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INDEX

A.C. system 443


Acoustic gauge 444
Acoustoelasticity 456
Active gauge 436, 440, 442, 443
Allowable stresses 308
Area
first moment of 67
second moment of 62, 68
Auto frettage 233
Axis neutral 66
Balanced circuit 437
Balanced section 72
Beams
bending stress in 64
built-in 140-147
cantilever 97, 98, 101, 109, 110
continuous 115
curved 284
shear stress in 154166
circular 66
moment 41-56
of beams 62-79
plus direct stress 74
plus torsion 187
simple theory of 64
Bending
Birefringence 446
Boundary stress 429
Brittle materials
Built-in beams 140-147
Bulk modulus 198. 202
8, 402, 404, 412
Calibration 433
Capacitance gauge 444
Carriage spring 309
Carrier frequency system 444
Castigliano 255, 266, 269, 303
Centroid 64, 70
Circular shafts 176-190
Clapeyrons three-moment equation 1 15
Close-coiled spring 299
Combined modulus 29
Complementary energy 257
Complex strain 361
Complex stress 326
Composite beam 70
Compound bars 27
Compound beams 70
Compound shafts 182-184
Compound tubes 224
Concrete 71
reinforced 71
Concrete columns 76, 77
Constants, elastic 3, 9, 361, 363, 267
Continuous beams 11 5
Contraflexure 48
Crack detection 433
Creep 15, 432
Criterion of failure 401
Critical section 72
Crossed set-up 446
Cross-sensitivity 437
Curvature, radius of 62
Cylinders
compound 224
plastic yielding 223
thick 215
thin 198
Dark field 446
D.C. system 443
De Forrest 432
Deflections
bending 92-123
impact 264
shear 269
temperature effects 119
Delta rosette 382
Deviatoric stress 263
Dilatational stresses 386
Direct integration method 97
Distortion energy 385
Distortional stresses 386
Double cantilever 146
Double integration method 89
Ductile materials 8, 14, 402, 404, 41 1
Ductility 4, 8
Dummy gauge 436, 438
Dye-etchant 433
Dynamic strain 434
Eccentric loading 74
Economic section 73
Elastic constants 361, 367
Elastic limit 4
Elastic modulus 3
Elasticity 3
Elongation 8
Encastred (encastre) beams 14&147
Endurance limit 17
Energy method 112
Equivalent modulus 29
Equivalent moment 187
Equivalent torque 187, 188
xxv
XXVl
Index
Factor
load 13, 414
of safety 12
Failure envelope 407
Failure modes 416
Failure theories 401
Fatigue 17
Finite difference method 118
Fixed-ended beams 140-147
Fixing moment diagram
Flitched beam 70
Foil gauge 435, 437
Force fits 229
Free length 30-34
Free-moment diagram 115, 142, 143
Fringe order 449, 450
Fringe pattern 445456
Fringe value 449, 450
Frozen stress technique 454
Full bridge circuit 436
Gauge
115, 142, 143
acoustic 444
electric resistance 433-444
strain 43-4
Gauge factor 436
Graphical procedure
stress 332
thick cylinders 223
Grid technique 456
Griffith 404
Guest 401
Haigh 401
Half bridge 436
Helical spring
close-coiled 299
open-coiled 301
Hogging of beams 42
Hollow shafts 182
Holography 456
Hookes law 3
Hydrostatic stress 386
Hydrostatic stress line 413
Hysteresis loop 6
Impact loads and stresses 264
Inclined loads 52
Increasing loads 100
Inductance gauge 444
Inflexion, point of 48, 146
Interference 445, 448
Interference allowance 226
Isochromatic 449
Isoclinic 452
J oint efficiency 205
Lame line 223
Lame theory 217
Lateral restraint 366
Leaf spring 309
Light field 446
Limit of proportionality 4
Load
alternating 1
dead 1
fatigue 1
fluctuating 1
impact I , 265
line 411
live 1
shock 1
static 1
Load factor 13
Macaulays method 102
Masonry columns 76
Material fringe value 450
Maximum principal strain 361-387, 404
Maximum principal stress 330-342, 403
Maximum shear plane 331
Maximum shear stress 329, 331, 403
Maxwell failure theory 401, 404
Maxwell reciprocal displacement 112
McClintock method 378
Modulus
bulk 198, 203, 363
combined 29
elasticity 3
equivalent 29
rigidity 12, 13
section 62
Youngs 3
Modular ratio 71
Mohrs modified shear stress theory 404
Mohrs strain circle 372
Mohrs stress circle 332, 335
Mohrs theory for slope and deflection
Moirt 456
Moment
108, 140, 141
bending 41-56, 62-79
