2014 Drug Policy Reform

Congressional Voter Guide

October 2014
Prepared By: Drug Policy Action
925 15
th
Street, NW
2
nd
Floor
Washington, D.C. 20005
202.683.2030


www.drugpolicyaction.org


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In recent years there has been a major political
shift in Congress in favor of reforming U.S. drug
laws and letting states set their own marijuana
policies. The 113
th
Congress featured a record
number of members of Congress in the House
introducing a record number of drug policy
reform bills and amendments that won bipartisan
support.

The U.S. House approved numerous
amendments barring federal interference in state
efforts to reform marijuana laws. Reducing the
number of people behind bars in the U.S. for drug
law violations has also become a major focus on
Capitol Hill. Support for the failed war on drugs is
clearly eroding.

This voter guide profiles seven floor votes in the
U.S. House of Representati ves. The results show
how far drug policy reform has come in Congress
and how the political discourse has changed in
favor of ending the war on drugs.




Introduction

It has been six years since Drug Policy Action released
its last congressional voter guide in 2008 and measured
support in the U.S. House of Representatives for drug
policy reform. In the two years of congressional work
examined by our 2008 voter guide, U.S. Representatives
were recorded on only four drug-related votes, and not a
single Representative voted in favor of reform every
time.

The intervening years have seen a profound shift in
favor of drug policy reform efforts and the emergence
of a bipartisan majority of U.S. Representatives working
in support of change.

 2014 saw the first time ever that the U.S. House of
Representatives has voted in favor of major
marijuana law reform. In historic votes on issues
ranging from whether to bar the Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA) from undermining state
medical marijuana laws to allowing banks to accept
deposits from marijuana businesses, a clear bipartisan
consensus favored letting states set their own
marijuana policies and move forward with industrial
hemp cultivation.

 For the first time ever in the history of drug policy
reform efforts in Congress, a working bipartisan
majority of the U.S. House of Representatives is on
record supporting drug policy reform. 243
Representatives (nearly 56 percent of the entire U.S.
House) have earned a C or better in this year’s voter
guide for their voting record on drug policy reform.
179 Democrats joined 64 Republicans in supporting
at least three of the floor votes profiled in this guide.
This momentum far out shadows the congressional
support for drug policy reform chronicled in Drug
Policy Action’s 2008 voter guide.

 49 Representatives have earned an A+ in Drug
Policy Action’s 2014 voter guide for voting in favor
of reform on all seven floor amendments offered on
the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives. In
contrast, Drug Policy Action’s 2008 voter guide
could not name a single Representative who voted in
favor of reform every time.

 In 2008, 165 Representatives voted in support of a
floor amendment barring the DEA from spending
any federal funds to undermine state medical
marijuana laws, not enough to win. In 2014, 219
Representatives voted in support of a similar
amendment (House Vote 258 – see details on page

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seven) offered by six Republicans and six Democrats
and the amendment passed.

 Over the past two years bipartisan support has
emerged for reforming mandatory minimum
sentencing for drug law violations and letting people
out of federal prison early. This builds on bipartisan
legislation that Congress passed in 2010 reducing
crack cocaine sentences.

The past two years have featured numerous decisive
steps by congressional lawmakers and officials in the
Obama administration towards advancing drug policy
reform and protecting states from federal interference
that would otherwise undermine implementation of drug
policy reforms by state and local officials across the
nation. The following timeline highlights several of these
decisive steps.

 February 2013: Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR)
and Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO) establish the
Sensible Drug Policy Working Group to serve as a
forum for members of Congress to strategize and
collaborate on drug policy reform legislation.

 June 2013: the U.S. House approves a bipartisan
amendment to allow limited cultivation of industrial
hemp within the United States for academic or
agricultural research purposes in states that allow it.

 August 2013: momentum for federal criminal justice
reform accelerates when Attorney General Eric
Holder announces major federal sentencing policy
changes, including dropping the use of mandatory
minimum sentencing in certain drug cases, and
working with Congress to pass bipartisan sentencing
reform.

 August 2013: U.S. Department of Justice officials
announce that it will not challenge state marijuana
laws, thus giving a limited “green light” to states like
Washington and Colorado to pursue legalization.
The Department of Justice issues a directive to
federal prosecutors instructing them not to interfere
with state marijuana laws – as long as a number of
stipulations are adhered to, such as preventing
distribution to minors.

 September 2013: the U.S. Senate Judiciary
Committee holds a historic hearing on the conflict
between state and federal marijuana laws that
features a reasoned discussion among Senators and
government officials on the implementation of state
marijuana legalization, underscoring the fact that
marijuana legalization had gone from third-rail topic
to thoroughly mainstream.

 February 2014: the Obama Administration
announces new guidelines giving banks more leeway
to provide financial services to state-licensed
marijuana businesses.

 March 2014: the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee
takes an historic step in passing the Smarter
Sentencing Act, bipartisan sentencing reform
legislation that represents the biggest overhaul in
federal drug sentencing in decades.

 April 2014: the Department of Justice announces
that clemency and pardon guidelines will be
expanded so that they apply to more people
incarcerated under a drug mandatory minimum
sentence.

 May 2014: the U.S. House approves a bipartisan
amendment prohibiting the DEA from interfering
with state hemp production laws. The U.S. House
also approves a bipartisan amendment prohibiting
the DEA from interfering with state hemp research
programs. One month later, in June 2014, the Senate
Appropriations Committee approves a similar hemp
amendment.

 May 2014: 219 members of the House pass a
bipartisan amendment prohibiting the DEA from
undermining medical marijuana laws in twenty-three
states, as well as eleven additional states that regulate
CBD oils. Senator Rand Paul (R-KY) and Senator
Cory Booker (D-NJ) introduced a similar
amendment in the Senate but the underlying
appropriations bill never made it to the floor due to
senate dysfunction so a vote on the amendment was
never held.

 July 2014: the U.S. House passes a bipartisan
amendment preventing the Treasury Department
from spending any funding to penalize financial
institutions that provide services to marijuana
businesses that are legal under state law.
Concurrently, the House rejects another amendment
barring the Treasury Department from implementing
guidance to ease access to banks by marijuana
businesses.






