negative force.
The turbine can produce any
form of airow required. As an
extreme example, snowstorms
with hurricane-force winds
of up to 200km/h (124mph)
are also possible.
Of course, wind speed can
also be regulated as required.
The airow is controlled via a
speed-regulated fan as well as
by air jets with an adjustable
airow cross-section.
As well as by adjustment of
the wind speed, the sensitive
regulation of climatic
conditions is made possible
by the ability to set the relative
humidity in both the cold and
hot tunnels to a level between
5% and 95%.
In the hot tunnel, it
is possible to generate
temperatures of -10 to +60C
(14F to 140F). The facility
also includes a system for
simulating the sun. Its 32
lamps radiate light with an
intensity range equivalent
to that of real sunlight. Over
an area of 8 x 2.5m (26 x 8ft),
it is possible to regulate this
intensity to between 200W/m
2

and 1,200W/m
2
.
A further tool used in the
hot tunnel is the simulated hot
road surface, the temperature
of which can be set on
a continuously variable scale
of 50 to 70C (122 to 158F).
In terms of detailed
information about the
functionality of certain
measures, only a real test
can give a reliable answer
Christa Hornreich, BMW
complementary, he advocates CFD as a powerful tool that
can be used for much more: It is no longer possible to be
competitive in aerodynamic design without using CFD as
the major workhorse for analyzing proposed designs. It
can produce results that are at least as accurate as
experiments while being far more comprehensive for a tiny
fraction of the cost without the need for physical hardware.
He argues that there is no need to resort to scale models
because CFD provides a level of detail of the ow eld that
cannot be matched by experiment, with all variables such
as pressure and velocity components being known at every
cell in the computational domain. In experimental work,
this resolution of detail can be approached only by LDA or
PIV results, and only for a partial region of the ow eld.
In the near future, I expect the use of wind tunnels for
runs other than benchmarking CFD and corroboration to
be eliminated, he says.
Mann concludes by quoting renowned uid dynamics
expert P. J. Roache. There is a saying in the CFD world
that sums up the importance of condence in simulation
and overcondence in experimental results: No one
believes the CFD results except the one who performed
the calculation, and everyone believes the experimental
results except the one who performed the experiment.
CSTBs Aguinaga looks instead to a positive relationship
between wind tunnels and CFD in the future: Why does
one need to bury the other? he asks. Its time for people
to think about the two working together to provide a better
understanding of the aerodynamics at work. It would be
interesting if the people who made the simulations were
the same ones who conducted the experiments.
So should we instead be talking about exploring the
best of both worlds?
AERODYNAMICS
040
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
TOYOTA Motorsport GmbH
(TMG) is where the new TS030
HYBRID has been designed,
developed and tested before its
debut season in the FIA World
Endurance Championship.
TMGs large R&D centre features unique test rigs specialised for motorsport and vehicle
development. These include:
Transmission test system for high-dynamic, real-time simulation to prove and develop durability
or performance.
Full-car road simulator for replay of all forces and moments, with six degrees of freedom.
Seven-post rig for vertical dynamics optimisation.
A complete range of testing solutions for individual chassis or engine components.
Find out about all TMGs state-of-the-art facilities on our website: www.toyota-motorsport.com
Contact us: contact@toyota-motorsport.com +49 2234 1823 0
HIGH-PERFORMANCE TESTING
FOR MOTORSPORT AND BEYOND
042
CHEVROLET
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
small
043
CHEVROLET
Chevrolet may be an evocative name in the USA, but in its
quest to become a world force the company has gone
back to basics. Chris Biggs is in charge of developing test
programs that will create small cars for the whole world
WORDS BY ADAM GAVINE
world
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
Mention the name Chevy to most people and
what do they think of? A lithe Corvette or a
muscular Camaro, perhaps? Maybe an imposing
Suburban or Avalanche. These cars are great, no question,
and are the halo products that built the brand. However,
the world is changing and what a brand for the masses
needs to succeed today is a great range of affordable small
cars, suitable for customers the world over.
Cars wearing the famous bow-tie badge have been
enjoying success in the USA and the Far East, but the
current focus is on penetrating the European market.
Chevy is a growing brand in Europe and, with all-new
products across our line-up, it has come a long way from
where it was just a few years ago, says Chris Biggs, global
vehicle line director. We want to compete around the
world using what Chevy stands for especially in the USA
which is good-value, highly competent products that
meet the needs of the market. And that focuses on value in
every sense of the word, giving customers more than they
expect, great fuel economy, unquestionable quality, and
compelling design that excites. Were trying to bring to
Europe what weve brought to other parts of the world.
This is admirable, but before we can discuss the future,
a blot in Chevys European history must be addressed: its
period of selling rebadged Daewoos hardly an exercise in
thorough engineering. I think thats fair, responds Biggs.
GM as a company has had great small cars in the past, but
I dont know that weve had great small cars around the
world. Weve been successful in some instances in Europe
and Brazil, but we havent had that in other parts of the
world the USA, for example. And even though it might
sound like a clich, for the rst time in my experience we
really have pulled together a very international group.
Even though we are based in Korea and use a lot of
engineering resources there, we have a very international
group, with many Europeans, Brazilians, and Americans
LEFT: Aveo
prototypes spent as
much time on rough
tracks as test tracks
to ensure they were
suitable for some
emerging markets
WINDTUNNELS
TEST FACILITIES
We involve the
customer very
closely in the
process from the
very beginning
of the project
development till
the successful
handover of the
entire facility.
MCE Stahl- und Maschinenbau GmbH & Co KG
TEST FACILITIES & ENTIRE SYSTEMS
4031 Linz, Lunzerstrae 64, Austria
Phone: +43 732 6987-8807 Fax: +43 732 6980-8652
ofce-ds1@mce-smb.at www.mce-smb.at
MCE provides windtunnels and other
test facilities as a turnkey supplier.
The client does not need to
worry about any interfaces
between the single systems
and can rely on the project
management experience
of the general contractor in
combination with the technical
expertise from a windtunnel
technologist.
Reference projects such as: the
largest climatic windtunnel
in the world, test centres and
climatic windtunnels for the
automotive industry as well
as assembly structures for the
largest passenger aircraft on
earth illustrate the capability
of MCE putting visions into
practice.
B
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IN
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SU
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TELL US YOUR VISION AND
LET US MAKE IT HAPPEN!
> INNOVATIVE PLANT
ENGINEERING
> SYSTEM
INTEGRATION
045
CHEVROLET
working on programs such as the new Aveo, so we have
a lot of that expertise in-house during development,
continues Biggs. But also, in particular cases, even though
the lead engineering center for a particular project might
be Korea, well also ask different units of GM to apply their
particular area of expertise to a problem. So for rough road
packages, for example, weve had Brazil involved in
supporting us in development, test, and evaluation, as well
as providing knowledge and expertise in the suspension
design, to make sure we meet that particular requirement.
So how does a company make one car for the whole
world, with all its differing roads, expectations, and
requirements? We try to use what we call plug-and-place
solutions; we try to be common with the vehicle around
the world where we can, explains Biggs. But where it
makes a difference is in terms of legal requirements, of
which there are many in the various markets around the
world. Or if there is a direct need or customer benet, then
well create a different solution for that particular market,
but again one where, as best we can, we have a plug-and-
place solution. In some cases thats ne-tuning, in some
cases that will be a different powertrain, and in some cases
that will be tuning the general common parts of the
chassis, but tuning for a specic market taste and need. So
it can vary from a little bit of work such as tuning, to
different hardware solutions for that market.
So how is a global Chevy small car test program
operated? Our development program, as with all GM
programs, is rigorous. The small car program is perhaps
the third out of three segments where we developed a
global architecture mid-size products and compacts have
done so, and now also small cars, explains Biggs. Weve
done testing all around the world in hot and cold
conditions, durability in every location for different
requirements, and engineering validation in all parts of
the world, as well as extensively at our base in Korea.
Weve gone through an extensive period of development
on the Aveo over the past four years. In addition to the
hardware testing and development, we put a rigorous set of
gates in for virtual development, not just on the product
side, but on the manufacturing side, in how to build the
car, the best way to build it, the highest quality way to
build it, and trying to nd solutions up front virtually
before we actually realize them by producing prototypes
and production hardware. We like to think this saves
money, too the more rigor we put up front, the more it
pays off in the end.
TOP AND ABOVE:
A camouaged
prototype undergoes
cold weather tests in
northern Sweden
ABOVE RIGHT: Wind
tunnel tests conrmed
the virtual predictions
Were now trying to bring to Europe
what weve been able to bring to
other parts of the world
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MARCH 2012
CHEVROLET
046
The four years of the Aveo program may shorten for
subsequent small car programs. This length of time was
needed because it was a ground-up project, featuring all-
new underpinnings and architecture and destined for new
markets. Biggs team treated each market region as having
equal importance, so each markets requirements had to
be addressed in the program.
So will Chevys learnings lter through to other GM
programs? I think the extensive use of virtual work up
front will, says Biggs. I think the company is learning
from each successive program. In certain areas we have
been able to save on development and hardware because
of what we can do up front. I think thats happening on a
regular basis, across all our programs.
For the virtual work, CAE experts were working at GM
sites all around the world and, where required, component
specialists in various locations also had input. We have a
center of expertise for airbags, for instance, and the person
in charge of that item can be involved in the virtual work
up front, and even though all the engineering work is
consolidated in Korea, he can review and participate in
how that part is developed into the car, and whether it is
to specications. Our best practices and ndings on that
component will continue to evolve, so over the course of
development they might come back and learn from
another program, and incorporate it into another car.
Small but beautifully formed
The Aveo is the last
piece of the puzzle,
says Chris Biggs,
talking about Chevys all-
improved and revitalized model
range. This car is a complete
change from previous Chevy
small cars, with an all-new
architecture that will spawn
many new models.
We have leveraged the best
from GMs small car
development, from the people
that know small cars around
the world, and a lot from our
experiences in Brazil. We have
completely re-engineered the
Aveo as an all-new car that can
meet requirements all over the
world and be a car of which
were truly proud. As I like to
say, the Aveo is a world-class
car that happens to be small.
Were taking the best of what
we have now and learning from
cases when we havent had
the best car, and then, from
the ground up, clean-sheet
engineering an all-new car.
Biggs describes
benchmarking on the project
in terms of north, south, east,
and west. In the east and
west, we certainly look at
direct competitors in that
area and benchmark them
extensively from a design and
technical perspective, and
will often tear apart the car to
analyze the parts in detail, he
explains. But we also look at
the north and south, looking
at vehicles one segment above
and below to see how we
compare. In certain instances,
we may pick an item where we
want to excel in a particular
area that may not be
conventional in that segment,
but its through benchmarking
that we do so. We pick and
choose areas where we want
to stand out and be distinctive.
The Aveo excels in a couple
of areas. We used the best
knowledge we had at the
time on small cars in terms
of chassis development and
design, and we had the
freedom to design the
architecture on a blank
canvas. We used the ndings
we had from benchmarking,
both inside and outside GM.
We looked at those areas and
decided to do more than might
typically be expected.
Another major aspect of the
project was safety, with tougher
and tougher requirements in
Europe and the USA pushing
the Chevy team to include
many safety features. We
wanted to make this car much
safer than its predecessor. Our
European ratings were not so
good before, but were hoping
to achieve the highest possible
levels now.
Plans are in place to mount
different body styles on the
chassis, whether for emerging
markets, or for established
markets such as Europe, where
SUV-type vehicles may be
suitable. Were not ready to
talk about them yet, but theyre
the kinds of things we can do,
says Biggs.
Im very proud of the Aveo
and I think its a very strong
step-up for Chevy, especially in
Europe. We recognize that this
segment is very competitive,
and it is probably no more
competitive anywhere else
in the world than in Europe,
so we are very respectful of
our competitors, and are also
very proud of our product.
Im very proud of the Aveo
product and I think its a very
strong step-up for Chevy
In terms of physical tests, for durability, parts are now
tested until failure, so the expected vehicle lifetime can be
predicted. Also, many of the safety-critical parts are tested
to double-life or longer, and often to failure so they can be
understood. Every component is validated, and then
validated within the vehicle itself.
So has Chevy shown the ultimate faith in its new
program with a lengthy warranty for its new products?
We looked at companies such as Kia [which offers a
seven-year warranty], and in Korea we have announced a
ve-year warranty for the Aveo, with seven years roadside
assistance. The USA is doing something similar. So with
our new products and our condence in these products,
thats part of the benet. We strongly believe that the
products we have now are better than the products we had
yesterday, and that will enable us to do that type of thing.
ABOVE AND ABOVE
LEFT: Biggss team
has tested the Aveo
around the world to
ensure its NVH levels
are competitive.
Likewise, much work
went into safety, with
the car achieving ve
stars in the EuroNCAP
crash tests
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MARCH 2012
1760 Opdyke Court
Auburn Hills, MI 48326 USA
Tel: +1-248-270-7777
Fax: +1-248-876-9289
info@re-sol.com
www.re-sol.com
Enhancing vehicle
SAFETY
Safety testing at Millbrook
helps vehicle manufacturers and
their suppliers focus on the
areas of interaction
that drive improvement.
From industry-standard whole-vehicle and sled
based tests to award winning solutions developed
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development to certication.
For further information:
contact Andrew Britton on
+44 (0)1525 408278
andrew.britton@millbrook.co.uk
www.millbrook.co.uk
Enhancing vehicle
SAFETY
Safety testing at Millbrook helps vehicle manufacturers
and their suppliers focus on the areas of interaction
that drive improvement.
From industry-standard whole-vehicle and sled based tests to
award winning solutions developed to solve specic customer
requirements, Millbrook provides cost-effective results from
development to certication.
