‫ﺣﻠﻮل اﻟﺘﻤﺎرﯾﻦ‬

‫اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻭل )‪ 2.5‬ﻨﻘﻁﺔ(‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺘﺎن اﻟﻨﺼﻔﯿﺘﺎن اﻟﻤﻮاﻓﻘﺘﺎن ﻟﮭﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪CH 3COOH ( aq ) = CH 3COO - ( aq ) + H + (aq‬‬
‫) ‪HCOOH ( aq ) = HCOO - ( aq ) + H + (aq‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻨﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﻙ ﺸﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻴﺜﺎﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗﺎ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻔﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻨﻴﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‬‫) ‪CH 3 COO (aq ) + HCOOH (aq ) = HCOO - (aq ) + CH 3COOH (aq‬‬

‫‪HCOOH / HCOO - ; CH 3COOH / CH 3COO -‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ‪:‬‬
‫‪10- pka1‬‬
‫‪10- pka2‬‬

‫=‬

‫)‬

‫)‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫(‬

‫‪Ka1 HCOOH / HCOO‬‬

‫(‬

‫ ‪Ka2 CH 3COOH / CH 3COO‬‬‫‪10-3,8‬‬
‫‪= 7,9‬‬
‫‪10-4,7‬‬

‫=‪K‬‬

‫½‬

‫¼‬

‫=‪K‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻜﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪[HCOO ]i × [CH 3 COOH ]i‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪[CH 3COO - ]i × [HCOOH ]i‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫¼‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ö‬‬
‫÷÷‬
‫‪ø =1‬‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫÷÷‬
‫‪ø‬‬

‫‪ö æ 2,0 ´ 10 - 2‬‬
‫‪÷÷ × çç‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪ø è‬‬
‫‪ö æ 2,0 ´ 10 - 2‬‬
‫‪÷÷ × çç‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪ø è‬‬

‫‪æ 2,0 ´ 10 - 2‬‬
‫‪çç‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪è‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪æ 2,0 ´ 10 - 2‬‬
‫‪çç‬‬
‫‪V‬‬
‫‪è‬‬

‫‪Qr ,i‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪3,5 ):‬ﻨﻘﻁﺔ(‬
‫‪.1‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻟﺩ‪:‬‬
‫‪0 + u AB + R × i - E = 0 Þ u AB + R × i = E‬‬
‫‪dq‬‬
‫‪du‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻥ‪i = A = C × AB :‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪du‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪u AB + RC × AB = E :‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫ﻭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‪t = RC :‬‬
‫‪du‬‬
‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‪u AB + t × AB = E :‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪Qr ,i‬‬

‫‪ : Qr ,i < K .5‬ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻜﺴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻨﺤﻭ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﻭ ﻴﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﻴﺘﺸﻜل ﺤﻤﺽ ﺍﻹﻴﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪u PA + u AB + u BM + u MP = 0‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪K‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬

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‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ‪ t = RC‬ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﺎ ﻤﻘﺩ‪‬ﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻭﻟﻁ ﻜﺎﻟﻁﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺃﻭﻡ ‪ ، U = R × I‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ‪. [R ] = [U ]× [I ]-1 :‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ ﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ‪ ، i = C × du‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ‪. [C ] = [I ] × [T ]× [U ]-1 :‬‬‫‪dt‬‬
‫] ‪[RC ] = [R] × [C ] = [T‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺇﺫﻥ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟﺠﺩﺍﺀ ‪ t = RC‬ﻟﻪ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫‪t‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫) ‪u AB = E (1 - e t‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪t‬‬
‫‬‫‪t‬‬

‫‪E‬‬
‫‪×e‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪t‬‬
‫‬‫‪t‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪du AB‬‬
‫‪E‬‬
‫‪= 0+ ×e‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ‪:‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫‬‫‪÷ + E - E ×e t = E‬‬
‫÷‬
‫‪ø‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪æ E -t‬‬
‫‪t × çç × e t‬‬
‫‪èt‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪ u AB = E (1 - e t ) :‬ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﺤل ﻟﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪.3‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﺎ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬
‫)‬

‫‪U A B (V‬‬
‫‪H‬‬

‫‪E‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪uH = E‬‬
‫‪tH = t = R × C‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪u H = 100V‬‬

‫‪t H = 5,0 ´ 10 -3 s‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪t = R ×C‬‬

‫) ‪t (s‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﻤﻥ‬
‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ‪u AB = 0 : t = 0‬‬‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ‪u AB = 0,63E = 63V : t1 = t‬‬‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ‪u AB = 0,993E = 99,3V : t 2 = 5t‬‬‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ‪ u AB : t ® ¥‬ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻨﺤﻭ ‪. E = 100V‬‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺨﻼل ﺯﻤﻥ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺕ ‪ t = RC‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺸﺤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 63%‬ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺨﻼل ﺯﻤﻥ ‪ ، t = 5t‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺸﺤﻨﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‪ 99%‬ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ) ‪u AB = E (1 - e t‬‬