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About Drug Policy Action

Drug Policy Action is a not-for-profit, nonpartisan
501(c)4 organization dedicated to promoting alternatives
to the war on drugs that reduce the harms of both drug
use and drug prohibition. On Capitol Hill, in the media,
and in communities across the country, Drug Policy
Action supports efforts to reform drug laws, reduce
stigma and discrimination against people who use drugs.
Drug Policy Action’s congressional priorities include:

 Eliminating mandatory minimum sentencing
and supporting other incremental reforms to
drug sentencing
 Opposing measures that increase existing drug
sentences or criminalize more drugs
 Cutting wasteful drug war spending and
shifting the focus of the federal drug budget
from failed supply-side programs to cost-
effective demand and harm reduction
strategies.
 Prohibiting the federal government from
undermining state marijuana reform laws and
advancing legislation allowing states to reform
their drug policies without federal interference.
 Eliminating collateral sanctions associated with
drug law convictions
 Removing barriers to drug treatment
 Implementing policies that reduce drug
overdoses and the spread of HIV/AIDS and
hepatitis C


About the 2014 Voter Guide

The 2014 Drug Policy Reform Congressional Voting
Guide is a nonpartisan tool for gauging members of
Congress on their commitment to reforming failed U.S.
drug policies. This guide is designed to educate voters on
which members of Congress support drug policy reform
and which do not. It covers key drug policy votes in the
U.S. House of Representatives during 2013 and 2014 (the
113
th
Congress).

This guide has four limitations, however. First, it only
covers recorded floor votes that Drug Policy Action
communicated its position to U.S. Representatives prior
to the vote on which every U.S. Representative had an
opportunity to participate in (committee votes are
excluded). Secondly, because most bills are never called
up for a vote, this guide is limited to what Congress
decides to vote on. It does, however, include a helpful
overview of the most important drug policy reform bills
in Congress. Thirdly, this guide only covers the U.S.
House of Representatives because of the lack of
meaningful or recorded drug-related floor votes in the
U.S. Senate in 2013 and 2014. Finally, this guide covers all
U.S. House Representatives who served during the 113
th

Congress. Some Representatives who are listed are not
running for re-election. This guide does not provide
information about candidates running against incumbents
or candidates running for a vacant congressional seat.
Most important to this survey is how U.S.
Representatives voted on the following seven floor votes:

1. House Vote 269. An amendment to H.R. 1947
that would have amended the federal Controlled
Substances Act to allow colleges and universities
to grow and cultivate industrial hemp in states
where it is already legal without fear of federal
interference. (Drug Policy Action supported the
amendment).

2. House Vote 250. An amendment to H.R. 4660
that would have cut the Drug Enforcement
Administration’s budget by $35 million. (Drug
Policy Action supported the amendment).

3. House Vote 257. An amendment to H.R. 4660
that would have barred the U.S. Justice
Department and the Drug Enforcement
Administration from spending any funding to
undermine state laws that allow hemp
cultivation. (Drug Policy Action supported the
amendment).

4. House Vote 258. An amendment to H.R. 4660
that would have barred the U.S. Justice
Department and the Drug Enforcement
Administration from spending any funding to
undermine state medical marijuana laws. (Drug
Policy Action supported the amendment).

5. House Vote 260. An amendment to H.R. 4660
that would have barred the DEA from blocking
implementation of a federal law that allows
hemp cultivation for research purposes in states
that allow it. (Drug Policy Action supported the
amendment).

6. House Vote 415. An amendment to H.R. 5016
that would have prevented the U.S. Justice and
Treasury Department from implementing their
guidance to banks and other financial
institutions on how they can interact with
marijuana businesses that are licensed under
state law. (Drug Policy Action opposed the
amendment).

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7. House Vote 418. An amendment to H.R. 5016
that would have barred the U.S. Treasury
Department from spending any funding to
penalize financial institutions that provide
services to marijuana businesses that are legal
under state law. (Drug Policy Action supported
the amendment).


Drug Policy Reform Bills in Congress

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives
introduced dozens of drug policy related bills during the
two years – 2013 and 2014 – of the 113
th
Congress. Five
bills stand out.

Respect State Marijuana Laws Act
H.R. 1523

Introduced by Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-48
th
/CA),
Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN), Rep. Don Young (R-
AL/AK), Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO), Rep. Justin
Amash (R-3
rd
/MI), and Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-
3
rd
/OR).

H.R. 1523 would exempt individuals acting in
compliance with state marijuana laws from federal arrest
and prosecution in states that have reformed their
marijuana laws. This bipartisan legislation keeps the
federal government out of the business of criminalizing
marijuana activities in states that do not want it to be
criminal.

Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act
H.R. 499

Introduced by Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO), Rep. Earl
Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR), Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN),
Barbara Lee (D-13
th
/CA), Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-
9
th
/IL), Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-10
th
/NY), Rep. Jared
Huffman (D-2
nd
/CA), Rep. Michael Honda (D-
17
th
/CA), Rep. James Moran (D-8
th
/VA) and Rep.
Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-AL/DC)


H.R. 499 would end federal marijuana prohibition and
set up a federal regulatory process – similar to the one
for alcohol – for states that tax and regulate marijuana
sales.

States' Medical Marijuana Patient Protection Act
H.R. 689

Introduced by Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR), Rep.
Dana Rohrabacher (R-48
th
/CA), Rep. Jared Polis (D-
2
nd
/CO), Rep. Barbara Lee (D-13
th
/CA), Rep. James
Moran (D-8
th
/VA), Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN), Rep.
Sam Farr (D-20
th
/CA), Rep. Raúl Grijalva (D-3
rd
/AZ),
Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-10
th
/NY), Rep. Alcee Hastings
(D-20
th
/FL), Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-9
th
/IL), Rep.
Michael Honda (D-17
th
/CA) and Rep. Jared Huffman
(D-2
nd
/CA)

H.R. 689 would reform federal drug laws to recognize
the medicinal use of marijuana and require the federal
government to remove marijuana from Schedule I of the
Controlled Substances Act. The legislation would require
the federal government to improve access to marijuana
for medical research, transfer the regulation of medical
marijuana to the states and protect individuals who are
acting in compliance with state medical marijuana laws
from federal arrest and prosecution.

