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LacLose and 8educLlon Sugar ConcenLraLlons, pP and Lhe Sourness .

vol. 1 no. 1, 2012 - !ournal of Applled lood 1echnology
!"#$%&' ")* +'*,#$-%) &,."+ #%)#')$+"$-%)&/ 01 ")* $1' &%,+)'&&
%2 *"$' 2!"3%+'* 4%.,+$ *+-)5 "& 0+%6-%$-# 6'3'+".'
Ade lrma ParLaLl, ?oyok 8udl ramono, and Anang M. Legowo

"6&$+"#$ 7 ?ogurL drlnk conLalns of LacLlc Acld 8acLerla whlch have loL of funcLlons for healLh. 1he growLh of
LacLlc Acld 8acLerla depends on heaL LreaLmenL, how long fermenLaLlon Lakes place, and klnds of sugar ln Lhe
mllk. Addlng some sugar Lo ?ogurL drlnk can opLlmlze Lhe growLh of LacLlc Acld 8acLerla. uaLe palm was used Lo
add Lhe sugar conLaln of yogurL drlnk wlLh dlfferenL percenLage range from 0 (10), 2 (11), 4 (12) and 6 (13)
wlLh 3 Llmes repllcaLed. 1o alm Lhe lnformaLlon of Lhe sugar uLlllLles ln fermenLlng mllk, so ln Lhls sLudy used four
parameLers, Lhere were lacLose concenLraLlon, LoLal reducLlon sugar, pP and level of sourness. CompleLely
8andomlzed ueslgn was used, daLa resulL were analyzed wlLh AnCvA, Lhen were conLlnued wlLh uuncan MulLlple
8ange 1esL. llnally resulL showed LhaL addlng daLe palm durlng fermenLaLlon decreasec Lhe lacLose concenLraLlon
from 11 Lo 13 Lhen lncreased ln 14 wlLh range from 3.19-3.32, 8educLlon Sugar lncreased perslsLenLly from 10
Lo 13 range from 2.13-2.99, and pP value decreased range from 3.83-3.76. Powever, addlng daLe palm lnLo
yogurL drlnk had no effecL ln sourness. 1hls sLudy lnforms LhaL Lhe naLural sugar of daLe palm was used by LacLlc
Acld 8acLerla durlng fermenLaLlon process, so LhaL lL affecLed LacLose and reduced Sugar concenLraLlon and pP
keyword : ?ogurL urlnk, uaLe, LacLose, 8educLlon Sugar, pP and Sourness.

?ogurL drlnk ls klnd of fermenLed mllk conLalnlng
LacLlc Acld 8acLerla and loL of beneflLs for healLh. Cenerally
yogurL drlnk ls produced wlLh low faL mllk, dlluLed wlLh
waLer for reduclng LoLal solld or sLlrred Lhe yogurL for
galnlng low vlscoslLy before packaglng. 1oLal solld of yogurL
drlnk should be below 11 .(1amlme, 2006, Legowo, 2009,
?lldlz, 2010). A number of sugar and sweeLener can be
added Lo Lhe mllk before fermenLaLlon Lo lncrease Lhe
vlablllLy of LacLlc Acld 8acLerla (LA8). 1he more amounLs of
sugar ln Lhe mllk, Lhe hlgher acldlLy of obLalnlng yogurL
drlnk. Powever, Loo much sugar on Lhe mllk can lnhlblL LA8
(1amlme, 2006). ln Lhls sLudy, daLe was used as naLural
sweeLener lnLo yogurL Lo supporL Lhe growLh of LA8. uaLe ls
one of Lhe hlghesL sugar concenLraLlon and has loL of
beneflLs for healLh. 1he klnds of daLe sugar are glucose,
frucLose, and sucrose. A sLudy showed LhaL daLe conLalns
for abouL 83 of sugar. Sugar of daLe can lncrease vlablllLy
of bacLerla so lL wlll lncrease Lhe acldlLy and decrease pP
value (Al-khuzalm, 2010, Ll-Sharnouby et ol. 2009, Marshall,
2006, Cad et ol. 2010).
AddlLlonal of naLural sweeLener durlng
fermenLaLlon lnfluence uLlllLy of sugar by LA8. Cenerally,
5tteptoccocos tbetmopblllos wlll use lacLoce and degrade
lacLose become glucose and galacLose. Clusoce ls changed Lo
be lacLlc acld and some oLhers lacLlc organlc (Legowo et ol.,
2009). 1he oLhers klnd of LA8 such as loctoboclllos
ocblJopbllos, and loctoboclllos bolqotlcos also use lacLose as
Lhelr energy resource and produce lacLlc acld. (?lldlz, 2010,
1amlme, 2006). 8eslde lacLose, LA8 used Lhe oLhers sugar
such as glucose and frucLose as reducLlon sugar (Caldwell,
1993 clLled by ulwangkoro, 2008). 1he more amounLs of
sugar whlch used by LA8, Lhe hlgher acldlLy and Lhe lower
pP value.
1he alm of Lhls sLudy ls Lo geL Lhe lnformaLlon abouL
Lhe uLlllLles of sugar of daLe ln fermenLlng mllk. 1he uLlllLles
of sugar wlll lnfluence Lhe LoLal LacLlc Acld 8acLerla, acldlLy
and pP of yogurL. 1o know how much sugar ls used by LA8
can be assumed by measurlng LoLal lacLose and reducLlon
sugar ln yogurL. 1hls research ls lmporLanL Lo know Lhe besL
LreaLmenL of addlng daLe lnLo yogurL drlnk. 1hls sLudy also
glve a deLall abouL besL percenLage of addlng daLe lnLo
yogurL drlnk wlLh Lhe opLlmum of LoLal laLlc acld bacLerla for
maklng probloLlc beverage and glve lnfo Lhe uLlllLy of sugar
of daLe ln fermenLlng mllk.