‫¼‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ )‪ 4‬ﻨﻘﺎﻁ( ‪:‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‬‫‪æ‬‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫÷ ‪0 ,132‬‬
‫‪ç‬‬
‫‪v(t ) = 1,14 × 1 - e‬‬
‫‪.1‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ç‬‬
‫÷‬
‫‪è‬‬
‫‪ø‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‪= 1,14 :‬‬
‫= ‪.a‬‬
‫‪0,132 a‬‬

‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬

‫‪b‬‬
‫) ‪x(t ) = × (1 - e -at‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

‫½‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬

‫‪t‬‬
‫‬‫‪æ‬‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫÷ ‪ç1 - e 0,132‬‬
‫‪ç‬‬
‫÷‬
‫‪è‬‬
‫‪ø‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻪ ﺒﻌﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬

‫‪t‬‬
‫‬‫‪æ‬‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫÷ ‪0 ,132‬‬
‫‪ç‬‬
‫‪v(t ) = 1,14 × 1 - e‬‬
‫‪ç‬‬
‫÷‬
‫‪è‬‬
‫‪ø‬‬

‫‪b‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫‪m.s -1‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﻫﻲ ﺤل ﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺘﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ‪:‬‬
‫¼‬

‫‪dx‬‬
‫‪+a × x = b‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪dv‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ‪ ، x Û v‬ﺃﻱ‪+ a × v = b :‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬
‫‪b‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ‪b = 1,14a‬‬
‫ﻟﻜﻥ‪= 1,14 a = 7,58 :‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪b = 1,14 ´ 7,58 = 8,64 :‬‬

‫ﺒﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ‪b a‬‬

‫ﺒﻘﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻨﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﺎﺓ ‪+ 7,58v = 8,64‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪.2‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻭﺴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﻔﺘﺭﻀﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﻴﻠﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪r‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪f‬‬
‫ ﺍﻟﺜﻘل ‪ ، P = m × g‬ﻤﻨﺤﺎﻫﺎ ﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻔل‪.‬‬‫‪r‬‬
‫‪p‬‬
‫ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺨﻤﻴﺩﺱ ‪ ، p‬ﻤﻨﺤﺎﻫﺎ ﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬‫ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ‪ ، f‬ﻤﻨﺤﺎﻫﺎ ﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪.‬‬‫‪r‬‬
‫‪P‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺒﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻹﺴﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻔل‪:‬‬
‫‪.3‬ﺃ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻋﻥ ‪ f‬ﻭ ‪ p‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ‪:‬‬
‫‪= P + f + p = m × aG‬‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫‪ext‬‬

‫‪åF‬‬
‫‪P - f -p = m×a‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬

‫× ‪m × g - k × v - r ×V × g = m‬‬
‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫= ‪g × ( m - r ×V ) - k × v‬‬

‫ﻭ ﺒﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﻁﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬
‫‪ö‬‬
‫‪÷ .g‬‬
‫‪ø‬‬

‫ﻋﻠﻰ ‪m‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﻴﻨﺘﺞ‪:‬‬

‫‪dv k‬‬
‫‪æ r ×V‬‬
‫ ‪+ × v = ç1‬‬‫‪dt m‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫‪è‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ ، dx + a × x = b‬ﻨﺠﺩ‪:‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫‪ö‬‬
‫‪÷ .g‬‬
‫‪ø‬‬

‫‪æ r ×V‬‬
‫ ‪b = ç1‬‬‫‪m‬‬
‫‪è‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺨﻤﻴﺩﺱ‬

‫ﻭ‬

‫=‪a‬‬

‫ﻤﻌﺩﻭﻤﺔ ‪p = 0‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪ ، b = æç1 - 0 ö÷.g :‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪mø‬‬

‫‪k‬‬
‫‪m‬‬

‫‪è‬‬

‫ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻀﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪b=g‬‬

‫‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪:‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻨﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪r ×V = 0‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪b = 9,80 m.s -2‬‬

‫‪dv‬‬
‫‪+ 7,58 v = 8, 64‬‬
‫‪dt‬‬

‫ﺃﻥ‬

‫‪b = 8, 64 m.s -2‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪b ¹ g ¹ 9,80m.s ²‬‬

‫¼‬

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‫ﻭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺨﻤﻴﺩﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺸﺩﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪p = m × (g - b ) = 3,7 ´ 10 -2 N‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ )‪ 2‬ﻧﻘﻄﺔ( ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻭﺸﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺠﻭل‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ‪5T = 100 ms :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‪. T = 20 ms :‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻟﻪ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﻥ‪T = T0 = 2p × L × C :‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‪T ² = 4p ² × L × C :‬‬
‫ﻭ ﻤﻨﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪T²‬‬
‫‪4p ² × L‬‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

‫=‪C‬‬

‫‪( 20 ´10 ) ² = 10 ´10‬‬
‫=‪C‬‬

‫½‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪F = 10m F‬‬

‫‪-6‬‬

‫‪4 ´ 10 ´1, 0‬‬

‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺘﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺃﻋﻁﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻨﻊ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‪ 04).‬ﻨﻘﺎﻁ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻙ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺭ ‪ 2,0mm‬ﻴﻭﻗﻑ ﺤﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺯﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺴﻠﻙ ﻗﻁﺭﻩ ‪ ، 0,080mm‬ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﻌﺭﺍﺝ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺼل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺸﻕ ﻋﺭﻀﻪ ‪. a‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻘﻊ ﻀﻭﺌﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻙ ﻭ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﺸﺩﺓ ﺇﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻊ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺎﻓﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺸﺔ‪.‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