Smarter Sentencing Act of 2013
H.R. 3382

Introduced by Rep. Raúl Labrador (R-1
st
/ID), Rep.
Bobby Scott (D-3
rd
/VA), Rep. John Conyers (D-
13
th
/MI), Rep. Hank Johnson (D-4
th
/GA), Rep. Cedric
Richmond (D-2
nd
/LA), Rep. Spencer Bachus (R-
6
th
/AL), Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN), Hakeem Jeffries
(D-8
th
/NY) and Rep. Rodney Davis (R-13
th
/IL)

H.R. 3382 would reduce federal mandatory sentencing
levels for certain drug law violations and expand the
application of an exception to mandatory minimum
sentencing laws - known as the federal safety valve –
that is available to judges responsible for sentencing a
person convicted of a drug law violation. Expanding the
federal safety valve would allow judges more discretion
in determining sentences for non-violent drug law
violations and permit judges to consider the unique facts
of each case and the unique circumstances of each
individual before them.

H.R. 3382 would also make the reform to the crack-
powder cocaine sentencing disparity that Congress
passed in 2010 retroactive, so that thousands of people
sentenced under the racially unjust crack/powder
cocaine sentencing disparity could receive shortened
terms of incarceration. A similar bipartisan measure was
introduced in the Senate and was approved by the
Senate Committee on the Judiciary (see page three for
details).

Stop Overdose Stat (S.O.S.) Act
H.R. 4169

H.R. 4169 introduced by Rep. Donna F. Edwards (D-
4
th
/MD), Rep. Karen Bass (D-37
th
/CA), Rep. Andre
Carson (D-7
th
/IN), Rep. Elijah Cummings (D-7
th
/MD),

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Rep. Keith Ellison (D-5
th
/MN), Rep. William Keating
(D-9
th
/MA), Rep. Barbara Lee (D-13
th
/CA), Rep.
Stephen Lynch (D-8
th
/MA), Rep. Michael Michaud (D-
2
nd
/ME), Rep. Charles Rangel (D-13
th
/NY), Rep. Tim
Ryan (D-13
th
/OH), Rep. Allyson Schwartz (D-13
th
/PA),
Rep. José Serrano (D-15
th
/NY), Rep. Carol Shea-Porter
(D-1
st
/NH), Rep. John Tierney (D-6
th
/MA), Rep. Paul
Tonko (D-20
th
/NY), Rep. Frederica Wilson (D-
24
th
/FL), Rep. Bill Foster (D-11
th
/IL) and Rep. Ben Ray
Lujan (D-3
rd
/NM)

H.R. 4169 would establish a federal plan to reduce
overdose fatalities and improve access to naloxone and
other overdose prevention resources to first responders
and community members. Naloxone is a medication that
quickly reverses an overdose from heroin and opioid
pain medications. The bill would also improve public
awareness of overdose risk and expand federal research
and surveillance activities designed to reduce preventable
drug overdoses from heroin, prescription medications
and other drugs.

Presently, few federal dollars support community-based
overdose prevention programs that save lives by
equipping people at risk of experiencing or observing an
overdose with the knowledge and tools needed to safely
and rapidly reverse a life threatening overdose. The
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that
more than 41,000 people in the United States died from
a drug overdose in the year 2011 alone. Nearly 80
percent of those deaths were due to unintentional drug
overdoses, and many could have been prevented. Deaths
resulting from unintentional drug overdoses nearly
tripled between 1999 and 2011.

Notably, Sen. Jack Reed (D-RI) introduced a companion
to the Stop Overdose Stat (S.O.S.) Act in the U.S. Senate
earlier this year. The Overdose Prevention Act (S. 2755)
was cosponsored by Sen. Richard Durbin (D-IL), Sen.
Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI), Sen. Edward Markey (D-
MA) and Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT).


Background on Key 2013 and 2014 House Votes

House Vote 269 – Amendment to H.R. 1947 on
Allowing Colleges and Universities to Cultivate State-
Legal Industrial Hemp for Research Purposes

For decades, the federal government has banned
industrial hemp cultivation and categorized industrial
hemp and marijuana together as Schedule I substances.
The federal government has erroneously treated hemp as
a drug and prohibited the cultivation of hemp within the
United States, despite permitting the legal importation of
processed industrial hemp for use in products for sale in
the United States. Yet, nineteen states have passed laws to
permit industrial hemp cultivation for research purposes
and at least eight states have passed laws permitting or
promoting the cultivation of industrial hemp as an
agricultural commodity.

On June 20, 2013, Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO), Rep.
Thomas Massie (R-4
th
/KY), and Rep. Earl Blumenauer
(D-3
rd
/OR) introduced an amendment to H.R. 1947 on
the House floor that amended federal law to allow
colleges and universities to grow and cultivate industrial
hemp for academic and agricultural research purposes in
states where it is already legal to grow and cultivate
industrial hemp without fear of federal interference. This
bipartisan amendment was introduced during
consideration of a major agricultural bill known as the
“Farm Bill.” The Farm Bill later passed Congress and
state-legal industrial hemp cultivation for research
purposes became legal in 2014. Drug Policy Action
supported this amendment as a common sense step
towards removing hemp from federal drug laws
altogether.

The amendment was passed 225-200 (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)

House Vote 250 - Amendment to H.R. 4660 on
Preventing the Drug Enforcement Administration from
Getting a Raise

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and
DEA administrator Michele Leonhart, have provoked
criticism from congressional lawmakers and the public
following a string of agency scandals, evidence of
corruption, and ongoing efforts by the DEA to obstruct
scientific research and undermine the implementation of
state laws reforming marijuana and other drug policies.
On May 29, 2014, Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO) and Rep.
Paul Broun (R-10
th
/GA) offered an amendment to H.R.
4660 on the House floor that would have cut the Drug
Enforcement Administration’s budget in H.R. 4660, a
federal appropriations bill that included annual funding
for federal law enforcement, by $35 million. The Drug
Enforcement Administration (DEA) was allocated $35
million more than both chambers of Congress awarded
the agency the previous federal budget year in FY 2014,
which was the amount that President Obama requested
for the DEA in his FY 2015 budget request. Drug Policy
Action supported this amendment as a means to ensure
that the DEA did not receive a raise it did not deserve.
The amendment was rejected 66-339 (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)

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House Vote 257 – Amendment to H.R. 4660 on
Preventing the U.S. Department of Justice and Drug
Enforcement Administration from Undermining State
Hemp Cultivation Laws

Under federal law, hemp is not legal to grow in the
United States unless it is being grown in accordance with
the recently passed Farm Bill law that permits state-legal
hemp cultivation for the purpose of conducting academic
or agricultural research. Some states have made its
cultivation legal, but most of these states have not yet
begun to grow it because of resistance from the Drug
Enforcement Administration.