fixing 115, 142, 143
of area 66, 68
of resistance 73
Moments, equation of three 115
Monochromatic light 449
Movement of supports 146
Necking 5
Neutral axis 64, 66
Neutral surface 67
Null balance 437
Oblique plane
strain on 370
stress on 326
Octahedral shear stress 404
Open-coiled springs 301
Parallel axis theorem 70
Parallel connection of shafts 183
Parallel set-up 446
Percentage elongation 8
Percentage reduction in area 8
Permanent set 5
I d e x
xxvii
Photoelastic coating 454
Photoelasticity 445
reflection 454
transmission 445
Piezo-resistive gauge 444
Plane polarisation 446
Plastic deformation 5
Pneumatic gauge 444
Poisson's ratio 9-1 1
Polar section modulus 181
Polar second moment of area
Polariscope 446
Polariser 446
Pole point 54
Principal planes 331
Principal strain 362, 372
Principal stress 33 1
Principle of superposition 34, 52, 112
Proof load 31 1
Proof stress 5
Proof stress (springs) 3 12
Proportionality, limit of 4
Propped cantilever 130
Pure shear 327
Quarter bridge 436
Quarter-wave plates 451, 452
Rankine 401
Rectangular rosette 382
Reflection polariscope 454
Reflective coating 454
Relation between M, Q, and w 94
Replica technique 456
Resilience 257
179
modulus of 254
proof 254, 257
Resistivity 435
Rosette strain gauge analysis
Ruge and Simmons 435
Safety factor 13, 414, 430
Sagging 42
Saint-Venant 401
Second moment of area 66, 68
Semi-conductor gauges 444
Senarment 45
Series-connected shafts 182
Shafts, torsion of 176190
Shear
complementary 155, 327
double 12
378, 381
Shear centre 165
Shear deflection 269
Shear distribution 156
Shear force 11, 41-56, 154-166
Shear strain 11, 180, 371
Shear strain energy 259, 385
Shear stress 11, 180, 326
in bending 77, 154
in torsion 176
Shells, thin 202-206
Shrinkage allowance 226
Shrink-fit cylinders 224. 226
Specific resistance 435
Spiral spring 3 I4
Spring
carriage 309
close-coiled 299
helical 299
in parallel 306
in series 305
open-coiled 301
quarter-elliptic 3 12
semi-elliptic 309
spiral 317
stiffness 306
Stern 598
Stiffness of springs 306
Strain
complex 361
diametral 200
direct 2
initial 16
lateral 9
micro 2
principal 362, 372
rosette 378, 381
shear I I , 180, 371
threshold 43 1
volumetric 20 I , 202
Strain circle 372
Strain energy
dilatational 262
distortional 263
in bending 260
in curved members 284
in direct stress 257
in shear 263
in springs 302, 304
in torsion 184, 261
shear 263, 385
total 385
volumetric 263, 385
Strain gauge 378, 434
Strength, tensile 5
Stress
bending 65-79
boundary 449
circumferential 199
complementary shear 155, 237
complex 326
deviatoric 263
direct 2
hoop 199,202
hydrostatic 386
longitudinal 199
proof 5, 312
radial 198
separation 454
shear 11. 180, 326
spherical 386
three-dimensional 338
two-dimensional I O, 326
ultimate tensile 5
volumetric 363
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Index
working 12
yield 4, 401
Stress concentration 14, 413, 515
Stress concentration factor 14
Stress freezing technique 454
Stress trajectory 453
Stresscoat 432
Superposition, principle of 34, 52, 112
Tapered shaft 186
Tardy compensaion 451
Temperature compensation 438
Temperature stresses 3G34, 23 1, 439
Temporary birefringence 446
Tensile strength 5
Tensile test 4
Theory of failure 401417
Thermal stresses 231
Thick cylinders 215-251
Thin cylinders 198-207
Threshold strain 43 1
Thrust diagram 53
Torsion
of shafts 176
Torsional rigidity 182
Toughness 14
Transverse sensitivity 437
Tresca theory 401, 403, 412
Twist, angle of 176190
Unbalanced bridge 437
Unit load method 268
Volume change 201, 203, 364, 365
Volumetric strain 363, 369
Volumetric strain energy 263, 385
von Mises theory 401, 404
Wheatstone bridge 436
Wind-up angle 301, 305
Wire gauge 435
Wire-wound thick cylinder 194
Wire-wound thin cylinder 206
X-rays 456
Yield criteria 401
Yield loci
two-dimensional 406
three-dimensional 412
Yield point 5
Yield stress 4, 401
Yield theories 401417
Youngs modulus 3, 361