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Prods Oktor Skjrv

An Introduction To Manichean Sogdian

Copyright 2007 by Prods Oktor Skjrv
Please do not cite without the authors permission

My thanks to all of my students who have actively noted ypos, inconsistencies, etc.

The manuscript samples are from the online collections of the Berliner Turfansammlung, Depositum of the
Berlin!Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften in the STAATSBIBLIOTHEK ZU BERLIN !
Preuischer Kulturbesitz Orientabteilung.

The picture above is from
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This version of the Introduction has been corrected and minimally updated to be more reliable. A problem
with the preceding version was that, as I had moved texts about, the glossaries had not all be updated. I
have tried to update them here, but there may still be words in the wrong place. The complete glossary at
the end should help.
I would have liked to update and complete the bibliography, but time is in short demand. A complete
online bibliography of Sogdian studies would be useful.
Many of the Sogdian texts had to be retyped, since they were originally typed in a right!to!left mode,
which was no longer available after Mac OS 7.5. To obviate potential typos when the text is typed
backward, I decided to simply use the photos from the Berlin Turfan collection.
I hope I will find time to add intros to Buddhist and Christian Sogdian by and by.


The Sogdians and their language.
Sogdian is an Eastern Middle Iranian language, like Khotanese and Choresmian (Khwarezmian), as
opposed to the Western Middle Iranian languages Middle Persian, with Parthian and Bactrian in the middle.
The Eastern Middle Iranian languages are closely related to the Old Iranian language Avestan, the Western
Middle Iranian languages to the Old Iranian language Old Persian. The modern Iranian language
Yaghnobi is the descendant of a variant of Sogdian.
We have Sogdian texts in four different alphabets: Old Sogdian Aramaic, Sogdian!Uighur, Manichean,
and Nestorian Christian scripts. The Old Sogdian Aramaic script is used in a group of letters (the Ancient
Letters) discovered near Dunhuang, which date from the beginning of the fourth century,
and in graffiti on
rocks in northern Pakistan. The Sogdian(!Uighur) script is the most common, being used for secular
documents, as well as Buddhist and Manichean texts. The Manichean script is a Syriac script, related to
Estrangelo and the Nestorian script. The Nestorian script was used for Christian texts.
The center of ancient Sogdiana was around the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara in present!day
Uzbekistan. Many Sogdians were merchants, however, and traveled east as far as China, bringing with
them the Sogdian language. The Manicheans and Christians, as they fled before the persecutions of the
Sasanian state from the third century on, must have settled for a while in Central Asia, learning Sogdian,
before continuing east, even to the farthest reaches of Chinese Turkestan and beyond into Mongolia.

In early times the Sogdians must have been the neighbors of the Tokharians, who borrowed numerous
words from an Iranian language, possibly proto!Sogdian.

The Ancient Letters.
These are letters written on paper discovered by the British discoverer and archeologist Marc Aurel Stein
in eastern Chinese Turkestan. The letters contain references to events that took place in the early fourth
century and can therefore be dated to that time.

The letters from Mount Mug.
This is a collection of letters and administrative, economic, and legal documents written in the Sogdian
script from the archives of King D"w#st$% found at Mount Mug east of Samarkand (8th cent.).

The graffiti on the Karakorum highway.
These are a large number of inscriptions written in a script similar to that of the Ancient Letters found
on rocks in northern Pakistan. They consist mostly of names.

The most important inscriptions other than the Karakorum Highway inscriptions are those found in

Go to and SEARCH THE IDP DATABASE for Sogdian.
See La Vaissire, 2004, 2005.
See Sims!Williams, 1985.
Sims!Williams, 1989, 1992.
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Kirghizia, Bugut, Karabalgasun, and Ladakh.

Buddhist texts.
This is the largest corpus of Sogdian texts. It contains complete or fragmentary Buddhist texts, s!tras,
j"takas, praj"p"ramit" texts, and other, most of them translated from Chinese.

Manichean texts.
There are numerous Manichean texts in Sogdian, some written in Manichean script but most of them in
Sogdian!Uighur script. Some of them have parallel texts in Middle Persian or Parthian, of which they are
expanded translations.

Christian texts.
Almost all the Christian texts were found at a Christian Nestorian monastery at Bulayq north of Turfan.
Most of the texts are translations from Syriac.


Benveniste, E., Textes Sogdiens, Paris, 1940.
Benveniste, E., Vessantara J!taka, Paris, 1946.
Gershevitch, I., A Grammar of Manichean Sogdian, Oxford, 1954.
Grenet, F. and N. Sims-Williams, The historical context of the Sogdian Ancient Letters, in Transition Periods in
Iranian History. Actes du symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (22-24 mai 1985), Studia Iranica. Cahier 5, Paris,
1987, pp. 101-22.
and . de la Vaissire, tienne de. The Sogdian Ancient Letter V, Bulletin of the Asia Institute 12, 1998 [2001],
pp. 91-104.
, The last days of Panjikent, Silk Road Art and Archaeology 8, 2002, pp. 155-96.
Henning, W. B., Ein manichisches Bet- und Beichtbuch, Abh. PAW 1936 X.
, Sogdian tales, BSOAS 11/3, 1945, pp. 465-487.
, Sogdica, London, 1940.
, The Book of the Giants, BSOAS 11/1, 1943, pp. 56-74.
, "The Sogdian texts of Paris, BSOAS 11/4, 1946, pp. 713-740.
La Vaissire, . de, Histoire des marchands sogdiens, 2nd revised ed., Paris, 2004.
, Sogdian Traders. A History, transl. by J. Ward, Leiden and Boston, 2005.
MacKenzie, D. N., The Stra of the Causes and Effects of Actions in Sogdian, Oxford, 1970.
, The Buddhist Sogdian Texts of the British Library, Tehran and Lige, 1976.
Mller, F. W. K. Handschriften-Reste in Estrangelo-Schrift aus Turfan, Chinesisch-Turkestan, I, Sb. PAW, 1904 IX,
pp. 348-352; II Anhang, Abh. PAW, 1904, pp. 1-117.
Paul, L., Prteritum und Perfect im Soghdischen, Indogermanische Forschungen 102, 1997, pp. 199-205.
Provasi, E., Note sulle costruzioni relative in sogdiano, in Scribhtair a ainm n-ogaim. Scritti in memoria di
E.Campanile, Pisa, 1997, pp. 1-25.
Reck, Ch., Mitteliranische Handschriften. Teil 1. Berliner Turfanfragmente manichischen Inhalts in soghdischer
Schrift (Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland 18), Stuttgartg, 2006.
Reichelt, H., Die soghdischen Handschriftenreste des Britischen Museums I-II, Heidelberg, 1928-31.
Sims-Williams, N., A Sogdian Ideogram, BSOAS 35/3, 1972, pp. 614-15.
, Notes on Sogdian Palaeography, BSOAS 38/1, 1975, pp. 132-39.
, The Sogdian Fragments of the British Library, Indo-Iranian Journal 18/1-2, 1976 [1977], pp. 43-82.
, On the Plural and Dual in Sogdian, BSOAS 42/2, 1979, pp. 337-46.
, (with H. Haln) The Middle Iranian Fragments in Sogdian script from the Mannerheim Collection, Studia
Orientalia 51/13, 1980, pp. $$.
, The Sogdian Fragments of Leningrad, BSOAS 44/2, 1981, pp. 231-40.
, Sogdian Manuscript Collections: A Brief Report, JA 269, 1981, pp. 31-33.
, The Sogdian Sound-system and the Origins of the Uyghur Script, JA 269, 1981, pp. 347-60.
, Remarks on the Sogdian Letters and x (with special reference to the orthography of the Sogdian version of the
Manichean church-history), Appendix to: W. Sundermann, Mitteliranische manichische Texte
kirchengeschichtlichen Inhalts, Berliner Turfantexte 11, Berlin, 1981, pp. 194-98.
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, Some Sogdian Denominal Abstract Suffixes, Acta Orientalia 42, 1981 [1982], pp. 11-19.
, The Double System of Nominal Inflexion in Sogdian, Transactions of the Philological Society 1982, 67-76.
, Chotano-Sogdica [I], BSOAS 46/1, 1983, pp. 40-51.
, Indian Elements in Parthian and Sogdian, in K. Rhrborn and W. Veenker, eds., Sprachen des Buddhismus in
Zentralasien, Vortrge des Hamburger Symposions vom 2. Juli bis 5. Juli 1981, Wiesbaden, 1983, pp. 132-41.
, The Sogdian Rhythmic Law, W. Skalmowski and A. van Tongerloo (ed.), Middle Iranian Studies, Proceedings
of the International Symposium organized by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven from the 17th to the 20th of May
1982 (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 16), Leuven, 1984, pp. 203-15.
, The Christian Sogdian manuscript C2 (Berliner Turfantexte 12), Berlin 1985.
, Ancient Letters, in Encyclopdia Iranica II/1, 1985, pp. 7-9.
, Sogdian !prm and its cognates, in R. Schmitt and P. O. Skjrv, eds., Studia Grammatica Iranica, Festschrift
fr Helmut Humbach, Mnchen 1986, 407-424.
, (with F. Grenet) The historical context of the Sogdian Ancient Letters, in Transition periods in Iranian history,
Actes du Symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (22-24 Mai 1985), Leuven 1987, 101-122.
, Syro-Sogdica III: Syriac elements in Sogdian, in A Green Leaf, Papers in Honour of Professor Jes P. Asmussen,
Acta Iranica 28, Leiden 1988, 145-56.
, Sogdian and other Iranian inscriptions of the Upper Indus I, London, 1989.
, Eastern Middle Iranian, in R. Schmitt, ed., Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, Wiesbaden, 1989.
, Sogdian, in ibid.
, The Leningrad Fragments of the Manichean Church History, Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4, 1990.
, (with J. Hamilton) Documents turco-sogdiens du IXeXe sicle de Touen-houang, London, 1990.
, A Sogdian greeting, in R. E. Emmerick and D. Weber, eds., Corolla Iranica: papers in honour of Prof. Dr. David
Neil MacKenzie, Frankfurt, 1991, pp. 176-87.
, Chotano-Sogdica II: aspects of the development of nominal morphology in Khotanese and Sogdian, in Gh. Gnoli
and A. Panaino, eds., Proceedings of the First European Conference of Iranian Studies Held in Turin, September
7th11th, 1987 by the Societas Iranologica Europaea I, Rome, 1990 [1991], pp. 275-96.
, Die christlich-sogdischen Handschriften von Bulayq, in H. Klengel and W. Sundermann, eds., gypten,
Vorderasien, Turfan: Probleme der Edition und Bearbeitung altorientalischer Handschriften, Schriften zur
Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients 23, erlin 1991, pp. 119-25.
, The Sogdian fragments of Leningrad III: Fragments of the Xw!stw!n^ft, in A. van Tongerloo and S. Giversen,
eds., Manichaica Selecta. Studies presented to Professor Julien Ries on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday,
Manichaean Studies I, Louvain 1991, pp. 323-28.
, The Sogdian fragments of Leningrad II: Mani at the court of the Shahanshah, Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4
(Aspects of Iranian Culture. In honor of Richard Nelson Frye), 1990 [1992], pp. 281-88.
, Sogdian and other Iranian inscriptions of the Upper Indus II, London, 1992.
, The Development of the Sogdian Verbal System, in A. Wezler and E. Hammerschmidt, eds., Proceedings of the
XXXII International Congress for Asian and North African Studies, Hamburg, 25th-30th August 1986, Stuttgart,
1992, 205.
, The Sogdian inscriptions of Ladakh, in K. Jettmar et al., eds., Antiquities of Northern Pakistan. Reports and
Studies II, Mainz, 1993, pp. 151-163.
, The Triple System of Deixis in Sogdian, TPS 92/1, 1994, pp. 41-53.
, Christian Sogdian texts from the Nachlass of Olaf Hansen I: Fragments of the Life of Serapion, BSOAS 58, 1995,
pp. 50-68.
, Zu den sogdischen Inschriften [von Oshibat] (p. 24) and other contributions to M. Bemmann and D. Knig, Die
Felsbildstation Oshibat (Materialien zur Archologie der Nordgebiete Pakistans, Band 1), Mainz, 1994 [1995].
, A Sogdian Version of the Gloria in excelsis Deo, in R. Gyselen, Au carrefour des religions. Mlanges offerts
Philippe Gignoux, Res Orientales 7, Bures-sur-Yvette, 1995, pp. 257-62.
, Christian Sogdian texts from the Nachlass of Olaf Hansen, II: Fragments of polemic and prognostics, BSOAS 58,
1995, pp. 288-302.
, The Sogdian Manuscripts in Br!hm^ Script as Evidence for Sogdian Phonology. Turfan, Khotan und Dunhuang,
in R. E. Emmerick et al., eds., Vortrge der Tagung Annemarie von Gabain und die Turfanforschung
veranstaltet von der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin (9.-12. 12. 1994), Berlin,
1996, pp. 307-15.
, On the Historic Present and Injunctive in Sogdian and Choresmian, MSS 56, 1996, pp. 173-89.
, Another Sogdian Ideogram? TPS 94/2, 1996 [1997], pp. 161-66.
, The Sogdian Ancient Letter II, In M. G. Schmidt und W. Bisang, eds., Philologica et Linguistica. Historia,
Pluralitas, Universitas. Festschrift fr Helmut Humbach zum 80. Geburstag am 4. Dezember 2001, Trier, 2001,
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Sundermann, W. (1.1) "Christliche Evangelientexte in der berlieferung der iranisch-manichischen Literatur." MIO
14, 1968, pp. 386-405.
(1.16) "Namen von Gttern, Dmonen und Menschen in iranischen Versionen des manichischen Mythos." AoF 6,
1979, pp. 95-133.
(1.19) Mitteliranische manichische Texte kirchengeschichtlichen Inhalts. Berliner Turfantexte XI, Berlin 1981.
(1.56) "Der Lebendige Geist als Verfhrer der Dmonen," in: Manichaica Selecta. Studies presented to Professor
Julien Ries on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, ed. A. van Tongerloo and S. Giversen, Lovanii 1991, pp.
Die Jungfrau der guten Taten, in Recurrent Patterns in Iranian Religions. From Mazdaism to Sufism. Proceedings
of the Round Table held in Bamberg (30th September 4th October 1991), ed. Ph. Gignoux (Studia Iranica,
Cahier 11), Paris, 1992, pp. 15974.
Eva illuminatrix, in Gnosisforschung und Religionsgeschichte. Festschrift fr Kurt Rudolph zum 65. Geburtstag,
ed. H. Preiler and H. Seiwert, Marburg, 1994, pp. 31727.
Eine Liste manichischer Gtter in soghdischer Sprache, in Tradition und Translation. Zum Problem der
interkulturellen bersetzbarkeit religiser Phnomene, ed. C. Elsas e. a., Berlin and New York, 1994, pp. 45262.
(1.63) Der Sermon vom Licht-Nous. Eine Lehrschrift des stlichen Manichismus. Edition der parthischen und
soghdischen Version, Berlin 1997.
On Human Races, Semi-Human Beings and Monsters, in The Light and the Darkness. Studies in Manichaeism and
its World, ed. P. Mirecki and J. BeDuhn, Leiden, Boston, and Cologne, 2001, pp. 18199.
Manichaica Iranica. Ausgewhlte Schriften von Werner Sundermann, ed. Ch. Reck, D. Weber, C Leurini and A.
Panaino, (Serie Orientale Roma 89, 12) Rome, 2001.
The Book of the Head and the Book of the Limbs. A Sogdian Word List, in Iran: Questions et Connaissances,
vol. 1: La priode ancienne, ed. Ph. Huyse, Paris 2002, pp. 135161.
Waldschmidt, E. and Lentz, W., Die Stellung Jesu im Manichismus, Abh. PAW 1926 no. 4.
Manichische Dogmatik aus chinesischen und iranischen Texten, Abh. PAW 1926 no. 4
Yoshida, Y. (E y), On the Sogdian Infinitives, Journal of Asian and African Studies 18, 1979, pp. 181-95.
, .`(`.!,, |.[;28, 1988, pp. 1-52.
, Some New Readings of the Sogdian Veersion of the Karabalgasun Inscription, in A. Haneda, ed., Documents et
archives provenant de lAsie Centrale. Actes du colloque franco-japonais, Kyoto (Kyoto International Conference
hall et Univ. Ryukoku), 4-8 octobre 1988, Kyoto, 1990, pp. 117-23.
, Appendix: Translation of the Contract for the Purchase of a Slave Girl found at Turfan and Dated 639, appendix
to V. Hansen, review of de la Vaissire, Etienne, Histoire des marchands sogdiens, and Rong, Xinjiang, Zhonggu
Zhongguo yu wailai wenming, in Toung Pao 89, 2003, pp. 159-61.
,'..`...=}],, [|.[;15, 2000 / 10, pp.
and T. Moriyasu (/9),[)(,]{`.3}/,, [|.[;
(Studies on the Inner Asian languages) 4, 1988, pp. 1-50.
Yoshida, Y. and Sundermann, W. Bzklik, Berlin, and Kyoto. Manichaean Parthian hymn transcribed in Sogdian
script. Oriento, 35/2, 1993, pp. 119-134.