For further information:
contact Ben Rodger-Brown on
+44 (0)1525 408215
ben.rodger-brown@millbrook.co.uk
www.millbrook.co.uk
048
CRASH TESTING
How Transport Canadas claims that its new crash
test facility in Blainville is the most accurate and reliable
in the world could indeed be justied
WORDS BY STEFAN SAGNER
course
Crash
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
049
CRASH TESTING
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
In the idyllic little town of Blainville, in the
Canadian province of Quebec, there is a crash
test facility that is claimed to be the most accurate
in the world. It belongs to Transport Canada, the Canadian
Ministry of Transport, and, for a fee, is also available to
private or partly state-run companies for testing. Built by
German specialist Messring Systembau, it went into
service a short time ago, following more than two years of
planning and building.
The experimental procedure is demanding: two cars
each weighing around 1 metric ton, crammed with sensors
and the most modern measurement technology, are ready
for impact. One vehicle is accelerated along the test track
at 37mph (60km/h) and then, after driving more than
328ft (100m), is hit by the second car, which is moving at
a speed of 50mph (80km/h), at an angle of exactly 90
within 1mm of the height of the B-pillar. In theory, it
sounds like a mathematical task that is solvable; in
practice, for those who have to grapple with real factors
such as friction coefcients, temperature uctuations,
pressure loss, and material wear, this is a formidable
challenge for technicians and engineers.
In Blainville, theory and practice join forces with
precision. In the crash test scenario above, the deviation
LEFT: During
the crash test,
over 200 sensors
and cameras
record hundreds
of measurement
readings and
images
050
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
CRASH TESTING
The more precise the test, the more meaningful
results we achieve. No other facilities worldwide
work so accurately and reliably at such a high level
Dierk Arp, Messring
051
CRASH TESTING
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
from the ultra-thin marking on the B-pillar was less than
5mm horizontally and 0.5mm vertically. Just the way you
would want a hit to be, says Alain Bussires, president of
operating company PMG, which runs the test facility on
behalf of Transport Canada. The results we achieve here
exceed all our expectations. The constantly high accuracy
is unparalleled, he adds.
Good things come in large packages
The 5,300m
2
test center, which was nanced by the
Canadian government with an investment of around
CA$15 million, has been running since April 2011 with a
considerably wider range of functions. It is claimed that no
other test facility in the world produces work that is as
accurate as the Transport Canada Motor Vehicle Test and
Research Centre. And that is despite its enormous size and
the fact that it can stage not only crashes against xed
barriers, but also collisions between two vehicles and at
any angle between 90 and 180.
The secret of this accuracy lies in the construction of
the facility and the way that all the components used are
an exact coordinated t, says Dierk Arp, CEO of Messring,
who commissioned the planning, production, and
installation of the facility: The various puzzle pieces of a
crash test facility have to t together perfectly and that
CAPE drives for the future
By continually investing in
advanced testing solutions,
the Center for Advanced Product
Evaluation (CAPE) a division of
IMMI has established itself as
North Americas premier crash
and structural test facility for
commercial vehicles. CAPEs
recent expansion and upgrade
of its 50,000ft
2
facility included a
Seattle Safety 2.0MN reverse ring
ServoSled, which expands CAPEs
dynamic sled testing capabilities
and enables almost any test pulse
to be recreated. The ServoSled
can perform tests up to 104g, with
changes in velocity up to 56mph.
As well as offering a high level of
accuracy and repeatability, the sled
provides extremely high-frequency
response and inherent negative-g
and side-impact pulse capabilities.
The new ServoSled enables us to
offer the best technology available
to our customer base. Were excited
about how this technology can be
used by our automotive, child seat,
motorsports, and accident
reconstruction clients, says Tom
Chezem, vice president of CAPE.
With the new sled, CAPE can offer
better support to manufacturers in
a continued effort to improve safety.
For automotive and accident
reconstruction customers, the
inherent negative-g capability
enables them to conduct tests with
complex pulses that cannot be
reproduced on other types of sleds.
The high acceleration capability
will enable motorsport customers
to push their designs further and
approach the 100g target for
testing. Additionally, child-seat
manufacturers can quickly change
pulse characteristics to mimic
various sled pulses without having
to test multiple sleds.
By expanding our space,
CAPE also now stands as the test
house of choice for OEM litigation
defense, adds Chezem. Our
enhanced facility enables us to
respond quickly and accurately in
reconstructing accident scenarios.
LEFT: Blainville
is publicly
accessible for
frontal, backward
and sideway
crashes with
two vehicles
requires a lot of experience. It begins with the quality of
the mechanical components, which are all manufactured
in Germany and tested in advance by Messring engineers
at an in-house facility. And it encompasses other complex
processes, from structural analysis through software and
measuring technology, up to the safety systems that protect
the engineers and technicians at the location.
Extreme conditions
In Blainville, where vehicles weighing up to 40 metric tons
are tested, the mechanical components have to be able to
withstand extreme loads. The 722ft-long (220m) hall was
planned in such a way that the enormous horizontal forces
can be deected over the foundation. All the xtures are
rmly attached to the building, says Arp. Despite the
brute force that prevails here, the facility is almost
indestructible.
An electrically driven (approx. 1,600PS) trolley pulls
the vehicles along a MicroTrack rail embedded in the oor.
The rail, which was developed by Messring specically for
this type of facility, is just 2.76in (7cm) wide, enabling
traveling distances of millimeter precision. In crash tests,
vehicles accelerate up to a maximum speed of 75mph
(120km/h), before they hit the 300-ton reinforced concrete
block, which serves as a stationary obstacle. In staged
High Speed Vision GmbH
Gerwigstrae 10 | 76131 Karlsruhe | Germany
fon: +49 (0)721 66324-22 |fax: +49 (0)721 66324-29
mail: info@hsvision.de www.hsvision.de
Camera Systems
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Offboard High Resolution
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capetesting.com info@capetesting.com
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18881 U.S. 31 North Westeld, IN 46074 USA Tel: 1-317-867-8225
CAPE focuses on crash and structural testing and analysis
to help evaluate commercial vehiclestrucks, buses,
re trucks, ambulancesand implement products that
improve safety for thousands of people every day.
Call for your unique or urgent project needs.
053
CRASH TESTING
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
Are LEDs ready for the crash testing market?
For many years LEDs were
those little specks of light
peeking through small holes in
panels to indicate the status of
some sort of electronic function.
The idea of them being used to
replace a light bulb was difcult to
imagine. Recently, however, Philips
won a US$10 million prize for its
new 10W LED, which provides the
equivalent light of a standard 60W
(tungsten) light bulb. LEDs are now
popping up everywhere including
in streetlights, factory bays, and
of course automotive lighting.
LED progress
LEDs for high-speed image capture
are just beginning to show some
promise. Early low-wattage
versions had either narrow
concentrated beams that covered
a limited area, with anything
outside of the narrow beam left
in total darkness, or they had
very widespread beams that lost
intensity quickly as the distance
from the light to the subject
increased. Additionally, the color
temperature and color quality
was often not optimized for
compatibility with modern image
sensors. As a result, there was
some hesitation, and only a few
early adopters. Today, with the
great variety of component choices
available from a multitude of
manufacturers, careful selection
and testing can result in LED
xtures that are small, lightweight,
extremely bright, and have proper
color qualities for optimal images.
LEDs today
Onboard lighting for vehicle
testing has been restricted for
years by lights that were too large,
too heavy, and too dim to produce
good images. Many onboard lights
were homemade congurations
with all these limitations, plus
some limits in reliability. Today,
professional, state-of-the-art
onboard lighting is possible with
LED, without the compromises
of the early days. Very small
packages with unimaginable
intensity such as a 1,100W LED
weighing only 2 lb are now
available from Luminys.
crashes between two vehicles, speeds of up to 62mph
(100km/h) can be reached on each track. With a diameter
of around 131ft (40m), the safety zone is dimensioned so
that a crash can be carried out at any desired angle without
any risk.
Special software is required for the facilitys control
system. It takes all the parameters of the testing procedure
into consideration, and offers access to all the safety
systems, while ensuring that the valuable data from the
crash test is reliably recorded without a break. With
CrashSoft, Messring has developed its own program,
which gives a detailed overview of all the parameters and
measuring instrumentation throughout the test. Arp is, of
course, not willing to disclose details of the design or the
algorithms used, but comments, Our software guarantees
maximum safety for the test engineers while providing
highly precise data evaluation.
All the relevant components of a crash test facility are
regulated with CrashSoft: from the exact control of the
various measuring devices, determining, and evaluating
the data, through to the technical safety aspects such as
the automatic locking system of the hall door. The data
obtained during the test is available to the operations
engineer for immediate evaluation. Because of all the
testing instrumentation being synchronized and the user-
friendly interface of our software, our facilities can be
operated by one person alone, explains Arp. Using an
online interface, Messring can also monitor all the facilities
around the globe by computer from Krailling, and can also
accommodate clients requests to change technical settings.
The test center is, due to its size and facilities,
exceptionally versatile an essential precondition for
protable operations. Blainville is the only publicly
accessible crash test facility in North America, where
frontal, backward, and sideways crashes with two vehicles
can be carried out, explains Suzanne Tylko from Transport
Canada. We let everything that has wheels crash together
here, from small cars to large trucks, even up to railway
carriages. All types of vehicles can now be tested, including
new lightweight vehicles with very low ground clearance.
Transport Canada has been conducting moving car to
moving car frontal narrow offset tests, as well as moving
car to moving car perpendicular and oblique side impact
tests with excellent results. A cooperative program
between Transport Canada and the Government of
Australia involving paired perpendicular and oblique pole
tests is nearing completion. The results will serve to
provide technical support to the side impact Global
Technical Regulation that is under development. Tests
have also been conducted by PMG in a variety of
LEFT: The
220m-long hall was
planned in such a
way that enormous
horizontal forces
can be deected
over the foundation
054
CRASH TESTING
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
LED light for onboard crash test
Following two years of
development, a high-
performance LED illumination
system, which conforms to the
demands of automobile test
centers (a fact conrmed by
numerous tests by automobile
manufacturers, suppliers,
and service providers) will
be presented at Automotive
Testing Expo Europe 2012
by High Speed Vision GmbH.
Each of the new, wide-angle
240W LED heads exhibited has
been specially designed and
developed for the vehicle
interior. The wide 120 emitting
angle and enormous light
output mean that the complete
footwell of the vehicle can
now be illuminated by an LED
head, without the object in
view being exposed to heat.
The color temperature of
5,500K is close to daylight, and
therefore perfectly coordinated
to the color sensors. Due to the
extreme restrictions on size
and weight, compromises have
had to be made regarding the
operating time. Nevertheless,
the current maximum operating
time of two minutes under full
load still exceeds the time
requirements in test operations.
The intelligent LED
control module allows up
to two WA-LED heads to be
operated. To enable optimal
incorporation of the lighting
system into an existing
infrastructure, control
can be programmed with
a USB interface that enables
parameters such as trigger
ank, lighting duration,
and temperature monitoring
to be set.
For operation independent
of main power supply, the
HSV-Power Box 4753 can
power up to four devices. Four
outputs are available each
protected from overload and
arranged in pairs. If an
overload occurs, only the
output pair affected will switch
off; the other pair will remain
operational. Each pair of
outputs provides a maximum
power of 600W; the same
power is also available from
just one output of a pair. A total
capacity of 7.5Ah is available
at nominal 24V output. The
battery is protected against
overload, deep discharge, and
excess temperatures; an LCD
shows the current charge
status. If the charge level sinks
too low, the display will blink
red and an acoustic signal will
sound. During recharging, an
LED shows the current state of
charge. A press of the control
key provides a brief visual
indication of the charge level.
The new technology used for
recharging enables up to 2,000
recharge/discharge cycles.
The Smart Battery is also tted
with a remote input, enabling
it to be switched on and off
with a remote control switch.
congurations for private clients, but for reasons of client
condentiality the details cannot be divulged.
Its all in the detail
The scrap that is produced at the crash tests in Blainville
generally serves a good purpose. New types of vehicles,
waiting for approval for the Canadian market, are
thoroughly checked here to see if they comply with
Canadian safety regulations. Coaches and school buses are
tested to check that they offer sufcient protection for
passengers in a worst-case scenario. Manufacturers let new
products be tested childrens car seats, for example. And
specic crashes are also simulated to resolve liability
questions, for instance. The list of clients who register for
testing is accordingly varied: among them are various
automotive manufacturers, insurance companies and
consumer protection organizations, as well as industrial or
government enterprises.
Maximum precision is of paramount importance with
all the tests. The more precise the test, the more
meaningful results we achieve, says Arp. There are no
other facilities worldwide that work so accurately and
reliably at such a high level.
Since its opening, the facility in Blainville has been in
full swing. At peak periods, a crash test takes place every
day. The preparation, including computer simulation, is
complex, often taking several hours, or even days. Then
the actual test is over within a few seconds. During the
crash, more than 200 sensors and cameras record
hundreds of measurement readings and images. Part of the
recording camera is placed under the crash site in a pit
area in the oor protected by a thick acrylic glass panel.
Messring was awarded the contract to build this unique
crash test facility by the Canadian Ministry of Transport
primarily because of its high level of technical know-how
and its many years of experience in this area. A crucial
ABOVE: The 240W LED heads are
specially designed for the vehicle interior
factor for us was the high level of precision when
monitoring the vehicle direction and the speed when one
or two vehicles crash, explains Tylko, the crash test
expert. Or to use the words of Dierk Arp: Our facility
scraps vehicles superlatively.
Future programs are expected to investigate front and
rear seat occupant protection in car-to-car narrow offset
crashes, car-to-car side impact crashes and compare the
results to current international requirements. The
development of WorldSID dummies and associated sensor
technologies like the Rib-Eye, a multipoint optical chest
deection sensor will expand to include the WorldSID
female and the THOR family of dummies.
