‫ﺣﻠﻮل اﻟﺘﻤﺎرﯾﻦ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪:‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬

‫) ‪ 04‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ(‬

‫½‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫)‪HCOOH (aq ) / HCOO - (aq‬‬
‫) ‪H 3 O + (aq) / H 2 O(l‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺘﺎن اﻟﻨﺼﻔﯿﺘﺎن اﻟﻤﻮاﻓﻘﺘﺎن ﻟﮭﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪HCOOH (aq ) = HCOO - (aq ) + H + (aq‬‬

‫½‬

‫) ‪H 2 O (l ) + H + (aq ) = H 3O + (aq‬‬

‫¼‬

‫)‪HCOOH (aq ) + H 2 O(l ) = HCOO - (aq ) + H 3O + (aq‬‬

‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤل‪:‬‬

‫‪n( HCOOH ) = CV = 1,0 ´ 10 -2 ´ 10,0 ´ 10 -3 = 1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol‬‬

‫ﺟﺪول اﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﻜﯿﻤﯿﺎﺋﯿﺔ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪HCOO - (aq ) + H 3 O + ( aq‬‬

‫‪(aq ) +‬‬

‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬

‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬

‫‪1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬

‫‪1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol - x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫اﻹﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫اﻹﻧﺘﻘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬

‫‪1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol - x f‬‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬

‫ﯾﻨﺘﮭﻲ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﯾﻜﻮن‪:‬‬
‫‪.3‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻭل‪:‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‪:‬‬

‫= ) ‪H 2 O (l‬‬

‫‪1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪HCOOH‬‬

‫‪x max‬‬

‫=‬

‫¼‬

‫‪xf‬‬

‫‪= 10 - PH = 10 -2,9 = 1,3 ´ 10 -3 mol‬‬

‫] ‪[H O‬‬
‫‪+‬‬

‫‪f‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪. x f = [H 3O + ]´ V = 1,3 ´ 10 -3 ´ 10,0 ´ 10 -3 = 1,3 ´ 10 -5 mol‬‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋل ) ‪. (1,0 ´ 10 -4 mol‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﻫﻭ ﺇﺫﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺫﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪13o / o‬‬

‫‪1,3 ´ 10 -5‬‬
‫‪= 0,13‬‬
‫‪1,0 ´ 10 - 4‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪xf‬‬
‫‪x max‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

‫= ‪.t‬‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤل ﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫¼‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬اﻟﮭ ﺰاز ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺨﺎﻤﺩ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﺕ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺯﺍﺯ‪.‬‬
‫) ‪ 4,75‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬

‫‪.2‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻬﺯﺍﺯ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫‪m‬‬
‫‪k‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪T0 = 2p‬‬

‫‪T0 = 0,6 s‬‬

‫‪m‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫ﺠ‪.‬ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ‪:‬‬
‫× ‪Þ T02 = 4p 2‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫‪k‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪. k = 4p 2 × m2 = 4p 2 0,1702 = 18,6 N .m -1 :‬‬
‫‪T0‬‬
‫) ‪(0,6‬‬

‫‪.3‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ‪. X m = 2,0cm :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﻜﺫﻟﻙ‪:‬ﻟﻤﺎ ‪x = X m ، t = 0‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪X m = X m × cos j 0 Þ cos j 0 = 1 :‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪j 0 = 0 :‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﺯﺍﺯ‪m ×n 2 + k × x 2 :‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪te‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﺔ )ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺨﺎﻤﺩﻴﺔ(‪E = c :‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪E = k × X m2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫=‪E‬‬

‫‪= 3,72 ´ 10 -3 J‬‬

‫)‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫(‬

‫=‪E‬‬

‫ﺠ‪.‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺎل ‪ ، x = 0‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴﺭﻋﺘﻪ ﺃﻋﻅﻤﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺴﻡ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻤﻌﺩﻭﻤﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪2× E‬‬
‫‪m‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫= ‪m ×n 2 Þ n‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2 ´ 3,72 ´ 10 -3‬‬
‫‪» 0,21m.s -1 = 21cm.s -1‬‬
‫‪0,170‬‬

‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬
‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫‪T0 = 2p‬‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫‪´ 18,6 ´ 2,0 ´ 10 - 2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫½‬