italics transcribed letter or word (roughly: as pronounced)
< > transliteration value (value in Latin alphabet of letter(s) in Sogdian alphabet)
[ ] 1. in grammar: phonetic transcription; 2. in text: missing text in manuscript
/ / phoneme (see lesson 1)
{ } allophone (see lesson 1)
* 1. before non!English word: restored word; 2. before English word: uncertain meaning

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Phonemes Sogdian 1 Manichean Christian
a (&, i) !a!, !A , ! a , ! A
# !a!, !aA ()!, ! a aa = A ,
! h !h (!') e !h (!') h h
b F ( B b b
) B ) ) b
% C c C c C c
c (ts) ! ! C c
d (nd) D (t) d (t) D () d (t)
* l * L * D d
Y y y y y
f P p, (, ) F ), ( f
g G g g g
" " ! " !
h h h # +
y y y y y
i !A ! o ! A !
, c " - C c
k K k, q k Q k, q q
l L
m M m M m m
n N n N n n
w w w w W w
p P p P p p p
r R r R r R r
s s s S s s
. " . # . % .
t T t t t, / t (0)
0 l * L * t 0 (t)
w w w w U w
w W w w w W w
x x x x x
y Y y y y y
z Z , z z z z z z
- Z , z z, 1 " j -
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The Manichean alphabet is commonly regarded as a variant of the Syriac Estrangelo script, but seveeral
letteers have shapes closer to the Syriac Nestorian script. Its invention is sometimes attributed to Mani
himself, but the alphabet is probably older than that.
The order of the letters in the table below is that of the Aramaic!Syriac alphabets.


a h h (+) S s s

B b b T / o

$ ) y y P p p

G g g j K k F f f
! " J x x C c c [2]

D d d L l * Q q q

E e !h (!') l R r r

w w M m m # .

z z N n n t t

" j

Notes on the table.
The Syriac letter <l> is used for <*> and <2> for Sogdian <c>.
The letter <*> is used to write both # and $.
The letter <j> is not found in the Syriac version of the alphabet, but is peculiar to Sogdian. In the Middle
Persian and Parthian versions of the script a <z> with two dots above <- > is used instead.
On <> (ayn) see below.
The letter forms are quite constant in the manuscripts, with the exception of <d, r>, <!>, and <k, x>,
which vary according to manuscript.
Otherwise, when a letter has two forms in the table, the one to the left is used in final position.
The letters <)>, <">, <f>, and <x> are modified forms of <b>, <g>, <p>, and <k>.
The letter e! <!h> (Syriac %&) is used only in final position and has no phonetic value, while h <!h!>
(Syriac '&t) is found very rarely in loanwords from Parthian (e.g., <krm.whn> karm()h*n absolution
Lesson 10). The letter is frequently lengthened to fill the space at the end of a line.
Several letters adjust their forms when there is too little space at the end of a line for their normal forms,
e.g., - for M-, and-, $, and %- for e-; <w> has the special form W sometimes at the beginning of words;
<c> has the squeezed form for c.
Letters with a left extension (<), " > etc.) can extend this as much as needed to fill space.
Note also that the letters <n> and <y> are usually written inside <c>: y%, N%.
In double <**> the letters are close to one another: .

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When we simply substitute English letters for the Sogdian ones we say we transliterate the words, but
when we write out the word in English letters the way it was pronounced we say we transcribe the words.
To denote that we are simply transliterating we may enclose the transliteration in pointed brackets < >,
while transcriptions are indicated by italics.
Example: am translit. <m/>, transcr. m"t mother; eanax <xnh > x"n" house; ranyl <*ynr>
#&n"r dinar; lym <my*> m&$ day.

Vowels are not written consistently in the Sogdian scripts, and it is therefore not always certain what they
were, although most of the time we can make educated guesses on the basis of orthography and linguistic
comparison with other Iranian languages.
As the Sogdian alphabets are of Aramaic!Syriac descent they do not regularly express short vowels in
writing. In the Manichean script long vowels are always written, using <> for "; <y> for & and +, and <w>
for ) and !. Short vowels between consonants are usually written, using <y> for e and i and <w> for o and
The correct vowels have to be learned for each word.
The letter <> is used initially (at the beginning of a word) to express a, *, or long ", but double <!> is
commonly written for ",.
At the beginning of a word long & and + are written <y!> or <y>, while short i and u are written <y!>
and <w!>.

Sogdian words consist of a stem and an ending.
Usually, endings are case endings of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs or personal endings of
The form of a noun, verb, etc., that is left when the ending is removed is the stem.
A stem may contain one or more suffixes. For instance, *kt, did is the past stem of the present stem
kun, does. With the suffix ,y"k it becomes a noun *kt,y"k act, action, which is also a stem.
The accent in Sogdian lay on the first long vowel of the word if it had one. (The nature of long
vowels will be defined in the next section on vowels.)
If the first long vowel was in the stem, the word was accented on the stem.
If the stem contained no long vowel, the word would be accented on the ending, whether its vowel was
short or long.
In this way, all Sogdian words can be characterized as belonging to one of two types. Stems with the
accent on the stem are called heavy stems, and words with the accent on the ending are called light
This system of light and heavy stems is commonly referred to as obeying the rhythmic law and affects
all Sogdian declensions, conjugations, and word formations. In heavy stem words, final short vowels
were lost, final long vowels often reduced, and final consonants occasionally lost.
Note: In order to retain important grammatical distinctions short!vowel endings were sometimes restored by analogy
with light stems, however.

Light: -*", <)"> god nom. sing. -*", <)"!y>
Heavy: -"" <)"> piece of land, garden nom. sing. -"." <)">

The rhythmic law also affected many suffixes, which took different forms according as the stem to
which they were attached was heavy or light.

Light: *kt, <kt> done *kt,y".k act, action,
Heavy: "*r-".k wise "*r-".k,y" wisdom

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The rhythmic law shows that Sogdian possessed at least the short vowel phonemes /a, i, u/ and the long
/#, ", $, 3, 4/, a system known from other Iranian languages. These vowel phonemes were probably
phonetically realized more or less as cardinal vowels when stressed, long and short: [a ! a:], [e:], [i ! i:],
[o:], [u ! u:].

1. Short vowels.
In this manual short a or will be used in transcription of heavy stems, but * instead of a in the
transcription of light stems, in order to enable the student to see at a glance the nature of the stem.

There are basically no Sogdian words ending in a consonant with only short vowels. Any stem of this
structure either requires an ending, e.g., /)&"!/, /.&m&n!/ or must be enclitic, e.g., /kt!)&"/. The last
example belongs to a small group of words showing stressed short //. The condition for the appearance of
such a stressed short // seems to be that the word has only one syllable and and is followed by an enclitic.
Whether <rty>, possibly a combination of rt + (*)ti, was rt(t)i or *rt is not clear. In this manual rti is
used. With few exceptions, therefore, any word ending in a consonant must have a long vowel or accented r, etc.

The presence short /&/ cannot always be verified, as it is not clear which consonant clusters existed. In
initial consonant clusters, for instance, (two or more consonants at the beginning of a word) we do not
know if vowels were inserted or not. The fact, however, that the orthography in many instances vacillates
between nothing and <> or <y> indicates that short vowels were sometimes not pronounced.
In these cases, comparison with other languages leads one to posit one or two central vowels [&] (so!
called sch
wa), a vowel like the e in English perhaps, and [i], a vowel sounding like the first e in English
between. Thus, #wtp <pt"w.!> may have been pronounced (pat*")(,) in slow and accurate speech, but
in normal speech either p*t")(, (pat")(,) orafter a vowel pt")(,, andafter consonant even *pt")(,.
This [&] may also have been influenced by its phonetic context, e.g., before palatal consonant we seem to
have [&] ~ [e] in "$ <)j> -*/ ~ "y$ <)yj> -e/ or -i/.
In this manual * will be used to indicate either of the unstressed vowels [&] and [i]. The * is always
indicated in the transcriptions, although the principles underlying its inclusion are admittedly

Short /u/ may have been realized as [u], [u&], [w&], or [wu] depending on the context. This analysis is
based mainly upon the fact that words with original initial Cu! can take a prosthetic *!, e.g., ytwka
<kwty> *kut = [&kw&t, &kwut, &kut]. Other examples are difficult to find.
Similarly, short /i/ may have been realized as [i], [i&], [y&], or [yi] depending on the context.
To simplify the transcription, in this manual u and i will be used, occasionally w* and y*. When ur, ir,
un, and in occur in heavy stems they will be marked as stressed: r, etc.

The exact distribution of final short ,i and ,e is unclear. Here, certain etymological principles have been

2. Long vowels.
The long vowels /#, ", $, 3, 4/ may have been long only in stressed position and short in unstressed
position. The variant spellings of the verbal endings may reflect this.
The short /e/ and /o/ were probably not separate phonemes opposed to /"/ and /4/. Short [e] seems to be
supported by alternances such as in the ending <!yny!> ~ <!ny>, i.e., *,en& ~ ,*n&.
There are no similar pairs for [o].
In this manual e is used (e.g., -nd, to bind), but u instead of o (e.g., rux(n light, not rox(n).
Whether there was an opposition between final stressed /,/ and /,0/, is also very uncertain. In this
manual the traditional transcription with final short , in some forms of light!stem nouns (adjectives,
pronouns) and verbs as opposed to ,& and ,0 < *,aka is maintained for pedagogical reasons.

3. Nasalized and rhotacized vowels.
Sogdian apparently had short and long rhotacized (retroflex) and nasalized vowels, phonemically
(probably) vowel + /r/ or /n/.
Not all vowels + /r/ produce heavy stems, however. For instance, mur" bird is a light stem, but mar"
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 12
meadow is a heavy stem. The explanation for the difference is that, historically, the light stems contain
an Old Iranian vocalic r1, which functioned as vowel. Thus, mr1ga bird, but marga meadow. In
Sogdian, the vocalic r1 developed a short vowel before it, which remained short and did not cause a stem
to become heavy, while the old sequence vowel + r probably became a long rhotacized /#5/.
Differently, almost all stems with n before consonant are heavy.

4. Diphthongs.
The existence of short!vowel diphthongs is uncertain, as we have little means of determining whether the
old diphtongs ai and au remained before consonants or had become & and ). It is possible that they were
still diphthongs at an early stage of Sogdian, as suggested by the Sogdian orthography, but were simply
long vowels in the stage represented by the Manichean and Christian texts.
In this manual only long vowels & and ) will be used before consonants, thus *-aw, + ,am > -*wam, but
*-aw, + ,t > -)t.
The situation in final position is even less certain.

5. Long diphthongs.
The sequences + i, u, r, n, m ("i, "u, )r, etc.) are perhaps more conveniently analyzed as combinations
of + y, w, r, n, m, thus /#yC/ = [#y&C], /#wC/ = [#w&%], /#n%/ = [#n&%], etc.

With considerable reservations one may posit the following possible system of (attested) vocalic
phonemes and allophones for Sogdian:

stressed unstressed
+ /r/ + /n/ + /r/ + /n/
/#/ [#] [a] [a
] [a
/a/ [a] [a
] [a
] [&] [&
] [&
/"/ ["] [e] [e
] [e
/$/ [$] [i] [i
] [i
/i/ [i] [i
] [i
] [y&] [i
] [i
/4/ [4] [o]
/3/ [3] [u]
/u/ [u] [u
] [u
] [w&] [u
] (no examples?)

[Note: Evidence from texts written in Brahmi script now suggests that the difference may not be in quantity but in
quality, e.g., stressed &, unstressed +.].

Examples of nominative singular forms of light! and heavy!stem nouns:

Light stems Heavy stems
-*", <)"!y> god -"" <)"> piece of land, garden
r&/ <ryj> pleasure
-*" <)"y> gods w+n" <wyn> lute
r)# <rw*> copper
put, <pwt!y> Buddha p!t <pwt> rotted
m*r", <mr"!y> bird mr" <mr"> meadow
*k(*r)t, <k(r)t!y> (was) made mrtiy <mrty> man
wirk, <wyrk!y> wolf p*t(mrt <pt.myrt> is (being) counted
-ndam <bynd()m> I bind
purn, <pwrn!y> full kr$ <kwr*> where

Note: Heavy stems with ir and ur are very rare.

13 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
Stops Affricates Fricatives Nasals Continuants Sibilants
Unvoiced p, t, k % [t.] f, 0, x s, .
Voiced {b, d, g} {,} [d-] ), *, " m, n, [6] w, y, r z, -

In loanwords we also find l and h.

The affricates 2 and 3 are pronounced like English ch in child and j in judge.

The fricatives are pronounced as follows: f as in English; $ as English th in thing; x as German ch in
Loch or Spanish Spanish (not American Spanish) j in rojo; -, #, " are pronounced like Spanish b, d, g after
vowels, e.g., robar, nada, haga. The sibilants ( and / are pronounced like English sh in shut and s in
leasure, respectively.

[6], pronounced like English ng in thing, is the phonetic realization of n before k, g, and x. It is not a
separate phoneme in Sogdian, only an allophone of /n/.

{b, d, g} and {,} are allophones of /p, t, k, %/ after the voiced cononants -, #, ", m, n, z, /.

We call phonemes the smallest units of speech that distinguish meanings. Phonemes are usually
determined be establishing minimal pairs, for instance, English bad ~ sad, a pair that establishes English
/b/ and /s/ as separate phonemes. Phonemes are denoted by writing them between / /. The phoneme is not
a sound, merely a linguistic abstraction. When we want to emphasize that we are talking about the actual
soundor the phonetic realization of a phonemewe use square brackets [ ], e.g., [p], [b], [z], etc.
Phonemes are described by listing their distinctive features. Examples:
/b/: stop, labial, voiced ~ /p/: stop, labial, unvoiced, ~ /m/: nasal, labial.
/x/: fricative, velar, unvoiced ~ /"/: fricative, velar, voiced.
/s/: sibilant, alveo!dental, unvoiced ~ /z/: sibilant, alveo!dental, voiced ~ /./: sibilant, alveo!palatal,
unvoiced ~ /-/: sibilant, alveo!palatal, voiced.
In the case of /m/ we note that voiced is not a distinctive feature of nasals in English or Sogdian, as no
two words can be distinguished by the presence or absence of voicing in a nasal /m/.
Note that English t is sometimes aspirated [t], sometimes not aspirated [t]. The feature aspiration is
not, however, distinctive in English or Sogdian, so there is no phonemic opposition /t/ ~ /t/, /p/ ~ p/, etc.
In this case we say that [p] and [p] are allophones of the phoneme /p/. Aspiration is a distinctive feature
in Sanskrit, for instance, where we have minimal pairs such as kara [kara] hand ~ khara [kara]
Phonemes may not be distinguished in all positions. Thus, in English we cannot find any minimal pairs
distinguished by the phoneme sequences /st/ and /sd/. In such cases we say that the phonemic opposition
between /t/ and /d/ has been neutralized. Such phonemic neutralization has important consequences for the
orthography of Sogdian.]