RIGHT: Collisions
between two
vehicles can be
staged at any angle
between 90 and
180 at the facility
A ratchet screw system enables
quick and secure coupling of
the connectors.
An innovative solution
for harsh environments
very high contact density
ratchet screw coupling
mechanism
8 different sizes
lightweight aluminium shell
2 to 114 contacts
optimum space saving
oil and fuel resistant
IP 68
high shock and vibration
resistance
vibration absorbtion flange
MOTORSPORT
CONNECTORS
M SERIES
LEMO SA - Switzerland
Phone: (+41 21) 695 16 00
Fax: (+41 21) 695 16 02
info@lemo.com
ANN_AU_90x250_en_Testing Technology 31.01.12 14:03 Page1
FAIST Anlagenbau GmbH
86381 Krumbach / Germany
Phone +49 82 82 88 80 - 0
Fax +49 82 82 88 80 - 88
anlagenbau@faist.de
www.faist.de
Noise Control AMP
Enjoy the silence
Aero-acoustic
wind tunnels
Anechoic
test chambers
Reverberation
rooms
Silencers
Soundproong
walls
Sound enclosures
Architectural
acoustics
Noise calculations
056
SITE VISIT
Automotive Testing Technology visited Froude
Hofmanns UK headquarters to discover how
the company became such a big name in the
manufacture of dynamometers
WORDS BY KEITH READ
For more than 130 years, the name Froude
together at various times with the names of
companies it acquired has been synonymous
with innovative, high-quality dynamometers. It was
William Froude, a noted rail and naval engineer, who
invented the hydraulic (water brake) dynamometer for the
British Admiralty to test large marine engines and he
established the Froude Number, still used today as the
hydrodynamic equivalent of the Mach number.
But it is the developments in recent years that have
focused the eyes of the world on Froude Hofmann (FH). It
started with its 2007 acquisition by the Harris Watson
Group, today known as HWH Investments Group (HWH).
With the backing of John Harris, FH has effectively
reinvented itself as a global organization with products
specically designed to meet the challenges of automotive,
marine, and gas-turbine companies worldwide.
At the companys red-brick headquarters ofce building
and adjoining 6,000ft
2
manufacturing facility in Worcester,
UK, international marketing manager Simon Drain says
force
Driving Driving
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
057
SITE VISIT
Once weve sold a customer
a product, our duty to that customer
is to keep the machine running
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
the HWH investment in FHs global expansion was a very
bold move and has enabled the company to achieve
further success, even during a time of economic recession.
Weve opened up sales and technical support ofces in
several overseas locations including the BRIC territories
so that we span the globe, weve introduced new products
to meet the new challenges of hybrid and EV development
and testing, were exporting more than ever, and were
recruiting high-caliber personnel. Currently we have 160
people here in Worcester and several open positions we
need to ll with a further 60 people overseas.
Sales and application director Gareth Deakin takes up
the story of FHs expansion: Our rst move was to open
up in China. We started there with two people, now there
are over 20. Then we opened sales and technical support
facilities in Australia and Brazil, followed by India. We
also have manufacturing facilities in Detroit and Germany.
We deliberately set out to be local yet global.
Drain points out that wherever a sales ofce is opened,
technical support staff are also put in place. Once weve
sold a customer a product, our duty to that customer is to
keep the machine running. And keeping them running is
no FH pipe dream part of the extensive Worcester facility
is dedicated to refurbishing equipment produced in the
past. Under renovation at the time of our visit were a
number of dynos all 20+ years old from various customers.
One dyno project was originally installed in Russia in
1961 and, when it is returned following completion of the
refurbishment, will probably still be in use in 2061!
The Worcester HQ incorporates training facilities for
customers and staff including engine test cells and test
FAR LEFT: A 4x4
independent roll
chassis dynamometer
MIDDLE:
Containerized test cell
LEFT: An eddy
current dynamometer
ABOVE: A climatic
chassis dyno facility
058
SITE VISIT
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
facilities for the FH range of products, from electronic
components and data-acquisition equipment, to the
standard chassis dynos with 48in rolls, right up to the
largest at 2.5m diameter. However, one innovative FH-
designed and assembled product needs no training. It
trains itself
The third-generation automatic robot driver calls on
more than 30 years of FH experience with robot drivers
and is designed to accommodate all the latest customer
requirements. The unit is constructed using composite
materials wherever possible to reduce weight without loss
of strength. From the moment the base unit is strapped
into the drivers seat and computer and engine-sensor
connections made, it takes less than three minutes for the
robot driver to familiarize itself with maximum pedal
One innovative FH-designed and
assembled product needs no training.
It trains itself
travel, clutch bite-point, and gearshift gate. And it can do
so in left- or right-hand drive vehicles.
Among its many applications, the robot driver can be
used in conjunction with another of FHs products. vDriver
is a software package, developed in-house, that records
a given route and registers numerous factors including
events, gradients, weather and distance variations. This
information is combined with different driving styles in a
virtual simulation to bring true real-world conditions to
laboratory-based testing.
Identifying opportunities in the market, and being
exible in approach to challenges, have proved a protable
route in the companys development. By serving both R&D
and production markets, FHs products are to be found at
the development of new vehicles and at the end of the
assembly line when those vehicles are run up and validated
before dispatch to showrooms. And not just new cars, but
also motorcycles, vans, HGVs, agricultural tractors, and
materials-handling trucks not forgetting gas turbines
and marine engines, some of which are massive.
The acquisition of Go Power in the USA a decade ago
gave FH a route into the specialist and motorsport sectors.
The Go Power range of portable dynamometers which
weigh around 25kg (55 lb) can be bolted to an engine or
even a trucks propshaft. Motorsport is a key area for Go
Power dynos, says Deakin. FH in North America recently
launched its GPR557 race engine dynamometer test system
complete with engine cart specically designed for the
performance race engine market.
Another opportunity that FH has successfully taken is
to provide containerized test cells to customers with a lack
of space. With at least two containers one for the control
room and one for the dyno hardware the facility can be
assembled and tested before shipment to the customer. On
arrival, the containers are paired up inside the factory or
outside and services connected ready to begin testing.
Additional dyno hardware containers can be added to the
control room container to provide a suite of test facilities.
Of the companys four basic types of dynamometers
eddy current, hydraulic, portable, and AC the latter is
proving popular with customers wanting to be green, as
power generated by the dyno when it is being driven by
the engine/vehicle under test can be returned to the grid.
To complement its dyno range, FH also produces control
systems and portable emissions gas analysis machines.
What Drain and Deakin like to call the modern Froude
Hofmann and its products are a far cry from those the
founder would have recognized. But the bloodline and
pedigree still run true.
ABOVE RIGHT:
A dynamometer
test cell in the
companys Worcester
headquarters
ABOVE: A screenshot
of the vDriver software
RIGHT: Simon Drain
(left) and Gareth
Deakin (right) in the
main assembly hall
Jacobs Technology Inc.
600 William Northern Blvd.
Tullahoma, TN 37388 USA
Phone: +1 931.455.6400
Fax: +1 931.393.6211
www.jacobstechnology.com
www.testslate.com
is a full service supplier to the automotive industry.
We provide engineering, construction, systems integration, operations, and maintenance services for the automotive
and motorsport industries most complex testing, research, and development facilities. We also provide unique
consulting services ranging from test planning to high powered computer simulation.
Our experience encompasses virtually every type of technical facility and specialty system for automotive and
motorsport testing, including driveability and emissions test cells, aerodynamic, acoustic, and climatic wind tunnels,
altitude chambers, and engine and powertrain test cells. The latest release of our automated test measurement and
control software, Test SLATE, offers a proven solution for integrating diverse hardware and subsystems, managing
test configurations, maximizing test productivity, and transforming test data into meaningful results.

ST-118
HIGH VOLUME PRODUCTION STARTER TESTER
D&V Electronics Ltd.
130 Zenway Boulevard, Woodbridge, Ontario Canada L4H 2Y7
sales@dvelectronics.com
1 905.264.7646
www.dvelectronics.com
ALT-72
LABORATORY ALTERNATOR TESTER WITH THERMAL CHAMBER
ALT-262
ALTERNATOR TESTER FOR AUTOMATED PRODUCTION LINE
ALTERNATOR & STARTER TESTERS
Laboratory, End Of Line Production and Durability Testing
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MARCH 2012 061
Increasing demand for
energy and growing
concern regarding
climate change is driving the
automotive industry to
develop more sophisticated
engines and powertrain
systems particularly electric
and hybrid technologies.
The challenge facing
vehicle manufacturers is to
nd testing solutions that
are both sophisticated and
accurate, but have the
exibility to handle future
innovations in vehicle,
powertrain, and driveline
congurations. With
substantial investment in
R&D, Froude Hofmann is
developing and installing new
dynamometer systems that
meet industry demands.
Conventional chassis
dynamometer test systems do
not provide the exibility to
keep up with the standards
now being demanded. The
technology involved in the
latest hybrid developments,
with complex energy
distribution strategies, is
pushing the limits of the
conventional dynamometer
test cell. This, combined with
the demand to test more
accurately, under realistic
operating conditions, on
increasingly complex driveline
congurations, means that
designers and manufacturers
of test systems are having to
develop solutions to replace
conventional methods.
Froude Hofmann has
a long history in dynamometer
testing systems, and today
works with world leaders
whereby all four wheels of
the vehicle are effectively
under independent control. In
normal operation, all four rolls
are accurately synchronized
to present a through the road
simulated condition to the test
vehicles powertrain. This is
achieved while ensuring that
the sum of the forces applied
to all the rolls correctly
simulates the total vehicle
inertia and road-load force.
The actual forces applied
individually to each roll by the
AC motors are automatically
and dynamically adjusted to
ensure that the four rollers
operate at the same speed.
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Innovative powertrain
testing systems
Manufacturers are producing sophisticated new testing solutions
that have the exibility to handle the latest vehicle, powertrain,
and driveline developments
ABOVE: The vehicle energy facility
(VEF) is the UKs only purpose-built
hybrid powertrain testing facility
for the automotive sector that is
not owned and operated by an
individual automotive company
in the automotive industry
to ensure that its products
meet new sophisticated and
stringent demands.
As a result of this close
liaison and in-depth industry
knowledge, Froude Hofmann
now enables R&D and testing
labs to test all powertrain
congurations, including
electronic driving aids, under
real world conditions in one
development system. These
multi-vehicle solutions are
now installed in facilities
throughout the world and
have been shown to exceed
emissions standards accuracy,
while achieving the exibility
and versatility that facilities
demand for testing state-of-
the-art drivelines.
With more emphasis
being placed on the evolution
of new energy sources and
powertrains, it is becoming
increasingly important to have
testing systems that accurately
reect real-world driving
conditions. With this mind,
Froude Hofmann is actively
supplying advanced 4x4
all independent chassis
dynamometers for hybrid
and fuel-cell vehicle
development. The unique
roll synchronization control
capability of these chassis
dynamometers enables various
powertrain congurations
to be tested in accurately
simulated road and
operational conditions.
The Froude Hofmann
solution provides a highly
exible, multipurpose test
system with four individual
motor-roll assemblies,
Email: sales@froudehofmann.com
Web: www.froudehofmann.com
Froude Hofmann
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MARCH 2012
This movement of forces is
highly responsive to the force
distribution produced by the
vehicle through the specic
powertrain conguration. This
ensures accurate roll-speed
synchronization and thereby
enables the powertrain to
perform as if operating on the
road. Under these conditions,
the energy-ow management
strategies of the vehicle will
function correctly.
But its not just the
dynamometer systems that
will help the automotive
industry test in more accurate
conditions. Two vital
developments at Froude
Hofmann further add to
the exibility and accuracy
of the system. vDriver is
a software package that is
designed to reduce the
product development cycle
by simulating the variability
associated with particular
driving styles and routes.
This, together with the
automated robot driver, brings
real-world simulation testing
directly to the development
engineer in the test facility.
Unlike many existing test
cell drive cycles which are
time based, vDriver records
any route driven anywhere in
the world, based on distance.
Time becomes the variable
dependent on trafc
conditions and driver styles.
This differs from conventional
time-based systems, where
the test cycles contain
no information on route
activity or gradient, thus
compromising the accuracy
of the results. Once recorded,
the route can be loaded and
driven precisely and
repeatedly in the test cell,
providing accurate real-world
simulation of road conditions
and different driver
characteristics. Fuel economy
can also be monitored for
different driving styles, and
the engine control unit can be
calibrated under a variety of
complex real-world situations.
The new Mk III Automatic
Robot Driver System is now
available for all vehicle and
powertrain testing
applications, including
emission and fuel economy
testing, accelerated endurance,
climatic/environmental,
and automated performance
testing. This system can
be supplied as a standalone
unit for operation on several
facilities, or as a fully
integrated control system
conguration. The integrated
control conguration creates
an advanced automated
test facility that includes
a chassis dynamometer,
instrumentation, data
acquisition, auto fuel lling,
airspeed simulation, and
test automation system.
By combining Froude
Hofmanns simulation tools,
the vehicle powertrain chassis
dynamometer system becomes
the heart of an advanced
hardware-in-the-loop
powertrain test facility.
By installing this single
system, laboratories are able
to test various applications
such as: powertrain testing
of innovative driveline
congurations including
hybrid and kinetic energy
recovery systems that enable
complex energy-ow strategy
developments; ABS brake and
TCS traction-control system
testing; corner simulation
for differential and driveline
testing; and vehicle electronic
driving aids, including
collision-avoidance systems.
And its not just cars and
trucks that can be tested with
this versatile system. The
independent conguration
provides a multi-vehicle test
capability providing accurate
and effective testing for
motorcycles, small electric
vehicles, and both LDVs
and MDVS in 4x2 and 4x4
congurations.