‫‪q‬‬
‫‪l‬‬

‫½‬

‫‪D‬‬

‫‪-2‬‬

‫‪l‬‬
‫ﺃ‪/‬ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ a l q‬ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ‪ q‬ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‪: tan q » q (rad ) ،‬‬
‫‪l‬‬
‫=‪q‬‬
‫‪2D‬‬
‫‪2D × l‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ‪:‬‬
‫=‪l‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫=‪q‬‬

‫½‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

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‫‪-3‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩﻱ‪:‬‬

‫‪a ×l‬‬
‫‪2D‬‬

‫¼‬

‫=‪l‬‬

‫‪0,080 ´ 10 -3 ´ 6,5 ´ 10 -2‬‬
‫=‪l‬‬
‫‪= 6,34 ´ 10 -7 m‬‬
‫‪2 ´ 4,10‬‬

‫‪l = 6,34 ´ 10 -7 m = 0,634 mm‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﺏ‪ /‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻁﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺔ ‪ l‬ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪0,079 ´ 10 -3 ´ 6, 4 ´ 10 -2‬‬
‫‪0,081 ´ 10 -3 ´ 6,6 ´ 10 -2‬‬
‫<‪<l‬‬
‫‪2 ´ 4,15‬‬
‫‪2 ´ 4,05‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ‪:‬‬

‫‪0,61mm < l < 0,66mm‬‬

‫½‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺨﺫﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻹﺭﺘﻴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻨﻊ ) ‪. (0,633mm‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪0,02‬‬
‫‪´ 100 = 3%‬‬
‫‪0,634‬‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‪04).‬ﻧﻘﺎط(‪:‬‬
‫‪ /1-I‬ﻣﻌﺎدﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻨﻲ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪2 H 2 O2 (aq ) ® 2 H 2 O(l ) + O2 ( g‬‬

‫¼‬

‫¼‬

‫‪ /2‬ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ‪:‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪= 0.45mol‬‬
‫‪22,4‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪VO2‬‬
‫‪Vm‬‬

‫= ) ‪n(O2‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪ /3‬ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬

‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪n‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫‪2x‬‬

‫‪n - 2x‬‬

‫‪x‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬

‫) ‪n(O2‬‬

‫) ‪2n(O2‬‬

‫) ‪n - 2n ( O2‬‬

‫) ‪xmax = n (O2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫) ‪O2 ( g‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫) ‪2 H 2O (l‬‬

‫®‬

‫)‪2 H 2O2 (aq‬‬

‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻨﻲ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻧﻄﻼق ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪n( H O ) = 2n ( O2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫¼‬

‫¼‬

‫‪n( H 2O2 ) = 2 ´ 0, 45 = 0, 9 mol‬‬

‫‪ /4‬ﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ اﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1 L‬ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻨﻲ‪ ،‬إذن‪:‬‬

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‫‪0,9‬‬
‫‪= 0,9 mol.L-1‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ -II‬ﺃ‪/‬‬

‫)‬

‫=‬

‫) ‪n ( H 2O2‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫=‪C‬‬

‫(‬

‫‪2 ´ MnO4- + 8H + + 5e - = 2Mn 2 + + 4 H 2 O‬‬

‫)‬

‫(‬

‫ ‪5 ´ H 2 O2 = O2 + 2 H + + 2e‬‬‫‪2MnO4- + 5 H 2 O2 + 6 H + ® 2Mn 2 + + 5O2 + 8 H 2 O‬‬

‫ﺏ‪/‬‬
‫ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻓﺅ ‪:‬‬
‫‪5 ´ C 0 ´ V0 = 2 ´ C R ´ VR‬‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫½‬

‫‪5 ´ C 0 ´ V0‬‬
‫‪2 ´ VR‬‬

‫= ‪CR‬‬

‫¼‬

‫‪5 ´ 0,20 ´ 17,9‬‬
‫‪» 0,9mol.L-1‬‬
‫‪2 ´ 10,0‬‬

‫= ‪CR‬‬

‫¼‬

‫ﺠـ‪/‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻠﻭل اﻟﻤﺎء اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻨﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﯾﻨﺒﻐﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪-III‬ﺃ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬
‫ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺩﻟﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﺗﻔﻜﻚ اﻟﻤﺎء اﻷﻛﺴﺠﯿﻨﻲ ﺑﻄﻲء‪.‬‬
‫ب‪ /‬ﯾﻨﺼﺢ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ اﻟﻘﺎرورة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻜﺎن ﺑﺎرد ﻷن ﺧﻔﺾ درﺟﺔ اﻟﺤﺮارة ﯾﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ أﻛﺜﺮ ﺑﻂء‪.‬‬

‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬
‫¼‬

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