As the Sogdian alphabets were not created specifically for Sogdian, there is some lack of internal logic in
the way letters correspond to sounds. Thus some phonemes are not distinguished in the alphabet (<*> = /*/
and /0/), while others can be written with two different letters. Such optional spellings occur in two
<k> and <q> both spell k, <t> and </> both spell t.
As voiced and unvoiced stops are not distinguished after a voiced cononant, either consonant may be
usedfor instance, p or b after m, z, and /; t and d after -, ", n, z, and / (# is not found in such
combinations); and k and g after n [6], z, and /. Examples:<*)mpn> and <*)mbn> = #-"mb*n lady,
wife. In the case of nd the most frequent spelling is <nd>, less frequently we find <ndt>, least frequently
<nt>. Thus, the present participle ,and& may be written <!ndyy>, <!nd/yy>, or <!n/yy>. Before p and b
the opposition between n and m is also neutralized, and either <n> or <m> can be used. Some sound and
spelling combinations that occur frequently are the following:
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 14
+ p, b + t, d + k, g + 2, 3
- -d <)t>
" "d <"t>
m mb < mp, mb>
n mb < mp, mb> nd <nt, nd, ndt> ng [6g] <ng, nng> n3 <nc, nj>
z zd <zt, zd, zdt> zg <zg>
/ /b <jp> /d <jt, jd>

Some letters can be and are frequently written double: <> (when = "); <yy> and <ww>, especially at
the end of words; <**> for both # and $; <nn> for n, and <tt> or <//> for t (d).
Final <> alternates with <!h> (Aramaic h&), and a <!h> can be added after final <>, <y>, and,
occasionally, <w> without affecting the form of the word.
There is no grammatical significance to these alternations. Thus, both -*"i and mrtiy can be written
with final <!y>, <!yy>, or <!yh>.
The only grammatical correlation is found in the use of final <h>, which is frequently used with feminine
nouns, pronouns, and edjectives, e.g., <wnh> = <wn>, <xh> = <x, x>.
In the grammar and vocabularies in this manual a simplified transliteration system of Manichean
Sogdian is used:
pointed brackets < > are dispensed with;
letters are written single, not double;
<k> and <t> are used for <q> and </>;
<!> or nothing is used for <!h> (<)"> not <)"h>, <mrty> not <mr/yyh>, etc.).


1. Read and transcribe the following words:

w$ rarm yrm dnaw
Cna yydnyzaa ky$l Qa$r
Nmlran#xwr tdnpsalrm yt#yrf yyrlq
2. Suggest spellings for the following transcribed words, and write them in Manichean script:

p*t*ri 2"#*r2+k
p*ts"r unda
*x(&(p*t #*sa sm"n&
-*"p*(& rux(n""*r*#m*n


Learn the following words by heart:

ykwn "y*k)n: eternally
zynd "zend: parable, story
sp *sp: horse
)rt -*r"t: brother
*)r! *)rt $*-*r, $*-art: to give, given
*s #*sa: ten
*ynr #&n"r (or #+n"r): dinar
fry.ty f*r&(t&: angel
"*wk ""$uk: throne
mrty martiy: man
my* m&$: day
my*, my* m&#: thus
mt m"t fem.: mother
nwkr n!k*r: now
nwr n!r: today
ptr p*t*r: father
ptsr p*ts"r: again, once more
pt"w.! pt"w.t p*t")(, , p*t"u(t: to hear, heard
.twx ("tux: glad, happy
wn un (w*n) fem.: tree
xn x"n" fem.: house
xwtw xut"w: lord, king
zrw)" z*rw",-*": God Zurw#n, the Father of
zyrn zrn: gold

15 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

Transcription Spelling Transcription Spelling
a (&, i) a , nothing l l
# a aa , m M N m n
! e a !h ! n N n
b in mb B P b p ww w w ww
) ) p P p
% C c r r R r
d in nd, ndt t tD D d dt t s S s
* l * . # .
yy y y yy t t t, /
f F f 0 L *
g in ng G g k q ww w w ww
" ! " w w w
h (rare) h h (+) x x x
yy y y yy y y y
i O ! z z z
, in n, C c - " j
k k Q k q

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 16

17 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Sogdian has 6 cases (like Old Persian and Khotanese): nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive!dative,
instrumental!ablative, and locative. All the cases are distinguished only in light stems. In heavy stems just
two cases (plus the vocative) are distinguished, which we refer to as the direct and oblique cases.
There are three numbers: singular, plural, and numerative (historically descended from the old dual).
The last is used after numerals (see lesson 8).
There are three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Neuter forms of nouns are rare but common
with adjectives. The neuter is distinguished from the masculine only in the nom. sing, which is identical
with the acc. (see lesson 5).
Adjectives agree with nouns, both when attributive and when predicative (see also Lesson 10).
There are two declensions: stems ending in consonants the consonant declension (old a! and "!stems),
and stems ending in the vowels ,& or ,", the vocalic declension (old masc. aka, and fem. "k"!stems).
Because of the final long vowels the vocalic declension has only heavy stems.

The plural suffix is ,t (light), ,t (heavy), which is declined like a feminine singular of the consonant
declension. The t becomes d after n, written <d, dt, t>. Before ,t a final !2 becomes ,(, e.g., str+2 woman,
plur. str+(t.
Note: Originally, light stems ending in r/n became heavy stems when the suffix was added, e.g., rur
<rwr> plant, plur. rrt <rwrt>. Similarly, light stems in ,iy became heavy stems in ,+t, e.g., sing. acc.
*niyu <nyw>, plur. *n+t <nyt>, sing. voc. friya <fry>, plur. fr+t <fryt>. Mostly, however, such words are
treated as light stems in the plural as well, e.g., sing. nom. una <wn> tree, plur. unda <wnt>.

The plural ending ,+(t is found in -*"+(t <)"y.t>, the plural of -*", and a few other words, many of them
loanwords, e.g., put+(t Buddhas.

There are a few instances of the old gen.!dat. plural in ,"n, e.g., -*""n <)"n> of gods.

Finally, there are a few irregular plural forms, such as #u"drt <*w"trt>, plural of #u"d, with ,ar, inserted
before the plural ,t. See lesson 5.

Consonant declensions. Light stems

Singular Plural
masculine feminine masculine!feminine
nom. , <!y> , <!> ,t <!t>
acc. , <!w> = nom. = nom.
voc. , <!> , <!y> ,t <!ty>
gen.!dat. , <!y> ,y <!y> ,ty <!ty>
ins.!abl. , <!> ,y <!y> ,ty <!ty>
loc. ,y <!y> ,y <!y> ,ty <!ty>
num. dir. , <!> , <!y>

The ending of the vocative may be lost when the word is enclitic (when it is attached to a preceding
word), e.g., -*"a o god, kt,-*" if, sir.
The distribution of final ,i and ,e suggested here is not entirely certain.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 18
Consonant declensions. Heavy stems

Singular Plural
masculine feminine masculine!feminine
dir. ! ! ,t <!t>
voc. !, ,a <!, !> *,e *,te
obl. ,+ <!y> ,+ <!y> ,t+ <!ty>
numerative ! !, , <!y>

Note: The vocative ending ,a is borrowed from the light stems.

Vocalic declensions
Singular Plural
masculine feminine masculine feminine
dir. ,& <,y> ," <,> ,&t <,yt> ,&t <,yt>
voc. ," <,> ? ? ?
obl. ,& <,y> ,& <,y> ,&t+ <,yty> ,&t+ <,yty>
Numerative ,& <,y>

The endings of this declension are the result of vowel contractions after the loss of an intervocalic k, e.g.,
sing. nom. masc. ,& <* ,ai < *,aki, fem. ," < *,"4a < *, "4ka.
Feminines like p*s"k (*ps"k) < *pus"4 k",, s*y"k shade and the abstract nouns in ,y"k are declined as
heavy stems.
Remember that a final ,a can be written <!h> and that a final <!h> can be added to endings in <!y, !yy>.
Thus, the spelling <!yh> can be for <!y> or <!y, !yy>.

Consonant declensions:
Light stems: r*m, masc. people, p*t*r, masc. father, un, (w*n,) fem. tree, #u"d, fem. daughter.
Heavy stems: m&$, masc. day, martiy, masc. man, /*w"n, fem. life, str+2, fem. woman.
Vocalic declensions: murt0 masc. corpse, x".n" fem. house.

Consonant declensions. Light stems

masculine feminine
nom. r*m <rmy> un <wn>
acc. r*m <rmw> un <wn>
voc. p*t*r <ptr> #u"d <*w"ty>
gen.!dat. r*m <rmy> uny <wny>
ins.!abl. r*m <rm> uny <wny>
loc. r*my <rmy> uny <wny>

Numerative r*m <rm> un <wny>

masculine feminine
nom. r*mt <rmt> und <wnt>
acc. r*mt <rmt> und <wnt>
voc. p*t*rt <ptrty> ?
gen.!dat. r*mty <rmty> undy <wnty>
ins.!abl. r*mty <rmty> undy <wnty>
loc. r*mty <rmty> undy <wnty>

19 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

Consonant declensions. Heavy stems

masculine feminine
dir. m&$ <my*> /*w"n <jwn>
voc. martiya <mrty> str+2e <strycy>
obl. m&$+ <my*y> /*w"n+ <jwny>

Numerative m&$ <my*> /*w"n <jwn>, /*w"ne <jwny>

masculine feminine
dir. m&$
t <my*t> /*w"nd <jwnt>
voc. mart+te <mrtyty> #u"drte <*w"trty>
obl. m&$t+ <my*ty> /*w"nd+ <jwnty>

The actual pronunciation of the forms of stems such as martiy/mart+ man is not know, but it is
probable that the sing. obl. was contracted: martiy+/mart++ > mart+.

Vocalic declensions

masculine feminine
dir. murt& <mwrty> x"n" <xn>
voc. murt" <mwr> ?
obl. murt& <mwrty> x"n& <xny>

Numerative murt& <mwrty>

masculine feminine
dir. murt&t <mwrtyt> x"n&t <xnyt>
voc. ? ?
obl. murt&t+ <mwrtyty> x"n&t+ <xnyty>

Note: The abstract fem. nouns in ,y" are usually invariable, but occasionally the ending ,+ (,y+) of the obl.
sing. may be attached to the nom. of such nouns, e.g., *k
ty" act, deed, obl. *kty"y+ <ktyy>; "*r-"ky"
knowledge, obl. "*r-"ky"+ <"r)kyy>.

The most common pronoun is x) (xu) that, which also functions as definite article. The forms below
are those of x) when used as the article. For the pronoun that see lesson 4.
We do not know what the quantity of the final vowels were: x) or xu; x" or xa, etc. In Sogdian script the
article is xw or x, which perhaps points to a short vowel.
Note that, since the plural of nouns is formally a feminine singular, the plural of the article is identical
with the feminine singular.
The forms in square brackets are found occasionally.

masc. fem. = plur. masc.!fem.
nom. x) <xw> x" <x, x> [x) <xw>]
acc. (*)wu <ww, ww> [x) <xw>] wa <w> [x" <x>, wu <ww>]
gen.!dat. un, win <wny, wyny> uya <wy>, w+ <wy, wyy>
instr.!abl. ,n <!n>, ,wn <!wn> un, win <wny, wyny>, ,n <!n>, ,wn <!wn>
loc. uya <wy, wyh>, w+ <wy, wyy> = gen.!dat.
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 20
Note the combinations p*r + *wu: p*r) <prw> on the and k* + *wu: k! <kw> to the which are used
for both masculine and feminine, singular and plural.
The instr.!abl. forms are found only combined with the prepositions 2* from and #* with: 2*n, 2)n
<cn, cwn> and #*n, #)n <*n, *wn>.

There is no indefinite article.
Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender and number.
Word order: article + adjective + noun.

In a clause consisting of a noun plus predicate noun or an adjective, e.g., the people (is) happy, the verb
is (*sti <sty>, x*2 <xcy>) and are (xand <xnd>) are sometimes, but not usually, omitted. The
negation is n&st <nyst> is not.


x) r*mi ("tux *sti, x" r*mta ("tuxt xand dnx txwta# amr ax . ytsa xwta# ymr wx
x" #&w
t ("tuxt n& xand dnx yyn txwta# twyl ax
x) R*x(i *spi *sti yytsa yypsa y#xr wx
x) p*t*ri m*z&x martiy *sti yytsa yrm xyzm yyrp wx
x) m&$ rux(
ni x*2i y%x yyn#xwr lym wx
x" m&$
t rux(*nda xand Dnx adn#xwr tlym ax
x" una *sk&2+k *sti eytsa Qycyksa enw ax
x" unda *sk&2+k
t xand Dnx tqycyksa ednw ax
x" x"n" m*z&x
2 x*2i y%x ecxyzm eanax ax
x) martiy m*z&x n&st syyn xyzm yyrm wx
; dnykrwaz yta tdnpsalrm yta ty#yrf tt#y$ eadn#xwr ax
<x rwx.ndh )" fry./yt ty mr*spndt ty zwrkynd>


1. r*mt is nom.!acc. plur. light stem noun, (".tuxt is nom.!acc. plur. heavy stem adjective, x" is the the
definite article nom. sing. agreeing with r*mta.


1. Write out the noun paradigms in Manichean script.

2. Write out the paradigms of the following words in transliteration and transcription: #xr R*x(, Nryz
zr*n, both masculine, and klp p*#k and kra rk, both feminine.

3. Identify the forms below and write out the other case forms (nom., acc., gen.!dat., and loc.) with the
definite article:

<xw xyp*wnd> dnwalpyx wx <xww prxyy> yyxrp wwx
<xw mr/yy> yyrm wx <ww stw *ynr> ranyl wts ww
<ww )"w> w$ wwa <wny zrw)"yy> yy$awrz ynw
<x xn> anax ax <wy rky> ykra ayw

21 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
4. Translate into Sogdian and write in Manichean script:

The other Buddhas.
The man is a great lord.
Life (the life) is good.
The angels are light.
The elements are not happy.


kty *k*ty"/*kt*y": act, deed
ny *niy: other
rk ark fem.: work
skycyk *sk&2+k: high, tall
ty *ti: and
)", plur. )"y.t, )"n -*", -*"+(t, -*""n: lord, sir
*w"t, plur. *w"trt #u"d, #u"drt fem.: daughter
*yw #&w: demon
"r)ky "*r-"ky": knowledge
fry friy: dear
jwn /*w"n fem.: life
kt kt: that, if
mr*spnd m*r$"sp*nd: element, the sons of Primal Man (Xorm&zd)
mwrty murt&: corpse
mzyx, fem. mzyxc m*z&x, m*z&x2: big, great
ny n&: not
p*k p*#k fem.: judgement
prxy p*rx&: payment, wages
psk p*s"k fem.: wreath, crown
pwt, plur. pwty.t put (bud), put+(t: Buddha
rm r*m: people
rwx.n rux(*n: light (adjective)
rwx.n"r*mn rux(na,"*r*#m*n fem.: the Light Paradise
rx. R*x(: name of Rustams horse
stryc, plur. stry.t str+2, str+(t: female, woman
syk s*y"k fem.: shade, shadow
.yr (ir: good
.yrk (ir"k fem.: goodness
wyn w+n" fem.: lute, vi5"
xyp*wnd x&p$"w*nd: master, lord, owner
zwrkyn z"w*rk&n: powerful
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 22

23 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Many vowel!stem adjectives have feminine forms in ,2. A preceding t is often lost before the 2 (e.g., in
the perfect participles). Examples:

Light fem. stems:
(*k*w& <.kwy> dry: fem. (uk*2 <.wkc>
n*-d& <n)ty> wet: fem. n*-d*2 <n)tc>
p*ts*"d& <pts"ty> prepared: fem. p*ts*"d*2 <pts"tc>
*kt& <kty> done: fem. *kt*2 <ktc>
p*trist& <ptrysty> mixed: fem. p*tris2 <ptrysc>

Heavy fem. stems:
n)(& <nw.y> immortal, fem. n)(*2 <nw.c>
mar2en& <mrcyny> deadly: mar2en*2 <mrcync>
an"*t& <n"ty> entire: fem. an"*t*2 <n"tc>
)su"d& <wsw"ty> purified, pure: fen. )su"2 <wsw"tc>

The simple demonstrative pronouns are y) (&,), obl. (*)m, this and x), obl. (*)w, that. These two are
mostly restricted to the function of definite articles; x) also functions as personal pronoun for the 3 pers.
(see lesson 4).
There is also a demonstrative pronoun (*)(), f. (" that there, often with 2nd pers. reference.
The pronoun y) functions as nom.!acc., masc.!fem., sing.!plur.
Sogdian has several composite demonstrative pronouns. The most common ones are &#/*m&# this
and x&#/w&# that < &,/y)/*m, and x)/*w, + ,&#; &n&/y)n& this and x)n& that < &,/y)/*m, and x)/*w, +

nom. &# <y*> x&# <xy*
acc. ? w&# <wy*>
nom.!acc. me(and <my.nd> we(and <wy.nd>

The original (neut.) acc. of &# is m&# <my*, my*>, which is used only as an adverb thus.