‫¼‬

‫=‪E‬‬

‫¼‬

‫= ‪n‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪v m = x max ´ w‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪= 21cm.s‬‬

‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪n m » 0,21m.s‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ 3,25 ) :‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ(‬

‫‪ .1‬ﺘﻨﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﻴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪2L‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫= ‪D = 2 L = n × T0 Þ T0‬‬

‫‪l‬‬
‫‪Þ l =n ×T‬‬
‫‪T‬‬

‫‪.2‬‬

‫‪2L‬‬

‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺓ ‪. T0‬‬

‫½‬
‫½‬
‫½‬

‫= ‪n‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‪T0 = n × T :‬‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

‫‪ .5‬ﺘﻨﺘﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺒل ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬
‫ﺠﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ )‪ 04 .‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺜل ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺘﺭ ‪ u‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﻁﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ‪،‬‬
‫(‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻭﺼل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨﻠﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ ‪ A‬ﻭ ﺘﻭﺼل ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ ‪ B‬ﺒﺎﻷﺭﺽ)‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻁﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺸﺤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ )‪ (1‬ﻟﺒﻀﻌﺔ ﻟﺤﻅﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﻟﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ)‪ (0‬ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻹﻫﺘﺯﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺒﻁﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ )‪ (2‬ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭ‪.‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪2L‬‬
‫‪= n ×T‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪2L‬‬
‫‪n‬‬

‫=‪l‬‬

‫‪-3‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻔﺭﻍ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺤﻨﺔ‬
‫‪dq‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫=‪i‬‬

‫‪q‬‬

‫ﻟﻠﺒﻭﺱ ‪ ، A‬ﻭ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻁ ‪A‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﺒﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﻜﺘﺏ‪u AB + u BD + u DA = 0 :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺃﻭﻡ ﺒﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‪u DA = R × i , u BD = R × i :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ‪ ، u AB = u :‬ﺇﺫﻥ‪u + 2 R ×i = 0 :‬‬
‫‪dq‬‬
‫‪du‬‬
‫‪=C‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ‪.t = 2R × C :‬‬

‫=‪i‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪du‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪+‬‬
‫‪u=0‬‬
‫‪dt 2 RC‬‬

‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﻁ ‪D‬‬

‫ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫×‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺱ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻅﺔ ‪. t = t‬‬
‫ﻓﻨﻘﺭﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ‪t » 22m.s :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ‬

‫‪t‬‬
‫‪2R‬‬

‫= ‪t = 2R × C Þ C‬‬

‫‪22 ´ 10 -3‬‬
‫‪= 2,2 ´ 10 -6 F = 2,2mF‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫‪2 ´ 5 ´ 10‬‬

‫=‪C‬‬

‫½‬
‫½‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬
‫¼‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ)‪04‬ﻧﻘﺎﻁ(‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﺤﻞ‬
‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﯿﺎ‪v 0 = 2v 1 :‬‬
‫‪eq‬‬

‫½‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ‪ -1-‬ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ‪:‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪= 20cm‬‬

‫‪eq‬‬

‫‪v1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻨﻪ‬

‫‪v 0 = 2 ´ 20 = 40cm 3‬‬

‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪c a v a = cb vb‬‬
‫‪10 ´ 40‬‬
‫‪= 0,02mol / l‬‬
‫‪20‬‬

‫= ‪cb‬‬

‫¼‬

‫]‪[B‬‬
‫] ‪[A -‬‬
‫]‪[B‬‬
‫ ‪pKa = pH - Log‬‬‫] ‪[A‬‬
‫]‪[B‬‬
‫‪v0 = 0cm 3 , - = 5‬‬
‫] ‪[A‬‬
‫‪pKa = 10,8‬‬
‫‪pH = pKa + Log‬‬

‫ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟـ ‪: Pka‬‬

‫ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟﺤﺎدث‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺎ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺅ ‪v = 40cm3 , pH = 5,8 :‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔﺍﻟـ ‪: pka‬ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ‪ -2-‬ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺅ‪:‬‬
‫‪NH 3 + H 3O + = NH 4+ + H 2O‬‬

‫‪Pka = 10,8‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫½‬
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‫¼‬
‫½‬
‫½‬
‫½‬
‫½‬

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