Now, thanks to a unique
setup at the University of
Warwick in the UK, all
companies can carry out tests
using the Froude Hofmann
system. The vehicle energy
facility (VEF) is the UKs
only purpose-built hybrid
powertrain testing facility
for the automotive sector that
is not owned and operated
by an individual automotive
company. The unique
synchronized dual
dynamometer architecture
provides full road load,
inertia, and driveline
simulation.
The VEF has been built
for R&D across the whole
spectrum of vehicle types,
from passenger car through to
heavy-duty applications. It can
test any internal combustion
engines or electric machines
for hybrid vehicle architecture
testing; powertrain component
testing and characterization;
control strategy development
and renement; fuel economy;
and emissions testing.
The VEF allows OEMs and
researchers quick, accurate,
and repeatable assessment
of existing and emerging
technologies. It enables the
objective assessment of
driveability using real/
virtual components through
hardware-in-loop.
vDriver is an
innovative software
package that is
designed to reduce
the product
development cycle
by simulating the
variability
associated with
particular driving
styles and routes
ABOVE AND BELOW: The unique
synchronized dual dynamometer
architecture provides full road load,
inertia, and driveline simulation
AND A QUESTION OF ABSOLUTE PRECISION.
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Messring_Anzeige_215x275-RZ.indd 1 13.02.12 15:39
Leading Technology, Unmatched Expertise
Manufacturers and suppliers worldwide turn to MTS for the next-generation testing
technology and expert support they need to design and develop more efcient,
higher performing passenger, commercial and recreational vehicles.
Whether you test materials, components, subsystems or full vehicles, partnering
with MTS will help you meet your objectives with greater speed and condence.
Contact us today to discover how innovative MTS solutions can optimize the
accuracy and efciency of your mechanical testing processes.
Visit us at Automotive Testing Expo India 2012, Stand #3096
www.mts.com
info@mts.com
2012 MTS Systems Corporation.
MTS is a registered trademark of MTS Systems Corporation.
Road simulator photo courtesy of Fraunhofer LBF
RTM No. 211177.
Ahead of the Curve
Vibration Testing: Hybrid/Electric Vehicle Battery Pack
Force & Moment Measurement: High-performing Tire
Road Simulation: Hybrid Vehicle
ATTIAd1_2012_curve.indd 1 1/12/12 8:27 AM
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MARCH 2012 065
Multi degree of
freedom (MDOF) time
waveform replication
is used to drive four-posters
and other multishaker rigs for
testing automotive structures.
There is a large installed base
of such rigs around the world
supplied by companies such as
MTS, Shenck, and Shimadzu.
The majority of these test
systems use an iterative
technique that often takes
several hours to derive the
drive signals that are used
to replicate eld data,
representing an hour of
test duration. The iterative
technique is derived from the
time-domain technique that
involves additive corrections
to the drive-signal set based
on measured error between
the control and reference
time histories.
An alternative technique
that is based in the frequency
domain can dispense with
the iterative process, enabling
direct replication of eld
data where the drive signals
are computed in real time.
Needless to say, dispensing
with the several passes of
calculating the drive signals
in the iterative process can
amount to a signicant saving
of test-system time.
The frequency domain
technique uses the reproduced
time histories and the drive
signals to evaluate the system
transfer function matrix
and continuously update the
inverse transfer functions used
to derive the drive signals.
This process, which does not
depend on evaluating an error
Frequency domain
technique for simulation
Road simulation tests can be undertaken without the time-consuming
iterative process when they are carried out in real time using
a frequency domain technique
Tel: +1 408 437 0100
Email: sales@dataphysics.com
Web: www.dataphysics.com
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ABOVE: A multi degree of freedom replication test in progress
Data Physics
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MARCH 2012
matrix, works because it
adapts to the variations in
the system transfer functions.
The mathematical process
is straightforward, as the array
of recorded time histories are
convolved with the inverse
transfer function matrix to
produce the array of drive
signals. The convolution itself
is performed in the frequency
domain because the direct
evaluation of the convolution
integral is extremely time-
consuming. Instead, the use
of the FFT to transform the
data to the frequency domain
allows the convolution to be
replaced by a multiplication,
thus allowing the process to
run in real time.
The technique applies
equally well to applications
of single or multiple shakers.
Multishaker testing can be
either single degree of freedom
(SDOF) or MDOF. Multishaker
SDOF testing is typically used
for reproducing single-axis
motion on large structures
that require the force to be
distributed along the
structure, or require more
force than can be achieved
with a single actuator. MDOF
control is still required in
this case to compensate for
differences in impedance seen
by the actuators and the modal
characteristics of the structure.
As an example, an extensive
experiment was conducted
controlling a six degrees of
freedom system manufactured
Matrix vibration controllers
on a number of multishaker
test rigs from various
manufacturers, including
MTS, Shore Western, Team,
and Schenk. In each case, the
vibration-control drive signals
were connected to the inputs
of the servo-control system
driving the actuators.
One limitation of the
frequency domain technique
is that it is not able to
accurately reproduce time
histories that include
non-linear responses. The
FFT technique depends
on linearity for the accurate
transformation of the time
histories to frequency spectra.
If the recorded time histories
resulted from non-linear
responses such as bottoming
of springs when subjected to
extreme levels of motion, then
such data will not necessarily
be correctly reproduced by the
convolution with the inverse
transfer function matrix,
which does not include the
non-linear behavior of springs
bottoming out.
To deal with such data, the
frequency domain technique
includes the ability to store
the calculated drive signals
and iteratively correct the
drive signals incrementally
to reduce error. This is an
exceptional process that
allows for non-linear
simulation situations and is no
worse than the time-domain
technique in the utilization
of system time; the important
distinction being that it is
a real-time simulation except
when dealing with extreme
cases of non-linear behavior.
On the other hand, the
frequency domain approach
does offer a number of
advantages. It does not require
lengthy iteration since the
control is based on the system
FRF matrix, and it also
provides for real-time
updating of the drive signals
during a test, and as
components fatigue dynamics
may change. Because the
FRF matrix is used for control,
it is possible to modify the
reference time histories during
a test without stopping and
repeating the iteration phase.
Another interesting
advantage of applying the
frequency domain technique
is the exibility of test types.
The same controller can be
used for frequency domain
time replication control,
iterative time domain control,
and other general vibration
test approaches such as
broadband random or
real-time closed loop sine
vibration control. The
potential time savings, plus
the exibly of performing
different test types, makes
frequency-based replication
control an attractive
alternative to the traditional
time iteration approach.
The frequency domain technique includes
the ability to store the calculated drive
signals and iteratively correct the drive
signals incrementally to reduce error
TOP: SignalStar matrix controller
ABOVE: A pre-test FRF matrix
by Team Corporation with a
Data Physics SignalStar Matrix
vibration controller. The test
structure was a durability test
xture for automotive truck
mirrors. The structure had
two commercial truck doors
mounted at the same distance
from each other as they were
on the vehicle. In actual
testing, test-track data is
measured in the eld and
used as the reference time
histories for the test.
The experiment showed
accurate control of test-track
data using both the time
domain iterative technique
and the frequency domain
real-time correction
technique. Although both
techniques showed good
control of the test, the
frequency domain technique
required considerably less
time to execute the entire test.
Frequency domain-based
control has successfully been
applied using SignalStar
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Optional TEDS
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068
Toyota will this year
return to Le Mans
after a 12-year
absence, but the engineers
and drivers will be far from
strangers to the unique
challenges of the Circuit de
la Sarthe; in fact, the famous
course will be very familiar to
them before the TS030 Hybrid
car even leaves the factory.
All three conrmed Toyota
drivers Alex Wurz, Nicolas
Lapierre, and Kazuki
Nakajima have already
driven the new hybrid-
powered car at Le Mans in
the virtual environment of the
driving simulator at Toyota
Motorsport GmbH (TMG).
Toyotas World Endurance
Championship team is based
at TMG in Cologne, Germany,
where engineers and drivers
have access to some of the
most sophisticated automotive
development facilities in
Europe, including the driving
simulator.
This state-of-the-art facility
was constructed exclusively
for TMG as a dedicated
driver-in-the-loop
development tool. As with all
TMG facilities, the driving
simulator is available to rent
for external clients as well
as Toyota projects.
Using actual data from
the track, TMGs two wind
tunnels, various test rigs, and
simulation tools, an extremely
accurate vehicle model can
be developed for any kind
of motorsport vehicle.
In recent months TMGs
focus has been on its new
LMP1 car the TS030 Hybrid
and as R&D activities
intensied, these results were
fed into the driving simulator
software to create an accurate
model of the new machine.
In parallel, an incredibly
accurate three-dimensional
simulation of the Circuit de
la Sarthe has been produced,
recreating every bump and
curve of the famous 13.629km
(8.47-mile) layout. Combined
with a 6DOF electric motion
platform, this attention to
detail enables drivers to truly
feel the behavior of the TS030
Hybrid on the track, and
consequently make progress
on aerodynamic and
mechanical setups without
ever leaving the factory.
Japanese driver Kazuki
Nakajima, an ex-Formula 1
driver preparing for his Le
Mans debut, says, The
driving simulator at TMG is
very realistic; the steering feel
Nakajimas colleagues
have also been busy in the
TMG driving simulator, with
Wurz and Lapierre adding
their experience to the chassis
development program before
the TS030 Hybrid ever turned
a wheel on the track.
The simulator was
developed originally for
Toyotas Formula 1 program
and features most Grand Prix
circuits. Le Mans and the
Nrburgring Nordschleife
were added last year to
expand its potential into
endurance racing, and the
addition of LMP1, GP2, and
GT vehicle models delivers
greater exibility.
To complement its works
motorsport program, TMG
remains an active supplier
of engineering services to
third-party clients in the
automotive industry and
beyond.
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Virtual preparation
for Le Mans
Toyotas motorsport drivers are preparing for the Le Mans Challenge
using TMGs 6DOF driving simulator
Toyota Motorsport GmbH
Tel: +49 2234 1823 0
Email: contact@toyota-motorsport.com
Web: www.toyota-motorsport.com
ABOVE: The simulator is at the very
pinnacle of virtual technology, and
can be used in third-party applications
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
and sensation is the same as
in the real car. The best thing
for me is that we can use this
tool to learn the track before
we actually go to Le Mans.
As I dont know the Le Mans
track it is a very big help and
I am sure it will be an
advantage for us.
But the simulator is more
than just for drivers because it
is helping the car development
too. We can test a lot of items
on the simulator so we collect
this data to rene setups and
choose the right direction in
terms of aerodynamic and
mechanical development.
Track time is very limited
in the real world so it is very
good to use the simulator to
gain time and accelerate the
development process.
NV Solutions
Delivering complete NVH
test solutions and consulting
www.nvs.co.kr
Climatic Test Chamber CTC
Memmert GmbH + Co. KG
P.O. Box1720 | D-91107 Schwabach | Tel. +49 (0) 9122 / 925 - 0
Fax +49 (0) 9122 / 145 85 | E-Mail: sales@memmert.com
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chamber and the CTC climatic test chamber with active
humidication and dehumidication.
A top performance by the experts for controlled atmos-
phere. Efcient and exible environmental testing and
simulation. Worldwide.
www.memmert.com
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Many car models seen
on roads worldwide
have rst spent time
in lvsbyn, one of the Arctic
Falls facilities.
Our customers appreciate
being able to test their
constructions under secure
conditions in authentic winter
settings, says Mats Malmqvist,
site manager at Vitberget
Proving Ground. Conditions
that may occasionally occur at
home are present here for long
periods every year. It is about
exposing vehicles and
components to extreme
conditions, to make sure
they work without problem.
When Arctic Falls
inaugurated Vitberget Proving
Ground in 1988, it was the
rst permanent land-based
test facility offering winter
testing. It covers 200ha and
offers a complete range of
services, and is staffed around
the clock, seven days a week.
Authentic winter tests can be
carried out from November to
March longer than is typical
of such facilities.
Because we prepare the
tracks on dry land we do not
depend on natural lake ice,
and this permits longer and
more dependable seasons,
says Jonas Jalar, CEO of Arctic
Falls. Arctic Falls customers
have the option of short or
long stays at the facility, from
one day at a time to extended
periods. We are also open to
investment suggestions for
customized solutions.
Although Vitberget is an
open facility, security and
condentiality are watchwords
at the site: security systems
and industrial fencing
enclosing the entire facility
guarantee complete privacy.
Photography is forbidden and
all personnel are bound to
non-disclosure with regard
to every aspect of operations.
The safety of the personnel
carrying out the testing takes
the highest priority. Access
roads and test tracks are one
way to prevent collisions, and
re and rescue services can
attend accidents in minutes.
Arctic Falls has one facility
for vehicle and component
testing, and four for winter
tires. The proving ground
has a telematic test range. The
web-based telemetry system
transmits real-time information
from the vehicle to engineers
anywhere in the world using
wireless technology.
safety. Documentation from
the tests can then form the
basis for evaluation of and
improvements to vehicles, and
can be used to obtain authentic
data for product specications.
The company won the
Proving Ground of the Year
category in the Automotive
Testing Technology Awards
2010, which is outstanding
praise for the facilities. The
award has spurred staff to
extend their efforts even
further to exceed customers
expectations.
We have invested heavily
in our operations through
several new functions and
new test tracks. Being voted
Proving Ground of the Year
shows that we made the right
decision to expand to attract
new and benet existing
customers, concludes Jalar.
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Testing in Arctic conditions
Its winter real winter for ve months a year in lvsbyn, northern
Sweden; perfect for testing vehicles in extreme temperatures
Arctic Falls
Tel: +46 929 47 47 00
Email: info@arcticfalls.se
Web: www.arcticfalls.se
ABOVE: The tracks are prepared on dry
land so they dont depend on lake ice
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
At any time of year Arctic
Falls can carry out durability
tests. Many of the other tests
can be performed by Arctic
Falls own personnel too,
if the customer so wishes.