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89:;<= 4>=?@A *@;<: 5?@B9
low faL mllk was lsolaLed wlLh Lhree klnds LacLlc
Acld 8acLerla loctoboclllos ocblJopbllos, loctoboclllos
bolqotlcos and 5tteptococcos tbetmopbllos and added by
daLe (lboeolx Joctyllfeto) wlLh dlfferenL percenLage 11 (0),
5obmltteJ 10/17/2011, AccepteJ 2/2/2012. Aotbots ote wltb
Aolmol Aqtlcoltote locolty, ulpooeqoto uolvetslty, 5emotooq
50275, loJooeslo. ultect lopoltles to ootbot AJe ltmo nottotl (-

LacLose and 8educLlon Sugar ConcenLraLlons, pP and Lhe Sourness .

vol. 1 no. 1, 2012 - !ournal of Applled lood 1echnology
1(2), 13 (4), and 14 (6). 1he raw was lncubaLed ln
lncubaLor for 3 hours.

8C9D?@CBC<A >E !9FA>DC #><FC<A@9A;><
was used 1elles MeLhod. Sample was dlluLed up Lo
200 dlluLlon, Lhen poured 2,3ml of slmple lnLo closed LesL
Lube and added ZnSC4 3 dan 8a(CP)2 4,3 each reagenL
0,2ml. Slmple was cenLrlfuged on speed 1000rpm for 3
mlnuLes Llll appeared Lhe sedlmenL. 1 ml of supernaLanL was
poured lnLo closed LesL Lube and added 1elles 8eagenL, Lhen
bolled on waLerbaLh for 6 mlnuLes. Aquades was added lnLo
LesL Lube unLll Lhe volumen became 12,3ml and shaked lL
well (1eles et ol., 1978). 8ead Lhe sample resulL lnLo
specLromeLer ln Lhe formula bellow:
x (gram/100ml)
LacLosa concenLraLlon = --------------------------
8 (gram)

lnformaLlon :
x : 8esulL of conversln absorbanL sample
8 : welghL of sample

8C9D?@CBC<A >E G1 H9I?C
pP value was used pP dlglLal. Sample was poured
lnLo Lube and Lhen puL lndlcaLor of pP dlglLal on sample.
8ead Lhe resulL on pP dlglLal.
8C9D?@CBC<A >E +CJ?FA;>< &?=9@ #><FC<A@9A;><
sample poured lnLo flask 100ml abouL 2ml and added
aquadesL unLll Lhe volume 100ml, shaked lL well Lo make lL
homogen. uL 10 ml of sampel lnLo enlemeyer Lhen poured
23ml of loff 5cbootl reagenL. 1he sample was bolled on
waLerbaLh for 10 mlnuLes, laLer on added 13 ml kl 20 dan
33 ml P2SC4 carefully Lhrough enlemeyer-wall. 1lLraLed Lhe
sample wlLh na-LhloslfaL 0,1 n Llll become yellow, Lhen
added amylum 1 conLlnued LlLraLed unLlll blue color
dlsappeared. Made 8lanko LlLraLed wlLh sample 23ml loff
5cbootl reagenL. 1he 8educLlon Sugar concenLraLlon galn by
used Lhe formulas bellow :