&n& this y)n& this x)n& that, yonder
masc.!fem. masc. fem. masc. fem.
nom. &n& <yny, yny> y)n& <ywny> y"n" <yn> x)n& <xwny> x"n" <xn>
acc. = nom. m)n) <mwnw> m"n" <mn> )n) <wnw> w"n" <wn>
nom. y"nd <ynt> x"nd <xnt>
acc. m"nd <mnt> w"nd <wnt>

The forms &n&, y)n&, and x)n& are occasionally found used as oblique case sing. and nom.!acc. plur.
Beside x)n& there is the form x)n*x <xwnx, hwnx>, which appears to be a combination of x)n(&) + *x)
or dissimilated from *x)nak (S.!W.).
Note also the adverbs y)n&$ <ywny*> at once, right away and w"n) thus.
The pronoun (*)() has the composite form ()n& (Yoshida, 2000, pp. 81!82).

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 24
Most of these pronouns can be governed by prepositions:

2, from, with: 2&m&# <cymy*> 2&w&#(+) <cywy*(y)> 2&w&(*n <cywy.n>
#, with: #&m&# <*ymy*> #&w&# <*ywy*> *#&we(*n <*ywy.n>
k, to: k&m&# <kymy*> k&w&# <kywy*>
p*r, in, on, by: p*r&m&# <prymy#> p*r&w&# <prywy*> p*r&we(*n <prywy.n>

2, from, with: 2&m*nd <cymnt> 2&w*nd <cywnt>
#, with: #&m*nd <*ymnt> #&w*nd <*ywnt>
k, to: k&m*nd <kymnt> k&w*nd <kywnt>
p*r, in, on, by: p*r&m*nd <prymnt> p*r&w*nd <prywnt>

The Sogdian verbal system is based upon two stems: the present stem and the past stem. Both stems (if
known) are listed in the glossaries and must be learnt.
From the present stem are made the present indicative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, the imperative,
and the imperfect.
From the past stem are made the past tenses (simple past and pluperfect) and the perfect tenses (present
perfect and pluperfect), indicative, subjunctive, and optative.

The present indicative has the following endings:

Light stems Heavy stems
1 ,m <!m, !m> ,*m <!m>, ,am <!m>
2 , <!y> ,e <!y>
3 ,t <!ty> ,t <!t>
1 ,0m <!ym> ,&m <!ym>
2 ,$ <!*>, ,t <!t> ,$a <!*>, ,ta <!t>
3 ,nd <!nd, !nd> ,*nd <!nd, !nd>

The quantity of the vowel of the 1 sing. ending ,am (,"m) is uncertain. Phonetically it was probably
[m]. (Note that Khotanese ,+m is < ,ami.)
The 2 sing. and 2 plur. endings of the heavy stems are from the light stems.
In the 3 sing. of light!stem verbs ending in r or n, the addition of the ending ,t originally produced a
heavy stem, e.g., -art. Such forms are sometimes preserved of r!stems, but more often the light!stem form
is restored, and -*rti is the normal form. All n!stems remain light.
In the 3 sing. of verbs ending in t, the t of the ending merges with the final t of the verb, e.g., *zwart <
*zwart,t he returns.

Light stems Heavy stems
1 -*rm <)rm, )rm> w&n*m <wynm>
2 -*r <)ry> w&ne <wyny>
3 -*rt <)rty> w&nd <wynt>
1 -*r&m <)rym> w&n&m <wynym>
2 -*r$ <)r*>, -*rt <)rt> w&n$a <wyn*>
3 -*rnd <)rnd, )rnd> w&n*nd <wynnd>

25 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
t becomes d after n: kun + ti > kundi, etc.
2 becomes ( before t: s"2 + t > s"(t (not s"2*t!) it is proper, necessary (to do), etc.
Present stems in ,*w (,aw) <!w> or ,*y (,ay) <!y> have ,) and ,& before consonants, e.g., (*w, to go:
(*wam but ()t < *(w*t; p*t(kw*y,: to say: p*t(kw*yam but p*t(kw&t < *pat(kway*t. Whether there were
also present stems in ,uw opposed to ,*w, e.g., /uw, or /*w, to live, (and ,iy) with 3 sing. in ,!t (and ,+t)
we do not know.

The verbs to be and to become have some irregular forms. The present indicative paradigms are as

To be:
Sing. 1 &m <ym, !ym> Plur. 1 &m <ym, !ym>
2 &( <y., !y.> 2 ans*$a <ns*>, ,s$a <!s*>
3 *sti <sty>, x*2i <xcy>, &2i <ycy> 3 xand, ,and <xnd, !nt, !nt>

The forms with hyphen are used as endings in the simple past tense (see lesson 7).
n&st&m I am not, n&st (he, she, it) is not.

\To become:
Sing. 1 u-am <w)m> Plur. 1 -&m <)ym>
2 u-& <w)y> 2 *-)$a
3 -)t <)wt> 3 -and <)nd>

The verb *sk*w, *sk*w"t to dwell is also employed as an auxiliary with the same functions as to be.

The progressive present tense is formed from the present indicative by adding the particle <!
skwn> ,skun. It corresponds to the English progressive present (I am working).
The suffix ,skun is probably an old (middle) participle of *sk*w, (< *sk!n or *sk)n < *skawan):

-*ram,skun I am carrying Nwqsmar$
w&n,skun you are seeing Nwqsnyw

The future tense is formed from the present indicative by adding the particle <!km, !qm> ,k"m or <!
kn> ,k"n. The suffix ,k"m is an old noun meaning wish:

-*r$a,k"m you will carry Makalr$
(*w&m,k"n we shall go Naqmyw#

The verb to be uses forms from to become:

u-am,skun I shall be Nwqsma$w
-)t,k"m he will be Maktw$

The functions of the nominative are as follows:

1. The nominative is used to name something or somebody, e.g.:

x) Rust*mi x*2i it (lit. he) is Rustam ycx yymtswr wx
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x" m*z&x*2 x"n" *sti it is a big house yysa enax Cxyzm ax
x" #&wt xand those are #&ws dnx twyl ax
x" y"x&t mart+t xand those are brave men dnx tytrm tyxay ax
x)n*x x*2i *rt"w #&n#"r& he is a righteous Manichean yyralnyl wara eycx xnwx
pan3*m+k x"n" rux(na z"y fifth (there is) yonder Light Earth yaz an#xwr anax kymcnp

2. The subject of a verb is in the nominative, whether intransitive (e.g., I am, I go), transitive (e.g., I
do), or passive (e.g., I am called). A personal pronoun as subject may be omitted. Examples:

*zu miram,skun I am dying Nwksmarym wza
Rust*mi n*p&st,skun Rustam writes Nwkstsypn ymtswr
x) R*x(i marts"r &st,skun Rax. is coming here (hither) Nwqstsyo rasrm yy#xr wx

3. The predicate noun or adjective of the verb to be and some other verbs (e.g., to be called) is in the
nominative. The verb to be in the present is frequently omitted (always, but not exclusively, in the 3rd
sing. present).
Clauses with a subject and predicate noun or adjective but without a verb are called nominal clauses or
noun clauses.

x) R*x(i *spi *sti Rax. is a horse ysa ypsa y#xr wx
Rust*mi xwenm I am called Rustam Manywx ymtswr
x) Rust*mi y"x& Rustam is brave yxay ymtswr wx
x" x"n" p*ts*"d2a *sti the house is constructed ysa ectsp anax ex
x" z"y n*-d2a, (uk2a n&st the earth is wet, not dry tsyyn acqw# ect$n yaz ax
x" t*rs"kt su"#+kt xand the Christians are Sogdians tnx qylws tkasrt ex
6+n*st*n #!r *sti China is far away ysa rwl Ntsnyc

4. An apposition to another nominative is in the nominative:

x) R*x(i x) *spi Rax., the horse ypsa wx y#xr wx
x) Rust*mi x) y"x& Rustam the brave yxay wx ymtswr wx

Number with !arf much, many (a) and s"t every, all.
The measure word "arf when meaning much or many a takes a following noun in the singular, e.g.,
"arf "p much water, "arf rux(ny"k much light.
When it means many and plurality is emphasized(?), the plural is also found, e.g., "arf &#&t many
persons (BBB 545), "arf z"t&t many children (TaleK 33), "arf (*m*nda many monks (P8.196).
The measure word s"t is most commonly used alone as direct object all of it, but it can also be used
with nouns: in the singular meaning every and in the plural meaning all, e.g., s"t -*"+(t all the gods.


x) x*tu *wu m*r"z martiy w"n) p*sti k*t q yytsp wnaw yyrm zarm wwa wtx wx
2u ark "*r-e y$r ekra wc
rti x) martiy p*t(kw&t k*t tk tywk#tp yyrm wx ytra
m*r""rt smbam,skun Nwksmabmws rarm
"arf #&wt &s*nd,skun Nwks tnsyowyl Fr
x) Rust*mi s"t p*txw"yt,k"m Maqtyawxp as yymtswr wx
x) R*x(i ("tux n& -)t,k"m Maktw$ yyn xwa# yy#xr wx
*wu x*tu p*r) x*ty"k p*sam,k"m Maqmasp Qaytx wrp wwx wwa
Makmyw# Nmlran#xwr C#wn wk xamt#w wk yta Mak Myrym
mir&m,k"m *ti k! u(t*m"x k! n)(2 rux(n""*r*#m*n (*w&m,k"m
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1. Conjugate in the present indicative "*r-, to understand and p*txw"y, to kill.

2. Translate into Sogdian, and write in Manichean script:

This man is a judge; that man is a lord. This water is pure; that water is foul.
The air is very fragrant; the poison is deadly. This is the creation of Xormazd.
Death comes quickly. You understand everything; they know nothing.
Many elephants and pigs are gathering. He will be happy; the entire Paradise will be very joyous.

In the glossary verbs are listed by present stem and past stem. Masculine nouns are not marked as such.

p "p fem.: water
kty, fem. ktc *kt&, *kt2: done
n"ty, fem. n"tc an"*t&, an"*t2: entire, complete
nwz! nw.t anw*z, *nu(t: to gather
rtw *rt"w: righteous
rty rti: and
skw! skwt *sk*w, *skw"t: to dwell, be
wsw"ty, fem. wsw"tc )su"d&, )su"d*2:
purified, pure
y* &#: this
y*c ... ny/n &#2 ... n&/na: no, not, dont ... any
(thing), nothing
yny, yny &n&: this
ys!, ys! "t &s, ""*t: to come
zw *zu: I (subject)
)r! )wrt/)rt -*r, -urt/-art: to carry, bring
)ry -*riy fem.: air
)w*ndy, fem. )w*ndc -)#and&, -)#an2:
cw 2u: what
cynstn 6+n*st*n: China
*m #"m fem.: creation
*wr #!r: far, distant
*yn*r, *yn*ry #&n#"r, #&n#"r&: holder of the
religion, (good) Manichean
fr.t, f.t > ps!
"ndk "and"k: bad, foul
"r)! "r)t "*r-, "*r-"t: to know, understand
"rf "arf: much, many
jr /"r fem.: poison
j"rt /"art: quickly
ks k"s: pig
m"wn m*")n: entire
mrz m*r"z: workman
mrc mar2 fem.: death
mrcyny, fem. mrcync mar2en&, mar2en2: deadly
mr"rt m*r""rt: pearl
mrtsr marts"r: hither
myr! mwrt mir, murt: to die
n)ty, fem. n)tc n*-d&, n*-d2: wet
npys! npx.t n*p&s, n*p*x(t: to write
nw.y, fem. nw.c n)(&, n)(2: immortal
ps! fr.t, f.t p*s, f*r(t, f*(t: to ask, investigate
ptrysty, fem. ptrysc p*trist&, p*tris2: mixed
pts"ty, fem. pts"t% p*ts*"d&, p*ts*"t2: prepared,
pt.kwy! pt.kwt p*t(kw*y, p*t(kw"t: to say
ptxwy! ptxwst p*txw"y, p*txust: to kill.
py* p+#: elephant
rwstm Rust*m: proper name
rwx.nyk rux(ny"k: light
sc! s"2,: it is proper, necessary (for sb. to do);
impersonal verb
st s"t: all, everything
sw"*yk Su"#+k: Sogdian
swmb! sw)t smb, su-d: to bore
.kwy, fem. .wkc (*k*w&, (uk2: dry
.mn (*m*n: Buddhist monk
.w! xrt (*w, xart: to go
.yr (+r: well, very
t"w t*"u: you (thou)
trsk t*rs"k: Christian
wnw w"n): thus
w)! u-,: to become
w".ndy u"*(and&: joyous
w.tmx u(t*m"x: Paradise
wyn! wyt w&n w+t: to see
xtw x*tu: judge
xtyk x*ty"k fem.: judgement
xwnx, hwnx x)n*x: that
xwny x)n&: that
xwrmztyk, fem. xwrmztyc xurm*zd+k, ,+2:
xwyn! xwen,: to be called
xy* x&#: that
yxy y"x&: brave
ywny y)n&: this
ywny* y)n&$: at once, right away
zty z"t&: son
zy z"y fem.: earth
zwrt! zwst z*wart, zust: to turn (back), return
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 28

29 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


The personal pronouns are declined as follows:

I you he she
nom. *zu <zw> t*"u <t"w> x) x" <x>
acc. t"m" <tm> t"f" <tf> *wu, wu <ww, ww> = masc.
enclitic ,m, ,mi <!m, !my> ,f <!f> ,(u <!.w> = masc.
gen.!dat. m*na <mn> t*wa <tw> une, wine <wny, wyny> uya <wy>
enclitic ,mi <my> ,ti <!ty>, ,fi, ,f <!fy, !f> ,(i <,(y>, ,( <!.> = masc.

we you they
dir. m"x <mx> (m"x <.mx> we(and, u(and <wy.nt, w.nt>
obl. = dir. = dir. we(and+, u(and+ <wy.nty, w.nty>
enclitic ,m*n <!mn> ,t*n <!tn>, ,f*n <!fn> ,(*n <!.n>

The enclitic forms are normally attached to the preceding word and have no stress of their own.
On enclitic pronouns with relative pronouns, see Lesson 8.
Only exceptionally do we find (u at the beginning of a sentence, but it is then the rare demonstrative
pronoun () (Lesson 3).

The accusative forms t"m" and t"f" are compounded with an old preposition *ta/t" to (used in letter
openings) + the old enclitic accusative forms ,m" and ,f" + an old ending *,kam, or similar.
Parallel formations with other prepositions are the following:

2*, + 2"m" <cm> 2"f" <cf>
#*, + #"m" <*m> #"f" <*f>
p*r + p*r"m" <prm> p*r"f" <prf>

Verbs. The imperfect.
The stem of the imperfect is often different from that of the present. The imperfect stem is formed in
various ways, depending on the history of the verb:

1. The imperfect stem is identical with that of the present stem if the stem has only one syllable, e.g., -*r,:
imperf. -*r,; w&n,: imperf. w&n,.

2. If the verb has a preverb, the (historical) vowel of the preverb is sometimes lengthened. The most
common types are:
present stem imperfect stem meaning
), ~ w", )/"*#, w"/"*#, dismount
p*, ~ p", p*r*xs, p"r*xs, be left (over), remain
p*r, ~ p*r+, p*r(t"y, p*r+(t"y, prepare
p*t, ~ p*t+, p*t(kw*y, p*t+(kw*y, answer
n*, ~ n+, n*m"y, n+m"y, show
s*, ~ s+, s*fr+n, s+fr+n, create
t*, ~ t+, t*k)(, t+k)(, listen
z*, ~ z+, z*wart, z+wart, turn back, return
wi, ~ w+, wit*r, w+t*r, depart
u, ~ w+, u"*(, w+"u(, rejoice
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 30
3. Such lengthening also sometimes occurs when the first consonant of the stem is not a preverb, e.g.,
(*k*r,: imperf. (+k*r,; /*"&r,: imperf. /+"&r,.
In $*-*r, to give: imperf. $"-*r, the initial $ represents an old *f, < *fra,.

4. If the verb begins with a, or ", (not consistently), the imperfect stem may be formed by prefixing m,, cf.
anx*z,, imperf. manx*z, to rise, """z,: imperf. m"""z, (or """z,) to begin.

5. A special imperfect stem is formed with the suffix ,"z, e.g., (*w"z ((wz) he went. Such forms are rare
in Manichean Sogdian.

The progressive imperfect is formed by attaching the particle ,skun to the imperfect form:

Nwksaw# (*wa,skun or Nwkszaw# (*w"z,skun he was going.