For short- or long-term
cold climate testing, there are
27 cold chambers that can
cool the vehicle to -40C/F. To
keep the premises comfortably
warm Arctic Falls, has invested
in an energy-efcient heating
system. The electricity used is
generated from hydropower.
Due to increasing demand,
Arctic Falls also offers tests
covering several aspects
of electric vehicles: energy
consumption, recharging in
cold conditions versus warm
conditions, battery function,
and regenerative braking
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Designed to test tank transmissions
325-hp/4,000 RPM AC motor
(2) PAUs capable of 2,000 lb-ft of torque
and max speed of 4,000 RPM
TESTING SOLUTIONS
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Todays leading
manufacturers of
starters and
alternators have taken notice
and reaped the benets of
using testing equipment. D&V
Electronics testing solutions
have become widely accepted
in the laboratory for
performance validation and
durability testing, as well as
for testing at the end of the
production line. Successful
engineers must rapidly collect
the data required for product
validation in the development
phase in order to drive
continuous improvement,
and on the production side,
demand is for highly accurate
and fast performance testing.
D&V Electronics ST-118
is a high-volume, end-of-
production-line starter tester.
It has elevated the level of
testing while maintaining
a fast cycle-time, enabling
the testing of several thousand
starters each day, per machine.
The tester carries out
a comprehensive load test
and analysis of the starter
performance. The pinion
block test quickly provides
advanced measurement and
evaluation of event timing
during the cranking cycle,
such as the engagement and
retraction of the solenoid,
drive, and springs, which
can detect assembly errors
or faulty components. The
built-in oscilloscope will
detect even small faults in
the armature, commutator,
and brushes.
Noise and vibration
analysis is also available to
detect a variety of mechanical
problems. Automatic
positioning, clamping, and
connections make the system
very user-friendly, and a
poka-yoke tooling recognition
system provides rapid tooling
changeover without errors.
With a D&V Electronics
programmable power supply,
the battery curve is controlled
very precisely and with
extremely low ripple. This
combination of features makes
the ST-118 starter performance
tester an excellent investment.
One of the main
complaints from vehicle
owners these days relates
to underhood noise that can
come from the alternator, and
noise and vibration analysis
is a key method of ensuring
customer loyalty and
consumer satisfaction.
D&Vs laboratory
alternator testing systems
for measuring performance,
durability, torque, and
efciency offer programmable
thermal chambers for hot
and cold performance testing
under user-programmable
test conditions. With variable
belt tension, a simulation
of vehicle belt load can be
produced and controlled.
The ALT-72 can serve
a dual role as a durability
tester and as a performance-
validation tester. The ALT-300
is optimized for high accuracy
measurement of the
alternators torque and
efciency characteristics
under a variety of conditions,
including temperature, speed,
and load.
With this platform, the
test engineer can control
and produce highly accurate
torque and efciency reports
that sweep the alternator
through an exhaustive
battery of test conditions.
For example, the unit can
be tested at a stabilized
temperature and with specic
loads and speeds while the
torque is measured and the
efciency is calculated.
A long and complex testing
cycle is simply automated
by the powerful D&V visual
scripting engine so that
each speed and load point
is executed automatically.
These models provide
complete simulation and
testing of all alternator and
regulator terminal inputs,
outputs, and functions.
Control and communication
interfaces for modern smart
alternators include CAN, LIN,
BSS, and RVC, and others are
also available.
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Comprehensive testing of starters and alternators in the development
phase and on the production line can result in a range of benets
for manufacturers
D&V Electronics
Tel: +1 905 264 7646
Email: sales@dvelectronics.com
Web: www.dvelectronics.com
ABOVE: The ALT-262 automated
alternator tester is a turnkey solution
with complete integration into the
assembly-line conveyor and the
manufacturing system. A palletized
system delivers the alternator to
the tester, where connections are
automatically achieved with
a combination of pneumatics and
robotics. The tester also features
a quick tooling changeover time,
while reject handling and automated
marking systems are also available.
The alternator is driven directly from its
shaft, further reducing test-cycle time
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
BS EN ISO 9001-2008
Reg. No. FM38224
EJ Bowman (Birmingham) Ltd
Chester Street, Birmingham B6 4AP, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 121 359 5401 Fax: +44 (0) 121 359 7495
Email: info@ejbowman.co.uk www.ejbowman.co.uk
TEST HOUSE HEAT EXCHANGERS
BS EN ISO 9001-2000
Reg. No. FM38224


Cooling performance
beyond limits
Bowman heat exchangers are
renowned worldwide for their high
performance cooling efficiency and
operational reliability. Thats why
theyre already the first choice for
many OEMs and Motorsport teams.
And with a comprehensive product
range plus full technical advice,
product support and rapid ex-stock
delivery, you can have complete
confidence when you specify
Bowman heat exchangers for your
test house cooling facility.
Bowman test house equipment
includes:
Charge Air Coolers
Hydraulic oil coolers
Exhaust Gas Heat Exchangers
Fuel Coolers
Header Tank Heat Exchangers
In Line Plate Type Heat Exchangers
Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers
For maximum cooling performance
beyond limits, choose
Bowman Heat Exchangers.
Quality without compromise.
SHPG offers the automotive
industry the opportunity to
develop seamless cold climate
R&D programmes through state
of the art counter-seasonal cold
climate testing during the Northern
summer months - June August.
JUNE - AUGUST WINTER TESTING
southern hemi sphere
Contact SHPG for all your winter testing requirements. Southern Hemisphere Proving Grounds Ltd. PO Box 350,
Cardrona RD.1, Wanaka, New Zealand tel: + 64 3 443 0344 email: admin@shpg.co.nz www.shpg.co.nz
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From 2014, current
proposals for Euro 6
would apply limits
on particle number (N/km)
emissions for both gasoline
direct injection and diesel
light-duty vehicles, and
reduced diesel NOx limits.
In the case of diesel
vehicles, compliance with
the particle number limits is
exclusively via tting diesel
particulate lters. Particularly
in the case of gasoline direct
injection (GDI) engines,
Cambustions DMS500
fast-response particulate
analyzer offers crucial insights
and assistance with particle
emissions compliance.
The reduced NOx limits
that apply to diesel vehicles
are likely to require some
form of aftertreatment such
as selective catalytic reduction
(SCR). The highly variable
nature of engine-out NOx
poses some difcult control
problems in urea dosing.
Since the air and fuel ows
in a ring engine can change
rapidly, the extra insight into
engine operation offered by
fast-response gas analyzers
has proved valuable in meeting
emissions legislation in a
cost-effective and timely way.
The Cambustion fast
NOx analyzer offers NO
and NO
2
measurement with
a response time as fast as
2ms. This gives aftertreatment
engineers the opportunity
to obtain high-frequency
data about engine-out NOx
during transients, which
can be used to rene the
SCR dosing model.
The problems of GDI
particle emissions are
essentially those of mixture
preparation and AFR control.
The former is particularly
difcult at cold start, while
the latter remains an issue on
throttle transients throughout
the drive cycle, where the air
and fuel ows change rapidly.
Legislated systems measure
cycle particle emissions
correctly, but are less
effective in a development
environment, where their
slower response time reduces
their usefulness for transient
calibration work.
Cambustions DMS500
is specically designed to
system (only power and
compressed air are required
for operation), and integrating
with existing test-bench
equipment via AK or analog
connections, the DMS500 can
add instant particle number
capability to a facility, with the
added advantage of particle
size and mass measurements,
should the project require it.
Since the standard
DMS500 is capable of raw
exhaust gas sampling, it allows
development in test cells
where CVS tunnels are not
available. A typical application
is strategy and calibration
development to reduce particle
number emissions. In this
application, the instrument
can run unattended under
control of the test bench,
allowing a mapping process
to be completed efciently.
Parameters affecting particle
emissions include injection
timing, split injection, valve
timing, ignition timing, and
EGR, with the DMS500s
fast response time allowing
efcient optimization.
Gasoline particulate lters
(GPF) are another potential
solution to reducing particle
number emissions from
gasoline vehicles. Unlike
a DPF, a GPF never reaches
very high ltration efciencies,
since higher exhaust
temperatures mean the
soot load on the lter never
becomes signicant. In this
case, the DMS500 is used
upstream of the GPF to reduce
input soot concentration,
and downstream to measure
GPF performance.
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Euro 6 emissions
challenges
The latest fast-response gas analysis technology could be a useful
tool for those preparing for changes in emissions legislation
Cambustion
Tel: +44 1223 210250
Email: sales@cambustion.com
Web: www.cambustion.com
ABOVE: Cambustions DMS500 offers
a fast-response particulate number
LEFT: Fast-response emissions
analyzers for transient cycle
development
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
measure transient engine
particulate in a test cell
environment. Measuring
particle size, mass, and
number enables the DMS500
to be used as a development
tool for a variety of standards.
The DMS500 offers the best
response time available (10Hz
data, 200ms T
10-90%
) in an
engine exhaust particle
number instrument. This
allows the resolution of
features that are not revealed
by certication systems,
such as the effects of AFR
uctuations, or spark and
injection strategy.
Featuring a fully integrated
sample handling-and-dilution
248.373.9097 |sales@oriontest.com | www.oriontest.com
Announcing Our New Location in Pune, India
DETROIT, USA TORREON, MEXICO POZNA, POLAND PUNE, INDIA
Test & Assembly Systems
for Electronic, Mechanical,
Hybrid and Hydraulic/Fluid
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Production Testers
Laboratory & PV/DV Testers
Assembly Stations
Tooling & Fixtures
Custom Software
See us at the
Chennai Expo
Booth No. 3081
World Headquarters, Auburn Hills, Michigan


Durability and Performance
www.hbm.com/ncode | info@hbmncode.com
Analyze vast amounts of measured
data with specialized functionality
for fatigue and durability testing.
Predict fatigue up-front using
nite element analysis to optimize
designs and reduce costs.
Learn from and share all your test
data in a secure, web-based
environment for automated data
storage, analysis, and reporting.
The most complete range of advanced products for when failure is not an option
Signicant new technologies introduced for
physical test and CAE durability
www.hbm.com/ncodewebinars
Now available
in nCode 8:
RAC0687_VB-ATTI-fp-feb12-p.indd 1 24/01/2012 14:21
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ACS
Tel: +1 608 663 1590
Email: acs-us@acscm.com
Web: www.acscm.com
Global standardization of test facilities
507
As automotive
companies continue
to expand their global
footprint, ACS provides design and
construction management, as well
as system integration services,
to deliver standardized testing
facilities throughout North and
South America, Europe, and Asia.
ACS delivers functional test
facilities through its Integrated
Project Delivery model. The project
teams accomplish this by tapping
into their knowledge of building
design and construction, and
combining it with expertise in
industry regulations, testing
technology and applications, and
the ability to fully integrate building
and test systems. By partnering
with its US-based clients, ACS
helps meet clients needs to create
equivalent, standardized test
facilities around the world.
ACS leverages its expertise in
the design of test facilities and
equipment to help clients meet
complex test requirements, design
for future test needs, meet
regulations, and increase cell
utilization. ACS works with clients
to determine the best way to help
them achieve their goals. This
could involve conceptual design;
equipment specication, selection
and procurement; fabrication of
custom equipment; facility
integration; construction
management; and commissioning,
operations and management
services.
508
Torsional vibration
analysis is a vital
part of the drivetrain
development process. The
vibrations caused by processes
occurring inside the engine do
not just impair the level of driving
comfort, but can also have
noticeable effects on individual
components, even going as far
as destroying them completely.
Targeted data acquisition
reveals the starting points for
component and construction
optimization, as well as the
sources of interfering vibrations
and noises. PikesPEAK
is the broadband, modular
measuring system for high-speed
measurements and torsional
vibration analysis by AFT Atlas
Fahrzeugtechnik. It offers up to 30
analog channels with sampling
rates that can be individually
congured up to 500kHz. The
measuring system allows the
CAN-based 4Measure modules
(temperature, voltage, current,
strain gauge, active sensors) to be
integrated. A module can simply
be plugged into the PikesPEAK
housing and incorporated into the
complete measuring system. This
makes the modules much easier
for the user to operate.
Technical highlights include:
a multiprocessor architecture
with 1GHz PowerPC and FPGA;
a high-speed engine speed
module with a resolution of
<0.1ns as the basis for a speed
sensor with digital (TTL) output;
and a high-speed analog module
with a sampling rate of 500kHz
per channel and extended
voltage range.
AFT Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik
Tel: +49 2392 8090
Email: info@aft-werdohl.de
Web: www.aft-werdohl.de
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012
AOS Technologies AG
Tel: +41 56 483 3488
Email: info@aostechnologies.com
Web: www.aostechnologies.com
S-VIT F3 breaks barriers
077
Precision for torsional
vibration analysis
509
The new S-VIT F3 by
AOS Technologies
offers high specs such
as: up to 700fps at HDTV-image
resolution (720p); up to 2,100fps
at 512 x 512; and a maximum
frame rate of 6,000fps at 270 x
270. The powerful, easy-to-operate
control software is compatible with
third-party control networks and
allows users to download the
image data directly in popular
data formats like MPEG-4.
The new S-VIT F3 includes
features from earlier S-VIT
cameras such as: shock-
resistance up to 100G; a built-in
battery for best image protection;
and a compact design with a small
footprint to t into tight spaces.
The S-VIT F3 offers input
and output control lines for
a simple integration to larger
camera systems. The camera is
compatible with other high-speed
cameras. Specially designed
accessories such as lens cages
increase the value of the camera
even further.
Full-scale car crash tests and
sled tests, as well as rollover
tests, are typical applications
in which the S-VIT F3 proves its
performance, reliability, and
exibility.
