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Alfred Rosenberg

Another smart and intelligent, leader of another propaganda department. Like Josef
Goebbels.
Article 48
In time of emergency, the President is allowed to run the country on his own by issuing
emergency law.
Suggested by general Schleicher - Hindenburg!s assistant.
Aryans
German speaking Austrians feel intimidated because they are outnumbered.
Had racist and superior thoughts, they think they!re Aryans (like Viking warriors, more
superior than others)
Autobahn
Highway/ freeway.
This was one of the economic geniuses of Hitler.
He builds Autobahn, brought down unemployment.
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler and his Nazi group formed alliance with some Freikor guys to overthrown the
government by force to seize power.
They managed to convince Erich Ludendorff to join them.
Marched into Berlin, blocked by police and failed.
Bethmann Hollweg
Austrians were furious about this, the government sees it as war declaration. Austria think
it was the plot of the Serbian government so they planned to take revenge. Austria went to
Germany quietly asking for backing up in case Russia comes in and help Serbia during
war.
The Germany chancellor at the time Theobald Von Bethmann-Hollweg think its not a
good idea and didn!t want to help Austria. But Kaiser Wilhelm II decided to back Austria,
event name: Blank Check.
DNVP (Nationalist)
Bunch of old fashioned guys who Hated the Weimar Republic and wanted the Kaiser back.
Enabling Act
If 2/3 of the Reichstag voted for a certain party, the chancellor gets the power in an
emergency law.
Reichstag met at the Kroll Opera House, the communist were in jail, the SA also threaten
the parties to vote for the Nazis, although SPD voted no, but majority parties including the
Center Party vote for the Nazis. Hitler took over power legally under emergency law.
Erstaz
Raw material substitutes were used because the materials and resources were running
out because all were used in military build up for the war.
Fatherland Party
Bismark political people come together to form this political party. Pro: military, very right
wing. They doesn!t want peace, only victory and support force against opponents towards
war. Blames socialist, SPD etc for lack of war success. Also Anti-semitic. Doesn!t last long,
disappear at the end of WWI. Resemble as the later Nazi Party. Largely bankrolled by
wealthy businessmen and corporations.
Franz von Papen
New chancellor after Bruning
He lifted the ban on SA.
Abolish state government in Prussia after lift on SA ban, which leads to Politic Violence.
He offered Hitler the seat of the chancellor, thinks he!s using Hitler by not giving him much
power.
Gleichschaltung
Synchronization
Used by Nazis, Hitler created a law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service.
He wants the government workers to be completely loyal to him
Fires thousands of people, including the SPD, Center Party and Jewish people.
Gregor Strasser
Head of Political Organization of Nazi, important Nazi person.
General Schleicher approached him, wants to use Nazi and work together. He tempts
Strasser away from Nazi, ask him to bring some members out of the party. Strasser
thought about it and went to vacation.
Hitler found out about this eventually and red him and his close friends, and appoints
Rudolf Hess as P.O.
Gustav Stresemann
The leader of small poli-party = DVP (stuffy businessmen party)
Appointed as new chancellor (but only as chancellor for few months because his party was
small)
The knew about banking very well, during the ination, he got rid of the existing worthless
currency and starts over and reissues new version of the Marks in limited quantity to
stabilize currency.
He!s the only competent leader during the Weimar Republic.
Heinrich Bruning
Leader from the Center Party
Appointed as chancellor in Spring 1930.
He banned the SA from strolling on the streets.
Came up ideas which meant to improve the country (propose more tax, less spending) but
his ideas were very unpopular.
Whenever his ideas doesn!t get support by the Reichstag, he goes for the president and
ask for Article 48 to be used.
Hermann Goring
Became president of the police forces in Prussia (politic violence) once Hitler came to
power.
He offered the police to cooperate with the Nazi SA.
SA were being referred as Police Helpers
Josef Goebbels
Smartest person in the Nazi group, well educated, has a PhD.
One of Hitler!s most trusted man.
Became minister of propaganda, created the Cultural Department, (chamber of culture)
He realized people go to the movies to relax and entertainment, so he didn!t limit the
cinema for only Nazi movies.
Even encourages people to continue making entertaining movies.