The imperfect has the following endings:

Light stems Heavy stems
1 , <!w> ! <!>, ,u <!w>
2 , (,?) <!y> ! <!>, ,i <!y>
3 , <!> !
1 ,0m <!ym> ,&m <!ym>
2 ,t <!t> ,ta <!t>
3 ,nd <!nd, !nd> ,*nd <!nd, !nd>

The 1 sing., the 2 sing. ,i, and 2 plur. ending of the heavy stems are from the light stems.
The ending of the 2 sing. should be , like the nom. sing. of cons. stems. Whether this , has been
replaced by the , of the present indicative we do not know.


Light stems Heavy stems
1 -*r <)rw> w&nu <wynw> $"-*ru <*)rw>
2 -*r <)ry> w&ni <wyny> $"-*r(i) <*)r(y)>
3 -*r <)r> w&n <wyn> $"-*r <*)r>
1 -*r&m <)rym> w&n&m <wynym> $"-*r&m <*)rym>
2 -*rt <)rt> *w&nda *$"-*rta <*)rt>
3 -*rnd <)rnd, )rnd> w&n*nd <wynnd> $"-*r*nd <*)rnd>

The exact vocalization of the final syllable(s) of heavy!stem imperfects of present stems in ,*y/,& is not
known. In this manual ,*y will be used:

1 <pty.kwy> p*t+(kw*y or p*t+(kw&
2 <pty.kwy> p*t+(kw*yi or p*t+(kw&
3 <pty.kwy> p*t+(kw*y or p*t+(kw&
1 <pty.kwym> p*t+(kw*y&m or p*t+(kw&m
2 <pty.kwyt> *p*t+(kw&ta
3 <pty.kwynd> p*t+(kw*y*nd or p*t+(kw&nd

31 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
To be, become.
Manichean Sogdian does not have a 3 sing. imperfect of the original verb to be; instead it uses the
simple past tense um"t <wmt> was.
The only attested imperfect forms of -w, to become are 3 sing. u- <w)>, 3 plur. u-and <w)ndt>.

Uses of the accusative.
The accusative is used in the following functions in Sogdian:

1. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative of light stems and the direct or oblique case
(especially animate nouns and pronouns?) of heavy stems: $$

*wu x*tu w&ne do you see the judge? ynyw wx wwa

2. Two accusative objects are found with verbs signifying to make sb. sth., to ask sb. for sth.:

x) m*r"z martiy x&p$"w*nd p*rx& x)/d t"wx yxrp tnwalpyx ytrm zarm wx
the hired man asks the master for (his) wages

3. The accusative is used to indicate measure: how much, how many, how long?:

&w m&$ (for) one day Lym wya
#!r z"y ()$a,k"m you will go a long distance Mak alw# yaz rwl

4. The prepositions p*r on, about, for and k! (< k* + *wu) to(ward) govern the accusative. Common
combinations of p*r and k! with postpositions are p*r ... s"r toward, p*r ... 2!p*r over, k! ... s"r
toward, k! ... p*r*m (all the way) to, k! ... 2and*r/2nd*r into.

k! x*tu s"r p*r x*ty"k (*wand tnw# kayx rp ras wx wq
they went to the judge about judgement
x" #&n#"rt k! u(t*m"x (*wand,k"m Makdnw# xamt#w wwq ralnyl ax
the good Manicheans will go to Paradise
Maq Mynyrxp Nryz ranyl wts rp lym wya yrm wwa
*wu martiy &w m&$ p*r stu #&n"r zr*n p*txr+n&m,k"m
we shall rent the man for one day for 100 dinars gold

5. The apposition to a noun in the accusative is in the accusative.

R*x(u *wu *spu w&n$a do you see Rax., the horse? alnyw wpsa wwa w#xr
Rust*mu *wu y"x& p*txr+ne,k"m Maqynyrxp yxay wwa wmtswr
are you going to hire Rustam the brave?

TEXT 4.1
(Tale A, M 135)

<cn mr"rt swmbyy zyndyy xwycqwy> ywaqcywx yydnyzaa yybmws trarm Nc 1
<p/jymc w) r/y ny fr./h )w/ oo > . . w$ ea#rf yn yra a$w Cmay"p [...] 2
. . dnaw# kayx rp ras wx wk lym ky$l rasp yra 3
<r/y p/sr *)/yk my* kw x/w sr pr x/yk .wnd oo >

1 m*r""rt,sumb&: a vowel!stem compound made from a noun plus a verbal stem: m*r""rt + smb + &.
2 The beginning of the second sentence is lost.
rti,n&: other words than pronouncs can be enclitic, too; here the negation n& not is attached to the
sentence!introducing particle rti and, then.
f*r(ta -)t: potential passive 3 sing. (see lesson 14): cannot be asked (tried, punished?).
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 32
3 #*-d+k m&$: the second day, accusative of time.
x*ty"k: abstract noun in ,y"k (fem.) from x*tu.

TEXT 4.2

From M 133. This text is about the five sons of the First Man, the five elements, who are bound in the
evil world. Their names are taken from Zoroastrian mythology.

c/frmyk p/yp
rtw frwr/yy w/
r/xw./ p ty
/r ynyy xcyh
rwnyy rwn "ryw
n*myt /y /mbr
kyy z *yyw*/
wnyq kwn cf
ty frmrz .ww
*[y]my* /ryyh
sr)"yy cyndr )yynd
pryky. /y npq
nyys .. xw/yy pr
*rjywr w./yy

1 <c/frmyk p/yp rtw frwr/yy w/ r/xw./ p ty /r ..>
2 <ynyy xcyh rwnyy rwn "ryw n*myt /y /mbr ..>
3 <kyy z *yyw*/ wnyq kwn cf ty frmrz ..>
4 <.ww *[y]my* /ryy sr)"yy cyndr )yynd pryky. /y npq nyys ..>
5 <xw/yy pr *rjywr w./yy ..>

4 .ww (), dem. pronoun used in derogatory sense: that one.
#&m&# ... 2end*r inside this.

33 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

1. Conjugate in the imperfect "*r-, to understand and p*txw"y, to kill.

2. Transliterate, transcribe, and translate into English:

aw# yyrk#a Mrp tr$lnk wq lym ymtswr wx 1
dnarym rap#rp N% twyl Fr 2
dnadny$ tr$lnk ww eylnk eyw 3
rwyz ymtswr 4
aw# Manry# xyzm wrp 5
Caw #yw wrp wpsa 6
a$w xwa# arwx trwx Np#nm yywx 7

3. Translate into Sogdian, and write in Manichean script. Use the sentence connective rti to attach enclitic

I am Sogdian, you are Khotanese, she is Chinese.
You (plur.) are Christian, we are Jewish, they are Buddhist.
I am going to the bazaar; where are you (sing.) going?
Why did you go to the bazaar?
Will you see the judge?
You (plur.) did not tell me (= you did not say to me) whom you saw there.
I told a story.
We did not desire gold; we desired happiness.
He was asking Rustam for one horse.
They rented ten horses.
Rax., the horse, is carrying Rustam the brave.
The brave Rustam killed a hundred demons.
I saw dry land and wet water, deadly demons and immortal angels.


"z! ".t """z, (m"""z,, """z,) ""*(t: to begin
tr "t*r: fire
z "z fem.: desire, greed, Hyle (the dark and evil
feminine principle)
n*my an#*m&: limb! an(p*n, (man(p*n,): to rest
nxz! nx.t anx*z, (manx*z,) anx*(t: to rise
ps!, prs! f.t *ps, (*p*rs,) f*(t: to ask (+ acc. +
gen.!dat. or c,)
rtxw.t artxu(t: light (as one of the five
w*y* )#&#: there
wj"*! (wj"*!) wj"st )/"*#, (w"/"*#,) )/"*st: to
wr* )r*$: there
wsty! wstt )st*y, (w"st*y,) )st"t: to place
w.t!, w.ty! (w.ty!) wstt )(t(*y), (w"(ty,)
)st"t: to stand
yw &w: one
.kry *(k*r&: in pursuit
)ynd! )st -end, -*st: to bind, lock
cf! c)t 2*f, 2*-d: to steal
cknc py*r 2*k*n"2 pi#"r: why, for what reason
ctfrmyk 2*tf"r*m+k: fourth
cxw* 2*x!#: Jewish
cyn 6+n: Chinese
*)tyk #*-d+k: second
*rjywr /y"w*r: heart
*yw*t #&w#"t: demon!made
frmrz! (frmrz!) frm.t f*rm*rz, (fr"m*rz,)
f*rm*(t: ruin
frwrt frurt, f*rw*rt in art"w f*rw*rt: the ether (as
one of the five elements)
fryj! fr.t fr&/, f*r*(t: to straighten
"ryw "*r+w fem.: self, soul
j"yr! j"yrt /*"&r (/+"&r,) /*"&rt (?): to call
kn* kan$ fem.: town
kn*)r kan$-*r (< kan$,#-*r): city gate
kwtsr kuts"r: where(to)
ky ty k& *ti: whom
mr"rt!swmby m*r""rt,s!mb&: pearl!borer
nmy! nmt n*m"y, (n+m"y,) n*m"t: to judge
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 34
npk n*p"k: hostage
nys! (nyys) nyt ny"s, (n+y"s) ny"t: to take
prm p*r*m: (all the way) to; postposition + acc.
prs! p*r(p"r: trampling
pr.ty! p*r(t"y, (p*r+(t"y,) p*r(t"t: to
prxs! pr"t, pr"t p*r*xs, (p"r*xs,) p*r*"d: to be
left (over), remain
prky.! (pryky.) prk.t p*rk&(, (p*r+k&() p*rki(t: to
ptjymc p*t*/y"m*2: *quarrel
ptxryn! ptxryt p*txr+n (p*t+xr+n) p*txr+t: to hire,
ptyp p*ty"p: part, time (3 times)
pwtny put"n&: Buddhist
rwn r*w"n: soul
sr s"r: toward; postposition + gen.!dat.; but k!
... s"r to, toward + acc.
sr)" s"r-*": tower
sfryn! sfrynt sfr+n, (s+fr+n,) sfr+n"t: to create
.twxy ("tuxy": happiness
.kr! .krt (*k*r, ((+k*r,) (*kart: to lead, pursue
.yrnm (+rn"m: fame
try t"r&: dark; darkness
tkw.! t*k)(, (t+k)(,): to look (at)
tnbr, tmbr tamb"r fem.: body
w)! w"t w"- u"d: to say
wc! w"t w"2, u"d: to release, send
wcrn w"2*r*n: bazaar
w.ty! > w.t!
wt w"t: wind
w*y* u#&#: there
w".!, impf. wy"w.! u"*(, (w+"u(,): to rejoice
wnyk un+k: *captive
wytr! wit*r, (w+t*r,): to depart
wy. w&(: pasture, grass
xw*nyk Xu#*n+k: Khotanese
xwj! xw.t x)/, xu(t: to desire, require, ask for
(from somebody = c,)
xwr! xwrt xur, xurt: to eat
xwrt xwart: food
xwt xut: self
xwycqwy xw&2k"w+ fem.: explanation

35 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Nouns. Other declensions.
There are some nouns in the consonant declension that are neuter and have the ending ,u <!w> in the
nominative and accusative singular and ,e <!y> in the numerative (see Lesson 10). The only oblique
forms of the numerative noticed so far are of light!stem neuter nouns, which take the ending ,ya <!y>.
Examples of neuter nouns are #*t <*t>, nom. #*tu, wild animal and -*"*n <)"n>, nom. -*"nu, temple.

Neuter forms of adjectives are quite common and also function as adverbs: k*-nu <k)nw> (a) little,
(iru <.yrw> (what is) good, good things, well, wispu <wyspw> everything, all (together); *ft*mu
<ftmw> firstly; *sp*t) <sptw> complete(ly) (probably neuter of *sp*t&, a vocalic stem).

The following words from old u!stems have , <!w> in the nom.!acc. and gen.!dat. singular : (*mn
<.mnw> Ahrimen, Satan, r*t <rtw> 10 seconds, x*tu <xtw> judge. No plural forms are known of
these words.
The word for time, hour /*m*n <jmn> has acc. /*mnu, loc. /*mnuya and /*m*nya, nom.!acc. plur.

The word u# fem. wife was an !!stem in Old Iranian. It has the following forms: nom.!acc. u#/u#*w
<w*w>, gen.!dat., instr.!abl. u#uy <w*wy>, plur. *u#+(t.

Nouns denoting family relations were original r!stems and brother and daughter have retained traces
of this declension in the plural: -r"t <)rt>, plur. -r"t*rt, obl. -r"t*rt+ <)rtrt!>; #u"d, <*w"t> fem., plur.
#u"dart, obl. #u"dart+ <*w"trt!>.
Other nouns denoting family relations are regular: p*t*r, <ptr!> father and n*p&(*n <npy.n>
grandson are regular consonant stems with plural stems p*t*rt and n*p&(*nd; xw"r <xwr> sister has
plur. xw"r+(t; z"m"t& son!in!law, z"t& <zty> son are regular vocalic stems. The plur. of m"t <mt>
mother does not seem to be attested.

On the nom.!acc. plur. forms in ,+ or ,ya in SSogdian and CSogdian see lesson 16.

Pronouns. Pronominal declensions.
The pronominal adjective wisp, every, all has forms resembling those of personal and demonstrative

Singular Plural
nom. wisp <wyspy> wisp <wyspy>
acc. wisp <wyspw> = nom.
gen.!dat. wisp*n <wyspny> wisp&(*n <wyspy.n>
instr.!abl. wisp*n <wyspn>

The forms wisp and wispu can also be used before nouns in all case forms.
The instr.!abl. is found in 2*n wisp*n"2 <cnn wyspnc> from every(thing) and #*n wisp*n"# <*nn
wyspn*> with every(body).

A few pronouns have sing. gen.!dat. ending in ,*ya, ,ya (< !y>, thus: k*ya <ky> whose, *nya <ny>
the others, #*-diya <*)ty> the others, the seconds.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 36
Verbal nouns and adjectives.
Sogdian has a number of adjectives and nouns made from verbal stems. Among these are the following:

1. The present participle active ends in ,and& <!()ndy>, which, when used as an adjective, has fem. ,and*2
The present participle middle ends in ,en& <!yny>, fem. ,en2 <!ync>. Many or most present participles
are used as adjectives and nouns:
dnanaztp ayxyzm ywyr ydnw" yynw yk tka#wn dnyyknrw
ur*nk&nd n*")("kt k& une /*wand& "r+w+ m*z&xy" p*tz"n*nd
the faithful hearers who recognize the greatness of the Living Self (BBBf)
-)#and*2 *ps"k a perfumed garland kaspa Cdnalw$
w&nand& m*r"+(t *ti *kut+(t visible birds and dogs #ywqa eya #yrm yydnanyw
wispu xuren& all!eating, omnivorous yynyrwx wpsyw
n","*r-en&t incomprehensible yynyy$r an
k& *ti,(*n *f2amb*#+ &#*2 p*#ufsen& -)t w$ yynyysfwlp Clyya eyylbmcfa N#ya yyk
for whom (lit. who for them) there is anything of the world to cling to

2. A verbal adjective in ,& is used in a sense close to that of an active present participle together with a
variety of verbs, including verbs of motion.
A direct object is in the gen.!dat., e.g.:

p*t")#& um"t,&m I was concealing Mytamw yylwp
x) Rust*mi k! kan$-*r p*r*m *(k*r& (*wa aw# yyrk#a Mrp r$lnk wq ymtswr wx
Rustam went in pursuit (of them) to the city gates
w+t*r*nd y"x& Rust*me p*rw&#& ylywrp ymtswr yxay dnrtyw
they departed in search of brave Rustam

3. Another verbal adjective used in a sense close to that of an active present participle can be formed from
the present stem plus the suffix ,"k, e.g., "*r-"k sb. who knows, wise (cf. Mid. Pers. d"n"g, Pers. d"n").

4. A verbal adjective with future meaning but neutral with respect to active!passive is formed from the
present stem + the suffix ,2+k (,3+k), e.g., sumb*2+k about to bore/be bored, kun3+k about to make.