Despite its feature set and
performance, plus its Swiss made
precision, the S-VIT F3 is offered
at an attractive and highly
competitive price.
Take cutting-edge wind tunnel technology. Add a 180 mph rolling road.
And build in the best in precision data acquisition capabilities. When we
created the worlds rst and nest commercially available full-scale testing
environment of its kind, we did much more than create a new wind tunnel.
We created a new standard in aerodynamics.
1 8 0 M P H WI T H O U T M O V I N G A N I N C H
+1 704 788 9463 I NFO@WI NDSHEARI NC. COM WI NDSHEARI NC.COM
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MARCH 2012
510
Time in the wind tunnel
is always at a premium,
so Brel & Kjr has
developed dedicated tools to help
engineers assess noise source
distribution rapidly and efciently.
A new foldable half-wheel
microphone array gives improved
precision due to its optimized
structural geometry, while saving
considerable transport, setup, and
cabling headaches.
The numerically optimized
microphone positioning minimizes
ghost images by suppressing
undesirable side
lobes in the data, while a built-in
reference camera helps document
the measurements. It joins a
comprehensive array suite from
Brel & Kjr, and is engineered to
safely acquire reliable data in the
tough conditions of wind tunnels
and test tracks.
For wind-tunnel measurements,
rened beam-forming software
has been developed with industry
partners. This software improves
beam-forming spatial resolution
by a factor of three using
deconvolution methods, for
precise independent noise source
identication making it a detailed
tool for ranking contributions from
component combinations such as
door pillars and mirrors.
One-button operation initiates
automatic calculation, retaining
the single-shot operation and
then post-processing the data to
achieve the dramatic accuracy
improvements. Results are simple
to display and export using
drag-and-drop operation, and
as part of Brel & Kjrs well-
established PULSE platform, the
software is versatile and fully
backwards-compatible.
D2T Powertrain Engineering
Email: sales@d2t.com
Web: www.d2t.com
511
D2T Powertrain
Engineering is
launching a new
version of its MORPHEE automation
system. It has been designed to
adapt perfectly to component
testbed applications, in addition
to countless applications for
engine test-benches and
powertrains.
With 2,500 licenses, 10,000
users, and 12 million bench-
rotation hours per year, MORPHEE
is a worldwide standard. This new
version works in Windows 7 and
offers excellent component testbed
performance. It allows the
integration of MATLAB SIMULINK
simulation models on the testbed
and can rotate in real time at
frequencies up to 10kHz. This
functionality, along with its usual
characteristics, makes MORPHEE
an ideal system for new
applications battery test-beds,
for example.
Currently, a battery testbed
often performs relatively simple
operations: charge/discharge
testing, capacity testing, and
resistance measurements.
However, these test beds will be
increasingly used to ne-tune the
battery management system and
for this reason, they integrate
advanced simulation
functionalities. MORPHEEs
user-friendly characteristics
allow this type of bench to
evolve easily toward simulation.
Brel & Kjr
Tel: +45 7741 2000
Web: www.bksv.com
Rened wind-tunnel technology
512
DEWETRON-RLD test
instruments guarantee
synchronous
measurement of all signal types.
The universal analog inputs
are well-suited for voltage,
current, bridge, ICP sensors,
thermocouples, Pt100 to Pt1000,
and charge measurements. As
well as analog data, video, GPS,
CANbus, FlexRay, digital status
information, and counters are
also acquired. Most popular
enhanced sensor systems such
as KistlerRoaDyn 2000 wheels
or GeneSys INS/GPS platforms
are supported, and can even be
hardware synchronized to
DEWETRON-RLD instruments.
For managing simple sensors,
a powerful sensor database
and TEDS support are integrated.
DEWETRON-RLD systems offer
high-quality analog inputs with
22-bit resolution and anti-aliasing
lters. Other practical functions
include sensor balance and shunt
calibration for bridge/strain gauge
inputs. The systems can ash test
all inputs for errors and the
overload display shows the status
of all recorded signals at a glance.
Complete instrument and sensor
set-up can be carried out ofine
through an XML le. RLD systems
are of dual-use in vehicles, or
at test rigs. Results of road
measurements are exported to
RPCIII format and provided to
the test-rig controller. The RLD
systems real-time analog output
is used to support the control loop
with measurement feedback.
Export functions for analyses and
reports in Excel, DIAdem, FlexPro,
and Matlab are included.
The typical RLD conguration
is the DEWE-501 with 64 analog
inputs, four CAN, two Ethernets,
and a number of DIO counters.
It is easily expandable to
128 analog channels and
eight CAN.
DEWETRON
Email: info@dewetron.com
Web: www.dewetron.com/rld
Road load data systems
for durability testing
MORPHEE becomes more open
Roads to every testing destination
SignalCalc
Dynamic Signal Analyzers
SignalStar
Vibration Control Systems
SignalForce
Shakers & Amplifiers
Now there is one trusted name
you can turn to for proven test and
measurement solutions. For over
25 years, Data Physics has been
driven by its customer needs to
develop, internally and through
acquisition, a full range of power-
ful technologies for noise and
vibration applications.
Roads to every testing destination
Powered by
Solutions to Test and Measurement challenges from
people who are driven by them.
Roads to every testing destination
of
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Test & Measurement
INNOVATION
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MARCH 2012
Dytran Instruments
Tel: +1 818 700 1818
Email: info@dytran.com
Web: www.dytran.com
Accelerometers for ride quality
and vehicle dynamics studies
Imtech
Tel: +49 40 6949 2527
Email: zentrale@imtech.de
Web: www.imtech.de
Mobile combustion air-conditioning unit
513
The mobile combustion
air-conditioning unit
ComCon is used for
the research and development of
combustion engines. It realizes
the stipulation of intake air under
standard conditions, as well as
special conditions of intake air on
engine testbeds. The following
engine intake air parameters can be
conditioned: pressure, temperature,
and relative humidity. The unit fulls
the following demands: AK-
specication of mobile combustion
air-conditioning units for engine
testbeds, VDI/VDE guidelines,
DIN-standards, and equipment
safety laws.
The advantages of the Imtech
ComCon are: it is a mobile unit with
easy handling and plug-and-test
installation; it offers continuous
control; it has an additional
temperature sensor for the intake
air; it has tailor-made software for
the dynamic control loops; and it
has a user-friendly operator level.
The main focus of application is
simulation of different pressure
values of intake air with high
repeatability of measurements
and short-term availability.
The Imtech ComCon
is available in different air-mass
ows from 1,000 to 3,000kg/h.
The unit can simulate temperature
range from +15C to +35C
(accuracy 1 K); humidity range
from 15 to 75% rH (accuracy
3%); and pressure range from
900 to 1,100 mbar (accuracy
1 mbar).
515
Dytran Instruments
has recently expanded
its DC MEMS
accelerometer offerings to include
new models designed for use in tilt
measurements, crash test, and
other low-frequency vibration
measurements.
Included in the new models now
available from Dytran is the 7503A
series, a family of low noise,
triaxial DC MEMS accelerometers.
Offered with a choice of seven
different measurement ranges
from 2 to 200g, these high-
precision variable capacitance (VC)
sensors combine an integrated VC
chip. The sensors offer a low -nd
frequency response down to DC,
with an upper frequency range
between 400 and 2,500Hz with
differential output. Units are rugged
to 5,000g shock and operate from
+9 to +32 VDC power.
In addition to the 7503A series,
Dytran has released the 7600B
series, a family of high-precision
VC accelerometers designed for
use in crash test and ride-quality
applications. Available in six
models, with ranges from
5-200g, the Dytran 7600A series
incorporates a MEMS capacitive
sensing element and an advanced
ASIC to simulate piezoresistive
bridge operation, as well as
an integrated VC accelerometer
chip. Units use the same power
supply as traditional piezoresistive
and strain gauge sensors, allowing
them to operate as standalone
differential output or in place
of piezoresistive bridge-
type accelerometers.
Moog
Email: test@moog.com
Web: www.moog.com/test
Hydraulic simulation table
514
Moog, a leader in
high-performance
systems and products
for automotive and aerospace
testing, has designed and
manufactured a hydraulic
simulation table based on the
companys latest line of hydraulic
test actuators. This offers more
capability than a conventional
orthogonal system, which is a table
moved by actuators mounted on
its base and sides. The hydraulic
simulation table is a six-legged
hexapod with two equilateral
triangular frames set one above
the other, offset at 30. Each apex
of the top triangle is connected to
the two apexes below it via Moog
hydraulic test actuators with
hydrostatic bearings.
The table gives a frequency of
response up to 100Hz and can
handle payloads up to 680kg
(1,500 lb). Auto-makers and test
houses can use this table to
replicate real-world road
conditions that strain automobile
components such as axles;
engines; interior and exterior
assemblies; seats, steering column
assemblies; cooling module
systems; truck and tractor cabs;
and aftertreatment systems.
As our customers use the
simulation table for more tests,
some features clearly emerge
as key advantages. Firstly, higher
delity means a more realistic
test, says Tobe Ehmann, Moogs
product line sales manager for
test and simulation. Secondly,
compared to classic orthogonal
systems, the hexapod form factor
of the Moog Simulation Table has
a smaller footprint, just one-third
the size of classic systems, which
creates more oor space.
Steve Panter, operations
manager of Exova, purchased such
a table last year, and says:
A lot of damage occurs within the
range from 50 to 80Hz when a
company does testing analysis.
With a lower performance
simulation table, results are often
ltered down to 40Hz, so any
damaging events beyond that point
are not captured. The Moog
hydraulic simulation table allows
those events to be included in the
scope of testing, and broadens the
value of the testing process.
Moog designs and manufactures
the servo valves, actuators, test
controllers, and software used
in the hydraulic simulation table.
(888) 665-2677 | www.eyesolarlux.com
EYE Lighting International of North America, Inc., a division of Iwasaki Electric of Japan
APPLIED OPTI
The air conditioning system is the single largest auxiliary load on a
vehicle by nearly an order of magnitude. EYE Applied Optix Solarlux
full spectrum lamps faithfully simulate the natural environment within
your emission test chamber to help ensure the most accurate and
repeatable SC03 STFP testing. Results will be so close to real life, the
car will believe its out on the open road.
Is AC Robbing
Your MPG?
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MARCH 2012 083
LaVision
Tel: +49 551 9004-0
Email: info@lavision.com
Web: www.lavision.de
EGR-rate examination inside
engine cylinders
KMT Kraus Messtechik
Tel: +49 8024 48737
Email: info@kmt-gmbh.com
Web: www.kmt-gmbh.com
Flat and exible transmitter
for torque measurement
Filter Weighing
Solutions
The easy way to determine
particulate matter on Filters.
A range from Manual
to Robotic Weighing
www.mt.com/filter
For Videos and Webinars please join us at:
516
LaVisions ICOS (Internal
Combustion Optical
Sensor) product family
provides a series of new techniques
for the measurement of quantitative
engine-relevant values inside
engine cylinders, such as air/
fuel-ratio, temperature, or the
EGR-rate. All systems are
applicable in gasoline, as well
as in diesel experimental, or
production engines.
The newest trends in
recirculated exhaust gas
management are based on
variable valve timings to control
the EGR-rate. The new LaVision
ICOS-EGR system can precisely
measure the cycle-resolved
EGR-rate directly inside the
cylinder. Both internal and external
EGR-rate components
are determined. Cyclical variations
of internal and applied external
EGR-rates at different engine
conditions can be analyzed easily.
When using multiple probes in
different cylinders simultaneously,
the EGR distribution between the
cylinders can be analyzed exactly.
LaVisions ICOS-systems do not
need any complex gas extraction
systems. The robust and
easy-to-handle optical probes are
designed to be used directly inside
the cylinder without modication.
The probes are available as
spark-plug probes or small
non-ring probes, which can be
used in typical pressure transducer
threads or glow-plug adapters for
diesel engines.
517
The new TEL1-PCM
Flex transmitter
electronics from KMT
couple the efciency of the existing
TEL1- PCM transmitter with new
exibility. With a maximum overall
height of less than 2mm, the rotor
electronics unit is extremely at.
Mounted on a exible, foil
substrate, its space-saving design
enables it to be easily applied to
rotating shafts or similar machine
parts. The rotor electronic includes
the sensor supply, signal
processing and transmitter for
the contactless data transmission
of the measured signal.
The low-prole TEL1-PCM
Flex is also ideally suited for
applications involving high
rotational speeds. The
supplementary onboard inductive
power supply ensures continuous
and reliable measurements from
the rotating shaft.
Today, it is more important than
ever to have reliable, detailed
information about torque, vibration,
or other feedback signals by
metering the different types of
applications. The TEL1-PCM Flex
telemetry system helps you to
capture this data even from
rotating applications. A very small
rotor electronic, installed directly
on the shaft ,captures, conditions
and transmits the measuring data
to an inductive powerhead
(pick-up). After this, the
information can be reproduced on
the output of a stationary decoder.
Because it is easy to install and
can be powered inductively or with
a battery, it is a real all-rounder for
measurements on rotating
machinery. There is no easier way
to run wireless data transmission.
AUTOMOTIVE TESTING EXPO CHINA 2012
Abinger House, Church Street,
Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
Tel: +44 (0) 1306 743744
Fax: +44 (0) 1306 877411
email: dominic.cundy@ukipme.com
www.testing-expochina.com
Our business partner in China is:
Mr. Wilko Fong
Reliable International Exhibition Services Co Ltd
Rm.1702, Bldg.6, SOHO New Town,
No. 88 Jianguo Road, Chaoyang District,
Beijing 100022, P.R. China
Tel: +86 10 85898181 Fax: + 86 10 85898180
Email: wilko_fong@reliable.org.cn
September 18-20, 2012
The Shanghai Everbright Convention &
Exhibition Center, Shanghai, China
Chinas ONLY automotive test, evaluation
and quality engineering trade show
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OAK Racing, through
its Onroak Automotive
division, is active as a
chassis designer and manufacturer
in the LMP1 and LMP2 classes.