Approach of resulL x
8educLlon Sugar ConcenLraLlon = -------------------------------------- x 100
WelghL of Sampel
lnformaLlon :
Approach of 8esulL : approach of Lable loff 5cbtool Lable
: dlluLlon

+'&,!$ ")* *-&#,&&-%)
8ased on Lhls research make clear LhaL yogurL drlnk
whlch was added by daLe lncreased LoLal lacLlc acld bacLerla
and lL lnfluenced some oLhers parameLer. ulfferenL
percenLage daLe added lnLo yogurL drlnk made dlfferenL
effecL of some parameLers. 1he resulL of measured
parameLers ln Lhls sLudy ls presenLed ln 1able 1.1abel 1.
LacLose ConcenLraLlon, 1oLal 8educLlon Sugar, pP and Level
of Sourness of uaLe llavored ?ogurL urlnk. ulfferenL
superskrlp lndlcaLe dlfference resulL based on sLaLlsLlc
analysls,( ns ) lndlcaLe Lhere ls no dlfferences (<0,03).
As seen ln Lable 1, addlng daLe wlLh dlfferenL
percenLage gave varleLy lmpacL Lo all parameLers. LacLose
concenLraLlon and LoLal reducLlon sugar had correlaLlon for
assumlng Lhe uLlllLy of Lhose klnds of sugar. 1he daLa gave
deLall LhaL Lhe lower lacLose concenLraLlon means Lhe hlgher
lacLose was used by LA8. 1he more addlLlon of daLe lnLo
yogurL drlnk gave lmpacL Lo LoLal reducLlon sugar ln yogurL.
Powever Lhe daLa showed LhaL Lhe more LoLal reducLlon
sugar, Lhe lower pP value, and lL also lndlcaLe LhaL Lhe lower
pP value, Lhe hlgher acLlvlLles of LA8 ln produclng lacLlc acld.
Addlng dlfferenL percenLage of daLe lnLo yogurL
drlnk lnfluenced Lhe ullLlLy of lacLose ln fermenLed process
(llg. 1). LacLose concenLraLlon of yogurL drlnk based on Lhls
sLudy showed Lendency Lo decrease from 10 Lo 12 buL sLlll ln
same range of sLaLlsLlc analysls. 1reaLmenL 13 showed Lhe
hlghesL lacLose concenLraLlon. 1he sLudy lnformed LhaL LA8
mosLly uslng lacLose from 10-12, and ln 13 was assumed LhaL
LA8 used anoLher klnds of sugar Lo grow. LacLose can be
degreed by LA8 and used Lhe carbon as energy resource.
Mazahreh dan LrshldaL (2009), sLaLe LhaL loctoboclllos
bolqotlcos 5tteptococcos tbetmopbllos able Lo degreed
lacLose Lo be glucose and galacLose up Lo 20-30 of LoLal
lacLose ln mllk. ?lldlz (2010) also clarlfy LhaL loctoboclllos
ocblJopbllos break Lhe lacLose Lo be lacLlc acld. LacLose
concenLraLlon was also depend on Lhe ablllLy of LA8 Lo use
and degreed lacLose.
8esulL of LoLal reducLlon sugar lncrease perslsLenLly
from 10 Lo 13 (llg. 2). Addlng daLe exLracL lnLo yogurL drlnk
lncrease LoLal reducLlon sugar of yogurL. AmounL of
reducLlon sugar ln yogurL can supporL Lhe growLh of LacLlc
Acld 8acLerla. Cad et ol. (2010) sLaLed LhaL sugar of daLe
palm sLlmulaLe Lhe lacLlc acld bacLerla acLlvlLles. Ll-
Sharnouby et ol. (2009) sald LhaL daLe conLalns of 83.31
reducLlon sugar such as glucose and frucLose. 8educLlon
sugar ls klnd of sugar whlch encourage LA8 Lo grow.
Powever Loo much sugar ln yogurL wlll noL good for LA8 Lo
grow. Lubls (2011) also sLaLed LhaL addlng daLe exLracL lnLo
yogurL drlnk lncrease 1oLal LA8 slgnlflcanLly. ?lldlz (2010)
sLaLe LhaL range frulL addlLlon lnLo yogurL drlnk beLLer from
30-33 conLalnlng frucLose 2.7 ln maxlmum and sucrose
less Lhan 4. AmounL of added daLe exLracL lnLo yogurL
drlnk glve lmpacL Lo LoLal reducLlon sugar, Lhe more addlLlon
of daLe exLracL lnLo yogurL drlnk, Lhe more LoLal reducLlon
sugar ln yogurL drlnk.
LacLose and 8educLlon Sugar ConcenLraLlons, pP and Lhe Sourness .