Kampfbund fur deutsche Kultur
Group of people who would destroy art, books, movies they disapprove personally. Nazis
think that being unGerman is the biggest crime (mostly towards art) They remove art that
doesn!t represent German (Degenerate Art), immoral art.
Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy)
A large state-controlled leisure organization.
Supposed to bridge the class divide by making middle class leisure activities available to
everybody. (By having mixed classes and clubs, regardless of social status)
Kinder, Kirche, Kuche
Stands for Children, Kitchen and Church.
Nazis were anti-feminism and they are disgusted by the women walking on the streets,
taking over men jobs.
They say they belong to these 3Ks.
Kurt von Schleicher
General of the army. Good friends with Hindenburg!s son.
He suggested Article 48.
He convinced Hindenburg to res Bruning for banning the SA.
He thinks that Nazi cannot be angered, wants to use them. suggesting the outlaw parties
to declare President dictatorship (Hindenburg!s presidential time is up, needs to be
reelected)
Leni Riefenstahl
Female movie director. Directed the movie/documentary Triumph of the Will (1935),
everything was beautifully made, made another movie called Olympia, the Olympics which
held in Belgium.
Martin Heidegger
Philosopher, like irrational stuff (mystery of life, spiritual) doesn!t like reason and science.
Support Nazi!s idea. Being seen as the supporting celebrities of the Nazi Party.
Mein Kampf
The bible of Nazi party.
My Struggle/Battle
Hitler dictated it secretary who wrote down when he was in prison.
Consist of his life, how he came to Germany, his political ideas.
The prominent ideas in the book:
1) The Fuhrer Principle
2) Full Blown Racist Theory
No.1 reason Hitler came to power was he fears the Marxist revolution.
Night of the Long Knives
SA were getting bigger and being a threat to Hitler. Hitler doesn!t need them anymore,
because he can control the military and police. They were also creating a lot of problems.
The Old Fighters were also getting pissed that Hitler didn!t give them a lot of power.
Hitler launches this to murder Ernst Rohm and his friends (high rankings of SA).
Murdered general Schleicher, people who went against him during the putsch.
Germans were told that the SA are organizing a putsch, so they were killed off.
Kulturkampf
Otto von Bismarck still feels that Germany is not really unied, people were still loyal to
their own small kingdoms.
Protestant - 2/3
Catholic - 1/3
OVB created this, wanted to decrease Catholics amount, force them to be loyal to the
Kaiser.
Catholics gets annoyed, formed a party as Center Party.
OVB realized he failed, stopped Kulturkampf, made things worse: failed to unify both
Protestant and Catholic.
Lebensraum
living space
Hitler feels that Germany needs Lebensraum to expand, to achieve greatness.
Locarno Pact
A new deal from the Versailles Treaty, a deal that nally accepting Western borders, and
Germany allowed to trade with them.
Ludendorff
Sidekick of the then WWI general: Paul von Hindenburg
He provided most of the tactics to win the war against Russia.
He supported the Beer Hall Putsch, gets arrested and released on probation.
November Criminals
A lot of people believed in conspiracy that Germany shouldn!t have lost the war, so people
believe there are traitors that backstab their own country. These traitors are referred to as
November Criminals.
NSDAP
Nazi was the name at the beginning.
Members were terried of Marxism, mostly lower-middle class background. They are
scared of the overthrow of Kaiser and revolution.
Hitler becomes the leader of the group in 1921.
Old Fighters
Nazi members since the beginning during the BeerHall Putsch.
They were annoyed that Hitler didn!t give them much power after he came to power as the
Fuhrer.
Paul von Hindenburg
Prussian General in WWI. Legend. Sidekick: Erich von Ludendorff.
Prince Max of Baden
Near end of WWI, when Germany was being edged back and losing war, Kaiser was
advised to appoint a chancellor from liberal party. 2 reasons:
1) easier to negotiate with liberal people, because they have democracy ideas.
2) People will blame these guys for the lost of war.
Kaiser took this advise and appoints Prince Max of Baden as chancellor.
Once appointed, he sends message to allies for cease re.
Can we have an armistice based on Woodrow Wilson!s 14 points?