On May 30, 2014, Rep. Suzanne Bonamici (D-1
st
/OR),
Rep. Thomas Massie (R-4
th
/KY), Rep. Jared Polis (D-
2
nd
/CO), Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR) and Rep.
Andy Barr (R-6
th
/KY) offered an amendment to H.R.
4660 on the House floor that would have barred the U.S.
Justice Department and the Drug Enforcement
Administration from spending any funding to undermine
state laws that allow hemp cultivation. Recognizing that
the erroneous categorization of hemp as a drug under
federal law is one but many examples where substances
have been improperly scheduled, Drug Policy Action
supported this bipartisan amendment as a common sense
step towards the goal of removing hemp from federal
drug laws altogether.
The amendment was passed 237-170 (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)
House Vote 258 – Amendment to H.R. 4660 on
Preventing the U.S. Department of Justice and Drug
Enforcement Administration from Undermining State
Medical Marijuana Laws

Since California voters became the first state to legalize
medical marijuana in 1996, the Drug Enforcement
Administration has led countless federal raids of medical
marijuana dispensaries in medical marijuana states across
the country, in many instances arresting providers and
patients and closing state-licensed dispensaries.
On May 30, 2014, Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-48
th
/CA),
Rep. Sam Farr (D-20
th
/CA), Rep. Don Young (R-
AL/AK), Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR), Rep. Tom
McClintock (R-4
th
/CA), Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN),
Rep. Paul Broun (R-10
th
/GA), Rep. Jared Polis (D-
2
nd
/CO), Rep. Steve Stockman (R-36
th
/TX), Rep.
Barbara Lee (D-13
th
/CA), Rep. Justin Amash (R-3
rd
/MI)
and Rep. Dina Titus (D-1
st
/NV) offered an amendment
to H.R. 4660 on the House floor to bar the U.S. Justice
Department and the Drug Enforcement Administration
from spending any funding to undermine state medical
marijuana laws. This bipartisan amendment was
spearheaded by Republican Congressman Dana
Rohrabacher, who is a long-standing opponent of the
Department of Justice’s use of federal money to
undermine state medical marijuana laws, and sponsored
by six Democratic members of Congress and five other
Republican members of Congress.

Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have
laws that legalize and regulate marijuana for medicinal
purposes. Eleven states have laws on the books or are
about to be signed into law by their governors regulating
cannabidiol (CBD) oils, a non-psychotropic component
of medical marijuana which some parents are utilizing to
treat their children’s seizures.

Drug Policy Action supported this amendment because
marijuana should be made available for medical use and
the federal government should stop wasting resources
undermining state medical marijuana laws and interfering
with the implementation of state laws that regulate patient
access to medical marijuana.

The amendment was passed 219-189 (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)

House Vote 260 - Amendment to H.R. 4660 on
Preventing the U.S. Department of Justice and Drug
Enforcement Administration from Undermining State
Hemp Cultivation Laws

In February 2014, President Obama signed “Farm Bill”
legislation previously passed by Congress, which
contained a provision that legalized the production of
hemp for research purposes in states that want to allow
it. But when Kentucky tried to import hemp seeds to
begin production soon after the “Farm Bill” took effect,
the Drug Enforcement Administration seized the seeds.
Kentucky officials, including Kentucky Republican
Agriculture Commissioner James Comer, Kentucky
Senator Rand Paul (R-KY), and Senate Minority Leader
Mitch McConnell (R-KY) were angered. McConnell told
Politico that “it is an outrage that DEA is using finite
taxpayer dollars to impound legal industrial hemp seeds.”
The Kentucky Agriculture Department briefly sued the
DEA to deliver the hemp seeds to Kentucky officials.

On May 30, 2014, Rep. Thomas Massie (R-4
th
/KY), Rep.
Earl Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR), Suzanne Bonamici (D-
1
st
/OR), Andy Barr (R-6
th
/KY) and Rep. Jared Polis (D-
2
nd
/CO) offered an amendment to H.R. 4660 on the
House floor that would have barred the DEA from
blocking implementation of a federal law passed by
Congress in 2013 that allows hemp cultivation for

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academic and agricultural research purposes in states that
allow it. Drug Policy Action supported this bipartisan
amendment as a common sense step towards the goal of
removing hemp from federal drug laws altogether.
The amendment was passed 246-162 (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)
House Vote 415 – Amendment to H.R. 5016 on
Allowing State-Legal Marijuana Businesses to Access
Financial Institutions

On February 14, 2014, the U.S. Department of Justice
and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, a
bureau of the U.S. Department of the Treasury,
announced new guidelines to banks and other financial
institutions on how they can provide financial services to
marijuana businesses that are licensed under state law.
The guidance applied to twenty-three states and the
District of Columbia that have legalized marijuana for
medical use and two states (Colorado and Washington)
that have legalized marijuana like alcohol.

Many banks had declined to provide services such as
checking accounts and credit cards to legal, regulated
marijuana dispensaries across the country out of fear of
breaking federal law and being penalized with Treasury
Department regulations and fines. As a result, state-
licensed marijuana businesses are forced to deal with
large amounts of cash, creating public safety risks for
employees, bystanders, and police officers.

On July 16, 2014, Rep. John Fleming (R-4
th
/LA) offered
an amendment to H.R. 5016 on the House floor to bar
the U.S. Justice and Treasury Department from
spending funds to implement this guidance. Drug Policy
Action opposed the Fleming amendment because it
would have disrupted this important guidance,
undermining public safety and accountability and
wasting federal resources and taxpayer money and
impeding efforts by federal officials to enable states to
set their own marijuana policies in thirty-four states.
The amendment was rejected, 186-236. (Drug Policy
Action: Vote NO)
House Vote 418 - Amendment to H.R. 5016 on
Allowing State-Legal Marijuana Businesses to Access
Financial Institutions

Many state-licensed marijuana businesses are forced to
deal with large amounts of cash because many banks
have declined to provide services such as checking
accounts and credit cards to legal, regulated marijuana
dispensaries across the country out of fear of breaking
federal law and being penalized with Treasury
Department regulations and fines. This creates public
safety risks for employees, bystanders, and police
officers. Twenty-three states and the District of
Columbia have legalized marijuana for medical use and
two states (Colorado and Washington) have legalized
marijuana like alcohol.