5. A noun of action can be formed from the present stem plus the suffix ,"mand+, e.g., w&n"mand+ seeing,
to see, also used in such expressions as beautiful to see:

pan3 #-*rt*ya anw&/"mand+ the gathering of the five gates ydnma"ywna aytr$l Cnp
p*t+y*ms M*(+,-*"+ (*w"mand+ eydnmaw# yy$y#m Smyyp
The coming of the Third Messenger is ended
dn$w ydn#w ry#ry# yydnmanyw yy#yrf wrp ytra
rti p*r) fr&(t& w&n"mand+ (+r,(+r u"*(and&t u-and
and they became extremely joyful at seeing the apostle
eydnmanyw wan#rq Qynsalyw ynmlran#xwr wwn#xwr ayw ayr$ Cwswa kymraftc yra
rti 2*tf"r*m+k )su"2 -*rya uya rux(nu rux(n""*r*#m*n+ wi#"s*n+k kar(n"w w&n"mand+
and the fourth (is) the Pure Ether in the light Light Paradise, marvelous (and) beautiful to behold

Uses of the cases. Genitive!dative.
The functions of the Sogdian gen.!dat. incorporate the functions of the old genitive and dative.

Genitive functions:

1. The first main function of the genitive is adnominal. The main adnominal functions are:

a. possessive genitive and variants thereof (the mans house, the mans son, the picture of the man); note
especially the use of the gen.!dat. + to be which corresponds to English to have: mine is a son = I
have a son:
37 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
wine Rust*me x) *spi R*x(i xwendi yDnywx y#xr ypsa wx ymtswr ynyw
Rustams horse is called Rax.
une Rust*me *#u *spa xand Rustam has two horses dnx apsa wla ymtswr ynw
&n& n*w& m*rt*xm& p*ts"k #&n+farn+ s*fr+w*n Nwyrfs yynrfynyl kasp eymxrm yywn yynya
this is the construction of (= which is) the New Man, the creation of (= which is) the Glory of the Religion

b. subjective genitive (my love < I [subject] love):

m*na f*rm"n my command Naamrf anm

c. objective genitive (love of music < to love music [dir. obj.]):

p*r) -*"+(t+ fr+t"t for love of the gods tatyrf y#y$ wwrp

2. The second main function of the genitive is partitive, which survives in Sogdian in expressions such as
god of gods:

-*""n,-*xt*m the most god = divine of gods (the highest of the gods) Mtx$ Naa$

Dative functions:

3. The main function of the dative is to express the indirect object. Indirect objects are found with
transitive verbsmost often accompanying a direct objector with intransitive verbs. The same function
is sometimes expressed by the preposition k! (k! ... s"r) + acc.:

wine mart+ x) p*rx& $-*ra give the man the wages! ar$l yxrp wx yrm ynyw
x) mart+ k! x*tu s"r w"n) p*t+(kw*y ywk#ytp wnaw ras wtx wq yrm wx
the man said thus to the judge

4. The gen.!dat. is used with impersonal verbs, such as "*w, need, should:

m*na x"n" ")t I need a house tw anax anm
rti,f*n 2u ")t,k"m and what will you need? Mak tw wc Nfyra
rti m"x *nyu $-"r n& ")t we do not need any other gift tw yyn ra$l wyna xam ytra

Often these verbs are used without reference to persons. Such sentences should be translated using
one: one must, should, etc.
See further lesson 6 on Infinitives.

5. Appositions to words in the gen.!dat. are in the gen.!dat.

r$al rwx yypsa ynw ymtswr y#xr yynyw
wine R*x(e Rust*me une *spe xwart $"-*r he gave Rax., Rustams horse, food

6. Some local adverbs used as postpositions take the gen.!dat., e.g., s"r toward, to, p&rn*ms"r <pyrnmsr>

m*na s"r &s*nd they came toward me tnsya ras anm
Rust*me p&rn*ms"r (*wand they went before Rustam dnw# rasmnryp ymtswr

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 38
TEXT 5.2
(from the Rustam story)
dnnyp tr$lnk wana xyzm Nl Nyz Snx Nl kat#rp Nar xyzm
aw# yra$sak Fr yra$ lyp Fr ra$ Ntrw Fr ylapnwrl Fr wwa
<mzyx "rn *n xns zyn *n mzyx n"w kn*)rt pynnd
ww "rf *rwnp*y "rf wrtn)r "rf py* )ry "rf ks )ry .w>

TEXT 5.1
(Tale A contd, see Text 4.2)

p/jymc w)
r/y ny fr./h
)w/ oo r/y p/sr
*)/yk my* kw x/w
sr pr x/yk .wnd
oo r/xw xyp*wnd
wnw w) k/ )"
mwnw mr/y 1 my* pr
100 *ynr zyrn p/xry/!
*rm o wnw /ymyy
mr"r/ swmbyy oo
r/y /ym y*c mr"rt
nyy swmb/ o r/my
q*ryy prxyy xwj//!
skwn oo r/yxw mrz
mr/yy kw x/w sr

39 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


wnw p/y.kwyy k/

2 <p/jymc w) r/yny fr./h )w/ oo >
3 <r/y p/sr *)/yk my* kw x/w sr pr x/yk .wnd oo >
4 <r/xw xyp*wnd wnw w) k/ )" mwnw mr/y yw my* pr stw *ynr zyrn p/xry/!*rm o wnw /ymyy
mr"r/ swmbyy oo>
5 <r/y /ym y*c mr"rt nyy swmb/ o r/my q*ryy prxyy xwj//!skwn oo>
6 <r/yxw mrz mr/yy kw x/w sr wnw p/y.kwyy k/ >

4 -*" is a shortened form of -*"a vocative.
#&n"r: numerative.
p*txr+t,#"r*m: simple past tense, see lesson 6. Translate as English imperfect I hired or perfect I
have hired.
w"n) *ti: the conjunction *ti and is frequently used with pronouns and adverbs to form subordinate
conjunctions, e.g., w"n) *ti so that, in order that, k*#uti = k*t that (introducing indirect speech), 2u *ti
,mi: the enclitic pronouns must be attached to the first word (word group) of the sentence. ,mi here is
dative: for me.
smb&: optative 3 sing. after w"n) *ti (see lesson 10).
5 ,mi: accusative with x)/, (see lesson 4).


1. Transliterate, transcribe, and translate into English:

Casytp ynax Fr eyylnk lymyrp yyrm yynwx
anwq ayka Qadn Fr yymxrm yynwy
.. Mal Cyzmrwx Nwm aw dncnyrm lywyrp

2. Translate into Sogdian, and write in Sogdian script. Use the sentence connectives *t and rti to attach
enclitic pronouns.

My fathers son is my brother. Are you (sing.) their sister?
Are your (plur.) brothers hearers?
All men are evil.
My wifes sister is very beautiful to behold.
Why are you pursuing this righteous Manichean?
We shall go and look for a good horse.
Every man needs a woman.
All Sogdians need horses.
Wise men do not know any evil, and they do not do any harm.
They rejoiced greatly at the coming of the apostle, the success of the religion, and the deliverance of the
Living Self.
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 40

1 &w: one
100 stu: a hundred
)r! "t "-*r, ""*t: to bring
*w *#u (*#*w): two (before noun)
fcmb** *f2amb*# fem.: the world
ftmw *ft*mu adv.: firstly
kwt *kut, plur. *kut+(t: dog
n"w an""w: *haste
nwyj! nw.t anw&/, *nu(t: to gather (trans.)
)"n -7"7n neut.: temple
)yr! )yrt -+r, -rt/-+r*t: to obtain, be successful
)yryy -y"r+: the next morning
"rn "*r"n: heavy
*)r $*-"r: gift
*)r #-*r: door, gate
*)y. #-&(: harm
*rwnp*y #r!n,p"$&: archer
*t, plur. *ty.t #*t #*t+(t neut.: wild animal
*ynyfrn #&n+,farn: the Glory of the Religion
"r)k "*r-"k: wise
"w! "*w,: to be necessary; + infinitive
frytt fr+t"t fem.: love
jmnw /*mnu: time, hour
jw! /*w,: to live
jwndy /wand& (masc. and fem.): living
k)n k*-n: less, too little
k*ry k*$r&, k*(&: now
kr.nw kar(n"w: beauty
mr" m*r", plur. m*r"+(t: bird
mrtxmy m*rt*xm&: man, person, human being,
people (plur.)
mrync! m*r&n3,: to destroy
ms m*s: also
m.y)" M*(+-*": the Third Messenger (Mi0r)
n"w.k n*")("k: hearer
npy.n n*p&(*n: grandson
nwy n*w&: new
p*wfs! p*#ufs, (impf. =): to stick, cling p*r(t"k: preparation, equipment
prwy*! p*rw&#,: to seek, look for
p.y! p*("y,: to throw
pt"w*! pt"wst p*t")#, p7t"ust: hide, conceal
ptsc! pts"t p*ts"2, p*ts*"d: to build, construct
ptsk p*ts"k: construction
ptyms! ptymt p*ty*m
s! (p*t+y*ms!) p*tyamt: to
end, stop (intrans.)
pyn! p+n,: to open
pyrnmsr p&rn*ms"r: before, in front of
rtu r*tu: 10 seconds
st s"t: every, all
sfrywn s*fr+w*n: creation
.mnw (*mnu: Ahrimen, Satan
.yr.yr (+r,(+r: extremely < (+r very
tym t+m: again
wnw ty w"n) *ti: so that, in order that
w*w u#u, u#*w fem.: wife
wrnkyn ur*nk&n: believing, faithful
wrtn wart*n: chariot
wy*snyq wi#"s*n+k: wondrous
wysp wisp: every, each, all
xns xans: firm, strong, secure
xwr xw"r fem.: sister
zmty z"m"t&: son!in!law
zrxs! zr"t z*r*xs, (*z+r*xs,) z*r*"d : to be
zyn z&n: weapon, armor

41 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


The suffix of the comparative is ,t*r <!tr>, that of the superlative ,st*r <!str>, but the meanings are not
always clear!cut. There are a few superlative forms in ,t*m and ,t*m2+k <!tmcyk>. Examples: -e/t*r
(-e/d*r) <)yjtr> more sinful; st*-d(t)*r <st)tr> harsher; -*/*ng"rist*r <)jngrystr> most evil!doing;
2"#*r*st*r <c*rstr> nethermost; -*""n -*xt*m <)"n )xtm> most divine of deities (the Buddha).

Note also the following forms:
"arf much, many, comp. f*ry"t*r <frytr>, fy"t*r <fytr> more, f*r&(t*r more, most;
*k*s small, comp. k*(t*r <>;
k*-n <k)n> little, comp. kambiy <kmby> less, too little;
m*z&x <mzyx> great, comp. m*sy"t*r <msytr> greater.

The imperative is found only in the second person singular and plural. The endings are:

Light stems Heavy stems
2 , <!> , <,>
2 ,$ <!*> ,$(a) <!*()>

Light stems Heavy stems
2 -*r <)r> carry! (*wa <.w> go! w&n <wyn> see!
2 -*r$ <)r*> ()$a <.w*> w&n$(a) <wyn*()>

The negation of the imperative is na <n>. Examples:

rti m*s an")n s*"d*m"n kun$a p*t*st"t tatstp alnwk Namts Nwna Sm ytra
and also make resistance to (= resist) all! (BBBf )

&#*2 n psa dont ask anything! asp an Clya

alral eay#a rp Nwa#p ya . Naamrf anm ya . ayrrf yynawr Lpyx rp alsxwdna dnmar
r"m*nd anduxs*$a p*r x&p*$ r*w"n+ f*rt*ry"; *ti m*na f*rm"n, *ti [p*(t"w*n p*r] *(ya #"r*$a
Always be diligent in the improvement of your own soul and keep my command and directive in
memory! (Tale B)

From the Manichean cosmogony (M 178):

. . Nys rasNmlran#xwr wk rastp N#tra Cwsp ya. yyra" Cnawknm# Nc anwk dnarq ya
*ti k*r"nd kuna 2*n (*m*nk*w"n2 /"r+ *ti p*s)2 art,(*n p*ts"r k! rux(n""*r*#m*n s"r s&n
And make them pure from the satanic poison and purify (them), and lead them up again to Paradise!

From the Speech on the aborted demons (M7800iiV). After the Third Messenger has revealed his male
and female forms to the archonts, the female archont speaks to the other male and female demons:

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 42

(m"x *sk+ s"r na t*k)(*$a p" (m"x s["n] x*2i. iw"r k*#r& (m["x] ()$a. *ti nrk *str+2 *prew p*2w*z$a *ti
&w #*-dya *prew ["-*r]*xs& r&/ (k*r$a zy"nd z*n$a *ti mart mart x&p*$ p*/!kt m*na s"r "-*r$a *ti *zu &w
w"n) *2&#2 p*r(t"yam,k"n k& *sk"t*r p*r *sk+ s"r t*k)( n*y"z n& -)t,k"m.
You, do not look up, for he is your enemy. Rather, now, go and have commerce, male with female!
And pursue with one another lust of desire! Bear children! And each of you [literally: man for man] bring
your fetuses to me! And I shall make *something (on account of) which there shall be no further need (for
you) to look up.

Sogdian has two infinitives, one made from the present stem and one made from the past stem. There is
no perceptible difference in meaning between the two. The endings are:

Light stems Heavy stems
present ,: yyn" /*n to strike ! : ya#p p*("y to throw
past , (,): yyty" /it to strike ! : t$wa )-d to sleep

The infinitive is used much as in English, after verbs meaning to begin, be ready, order, wish and
impersonal verbs it is necessary, it is proper, it is useful etc.:

-&k,s"r p*("y p*"*(t& -)t he is about to throw it away w$ yy#p ya#p rasqy$
w y#x$ Payp /1! wrp lyym yka$r yynw
une "*r-"k+ m&$ p*r) *$r& p*ty"p -*x(i ")t
the wise man should divide the day into three parts
fr"""z w+n" /it he began to strike = play the lute yyty" anyw zaarf
rt,p*ts"r n!k*r fr"""z*nd p*ts*"di ytstp dnzaarf rkwn rastpra
and now, after that, they began to construct
"""z )-d he began to sleep t$wa zaaa
m*na s"(t xart 2*n "*ra k! "*ru wr wq ar Nc trx t#as anm
I must go from mountain to mountain

Uses of the instrumental!ablative.
This case is used only with the prepositions 2* from, about, concerning, by and #* (together) with.
Common combinations of 2an and #an with postpositions are: 2*, ... s"r from and 2*, ... pi#"r because
of, #*, ... (*)p*rew <()pryw> together with:

2*n kan$+ n+/*y he went out of the town yy"yn eylnk N%
x) mart+ #*n x*tu p*rew (*wa aw# wyrp wtx Nl yyrm wx
the man went together with the judge
&w #*-dya *prew together with one another wyrpa ay$l n
2*k*n"2 pi#"r w"n) f*rm"ye why do you order thus? yyamrf wnaw ralyp Canqc

43 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
raasxam#w wwk ya . cnyrz am Nc eyylya r yyk yyralnyl wara eycx xnwx yra
.. w$ kalar
rti x)n*x x*2i art"w #&n#"r& k& "arf &#&t+ 2*n t*ma zr&n3*t *ti k! u(t*m"x,s"r r"$,t"k -)t
and that one is that righteous Manichean who delivers many persons from Hell and becomes (their)
guide to Paradise (TaleB)
[Note: "arf &#&t+ is direct object in the oblique plural]

Note the use of the instr.!abl. with comparatives:

2*n #*sa *sm"n+ 2"#*r*st*r rtsrlac yynams asl Nc
lower than (= below) the ten heavens
2*n (*k*ra n"m*rt*r sweeter than sugar rtrman ark# Nc
traysm lywyc ytawxynyz tsyyn yylpmcfa tas wrp
p*r) s"t *f2amb*#+ n&st z&n+,xw"r+ 2&w&# m*sy"t*r
in the entire world there is no protection greater than that
2*n #&wt+ k& st*-dt*ra um"t*nd dntamw artd$ts yk ytwyl N%
who were harsher than the d&ws?
[Note: the form st*-dt*ra has a final predicative ,a]

and in the expression 2*n m*na s"r (*f"r *sti it shames me, I am ashamed of it.