Allies wants a demand that the Kaiser to be gone.
Prince Max doesn!t like the Kaiser but he had no power at the time, so negotiation broke
down.
Reichstag Fire
Before another election of Reichstag, the Reichstag building was burned down.
Hitler took this chance to blame it on the communist, went to President Hindenburg for
Article 48 activation, to catch criminals (activated the Marshall Law)
SA (Sturmabteilung)
Led by Ernst Rohm
They tend to attract restless, jobless young patriotic men and men who wants to contribute
to Germany.
Wears brown uniform.
They don!t usually carry guns, but they have weapons to hit people.
Schlieffen Plan
Plan to defeat 1 of 2 enemies within weeks, so can defeat next enemy after that. 1st target
= France, because geographically France is smaller, 100 miles can hit Paris. So their plan
to hit France is to go through Belgium. But long ago in an International Peace Treaty says
no on can invade Belgium, so Germany violated the treaty. This is the reason for UK to
enter war.
Spartacist Rebellion
Started by Spartacus League, led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Was killed
off by Freikorps (army who returned from war)
SPD
Formed by lower class people (poor workers, farmers)
Splits in 1917 coz hardcore Marxist wants revolution now and think the group is becoming
to wimpy. They formed USPD, name eventually changed to KPD. They want communist
revolution. KPD led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg.
Treaty of Brest - Litovsk
Towards the end of the war, Russia had a revolution. By the end of the war, Russia!s Tsar
was overthrown.
Provisional Government was the temporary government, got in charge of everything.
People wants war to stop, wanted change. Provisional Government refused, continues
war, extra disaster!
Another Revolution LOL. Lenin, promised the people peace, land and bread. Gained
support from Soviets.
Lenin went to Germany to declare peace. Germany demands land of half of the country of
Russia.
Germany and Russia sign Brest - Litovsk.
Sonderweg
Separate path. Germany also thinks that they are different from other countries, more
superior than other European countries.
SS
A new party came out and became very strong.
The group who murdered people at the Night of the Long Knives
They are the elites, much more powerful than the SA.
They wore black uniforms, led by Heinrich Himmler.
He wants to only recruit high educated, highly efcient unlike SA.
Swastika
Symbol of Power.
Adopted by Nazi as their national symbol in the early 1920s.
Hitler designed the swastika ag.
Versailles Treaty
Peace negotiation at 1919, outside of Paris in Versailles
4 Powers met: Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (UK), Clemencean (France),
Orlando of Italy left the negotiation.
Final treaty decide among the 3 powers, Germany was invited at the end of the
negotiation. Conditions were:
1) Germany loses substantial territory (Alsace - Lorraine returned to France), lost 13% of
land.
2) Germany stripped of military power (limited to 100k men, limited navy, no good
weapons)
3) War guilt (This war was all Germany!s fault, need to pay reparations to France and
Belgium. Undecided amount at this time, 1 year later decided: 30 billion dollars.
Germany signed this treaty and sealed fate of the Wiemar Republic.
This Treaty was not popular, so the popularity of government went down.
Walter Rathenau
Businessman, head of Germany!s largest electrical company.
He went to the government at the beginning of WWI, he realized that the war might last
very long and the supplies and materials will run short, Germany should have a planning
so that most materials are for war.
The government appointed him to a committee to reorganize economy for war purpose,
minimum for civilians. All sorts of raw materials were missing, he put scientist together to
come out with alternatives raw resources.
1922, assassinated because he supports the Weimar Republic, he was a liberal and he
agreed to serve as a foreign minister, also Jewish and being seen as a Traitor.
Weimar Republic (1919 - 1933)
An experiment with democracy, as a result of all poli-parties wanting democracy
government although disagree with each other.
The top would be the President, but the real head of government is the Chancellor
(elected by the President), after chancellor is Reichstag.
Ebert elected as 1st President.
Early years, WR was a mess, government broke, ination, short of raw materials, army
doesn!t have job after war.
Young Plan
Following Dawes Plan!s unpopularity because of the agreement of reparations that
Germany need to pay.
Stresemann negotiation new reparations plan - Young Plan
Reduced the reparation amount by 15%, Germany also get to have a longer period to pay.