On July 16, 2014, Rep. Denny Heck (D-10
th
/WA), Rep.
Ed Perlmutter (D-7
th
/CO), Rep. Barbara Lee (D-
13
th
/CA), and Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-48
th
/CA)
offered an amendment to H.R. 5016 on the House floor
to bar the U.S. Treasury Department from spending any
funding to penalize financial institutions that provide
services to marijuana businesses that are legal under state
law. Drug Policy Action supported the bipartisan Heck-
Perlmutter-Lee-Rohrabacher amendment because it
would protect public safety and prevent wasteful
expenditure of federal resources and taxpayer money on
federal interference with the business of state-licensed
marijuana dispensaries and protected the ability of thirty-
four states to set their own marijuana policies.
The amendment was passed, 231-192. (Drug Policy
Action: Vote YES)

2014 Champions of Reform

The following Representatives have been selected as
Drug Policy Action’s 2014 Champions of Reform for (in
all but one case) earning an “A+” from Drug Policy
Action for voting in favor of reform on every floor vote
featured in this guide and also for making other
contributions to drug policy reform efforts in Congress.

Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-3
rd
/OR)

Rep. Blumenauer demonstrated leadership early on in the
113
th
Congress by joining Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO) in
establishing the first-of-its-kind Sensible Drug Policy
Working Group for members of Congress and staff to
strategize and collaborate on drug policy reform
legislation. Rep. Blumenauer introduced several important
drug policy reform bills in the 113
th
Congress, including
the States’ Medical Marijuana Property Rights Protection
Act (H.R. 689), which is featured on page five. Rep.
Blumenauer also introduced the Small Business Tax
Equity Act (H.R. 2240).

Notably, Rep. Blumenauer sponsored or cosponsored all
but one of the drug policy reform bills Drug Policy
Action has highlighted in this voting guide. He shares the

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distinction with Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN) in
cosponsoring more drug policy reform bills that have
earned the support of Drug Policy Action than any other
member of Congress. Over the past two years, Rep.
Blumenauer cosponsored four floor amendments
highlighted in this guide (House Votes 269, 257, 258, 260)
and championed the efforts of his colleagues on both
sides of the aisle to advance drug policy reform through
the floor amendment process. Rep. Blumenauer’s record
of support in the 113
th
Congress builds upon his years of
support for drug policy reform efforts in Congress. Rep.
Blumenauer received an “Honorable Mention” in Drug
Policy Action’s 2008 voter guide.

Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-48
th
/CA)

Rep. Rohrabacher worked tirelessly during the 113
th

Congress to champion legislative efforts to exempt
individuals acting in compliance with state medical
marijuana laws from federal arrest and prosecution in
states that have reformed their marijuana laws. In most of
the years beginning in 2003 and ending in 2012, Rep.
Rohrabacher brought a medical marijuana amendment
with former Representative Maurice Hinchey (D-
22
nd
/NY) to the floor of the U.S. House of
Representatives in an effort to bar the federal government
from spending funds to raid medical marijuana
dispensaries and prosecute individuals acting in
compliance with state law. After Rep. Hinchey’s
retirement at the end of 2012, Rep. Rohrabacher brought
a similar medical marijuana amendment (House Vote 258)
to the House floor with the bipartisan support of eleven
other Representatives. Rep. Rohrabacher later
cosponsored House Vote 418.

Rep. Rohrabacher introduced the Respect State Marijuana
Laws Act (H.R. 1523), which is featured on page five.
Rep. Rohrabacher also cosponsored eight other bills that
have earned the support of Drug Policy Action including
two of the drug policy reform bills highlighted in this
guide (H.R. 499 and H.R. 689). Rep. Rohrabacher has
earned a reputation for being the leading conservative in
Congress on protecting states from federal interference in
the implementation of their marijuana laws and also
works skillfully across the aisle to get things done.

Rep. Rohrabacher’s record of support in the 113
th

Congress builds upon his years of support for drug policy
reform efforts in Congress. Drug Policy Action selected
Rep. Rohrabacher as one of its “Heroes” in its 2008 voter
guide.

Rep. Steve Cohen (D-9
th
/TN)

Over the past two years, Rep. Cohen further solidified his
reputation for being an uncompromising advocate in
Congress for drug policy reform. Rep. Cohen frequently
questioned marijuana prohibition policies in
congressional hearings, cosponsored important drug
policy reform legislation and spoke in favor of drug policy
reform on the House floor.

Rep. Cohen also introduced two important drug policy
reform bills in the 113
th
Congress. The Unmuzzle the
Drug Czar Act (H.R. 4046) would repeal a provision of
federal law that requires the director of the Office of
National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), informally
known as the U.S. Drug Czar, to “take such actions as
necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use” of
marijuana or any Schedule I drug for medical or non-
medical use. The provision prohibits ONDCP from
studying legalization or speaking freely and truthfully
about marijuana and marijuana policy.

Rep. Cohen also introduced the National Commission on
Federal Marijuana Policy Act (H.R. 1635). Notably, Rep.
Cohen cosponsored all but one of the drug policy reform
bills that Drug Policy Action has highlighted in this
voting guide (H.R. 499, H.R. 689, H.R. 1523, and H.R.
3382). Rep. Cohen also cosponsored a floor amendment,
House Vote 258, earlier this year.

Rep. Jared Polis (D-2
nd
/CO)

Rep. Polis led efforts to roll back federal marijuana
prohibition on several fronts and continued to build on a
track record of effective leadership in Congress that
began when he first took office in 2009. In 2013, Rep.
Polis introduced the Ending Federal Marijuana
Prohibition Act (H.R. 499), which is featured on page
five.

Rep. Polis also cosponsored ten bills that have earned the
support of Drug Policy Action including three of the drug
policy reform bills highlighted in this guide (H.R. 689,
H.R. 1523 and H.R. 3382). Earlier this year, Rep. Polis
sponsored a floor amendment, House Vote 250, which
would have prevented the DEA from getting a raise that
Drug Policy Action agreed it did not deserve. Rep. Polis
also cosponsored the medical marijuana floor
amendment, House Vote 258.