The design ofce, led by Nicolas
Clmenon, relies on RUAGs AWTE
wind tunnel to test its prototypes.
We performed two wind-tunnel
campaigns at the end of 2011 to
adapt our cars to the new ACO
rules for LMP1 and LMP2,
explains Clmenon. Typically,
after the installation of the model,
which is specically built for these
tests, the wind tunnel is run 12
hours-a-day for four to ve days.
RUAG provides a dedicated
customer room, where the results
are shown in real time, continues
Clmenon. These are analyzed
immediately before the next change
on the model is performed.
We have been working with
RUAG since 2008 and have
performed 12 test campaigns.
We have always found an excellent
correlation between the wind-
tunnel results and the observations
on the track, adds Clmenon.
Racelogic
Web: www.velocitybox.co.uk
Accurate slip angle measurement
518
UK-based electronics
company Racelogic
has recently made
a huge breakthrough in vehicle
dynamics testing technology, with
the launch of a GPS data-logger
that enables you to measure slip
and pitch/roll angles with low
latency at 100Hz.
The new VBOX 3i Dual Antenna
(VBOX3i SL) uses two antennas
placed a xed distance apart (along
the vehicle for pitch and across for
roll). By utilizing both the GPS and
Russian GLONASS constellations,
RMS accuracies of up to 0.04
for slip and 0.028 for pitch can
be achieved.
The system is so accurate that
you can even measure the small
effect a side wind has on the slip
angle of a moving vehicle a feat
that even the best inertial systems
struggle to replicate.
Racelogics managing director,
Julian Thomas, says: If you need
to measure slip angle, then the
VBOX 3i SL easily outperforms
a single antenna inertial system,
for around half the price. Its our
best VBOX to date.
The VBOX 3i SL is quick to set
up and simple to operate, while
519
Southern Hemisphere
Proving Grounds (SHPG)
in New Zealand is the
worlds leading provider of
June-to-September winter
testing facilities and services.
SHPG offers the strategic
advantage of mid-season winter
tests, helping shorten development
cycles from 12 to six months.
Through the opportunity to conduct
three winter tests within one
calendar year, SHPG represents
a strategic advantage in the quest
to rush new products to market.
SHPG strives to keep its
products and services in line with
ever-advancing OEM technologies.
New developments at SHPG
include climate-controlled heated
and refrigerated split-friction
gradient pads. These facilities offer
stable and controlled friction for
testing traction and drive controls.
Other new developments include
a multi-million dollar, ber-optic
data and telecommunication
system, fast-charging capabilities
for electric vehicles, a higher
speed heated ABS facility, and
a dedicated 180m ice-at.
SHPG runs 24/7 through the
months of June to September,
and is equipped and capable of
meeting the most demanding
cold-climate testing challenges.
Cotta gearboxes are rugged and reliable platforms
for R&D testing of automotive components.
Applications include dyno resolvers, axle,
transmission, and driveline test stands. Choose from
our available models or have us design one for your
application. Built and tested by craftsmen, backed
by over 100 years of experience, and covered by an
excellent warranty. Need speed? Contact Cotta.
The speed you need.
Beloit, Wisconsin, USA
Cotta.com/HS | sales@cotta.com | (608) 368-5600
Industrial and Specialty Transmission Experts. Speed Reducers, Speed Increasers, Multi Range, Planetary, Right Angle
RUAG
Tel: +41 41 268 3801
Email: aerodynamics@ruag.com
Web: www.ruag.com
OAK Racing tests in RUAG
wind tunnel
Southern Hemisphere Proving Grounds
Email: admin@shpg.co.nz
Web: www.shpg.co.nz
Counter-seasonal test facilities
being exible enough to be used
for many different kinds of tests.
A useful feature is that you can
translate the slip angle to any point
on the vehicle, in real time.
BOOTH
1976
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SINGLE
Temperiertechnik
offers a portfolio of
high-quality temperature-control
systems based on water or oil as
the transfer medium, heat transfer
units, water-to-water chillers, as
well as customized solutions.
The company provides
high-performance temperature
control of test benches for vehicle
technology applications. SINGLE
temperature-control technology
operates with liquid media with
a wide performance range and
maximum temperatures of
between -40C and +350C.
These liquid media help maintain
and control constant temperatures
or specic temperature proles on
test benches. SINGLE
temperature-control systems
control the media temperature, the
ow and/or operating pressure,
and create realistic conditions
involving serial operation or
excessive loads for safety checks.
SINGLE also has an enhanced
service package, working with a
network of more than 30 sales and
service points, with technology and
manufacturer certications that
meet European Pressure Equipment
Directives and comply with
standards such as UL and regional
directives to CSA and GOST.
SINGLE Temperiertechnik GmbH
Tel: +49 7153 30090
Web: www.single-temp.de
Temperature-control systems
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
MARCH 2012 087
523

VPCs iSeries connectors
offer solutions for low
I/O small connector
needs in industries including
automotive and aerospace. With
high density in compact sizes, the
iSeries connectors iCon, i1, and
i2 Micro iCon offer consistent
performance up to 10,000 cycles.
They are capable of discrete wiring
and PCB mounting.
VPCs innovative QuadraPaddle
technology means the connectors
can offer signicant signal points
in a small footprint.
iCon mates up to 320 signal
contacts in two modules, with
myriad variations when hybrid
options are needed, including
coax, power, pneumatic,
thermocouple, and ber optic.
i1 holds a single iCon module
in each connector, offering up
to 160 signal points and various
hybrid congurations.
i2 Micro iCon is a solid-state
module receiver, available in 168
signal and 120/12 signal and
micro-power/coax congurations.
i2 has a 0.8in footprint, enabling
impressive horizontal stackability
and drop-in replacement of 156-pin
ZIF connectors.
VPC
Web: www.vpc.com/iSeries
Innovative connectors
522

Cotta has developed
a high-speed
transmission for use in
test stand applications. Designed
originally for testing aircraft
components, Cottas SN2105
compact transmission is nding
increased application in automotive
testing. The SN2105 features
a nominal power rating of 200HP
and over-speed ratios up to 5.5.
The single-input/single-output
transmission features a cast-iron
case and parallel shaft design with
single-stage gearing. Featuring
a standard output speed of
18,000rpm, Cotta believes the
SN2105 is a candidate for the
most cost-effective, true high-
speed test stand transmission
on the market.
The company also manufactures
industrial and specialty
transmissions, available as speed
increasers and decreasers, for use
in a wide range of non-aviation
applications, including automotive
testing. Transmission models are
available in a wide range of output
speeds, up to 80,000rpm.
Modied-standard and custom
models are also available.
Cotta Transmission Company
Email: sales@cotta.com
Web: www.cotta.com
Compact high-speed test
stand transmission
expert. independent. sustainable.
www.aeieng.com
+1.608.236.1231
TEST FACI LI TY TYPES

Al ternati ve Fuel s
Al ti tude Test Labs
Anechoi c/Pass-by
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Contai neri zed Test Cel l s
EMI /EMC Test Labs
End- of-Li ne Test Cel l s
Hybri d/Batter y Dri vetrai n Labs
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Hydrogen Test Faci l i ti es
NVH/ser vo-hydraul i c Test Labs
Test Tracks
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Engi ne & Chassi s Test Cel l s
Emi ssi ons Test Faci l i ti es
Europe
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Thousands of facilities
designed.
Turnkey or design/bid/build
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Are you planning an extraordinary event? If so, fascinate your customers, employees and VIP-
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of tracks. Combine this with a driving safety training or a product presentation and you get the
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eventmanagement if you like to be supported by our event-team.
Book something special: +49 4961 975 330 or www.atp-papenburg.de
On one of the worlds biggest and most impressive proving grounds
Get ready for it!
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MARCH 2012 089
524

Todays automotive
test facility users
and operators face
increasing pressure to generate
better data in less time to compete
successfully in the face of shrinking
development budgets. Delays due
to poor test coordination and data
acquisition inefciencies simply
cannot be tolerated as the need to
continually reduce the cost per
datapoint is relentless. Furthermore,
increased operational costs such as
energy are pressuring test facilities
to nd ways to reduce testing times
and increase testing throughput.
Jacobs is one of the largest
engineering and technical services
companies in the USA. It provides
engineering, construction,
operations, maintenance, and
technical support services for
customers to design, construct,
commission, operate, and maintain
technical facilities and systems
throughout Europe, Asia, and North
America. Jacobs understands the
need to maximize data productivity,
accuracy, and security. Its latest
software, Test SLATE, provides an
integrated test facility control and
data acquisition environment that
provides drag-and-drop ease for
conguring new test sequences,
incorporating new measurement
systems, or improving data
visualization/analysis on the y.
In a motorsport wind tunnel, for
example, Test SLATE automates
wind and rolling road speeds, yaw
angle, wheel ride height settings,
and other vehicle-specic controls
for maximum test efciency. Test
SLATE provides self-optimizing test
sequence automation for maximum
data quality in minimal time and is
eld-proven for monitoring facility
and test article onboard data
parameters at more than 20 million
samples per second while
comparing these with user-dened
alarm limits for health and safety.
Jacobs Technology
Tel: Tennessee (+1 931 455 6400), Michigan (+1 248 633 1440) or Germany (+49 89 3090 7160)
Web: www.testslate.com or www.jacobstechnology.com
Test automation software
EnUrga Inc.
1291-A Cumberland Avenue,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
P: +1-765-497-3269,
F: +1-765-463-7004,
E: sales@enurga.com
CONTRACT TESTING
OF FUEL INJECTORS
AND NOZZLES
OPTICAL PATTERNATION
DROP SIZE AND VELOCITY
HIGH SPEED IMAGING
525
nCode, the brand of
durability, test, and
analysis products
offered by HBM, has introduced
new methods for assessing the
durability of adhesive bonds in
lightweight vehicle structures in
version 8 of nCode DesignLife.
nCode DesignLife 8 uses a fracture
mechanics-based method requiring
relatively minor modications to
a typical vehicle body nite element
model. Adhesive bonding is
increasingly used in the
development of lightweight vehicle
bodies. In addition to improving
structural rigidity, it provides
a means of joining high-strength
steels, aluminum alloys, and
dissimilar materials, with good
durability against fatigue compared
with more traditional methods such
as spot-welding and seam-welding.
The implemented method
provides a safety factor
assessment of each joint
HBM-nCode
Tel: +44 114 254 1246
Email: info@hbmncode.com
Web: www.hbm.com/ncode
Methods for assessing durability of adhesive bonds
by comparing the calculated
maximum strain energy release
rate with the threshold required for
crack growth. The theoretical basis
of the method was developed as
part of a project conducted by the
Volvo Group and the testing and
software implementation were
carried out as part of the Bonded
Car collaborative research project,
the partners including Jaguar Land
Rover, Coventry University, and
Warwick University.
November 13-15 2012
Novi, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Showcasing the next generation of powertrains,
advanced batteries and testing solutions for EVs
2011 Show: 170 exhibitors + over 2,700 attendees
2012 Show (anticipated): 250+ exhibitors + over 3,500 attendees
BOOK NOW
EXHIBITION SPACE LIMITED
www.thebatteryshow.com
info@thebatteryshow.com
IN PARTNERSHIP WITH:

@TheBatteryShow
The EV Charging Show
CO-LOCATING WITH:
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526

Tire designers and
researchers appreciate
the benets of
integrating electric actuation into
mechanical testing systems.
Electric systems do not require
hydromechanical infrastructure,
so there is no uid to manage or
pumps to keep cool. They typically
operate more efciently and
maintenance is simpler.
For these reasons, MTS is
incorporating more electric
actuation into its tire testing
systems. The benets of electric
systems, however, diminish
when it comes to dynamic tire
characterization. This is why MTS
has adopted a thoughtful approach
one that addresses customer
needs for efciency and simplicity
without sacricing performance.
For example, the new Flat-Trac
CT Plus Tire Force & Moment
Measurement System trades its
tire hydraulic drive for an electric
permanent magnet motor that
increases capacity and response.
This improves performance,
enabling more accurate
simulations. The system retains
servohydraulic actuation to provide
the power density required for
simulating dynamic tire motion.
On the other hand, rolling
resistance measurement involves
lower speeds and forces, so
electric actuation is a natural
t. That is why new MTS RRsi
systems feature a highly
efcient, fully electric design
that actually expands testing
capabilities by allowing slip
and inclination angles.
Contact MTS today and learn
how its new tire test systems
balance electric and servohydraulic
technologies to deliver optimal
testing efciency and enhanced
performance.
527

Race Technologys latest
addition to its product
line-up, the Speedbox-
INS, is now shipping to customers.
The Speedbox-INS is a unique
sensor system that combines
advanced proprietary GPS and
a precision six-axis inertial system.
The Race Technology system
differentiates itself from the
competition in terms of ease of use,
accuracy, and price. Initial customer
applications include chassis
development for on- and off-
highway vehicles.
The Speedbox-INS is specically
designed to become the system
of choice for automotive industry
testing. Its unique design means no
calibration or initialization phase is
needed, improving productivity and
ease of use. Fitment on standard
vehicles is quick, easy, and secure,
enabling it to be used by
technicians as well as engineers.
High accuracy, low latency
output of vehicle attitude, heading,
gradient, velocity, acceleration,
and distance make the system an
ideal choice for applications such
as stability testing, brake testing,
fuel economy testing, chassis
development, and much more. The
headline accuracy gures include
one-tenth of a degree for roll and
pitch, and two-tenths
of a degree for yaw measurements.
The sensor and new rmware are
available as an upgrade to existing
Speedbox customers.