vol. 1 no. 1, 2012 - !ournal of Applled lood 1echnology
ln llg. 3 showed LhaL pP value decreased from 10 Lo
13. 1he more addlLlon of daLe exLracLs Lhe more lower pP
value of yogurL drlnk. pP value were caused by acLlvlLles of
LA8 ln formlng lacLlc acld. ?lldlz (2010) sald LhaL
loctoboclllos ocblJopbllos ls able Lo produce and accumulaLe
lacLlc acld so LhaL decrease Lhe pP value. 8ased on Lhe
research of Lubls (2011), addlng more daLe exLracL
accumulaLed Lhe acldlLy of yogurL drlnk. 8ase on sLaLlsLlc
analyzed addlng daLe lnLo yogurL drlnk gave no lnfluence Lo
Lhe sourness by panellsL (llg. 4). So Lhe dlfferenL percenLage
of added daLe range from 0-6 gave no lmpacL ln level of

1hls sLudy conflrmed LhaL addlng daLe exLracL lnLo
yogurL drlnk added up Lhe amounL of reducLlon sugar
slgnlflcanLly and supporL LA8 Lo produce lacLlc acld. 1he
more lacLlc acld of yogurL, Lhe lower of pP value. 1he besL
LreaLmenL percenLage added daLe yogurL drlnk was placed ln
12 addlng 4 of daLe exLracLs, because Lhe resulL of all
parameLer mosLly noL glve slgnlflcanL lnfluence.

Al-khuzalm, M. 2010. khaslaL kurma dan Muk[lzaL kurma
'A[wah. erpusLakaan naslonal 8l, Solo.
ulwangkoro, C. (2008). engaruh Lama lnkubasl pada roses
embuaLan ?ogurL Susu kamblng yang
ulLambahkan 8uah uurlan 3 1erhadap 1oLal
8akLerl Asam LakLaL, kadar LakLosa dan nllal pP.
rogram Sar[ana unlverslLas ulponegoro,
Semarang. (Skrlpsl Sar[ana eLernakan).
Ll-Sharnouby, C. A., S. M. Al-Lld and M. M. Al - CLalbl. 2009.
uLlllzaLlon of enzymes ln Lhe producLlon of llquld
sugar from daLes. Afrlcan !. of 8lochem. K (3) : 041-
Cad, A. S., A. M. khollf dan A. l. Sayed. 2010. LvaluaLlon of
Lhe nuLrlLlonal value of funcLlonal yogurL resulLlng
from comblnaLlon of daLe palm syrup and sklm
mllk. Am. !. lood 1echnology. L (3) : 230-239.
Marshall, !. 2006. Makanan Sumber 1enaga. Lrlangga,
Mazahreh, A. M and C. 1. M. LrshldaL. 2009. 1he 8eneflLs of
lacLlc acld bacLerla ln yogurL on Lhe gasLrolnLesLlnal
funcLlon and healLh. Alla unlverslLy College, !ordan.
M (9) : 1404-1410.
Legowo, A. M., kusrahayu dan S., Mulyanl. 2009. 1eknologl
dan 1eknologl Susu. unlverslLas ulponegoro,
Lubls, 8. 2011. kadar Alr, keasaman, 1oLal 8akLerl Asam
LakLaL, uan kesukaan compoooJ oqott utlok
8erflavor kurma (lboeolx uoctyllfeto) Sebagal
Mlnuman robloLlk. rogram Sar[ana unlverslLas
ulponegoro, Semarang. (Skrlpsl Sar[ana
1amlme, A. 2006. lermenLed mllk. 8lackwell Sclence, uk.
1eles, l. l. l., Cheryl k.?., and !. W. SLull. 1978. A MeLhod for
8apld ueLermlnaLlon of LakLose. !. ualry Scl 61:
?lldlz, l. 2010. uevelopmenL and ManufacLure of ?ogurL and
CLher luncLlonal ualry roducLs. 1aylor and lrancls
Croup, unlLed SLaLe.