In addition, Rep. Polis has championed efforts to reform
federal laws restricting industrial hemp cultivation within

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the United States. In 2013, Rep. Polis sponsored a floor
amendment, House Vote 269, to allow colleges and
universities to cultivate legal industrial hemp for research
purposes. In 2014, Rep. Polis cosponsored a floor
amendment, House Vote 260, to reaffirm House passage
of House Vote 269 a year earlier. Rep. Polis also
cosponsored a floor amendment (House Vote 257)
offered by Rep. Suzanne Bonamici (D-1
st
/OR) barring
the DEA from spending funds to undermine state hemp
cultivation laws.

Rep. Beto O’Rourke (D-16
th
/TX)

Rep. O’Rourke cosponsored three drug policy reform
bills highlighted in this guide (H.R. 1523, H.R. 3382 and
H.R. 4169). He was a critic of the war on drugs before
running for Congress, even writing a book on the subject.

Rep. Barbara Lee (D-13
th
/CA)

Rep. Lee supported drug policy reform in a number of
important ways during the 113
th
Congress. In addition to
cosponsoring four of the drug policy reform bills
highlighted in this guide (H.R. 499, H.R. 689, H.R. 1523
and H.R. 4169), Rep. Lee introduced the States’ Medical
Marijuana Property Rights Protection Act (H.R. 784).
Rep. Lee cosponsored the medical marijuana floor
amendment, House Vote 258, with Rep. Rohrabacher and
ten other Representatives. Rep. Lee later cosponsored
another floor amendment highlighted in this guide
(House Vote 418). Drug Policy Action selected Rep. Lee
as one of its “Heroes” in its 2008 voter guide.

Rep. Thomas Massie (R-4
th
/KY)

Rep. Massie championed efforts to reform federal laws
restricting industrial hemp cultivation within the United
States. Rep. Massie cosponsored a floor amendment,
House Vote 269, to allow colleges and universities to
cultivate legal industrial hemp for research purposes. In
2014, Rep. Massie sponsored a floor amendment, House
Vote 260, to reaffirm House passage of House Vote 269 a
year earlier. Rep. Massie also cosponsored a floor
amendment (House Vote 257) offered by Rep. Suzanne
Bonamici (D-1
st
/OR) barring the DEA from spending
funds to undermine state hemp cultivation laws.

Rep. Sam Farr (D-20
th
/CA)

Rep. Farr played a leading role in support of the medical
marijuana floor amendment (House Vote 258) offered by
Rep. Rohrabacher and ten other Representatives,
sponsored the Truth in Trials Act (H.R. 710), and
cosponsored two drug policy reform bills highlighted in
this guide (H.R. 689 and H.R. 1523). Drug Policy Action
selected Rep. Farr as one of its “Heroes” in its 2008 voter
guide.

Rep. Bobby Scott (D-3
rd
/VA)

Rep. Scott introduced four drug policy reform bills that
Drug Policy Action supports: Youth PROMISE Act
(H.R. 1318); The Justice Safety Valve Act (H.R. 1695);
Fair Sentencing Clarification Act (H.R. 2369); and
Fairness in Cocaine Sentencing Act (H.R. 2372). Rep.
Scott cosponsored the Smarter Sentencing Act (H.R.
3382), which is highlighted on page five. Rep. Scott
served as an important advocate for drug policy reform,
and particularly in support of repealing mandatory
minimum sentencing laws, as a member of the U.S.
House Committee on the Judiciary. Rep. Scott has a long
track record of championing drug sentencing reform and
other drug policy reform initiatives. Drug Policy Action
selected Rep. Scott as one of its “Heroes” in its 2008
voter guide.

Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-AL/DC)

Because she represents the District of Columbia, Rep.
Norton was not permitted by congressional leadership
to vote on amendments or other legislation that reached
the floor of the House. Thus, it is impossible to grade
her based on votes. Nevertheless, Rep. Norton did not
let her inability to weigh in on the seven floor
amendments highlighted in this guide from deterring her
from championing the cause of drug policy reform in
other ways.

When Rep. Andy Harris (R-1
st
/MD) spearheaded an
effort to undermine the implementation of a local
marijuana reform law in Washington, D.C., Rep. Norton
took to the floor of the House to persuasively and
effectively request that her congressional colleagues not
interfere in Washington, D.C. efforts to reduce racial
disparities in its criminal justice system. Rep. Norton
also cosponsored the Respect State Marijuana Laws Act
(H.R. 1523) and two other drug policy reform bills that
Drug Policy Action has highlighted in this voting guide
(H.R. 499 and H.R. 689). Drug Policy Action previously
selected Rep. Norton as one of its “Champions of
Reform” in the 2008 voter guide.






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Honorable Mentions

The following Representatives deserve honorable
mention for demonstrating leadership in the 113
th

Congress on drug policy reform efforts.

 Rep. John Conyers (D-13
th
/MI) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action and
cosponsored two of the drug policy reform bills Drug
Policy Action has highlighted in this voting guide
(H.R. 3382 and H.R. 4169). As Ranking Member of
the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary during the
113
th
Congress, Rep. Conyers advocated effectively
for the repeal of mandatory minimum drug sentencing
laws and has a long track record in Congress of
championing drug sentencing reform.

 Rep. Suzanne Bonamici (D-1
st
/OR) – Earned an
A+ voting record from Drug Policy Action and
sponsored a floor amendment reforming federal laws
that restrict domestic cultivation of industrial hemp
(see House Vote 257). Rep. Bonamici also
cosponsored a floor amendment (House Vote 260)
offered by Rep. Thomas Massie (R-4
th
/KY) to
reaffirm House passage of House Vote 269 a year
earlier.

 Rep. Paul Broun (R-10
th
/GA) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action, cosponsored
the medical marijuana floor amendment (House Vote
258) offered by Rep. Rohrabacher and ten other
Representatives and cosponsored the floor
amendment (House Vote 250) that would have denied
the DEA a raise.

 Rep. Justin Amash (R-3
rd
/MI) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Amash
cosponsored the medical marijuana floor amendment
(House Vote 258) offered by Rep. Rohrabacher and
ten other Representatives. Rep. Amash also
cosponsored the Ending Federal Marijuana
Prohibition Act (H.R. 1523). He has been an
outspoken critic of harsh sentences for people
convicted of drug law violations.