TEXT 6.1
(from the Rustam story)

Rust*mi ansp" p*r+(t*r*n n+p*# """z )-d t$wa zaaa lpyn Nrt#yrp eapsna yymtswr
x) #&wt p*r) n*-&r p*r) *anst w"(t*nd dnt#aw sna wrp ry$n wrp wyl wx
&w #*-d+ m&# w"-*nd dn$aw lym yt$l wya

TEXT 6.2
(the Pearl!borer contd)

f*rm"y&: probably optative 2 sing. you may order after 2u *ti.
/itu,#"ram I played, f*rm"t,#"re you ordered, p*txr+t,#"re you bought are simple past tense forms.
xww: acc. sing. fem.
"w8: subjunctive 3 sing. may be necessary.

eywlk asp wnaw yymya . Nyw yyswk ynrcaw ama wnac Sway#f yynwy !$ k 7
. . yy$r Qra wc

wpsyw as yra . yyamrf wt ymya wc kra wpsyw !$ k yywk#yp wnaw wza y#ra 8
Ma$r kra

wrp Mrp yyray$ yra . . yy" yamarf anyw ymra . . rky# ras anax wk wnac ymya 9
. Mral wy" anyw Namrf eydnwalpyx

ralyp Canqc w#ra . yyralyrxp zarm yrm ynw w k yamyn aklp wnaw wx w#ra 10
. yyralamrf yyn" anyw wwx y#yrap. y$ws yamarf yyn rarm

Qycbmws rarm Clya My alq ra . Makw yyr$l eypsa yyxrp wwx yrm ynw ytra 11
. Makbmws rarm lym wyna rasp yyfra ear$l Nryz ranyl 100 . wyna My yra . . aw

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 44

45 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

1. Conjugate in the imperative the verbs kun, to do, $*-*r, to give, )fs, to sleep, and p*txw"y, to

2. Write in Sogdian script and translate:

m*z&x "and"k m*z&x (*f"r u-a 2*n m"x s"r
kat,2*n &wt"2 -"r& *w+ kan$+ w"n) mand*xs&m

3. Translate into Sogdian:

Build a house here!
Throw the lute away and do not play it again!
Go to the town and ask the lord: Give us (our) wages!
The judge said to them: Come tomorrow morning!
The Chinese master said to his hired men: Kill the Manicheans with poison! Then return here! I shall
give you much gold.
The Khotanese were fleeing from the Sogdians. It was a great shame for them.
There is nothing greater than love and nothing more evil than hatred.
Through (p*r,) the religion they teach the going away from this world and the entering into (k* ...
2and*r) Paradise and the falling into (p*r,) hell.


3 *$r&: three
)rxsy "-*r*xs&: lust
*y "#&: any
cy*c *2&#2: *something(?)
ndwxs! anduxs,: to strive, toil
ndxs! nt"t and*xs, (mand*xs,) and*"d: to flee
nsp ansp": carpet
nst *anst: *mischief
pryw *prew = pryw
sktr *sk"t*r: higher, further, any more
skysr *sk+s"r: upward
wfs! w)d )fs, )-d: to sleep
wpt! wpst (wpt) )p*t, (w"p*t,) )p*st: to fall
y*c &#*2: any
y*y &#&: person, somebody
ywtc &wt"2: single
., w. *(, u(: memory, mind
)ry -"r&: rider
)jngry -*/*ng"r&: evil!doing
)x.! )"t -*x(, -*"d: to distribute
)yk -&k: outside
)yksr -&k,s"r: outward, away
c*r 2"#*r: down (below)
cnw 2"n): as, when, like
cw ty 2u *ti: whatever that
*r! j"t #"r, /*"d: to hold, keep, maintain
frmn f*rm"n fem.: order, command
frmy! frmt f*rm"y, (fr"m"y,) f*rm"t: to order,
command; + infinitive (see next lesson)
frtry f*rt*ry": increase, improvement,
frytr, fytr f*ry"t*r, f*y"t*r: more
frywy friy"w+: love
fr"z! f*r""z,: to begin (to do)
fsc f*s"2,: to teach
f.yws f*(y"w*s: gentleman
"r "*r: mountain
"r) "arf: much
jn! jyt /*n, /it: to strike, play (an instrument)
jy.twc /i(t)2: hatred
k* k*#a: when(ever)
k*wty k*#uti: that
kmby kamb+: less, too little
krn k*r"n: pure, clean
kwn! krt kun, *k(*r)t: to do
kws k)s: side k*(t*r: smaller
mrt mrt mart mart: each and every one
msytr m*sy"t*r: greater
m*y* m*#&#: here
nmr n"m*r: sweet
n)yr n*-&r: deliberation, planning
np*! npst n*p*#, (n+p*#,) n*p*st: to lie down
nyz n*y"z: need (+ infinitive, e.g., there is no
need to do sth.)
nyjy! nyjt, njyt ni/*y,(n+/*y,) ni/*t, n*/it (ni/d):
to go out
p p": short form of p"r,ti
pr(w)ty p"r(u),ti: but (instead), for
pcwz! p*2w*z, (p*2+w*z,): to meet, get together
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 46
(also sexually)
p".ty p*"*(t&: (to be) about to (do)
pjwk p*/!k: abortion
pr.trn! pr.trt p*r(t*r*n, (p*r+(t*r*n,) p*r(t*rt: to
pryw = pryw (*)p*rew: together (with);
postposition with instr.!abl.
pswc! p*s)2,: to purify
ptstt p*t*st"t: opposition, resistance
p.twn p*(t"w*n: order, command
r*tk r"$,t"k: guide
rmnd(y) r"m*nd(+): always
sn s"n: enemy
smn sm"n: heaven
st)t st*-d: hard, harsh, fierce
syn! st s&n, s*t: to raise, lead up
s"tmn s*"d*m"n: all
.fr (*f"r: shame
.kr (*k*r: sugar
.mnkwny (*mn*kw"n&/*m*nkuw"n&:
belonging to 7imnu (Ahrimen, Satan)
tm t*m: darkness
tr.! t*r(,: to flee
xyp* x&p*$: own
ywr iw"r: but
zn! zt z*n, z"t: to bear (children)
zrync! zr"t z*r&n3, z*r*"d: to deliver
zyn z*y"n: *offspring, children
zynyxwry z&n+,xw"r+: protection

47 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


The relationship between present and past stems in Sogdian is of two kinds: 1. the present stem can be
predicted from the past stem (regular past stems), 2. the present stem cannot be predicted from the past
stem (irregular past stems). Both stems must therefore always be learned together.

The past stem can not usually be predicted from the present stem.
The past stem is from an old past participle with active meaning when from intransitive verbs, but
passive when from transitive verbs.

1. Regular past stems. Many Sogdian verbs make the past stem by suffixing ,"t to the present stem, e.g.,
"*r-, "*r-"t ("r-, "r-t); t*k)(, t*k)("t (tkw(, tkw(t) to listen.

Note: Even here the forms are not always clear, as many irregular past stems also end in ,"t, e.g.,
p*txw"y, p*txw"t.

2. Irregular past stems (most verbs). There are no rules for determining the present stem from an irregular
past stem and vice versa. Following are some of the more common types:

-*r, -urt, -art <)r! )wrt, )rt> to carry (away) xur, xurt <xwr! xwrt> to eat
mir, murt <myr! mwrt> to die $*-*r, $*-art <*)r! *)rt> to give
(*k*r, (*(k*r,) (*kart <.kr!, .kr! .krt> to follow

w"c, u"d <wc w"t> to release t)/, tu"d <twj! tw"t> to redeem, pay
p*s)c, p*su"d <pswc! psw"t> to purify, clean )suxs, )su"d <wswxs wsw"t> to be purified
z*ren3, z*r*"d <zrync! zr"t> to deliver z*r*xs, z*r*"d <zrxs! zr"t> to be delivered
smb, su-d <swmb! sw)t> to bore, pierce

)p*t, )p*st <wpt! wpst> to fall py"t, pist (py*st,) <pyt! pyst> to adorn
p*tr&$, p*trist <ptry*! ptryst> to mix r)#, rust <rw*! rwst> to grow

/*n, /it <jn! jyt> to strike z*n, z"t <zn! zt> to bear (children)
"fr+n, "fr+t <fryn! fryt> to bless p*txr+n, p*txr+t <ptxryn! ptxryt> to hire
w&n, w+t <wyn! wyt> to see

p*t*(kw*y, p*t*(kw"t <pt.kwy! pt.kwt> to speak
f*rm"y, f*rm"t <frmy! frmt> to order n*m"y, n*m"t <nmy! nmt> to judge

p*s, f*r(*)(t, f*(t <ps! fr.t, f.t> to ask, punish x)/, xu(t <xwj! xw.t> to ask for, request
anw*z, *nu(t <nwz! nw.t> to gather (intrans.) anw&/, *nu(t <nwyj! nw.t> to gather (trans.)

&s, ""*t <ys! "t> to come t+s, t*"*t <tys! t"t> to enter
"-*r, ""*t <)r! "t> to bring #"r, /*"d <*r! j"t> to hold, keep
(*w, xart <.w! xrt> to go w"-, u"d <w) w"t> to say

Note: Originally the infinitive of verbs ending in ,r was a heavy stem, while the past stem was light, cf.
xwart food (= inf.) ~ xurt eaten. The heavy stem tended to spread, however, hence we find both -urt
and -rt.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 48
There is a fundamental split in the formation of tenses from the past stem (and the perfect participle, see
lesson 12) between intransitive/passive and transitive (active) forms. The intransitive simple past is formed
with the past stem and the auxiliary verb to be, while the transitive simple past is formed with the past
stem and the auxiliary verb to have: #"r,.
The Sogdian simple past tense corresponds to the English imperfect and perfect, I did, have done, I
went, have gone, etc. The imperfect of the simple past tense (the auxiliary is in the imperfect) corresponds
to the English pluperfect, I had done, I had gone, etc.
The simple past tense has all the moods.

In the intransitive simple past the verb to be is added on to the stem as endings, except in the 3 sing.,
where the verb is usually left out. In the 3 sing. and when the verb is written separate (e.g., in the
subjunctive and optative), light!stem past stem takes the ending ,i (,y):
When a transitive verb is inflected intransitively its meaning is passive, but this is rare and relatively
common only in the 3 sing. Normally the passive of the simple past tense (see lesson 13) is expressed with
the auxiliary to do, which, when inflected intransitively, has the meaning to become:

Intransitive simple past tense indicative:

Light stems Heavy stems
1 t*"*t&m <t"tym> *kt&m <ktym> "/it&m <jytym> ""*t&m <"tym>
2 t*"*t&( <t"ty.> *kt&( <kty.> "/it&( <jyty.> ""*t&( <"ty.>
3 t*"*ti <t"ty> *kti <kty> "/it <jyt> ""*t <"t>
1 t*"*t&m <t"tym> *kt&m <ktym> "/it&m <jytym> ""*t&m <"tym>
2 t*"*t*s$a <t"ts*> *kt*s$a <kts*> "/it*s$a <jyts*> ""*t*s$a <"ts*>
3 t*"*tand <t"tnd> *ktand <ktnd> "/itand <jytnd> ""*tand <"tnd>

Note especially: um"t&m I was, etc.; *kt&m I became, etc.

yyR$ayw kyna$ wrp dnaka dnswx ya . dn#wyw ry# ka#wn Nams yaplyw
w&#p"t+ s*"d*m"n n*")("kt (+r w+"u(and, *ti xusand *ktand p*r) -*""n+k w*y"-art+
at that time, all the hearers were very happy and became content with the divine explanation (TaleB)
My"aa rabmt l"naksa wly yynra" Pwrp ynycrm y#wx Mys lymyrp
p*r&m&# s&m xut*(& mar2&n& p*tr)p /"r*n& *i#! *st*kan3*l tamb"r "/it&m
I was born in this terrifying *structure, deadly *fortress, poisonous *form, *skeleton body (BBBb)
.. Sayyn yr$sl yyawha ya .. ras yymxrm wk aa Lywyc
.. amw yyn#xwr ya ydnwa rabm y#yrap
2&w&# ""*t k! mart*xm&t s"r. *ti Ahw"y #*st-*r& n+y"s. p"r,ti,(i tamb"r t"wand& *ti rux(ni um"t.
He came from that to mankind. And he took Eve as his representative, for her body was strong and
shining. (M129)

1. The main function of the loc. is to express place where or where (in)to:

uya kan$+ &w martiy um"t there was a man in the city tamw yyrm wya ylnq ayw
x" *kt"n+k"r&t uya t*mya )p*t*nd,k"m Mak dntpwa eymt ayw tyrakynatka ax
sinners will fall into hell

49 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
2. Appositions to words in the loc. are in the loc.:

#*rw"n+ uya m*z&x2+ kan$+ in $ruw#n (Dunhuang), the great city yylnq ycxyzm ayw yynawrl

TEXT 7.1
(from the Rustam story)
dnty"n yylnk Nc dntamw yylnk ayw ya yk twyl ax
tat#rp dnzaaa twyl wx

Note: p*r*"d& um"t*nd were/had been left behind is perfect intransitive/passive (lesson 12).

TEXT 7.2
(the Pearl!borer contd)

. "w Nryz ranyl 100 ww yfkswp lyam dnwalpyx yrarm wwx yra 12
. . Sxrap yynxy ras lym wyna wk $wsan rarm w#ra
.. .. arp yynamn wwk ya raf# wwk yywx yra
k dnar$l ywaqcywx wnaw ka$r ax yra 13
[...] ycx ywx . . Nwksa$r aycnawnrq ya yyn wpsyw yyk yyrm yynwx

12 pw,skfty: the prefix p!,: indicates lack of something; adjectives and nouns in p!, can be translated by
English adjectives in !less and nouns in !lessness or by circumlocutions such as without ...,
having no ..., etc.
8wj: the imperfect stem of t)/, = present stem.
13 The text is incomplete at the end.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 50
TEXT 7.3

A fragment of the Manichean cosmogony (M 178).
The first part of the text, the beginning of which is missing, contains a description of the Light Paradise
and the Five Greatnesses: the Father (missing), the Twelve Aeons of the Father, the Aeons of Aeons = the
Blessed Places, the Pure Air, the Light Earth, and the inhabitants of the Light Paradise.
Next the creation of the world is described: the Father orders the Living Spirit and the Mother of Life to
create the world, and the Living Spirit and the Mother of Life begin the creation, first the ten heavens, then
the zodiac. Then the text breaks off.

The headings are to be read: lower left ! upper right and upper left ! lower right.

<)t prw m"wn *yyn o rtwspyh o "wnwcyy wny o "mbn)ryyt o

51 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

tyyr$nbm ynw yycawnaw [...] eaypswatra Nyyl Nwm wrp ta$ 1
. rasmnryp yy$awrz yynwy#xa xyzm ynw 2
ttsyyn ram#tp ya kas N#yta yyk tkawa tytyrfa dnax ky#a ya 3
dnykrwaz yta tdnpsalrm yta ty#yrf tt#y$ eadn#xwr ax dnanym lyylw ya wk
. . tsyyn Mayna wx yynaw" C#wwn ayw N#tra . ayxwa# yyta ww#w xyzm rp

1 The first sentence is incomplete.
3 kw 8y w#yy#: literally where there.


1. Conjugate in the simple past tense indicative the verbs z*r*xs, and p*r&s,.

2. Translate into Sogdian (use imperfect for transitive verbs, imperfect or simple past tense for intransitive

Did you (all) see us in the town? We saw Rustam there.
Why (2u) didnt you (sing.) go with that man?
We dwell in a city where all (everything) is happiness.
I knew the man whose house is in the garden.
In the house there were two men, who were adorning with wondrous adornment a green tree.
When he came to the town, he entered and saw many beings who were blessing the Lord Mani.
When did you come (= arrive) to China? I came yesterday. My mother is coming tomorrow morning.
My work is now finished. All men have been delivered. They have no more sin(s). They have all gone
to the Light Paradise, before the great god Z&rw#n.


jy! jit "/*y, "/it: to be born
fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: bless
fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: to bless
hwyy ahw"y: Eve
krtny!kry *k*rt"n+,k"r&: sinner
nym any"m: end
nyms! nymt any*ms, any*mt: to be finished,
done for
rtwspy *rt"w*spy": righteousness, the
community of the righteous
stknjl *st*kan3*l: of bone
.tyk *(t+k: third
wswxs wsw"t )suxs, (w"suxs,) )su"d: to be
wtk )t"k: place
zy my* *z(y)+ m&$: yesterday
)" -"": garden
)"nyk -*""n+k: divine
*rwn *rw"n: Throana, Dunhuang
*st)ry #*st-*r&: guide, representative
*yn #&n fem.: religion
"mbn "amb*n: trouble, exertion, toil, hardship
"mbn)ry "amb*n,-*r& who suffers hardship
"n "*n: skill, craft
"wn "*w"n: sin
"wnwcy "*w"n,w"2+: forgiveness for sins
jrny /"ren&: poisonous, full of poison
jwn /wn fem.: life
k)nyxn k*-n+x*n: *meager remnant
krnwncy q*rn*w"n2y": craft
ktr ... ktr k*t"r ... k*t"r: either ... or
ktr k*t"r: or, whether
kyty k&ti < k& *ti
mr mny = mry mny: the Lord M#n$
my* = my* m&#: thus
myn! m&n,: to dwell
n!sw)t n",su-d: un!bored
nmny n*m"n&: regret
prty p"r,ti: for
prtr part*r: higher, foremost
prys! (prys!) pr"t p*r&s, (p"r&s,) p*r""*t: arrive
ptmync! (ptymync!) ptmw"t p*tmen3, (p*t+men3,)
p*tmu"d: to don, put on clothes
ptrwp p*tr)p: *fortress
ptry*! ptryst p*tr&$, p*trist: to mix, mingle p*t(m"r: count
pw!sk)ty p!,sk*-d&: *helpless
pyt! pyst py"t, pyast: to adorn
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 52
pyty py"t&: adornment
rw*! rwst r)#, rust: to grow
sk s"k: number
sym s&m: fearful
twndy t"wand&: mighty, strong
twj! tw"t t)/, tu"d: to pay, redeem
tys! t"t t+s, t*"*t: to enter
w". u"*(: joy
wy)rt w*y"-art: speech, exposition
wy*pty w&#p"t+: at that time, thereupon
xwsnd xusand: happy, content
xwt.y xut*(&: *structure
y*w *i#!: *shape
yxny ix*n&: *remainder (?)
zn! z"n,: to know
zr"wny z*r")n&, fem. z*r")n*2: green

53 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


The principal relative!interrogative pronouns are:

k&, obl. k*ya who, which; who, whose?
k*t"m, k$"m which?
2u which, what?