MTS
Email: info@mts.com
Web: www.mts.com
Tire testing evolution
Race Technology
Email: sales@race-technology.com
Web: www.race-technology.com
Unique sensor system
Contact us: ttc@ul.com | ulttc.com U
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Your Plastics Testing Experts.
Advanced technology: sophisticated compounding
and fully automated test specimen production
Unequalled capacity: testing of all major
applications from standard plastics to engineering
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selection from over 200 different tests
Uncompromising quality: ISO/IEC 17025 accredited
adherence to the strictest industry standards
Extensive expertise: over 60 years of experience
The Fast Track to Success.
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Tel : +82-2-2612-2111 Fax : +82-2-2612-0660 www.visol.co.kr E-mail : international@visol.net
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MARCH 2012
528

The engineers at
Mustang Advanced
Engineering are seeing
a higher demand than ever for
automated end-of-line testing
solutions. It has never been more
important to test each product
thoroughly as it comes off the
production line in a controlled and
consistent environment that
provides repeatable results.
MAE is an industry leader in the
design, manufacture, and
installation of advanced end-of-line
test stands for automotive,
heavy-duty, and off-road vehicle
production and quality assurance
testing applications. The
companys dedicated mechanical
and software engineers work to
develop custom solutions for their
customers by providing intelligent
system designs coupled with
outstanding technical expertise
and world-class customer support.
From a high-throughput tester
that can control each wheel
independently, such as the
MAE-AC-4000 (pictured), to
custom designs for lawnmowers
and snowmobiles, MAE provides
the advanced engineering
technology manufacturers need.
When automation is combined
with a controlled testing
environment that gives repeatable
results, you develop a level of
condence in your product that is
no longer a luxury, its a necessity.
Build, test, and deliver products
that are more reliable and more
thoroughly tested, and youll gain
customers for life.
Mustang Advanced Engineering
Tel: +1 888 468 7826
Email: sales@mustangae.com
Web: www.mustangae.com
Automated end-of-line testing
529
Fuel injector and
exhaust-doser
designers have a
constant need to characterize the
spray formed. The critical
parameters that affect the
performance of fuel injectors and
dosers are the surface area density
of the drops, spray angles, spray
pattern, and velocity.
The surface area density is
particularly relevant as the local
fuel or urea evaporation rate is
correlated to this quantity more
than the local drop size, the local
mass ux, or the local velocity.
There are several instruments
that characterize these different
parameters. For example, drop
sizes and/or velocities in sprays
can be obtained using a phase
doppler interferometer or a laser
diffraction instrument, while
surface area densities and spray
angles can be obtained using the
SETscan optical patternator. In
many cases, all these instruments
are not available to the company
that is developing fuel injectors
and dosers.
Therefore, outsourcing of these
core functions is very attractive
during the design stages,
particularly because it relieves
the organization from having the
in-house expertise to operate
these instruments. It is also
anticipated that in future,
outsourcing of the quality audit of
nozzles would provide for a more
economical production line and
a better return on investment. In
conclusion, outsourcing of spray
characterization is seen
as a growth industry in the
automotive sector.
EnUrga
Tel: +1 765 497 3269
Email: sales@enurga.com
Web: www.enurga.com
Outsourcing of spray
characterization
Swiss quality, precison, efficiency, competence
and flexibility: This is what you can expect at
RUAGs premium aerodynamic testing facility.
Whether you are looking at outsourcing a full
aerodynamic development or just obtaining
high quality wind tunnel test data: With our
competent and highly skilled personnel in
combination with our state of the art equip-
ment we can offer the solution. Why dont
you put us to the test and experience the
difference?
Too much drag? RUAG wind tunnel testing helps you do better.
RUAG Aviation
Aerodynamics Department P.O. Box 301 6032 Emmen Switzerland
Legal domicile: RUAG Switzerland Ltd Seetalstrasse 175 P.O. Box 301 6032 Emmen Switzerland
Tel. +41 41 268 38 01 Fax +41 41 268 38 97 aerodynamics@ruag.com www.ruag.com
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MARCH 2012
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Accurate Technologies AB .........................................87
ACS Inc .....................................................................17
Afliated Engineers Inc .............................................88
AFT Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH .............................38
Application Engineering Inc .......................................12
Arctic Falls AB ...........................................................95
ATP - Automotive Testing Papenburg ........................88
Automotive Testing Expo China 2012 .......................84
Automotive Testing Expo Europe 2012 .........21, 23, 24
Automotive Testing Technology International
Online Reader Enquiry Service ..............................96
Berndorf Band GmbH ........................Inside Back Cover
Brel & Kjr ................................... Outside Back Cover
Cambustion Ltd .........................................................35
Cotta Transmissions .................................................85
D&V Electronics Ltd ..................................................60
D2T ...........................................................................29
Data Physics Corporation ..........................................80
Dewetron GmbH ........................................................82
Dytran Instruments ...................................................67
EJ Bowman Ltd .........................................................73
EnUrga Inc................................................................89
EYE Lighting International of North America .............82
FAIST Anlagenbau GmbH ..........................................55
FGB - Fertigungsgeratebau A Steinbach GmbH.........86
Froude Hofmann .......................................................13
HBM - Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik .......................7
High Speed Vision GmbH ...........................................52
IMMI ..........................................................................52
IMTECH Deutschland GmbH & Co KG ........................19
Jacobs Technology Inc ..............................................59
KMT - Kraus Messtechik GmbH ................................84
LEMO SA ...................................................................55
LMS International ............................. Inside Front Cover
Luminys Systems Corp..............................................59
MAHA AIP GmbH & Co KG .........................................67
MCE Stahl- und Maschinenbau GmbH & Co KG.........44
Memmert GmbH & Co KG ..........................................69
Messring Systembau MSG GmbH .............................63
Mettler Toledo AG ......................................................83
Millbrook Proving Ground ..........................................47
Moog ...........................................................................3
MTS Systems Corporation ........................................64
Mustang Advanced Engineering ................................71
nCode........................................................................75
NV Solutions Ltd ........................................................69
Orion Test Systems and Engineering .........................75
PCB Piezotronics .......................................................18
PCO AG .....................................................................17
Peak Solution GmbH .................................................44
Race Technology Ltd .................................................26
Racelogic ..................................................................76
Re-Sol LLC ................................................................47
RUAG Schweiz AG .....................................................93
Seoul Industry Engineering Co ..................................71
Single Temperiertechnik GmbH .................................32
Southern Hemisphere Proving Ground ......................73
Teamtechnik, Machinery & Equipment GmbH ...........15
The Battery Show 2012 ............................................90
Toyota Motorsport GmbH ..........................................41
UL International TTC GmbH .......................................91
Virginia Panel Corp ....................................................26
Visol Inc ....................................................................92
VTI Instruments ......................................................... 11
Windshear Inc ...........................................................78
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
530

Recent months have
seen the UK government
introduce a plug-in van
grant to stimulate the market for
ultra-low emission light commercial
vehicles. The approach is
technology neutral, ensuring any
vehicle that complies with the
criteria of the scheme will be
eligible for the subsidy providing
plenty of opportunities for
manufacturers and vehicle
conversion teams to embrace the
grant with different technologies.
Eligible vehicles will emit less
than 75g/km CO
2
, reach a speed
of at least 50mph, and have
a minimum range of 60 miles
between charge for fully electric
vans and a minimum 10-mile
electric range for hybrid vehicles.
However, signicantly for
manufacturers looking to register
their vehicles for the scheme,
relevant electrical and crash safety
standards must also be met.
Such validation and certication
work requires specialist expertise,
which is limited to test
organizations with experience in
alternative propulsion vehicles. The
team at Millbrook was the rst to
certify an electric van to European
Whole Vehicle Type Approval and
is part of a consortium advising
the European Commission on
hybrid test procedures, as well
as a member of the Low Carbon
Vehicle Partnership in the UK.
With more than 40 years of
testing experience and almost
a decade specializing in electric
and hybrid vehicles, Millbrook
Proving Ground ensures accurate,
repeatable, and safe test
schedules for ultra-low emission
technologies. By working closely
with government and
manufacturers, Millbrook is
advancing the development of
the vehicle and infrastructure
solutions to ensure the light
commercial market is supported
with ultra-low carbon alternatives
for the future.
Millbrook
Tel: +44 1525 404242
Email: info@millbrook.co.uk
Web: www.millbrook.co.uk
Millbrook assists with electric van grantY
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F
O
T
O
:
GIVE US A CALL: +46 929 47 47 00
SEND US A FAX: +46 929 47 46 99
SEND US E-MAIL: info@arcticfalls.se
VISIT US ON: www.arcticfalls.se
27 COLD CHAMBERS VEHICLE TESTING WORKSHOPS
EFFICIENCY CIRCULAR TRACK
HANDLING TRACK CONFIDENTIALITY
COMFORT TRACK
SHORT HANDLING
ARTIFICIAL LAKE TWIST HUMP
SAFETY
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TESTBED LEGENDS
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MARCH 2012
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Urban congestion, highway tailbacks, and
a lack of parking are nothing new. Indeed,
in 1981 Mercedes-Benz developed the
Nahverkehrsfahrzeug (short-distance vehicle,
or NAFA for short), a small vehicle designed for
the urban landscape and short journeys.
At the time, Mercedes was known for large,
luxury cars so this concept attracted a lot of interest
and skepticism. However, the NAFAs principles,
if not its boxy design, can be appreciated and seen
in many vehicles today.
Reality check
With a length of 2.5m and
a height and width of 1.5m,
the NAFA raised more than
a few eyebrows. However,
with four-wheel steering
(the rears were electric-
powered and could turn up
to 15) and a tight turning
circle of 5.7m, the car could
easily be maneuvered
around town, and even
parked with its nose to the
curb. This was a major point
of interest when the Smart
Fortwo was launched,
though only the front
wheels could be steered.
Even where the gap to other
vehicles on each side of a
parking space was small,
two forward-sliding doors
permitted convenient entry
and exit. A similar setup can
be seen in the Peugeot 1007.
The NAFA weighed a mere
550kg, which meant that
a light and economical
powertrain could be used.
The concept featured a 41hp
one-liter, three-cyclinder
petrol engine mated to an
automatic box. Engine
advances in the period until
the Smarts launch meant
that it made production with
an even smaller 599cc
boasting 61bhp over
100bhp per liter!
In 1998 engineers in
Mercedes-Benzs Advanced
Passenger Car Development
converted the two-seater
NAFA to electric drive. The
researchers considered the
pilot operation of up to 100
electric NAFA cars in Berlin,
but the batteries storage
capacity proved inadequate
for continuous service.
However, in 2011 there was
a successful trial of 100
electric Smarts in the UK,
and in 2012 production
versions will hit showrooms.
Lest Mercedes takes all the
credit, the Smarts design
was also in large part down
to the vision of Nicolas
Hayek, founder of Swatch
watches, who had a vision
of an affordable, fun car for
the masses. After an initial
agreement with Volkswagen
fell through, Hayek
approached Mercedes,
which saw the ideal
opportunity to progress its
earlier work with NAFA.
ABOVE To aid ingress
in tight parking spaces,
the doors slid forward
and the mirrors folded
in automatically
FAR LEFT: The angular
design has dated badly,
but its principles were
way ahead of their time
LEFT: Swatch input saw
the Eco Sprinter concept
appear in 1996, before
being rened to become
todays Smart Fortwo
Mercedes-Benz
NAFA
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MARCH 2012
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com March 2012
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
Join us on our visit to the dyno
gurus UK HQ to nd out why it
is a major player in the market
Aerodynamics
Is CFD blowing away wind tunnels?
Seven experts debate the future
Ford aims for new generations in new
markets with the EcoSport, the rst
One Ford car to be developed in South
America, and the rst to be built in India
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Could Quebecs new crash
test facility be the most
accurate in the world?
Transport Canada
Euro 6
The 2014 regulations are fast
approaching. Be prepared with
the latest technology
Froude Hofmann
Chris Biggs
The junior exec against which
all others are judged. The 2012
model features great advances
BMW 3 Series
The return of the facility test.
In this issue: can Germanys
ATP retain ve-star status?
ATP
Chevrolets global
vehicle line director
has taken big steps
to improve small cars
EcoSport
EcoSport
The NAFA study, while
not very warmly received
at the time, certainly did not
fall into oblivion. In fact, it
spawned one of the most
relevant cars of our time.
The principles of the NAFAs
design entered into the design
of the A-Class Mercedes-Benz,
the prototype of which debuted
in 1996, and it strongly
inuenced the Smart Fortwo,
introduced in 1997 as the smart
city coupe. The comparatively
high seating position, the low
waistline, and large glazed
surfaces made for an optimal
all-round view. NAFA showed
that small didnt have to mean
Smart thinking
spartan, and it featured
automatic transmission,
air-conditioning, and power
steering, all of which went
into the Smart. The only
fundamental changes were
that the car went from being
front-driven to rear-wheel-
drive, and volume production
necessitated conventional
doors rather than electric
sliding doors.
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A-2560 Berndorf, Austria
Phone: (+43)2672-800-0
Fax: (+43)2672-84176
band@berndorf.co.at
www.berndorf-band.at
Steel belts from Berndorf Band have
been used for automotive testing
applications for many years.
It began with tyre test belts, leading
to the construction of wide rolling
road belts for wind tunnel testing.
Speeds of almost 300 km/h and the
need for extremely accurate running
properties place exceptionally high
demands on steel belts.
Berndorf Band is the leader in the
development and manufacturing of
high speed belts. This results in
signicant advances in the quality and
performance of our products.
HEADQUARTERS: Brel & Kjr Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S DK-2850 Nrum Denmark
Telephone: +45 77 41 20 00 Fax: +45 45 80 14 05 www.bksv.com info@bksv.com
Local representatives and service organisations worldwide
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