 Rep. Steve Stockman (R-36
th
/TX) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep.
Stockman cosponsored the medical marijuana
amendment (House Vote 258) offered by Rep.
Rohrabacher and ten other Representatives. He also
cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep. Donna Edwards (D-4
th
/MD) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Edwards
introduced the Stop Overdose Stat (S.O.S.) Act (H.R.
4169), which is highlighted on page six of this guide.

 Rep. Jan Schakowsky (D-9
th
/IL) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep.
Schakowsky cosponsored four drug policy reform bills
highlighted in this guide (H.R. 499, H.R. 689, H.R.
1523 and H.R. 3382).

 Rep. Mark Pocan (D-2
nd
/WI) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Pocan
cosponsored four drug policy reform bills highlighted
in this guide (H.R. 499, H.R. 689, H.R. 1523 and H.R.
3382).

 Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-10
th
/NY) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Nadler
cosponsored two drug policy reform bills highlighted
in this guide (H.R. 499 and H.R. 689).

 Rep. Ted Deutch (D-21
st
/FL) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Deutch
introduced the National Criminal Justice Commission
Act (H.R. 446) and cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-50
th
/CA) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Hunter
cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep. Chris Van Hollen (D-8
th
/MD) – Earned an
A+ voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Van
Hollen cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep. Hakeem Jeffries (D-8
th
/NY) – Earned an A+
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Jeffries
cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep. Tony Cárdenas (D-29
th
/CA) – Earned an
A+ voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep.
Cárdenas cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep. Denny Heck (D-10
th
/WA) – Earned an A
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Heck
sponsored House Vote 418, a floor amendment
highlighted on page eight of this guide.

 Rep. Dina Titus (D-1
st
/NV) – Earned an A voting
record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Titus
cosponsored the medical marijuana floor amendment
(House Vote 258) offered by Rep. Rohrabacher and

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ten other Representatives. Rep. Titus also
cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep. Tom McClintock (R-4
th
/CA) – Earned an A
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep.
McClintock cosponsored the medical marijuana floor
amendment (House Vote 258) offered by Rep.
Rohrabacher and ten other Representatives.

 Rep. Mark Sanford (R-1
st
/SC) – Earned an A
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Sanford
cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep. Rodney Davis (R-13
th
/IL) – Earned an A
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Davis
cosponsored H.R. 3382.

 Rep Don Young (R-AL/AK) – Earned an A voting
record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Young
cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D-7
th
/CO) – Earned an A
voting record from Drug Policy Action. Rep.
Perlmutter cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep Adam Smith (D-9
th
/WA) - Earned an A voting
record from Drug Policy Action. Rep. Smith
cosponsored H.R. 1523.

 Rep. Raul Labrador (R-1
st
/ID) – Earned a C voting
record from Drug Policy Action. However, Rep.
Labrador showed leadership by introducing the
Smarter Sentencing Act, H.R. 3382, which is featured
on page five of this guide.


2014 Drug War Extremists

The following Representatives have been selected as
Drug Policy Action’s 2014 Drug War Extremists for
opposing efforts by lawmakers to roll back punitive and
counterproductive drug policies at every opportunity and
earning an “F” from Drug Policy Action for voting the
wrong way on every floor vote.
Rep. Andy Harris (R-1
st
/MD)

Although Rep. Andy Harris has only completed one
term in office, he has quickly cemented his reputation as
being the lawmaker who has made it his mission to try
and block a popular law in the District of Columbia that
eliminated criminal penalties for the possession of small
amounts of marijuana. In June 2014, Rep. Harris
offered an amendment during a congressional
committee markup of a federal spending bill to block
District of Columbia lawmakers from implementing its
marijuana decriminalization law and also would have
blocked District of Columbia lawmakers from legalizing
marijuana in the future. The amendment was accepted
by Republicans on the committee.

D.C.’s marijuana decriminalization law, which replaces
criminal penalties with a $25 fine for possession, ensures
that people are no longer saddled with life-long
convictions that make it difficult to obtain employment
and housing. D.C.’s decriminalization law is widely
viewed as a model for other jurisdictions looking to
reduce racial disparities in the criminal justice system.

Rep. Harris has stood by his efforts to derail marijuana
law reform in the Nation’s Capital despite pleas from
D.C.’s congressional representative, Rep. Eleanor
Holmes Norton (D-AL/D.C.), D.C. lawmakers and civil
rights leaders and advocates to leave D.C.’s efforts to
reduce racial disparities in the criminal justice system
alone. Rep. Harris’s amendment even drew opposition
from the White House in a Statement of Administration
Policy.

In 2013, a study released by the American Civil Liberties
Union of the Nation’s Capital found that African
American residents are eight times more likely to be
arrested for marijuana possession in D.C. than white
residents. In fact, in 2010, blacks constituted 91 percent
of all marijuana arrests in D.C – despite the fact that
data show whites and blacks use marijuana at similar
rates. Fortunately, Rep. Harris has been unsuccessful in
blocking efforts by D.C. lawmakers and residents to
reform local marijuana laws.

Rep. John Fleming (R-4
th
/LA)

Over the past two years, Rep. John Fleming could be
counted on to defend drug war extremism and status
quo marijuana policies. Whether taking to the floor to
speak against floor amendments that would support
states’ rights to reform their marijuana laws, improve
access to medical marijuana and improve the ability of
states to regulate marijuana businesses, to distorting and
misrepresenting the facts about marijuana use in
hearings, floor speeches and briefings, Rep. Fleming has
been a committed foe of marijuana reform efforts in
Congress.

Rep. Fleming planned to – but ultimately did not -
introduce a congressional resolution to block D.C.’s
decriminalization law, and an amendment he offered on
the House floor (House Vote 415, featured above) to
block efforts by the Obama administration to allow

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marijuana businesses to access banking services failed on
a 186-236 vote.

Rep. Hal Rogers (R-5
th
/KY)

For years, Rep. Hal Rogers has used his powerful
position as Chairman of the House Committee on
Appropriations to preserve destructive drug policies that
have cost hundreds of thousands of lives and U.S.
taxpayers billions of dollars. Perhaps most unfortunate
has been his resistance in recent years to federal funding
for syringe service programs.

Despite overwhelming scientific evidence that syringe
service programs save lives and reduce health care costs
by preventing the spread of HIV and hepatitis C, Rep.
Rogers championed efforts to reinstate the ban on
federal funding in 2011 and has ignored pressure to lift
the ban since that time. In the U.S., injection drug use
has accounted for more than one-third (36 percent) of
AIDS cases – more than 354,000 people, according to
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Yet, the federal funding for sterile syringe access
programs persists, even though the CDC has found that
such programs lower incidence of HIV/AIDS among
people who inject drugs by 80 percent.

In June 2014, more than 140 local, national and
international organizations released a letter addressed to
Rep. Rogers calling on Congress to end the archaic
federal funding ban on syringe service programs (SSPs).
Rep. Rogers did not respond to the letter.


Methodology

Drug Policy Action graded members of Congress based
on their votes on seven floor amendments considered by
all members of the U.S. House of Representatives during
the 113
th
Congress who were eligible to participate in
each of these highlighted votes. Drug Policy Action has
assigned each member a letter grade based upon the
percentage of floor votes that each Representative voted
the position favored by Drug Policy Action.

Drug Policy Action only graded U.S. Representatives on
their votes on floor amendments on which members of
Congress were proactively requested to vote either in
support or opposition to take a certain position on
legislation featured in this guide.

An absent (“DNV”) vote lowers a Representative’s
score and grade.

Drug Policy Action recognizes that Members of
Congress periodically have valid reasons to miss floor
votes. Representatives who missed three or more votes
that are featured in this guide, and were eligible to vote
at the time these votes occurred, received an
“incomplete” grade (“INC.”) In addition, several
Representatives who did not serve a complete term in
the 113
th
Congress (see page 29 for a list of changes in
U.S. House membership) received an “incomplete”
grade (“INC.”)

The House Speaker, who customarily does not vote, has
been simply marked “S.”

An At-Large congressional seat is denoted with “AL.”

The individual grades assigned by Drug Policy Action to
each Representative do not indicate the full extent of her
or his support for drug policy reform or Drug Policy
Action positions. The voting record is neither an
endorsement nor a condemnation of any member of
Congress.

This voting record covers the 113
th
Congress and is
distributed to every member of Congress. This voting
record lists roll-call votes officially recorded on the floor
of the House of Representatives.


Grading Scale

A+ Voting in favor of reform on all 7 votes
A Voting in favor of reform on 6 votes
B+ Voting in favor of reform on 5 votes
B Voting in favor of reform on 4 votes
C Voting in favor of reform on 3 votes
D Voting in favor of reform on 2 votes
F Failing to vote for reform on at least 2 votes


How Your U.S. Representati ve Voted

To find out who represents you in the U.S. House of
Representatives call the U.S. Capitol Switchboard at 202-
224-3121 or visit www.house.gov.

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Roll Call Voting Table

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Roll Call Voting Table (cont.)

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Roll Call Voting Table (cont.)

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Roll Call Voting Table (cont.)

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Roll Call Voting Table (cont.)

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Roll Call Voting Table (cont.)

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113
th
Congress House Membership Changes That
Resulted in Missed Votes


1
st
Congressional District of Alabama

Rep. Jo Bonner (R-1
st
/AL) resigned on August 2, 2013.

Rep. Bradley Byrne (R-1
st
/AL) was elected on December
17, 2013 following a Special Election to replace Rep. Jo
Bonner


13
th
Congressional District of Florida

Rep. C.W. Bill Young died on October 18, 2013

Rep. David Jolly (R-13
th
/FL) was elected on March 11,
2014 in a Special Election to replace Rep. C.W. Bill
Young.


19
th
Congressional District of Florida

Rep. Trey Radel (R-19
th
/FL) resigned on January 27,
2014.

Rep. Curtis Clawson R-19
th
/FL) was elected on June 24,
2014 in a Special Election to replace Rep. Trey Radel.


2
nd
Congressional District of Illinois

Rep. Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. resigned during the previous
112
th
Congress on November 21, 2012

Rep. Kelly Robin (D-2
nd
/IL) was elected on April 9, 2013
following a Special Election to replace Rep. Jesse L.
Jackson, Jr.


5
th
Congressional District of Louisiana

Rep. Rodney Alexander (R-5th/LA) resigned on
September 27, 2013

Rep. Vance McAllister (R-5
th
/LA) was elected on
November 16, 2013 following a Special Election to
replace Rep. Rodney Alexander



5
th
Congressional District of Massachusetts

Rep. Edward Markey resigned on July 15, 2013 after
winning a Senate seat in Massachusetts.

Rep. Katherine Clark (D-5
th
/MA) was elected on
December 10, 2013 following a Special Election to
replace Rep. Edward Markey.


8
th
Congressional District of Missouri

Rep. Jo Ann Emerson (R-8
th
/MO) resigned on January
22, 2013.

Rep. Jason Smith (R-8
th
/MO) was elected on June 4,
2013 following a Special Election to replace Rep. Jo Ann
Emerson.

1
st
Congressional District of New Jersey

Rep. Robert Andrews (D-1
st
/NJ) resigned on February
18, 2014

This seat remains vacant following the resignation of Rep.
Robert Andrews


12
th
Congressional District of North Carolina

Rep. Mel Watt (D-12
th
/NC) resigned on January 6, 2014.

This seat remains vacant following the resignation of Rep.
Mel Watt.


1
st
Congressional District of South Carolina

Rep. Tim Scott (R-1
st
/SC) resigned on January 2, 2013
after being appointed to a Senate seat in South Carolina

Rep. Mark Sanford (R-1
st
/SC) was elected on May 7,
2013 following a Special Election to replace Rep. Tim
Scott.

7
th
Congressional District of Virginia

Rep. Eric Cantor (R-7
th
/VA), the former House Majority
Leader, resigned on August 18, 2014

This seat remains vacant following the resignation of Rep.
Eric Cantor

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113
th
Congress Non-Voting Members

The following Representatives serve as Non-Voting
Delegates and are ineligible to vote on the floor of the
U.S. House of Representatives.

 Rep. (Del.) Madeleine Bordallo (D-Guam)
 Rep. (Del.) Donna Christensen (D-U.S. Virgin
Islands)
 Rep. (Del.) Eni F.H. Faleomavaega (D-
American Samoa)
 Rep. (Del.) Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-District
of Columbia)
 Rep. (Resident Commissioner) Pedro Pierluisi
(D-Puerto Rico)
 Rep. (Del.) Gregorio K.C. Sablan (Northern
Mariana Islands)