The instr.!abl. of the relative and interrogative pronouns is k*n"2, 2*k*n"2 from whom, whence.

The principal relative!interrogative adverbs are:

ku where?
k*#a when?
2"n) how?

Note also:
2*k*n"2 pi#"r why?

Some of the relative!interrogative!indefinite pronouns and adverbs in 2, have corresponding demonstrative
pronouns and adverbs in w,:
The correlative adverbs of quantity and quality are:

2", how w", so, that
2",p*r*m as/how long w",p*r*m so long
2",")n& of what kind w",")n& of that kind
2"n) as/how w"n) thus
2"f as/how much w"f so much
2"f&# just as/how much w"f&# just so much
2"fr&$ just as/how many w"fr&$ so many
2and*n as/how much wand*n so much

The correlative adverbs of place are:

ku where ku#, ku#a where kur$ where *kuts"r whither
m*#& here m*#&# here *mar$ here marts"r hither
u#& there u#&# there )r$ there )rts"r thither

Note also, beside w"n) ... 2"n) like, similar to, expressions such as m&# m"nuk ... c"n) similar to.

The relative!interrogative pronouns can be used as conjunctions. They usually then combine with the
particle *ti, ,ti, e.g., k& *ti, k&,ti who, which 2u *ti, 2u,ti which, ku *ti where, 2"n) *ti how.
To express the genitive of the relative pronoun: whose, of whom, who has, in Sogdian, one usually
says whose is/is not or who ... his ... is/is not:

yta yyry# Cy#yq wx ayk yyrm yyzrwa#q wnac aykymratrw$ eycx kwnam lyam
.. dnyy"aa dnw"aa r$mylyl Cankc #wpmap yta Qyl Cymynwy#xa wnac .. Na[...]
m&# m"nuk x*2i -urt"r*m+ky" 2"n) k*("w*rz& martiy k*ya x) ke(t+2 (ir& *ti [...]"n . 2"n) *x(&w*n&m+2
#&k *ti b"mbu(t 2*k*n"2 #&#&m-art "/)nd "/*yand
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 54
patience is like a farmer who has good and [...] (earth) for tilling, like a royal letter and a consort from
whom diadem!bearing children are born (M133Vii)

k& *ti,(i s"k n&st which has no number. syyn kas yy#ta yyk

Similarly, to express where ... one can say where there ...:

ku *ti u#&# m&n*nd x" rux(*nda -*"+(t tt#y$ eadn#xwr ax dnanym lyylw ya wk
where the light gods dwell

Other examples:
.. Nwks#yk . Lrs yya .. xam . Lyym . wnm" wwr Lyfaw . aw# Fac
.. yy"yn as Nwa#xa eyrxna /!0 yyk a$w ylrs Fr yya
2"f (*wa w"f&# r*tu /*mnu m&$ m"x *ti sar# k&(t,skun, *ti "arf sar#&t u-a k& 12 [#*w"t*s] anx*rt+
*x("w*n s"t ni/*ti as much as has passed, so many minutes, hours, days, months, and years it decreases;
and there were many years that the rule of the twelve stars all went out (M767iiR)

ey$w ram#tp Lyrfac w$ eyrx #ws Lyrfaw
w"fr&# s!( xart& -)t 2"fr&# p*t(m"r u-& however many may have been counted (optative), so many
minutes will have passed (M767iV)
Note: xart& -)t is intransitive perfect (lesson 12).

Interrogative clauses.
The pronoun 2u can be used with the negation n& to express an exhortation to oneself: why dont I, why
dont we:

2u n& n*/*y&m why dont we go out, let us go out! Myy"n yyn wc

The transitive simple past is formed with the past stem + #"r, have. It is therefore like English I have
Light!stem past stems have the ending ,u (,w) (originally an accusative), e.g., *ktu#"r*m <krtw*rm> I
(have) made.
Heavy!stem past stems have no ending, e.g.: ""*t,#"r <"t!*r> you have brought; f*(tu#"rt <*rt>
he (has) asked; w+t#"r&m <wyt*rym> we saw, have seen.
The verb #"r, to have may be written together with the past stem or separate from it.
When the auxiliary is written together with the past stem the ,u may be lost.
The verb to do is often reduced to a mere k, before #"r,, and the #, is then assimilated to the k and
becomes $. The simple past tense of to do is therefore *ktu#"r, > (*)k$"r, <()k*r!>.
The transitive simple past tense has all the modes and its own past: the pluperfect, formed with the
auxiliary in the imperfect, e.g.: &t#"ru <yt*rw> I had received; k$"r <k*r> < *ktu#"r he had made.

Simple past tense indicative: Pluperfect:

Light stems Heavy stems
1 *ktu,#"r*m <ktw!*rm> ""*t,#"r*m <"t!*rm> *ktu,#"ru <ktw!*rw>
2 *ktu,#"r(e) <ktw!*r(y)> ""*t,#"r <"t!*r> *ktu,#"r <ktw!*r>
3 *ktu,#"rt <ktw!*rt> ""*t,#"rt <"t!*rt> *ktu,#"r <ktw!*r>
1 *ktu,#"r&m <ktw!*rym> ""*t,#"r&m <"t!*rym> *ktu,#"r&m <ktw!*rym>
2 *ktu,#"r$a <ktw!*r*> ""*t,#"r$a <"t!*r*> **ktu,#"r$ <ktw!*r*>
3 *ktu,#"r*nd <ktw!*rnd> ""*t,#"r*nd <"t!*rnd> *ktu,#"r*nd <ktw!*rnd>

55 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

*zu n*p&k n*p*x(tu,#"r*m I wrote a letter Mral wt#xpn kyypn wza
*wu Rust*mu n!r w+t,#"r$a did you see Rustam today? alral tyw rwn wmtswr wwa
2*n xw&(t*r+ &w n*p&k p*t2*"du,#"ru wralwtcp kypn wya yyrt#ywx Nc
I had received a letter from the elder (from BBB)
k*t"r une xut"wt+ *wu k&n xu(t,#"r*nd dnral#wx eNyk wwa ytwawx ynw ratq
whether they sought revenge for the lords

drygyyn wy$w k#xaw wy$w dnarlka ynwbmk Py#y yr Fr rp
p*r "arf r&t "i(&p kamb)n+ *k$"r*nd u-yu w"x(*k u-yu t*n+gird
in many respects they inflicted harm and distress, both spiritual and bodily

rabmt l"naksa wly yynra" Pwrp ynycrm y#wx Mys lymyrp wc rayf raksa
ralwka N"ya [...] Mralcp arakp ya . N#rk eynamxrm yynax ynak#wn . My"aa
*sk"t*r f*y"t*r 2u p*r&m&# s&m xut*(& mar2&n& p*tr)p /"r*n& *i#! *st*kan3*l tamb"r
"/it&m; n*")(*k"n& x"n& m*rt*xm"n& kar(n *ti p*tk"r" p*(t)2*"d,#"r*m [...] &/*n *ktu,#"rt
Above and beyond (this, it is) because I was born in this terrifying *structure, deadly *fortress,
poisonous *form, *skeleton body, (because) I received in the house of the hearers a human form and shape,
(that) he made [me] worthy [of ...] (BBBb)

The direct case is commonly used as nominative, vocative, and accusative.
Either direct or oblique is used as instrumental!ablative of masculine nouns.
The oblique case is commonly used as genitive!dative and locative.
Exceptions occur. Examples:

2u ark (fem. acc.) "*r-e what work (trade) do you understand? y$r ekra wc
x) m*r""rt+ (gen.!dat.) x&p$"w*nd the master of the pearls dnwalpyx yytrarm wx
p*r) x&p$"w*nd+ (gen.!dat.) f*rm"n (acc.) Namrf yydnwalpyx wrp
at the command of the master
une m*z&x *x(&w*n+ (gen.!dat.) Z*rw",-*"+ p&rn*ms"r rasmnryp yy$awrz yynwy#xa xyzm ynw
before the great god Z&rw#
farn 2*n x&p$ farn+ majesty from (his) own majesty yynrf lpyx N% Nnrf
t"m" w"2*rn+ (gen.!dat.) k)s+ (loc.) w&n Nyw yyswk yynrcaw amat
he saw me at the edge of the bazaar
&w /*w"n+ (+r-*r"n u-&,k"m Mak y$w Nar$ry# yynaw" wya
you shall be happy (in) one (entire) life (loc.?)

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 56
(Manichean cosmology, contd)

Qynsalyw yonmlran#xwr wwn#xwr ayw ayr$ Cwswa kymraftc yra 4
. . tsyyn kamp yykary# yynw N#yta yyk eydnmanyw wan#rq
kaspa Cdnalw$ yta Mylyl Qwla Nlwn yta kwmtp rway"rk yyt#y$ yra
. . ayqdnwxcrw rp anyrfs yytwx yyayp yta rwyz Nagnzpsyw yta

yyw yy#yta yyk rway"rq C#wn yynmywx yaz an#xwr anax kymcnp yta 5
yyn ytra . w$ apaa yyn yywakwyan wwx yy#yra . tsyyn Pay$a eywaks
Nrp#rp Qyna$ eyra . . rp#na yaz ywyrp eyyraq"ywa yynyta Nas
. yytwn$a yyn Nwqyaa yta yyk Cnyory"$a

. ar atkn#xa yysyp wy yra . yy"aa eyywyc Clya wry# wpsyw wx ytra 6
tyynwrz yynyr$yyr$ adnw ya . ayzrap r wrp eyswr . yymrpsapsyw
. . w$ yynmryk yyn ya tswp yyn tzyrwa yyn Calk yyr$ wx N#yta yyk


4 rwx.nww: rux(nu, acc. form for locative.
rwx.n"r*mny: Note the uncommon spelling of final and postconsonantal ,+ as <!y>.
sfryn/: participle (self!)created?
5 p/ )w/: 3 sing. potentialis (see lesson 12) cannot be reached.
)nwty a-n)t&: 3 sing. middle (see lesson 15) is shaken, trembles


1. Conjugate in the simple past tense and z*r&n3, and "fr+n,.

2. Transliterate and translate into English the following passage from the Rustam story. Then turn the
imperfects of intransitive verbs into simple past tense forms:

. #yryw wmtswr wwa y#xr Nar$nlw$ wx Syo Smyra . ylywrp ymtswr yxay dnrtyw

57 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
. dny$yn Ntsnwrl . Nlwn Mrc knlrwp wwa Cnymytp tr" . an$wx Nc ymtswr wx tpsnm
lapsa wyl wwa rwl Nc ymtswr wx wnac. ras twyl wq ra$lap w#xr wrp l"a$
... a$ yta Syo aw lym y#xr ynyw Nyw
Qycyra$ wwa tr" lynwy dnanyw twyl wx wnac ymtswr wx trwyz lynwy dnysytp y#xr
dn$aw lyam yyt$l wya lapsa yylp wx wy$w dn#aparf

3. Translate into Sogdian:

I did everything which you (sing.) told (= ordered) me to do.
Did you (plur.) see the two statues which we fashioned and placed in the temple?
How many pearls did you (sing. and plur.) bore last night?
I took the three flowers and threw them into the garden.
The chief saw the enemies coming (= saw the enemies who = that they were coming) and thought thus:
They have either killed Rustam or Rustam has fled into the city.


1 = &w: one
12 = #*w"t*s: twelve
py! pt "p"y, "p"t: to consider, imagine,
s! yt "s, &t: to take
)jyrynyy *-/ir&n&: made of diamonds; from
vajra, cf. Khotanese vaira,
)nw! *-n*w, (*-n),): to tremble, shake
)yp *-y"p: *reach
nspt! ansp*t,: to rise, rouse oneself! an(p*r,: to tread (upon)
psk *ps"k fem.: wreath
pyr *py"r: last night
sp* *sp"#: army
spr"m *sp*r"*m: flower
wryz )r&z,: fall down
wyjtkry *wi/d,k"r&: killer, murderer
x.wn *x("w*n: a rule
x.nk *x(n*k: graceful
x.ywny *x(&w*n&: ruler
x.ywnymyc *x(&w*n&m+2 fem.: royal
yjn, yjn &/*n: worthy
)rycyk -"r&2+k: riding animal
)j"*! )j"st -*/"*#, (-"/"*#) -*/"*st: to mount (a
)"nyk -*""n+k: divine
)ry -*r&: fruit
)ry)ryny -*r&-*r&n&: fruit!bearing
)w*n)rn -)#*n-*r"n: *perceptive
)wrtrmyky -urt"r*m+ky": patience
cf 2"f: as much as, how much
cfry* 2"fr&#: just as much as, just how much
cfy* 2"f&#: just as much as, just how much
c"wny 2",")n&: of what kind
cprm 2",p*r*m: as long as, how long
cndn 2and*n: as much as, how much
crm 2arm: skin, hide
*rwnstn #r!n*st*n: quiver
*y*ym #&#&m: diadem
*y*ym)r #&#&m-*r: diadem!carrying
*yk #&k: letter
frn farn: majesty, glory
frp.! f*rp"(, (fr"p"(,): to urge on
"r) "ar- = "arf
"y.yp "i(&p: harm
kmbwny kamb)n+: inferiority, lessness
krjywr k*r/y"w*r: marvel, wonder
kr.n kar(*n: form
k.wrzy k*("w*rz&: farmer
kyrmny kirmen&: worm!eaten
ky.! k&(,: to decrease
ky.tyc ke(t+2: (ground) for tilling, farmland
mnwk m"nuk: similar
mrtxmny m*rt*xm"n&: of men
nywkwyy n"yk"w+: depth; from n"yk deep
n"w*n n*")#*n: dress, garment
n)ynd! n)st n*-end, (n+-end,) n*-*st: to attach
n"w.kny n*")(*k"n&: of the hearers
npyk n*p&k: sth. written
ny ... ny n& ... n&: neither ... nor
pmpw.t p"mbu(t: consort, spouse, wife (from
Pers. b"mbi(n, b"mbu(n)
pr"zy p"r*"zy": excellence
pc"t > ptcx.!
p*y p*#&: foot soldier
p*)r! p*$-"r, (p"$-"r): to hurry, rush
pncmyk pan3*m+k: fifth
pr.prn par(p*r*n: pavement
ptcx.! ptc"t (pc"t) p*t2*x(, (p*t+2*x(,) p*t2*"d: to
receive, accept
ptkr p*tk"r": shape, statue
ptmk p*tm"k: measure
ptmwk p*tm)k: garment, dress
ptsynd! p*tsend, (p*t+send,): to agree
pwr*nk pur#ank: leopard
pws! pwt p!s, p!t: to rot
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 58
ryt r&t: face, respect (in many respects)
skwy sk"w+: height
sw. s!(: minute
tnygyrd t*n+gird: bodily (Parthian word)
wf w"f:so much
wfry* w"fr&#: just so much
wfy* w"f&#: just so much
w"wny w",")n&: of that kind
wprm w",p*r*m: so long
wx.k w"x(*k: spiritual
w)yw ... w)yw u-yu ... u-yu: both ... and
w)yw u-yu: both, as well as
wndn wand*n: so much
wrcxwndqywar2xund*ky": magic
wyspzngn wisp,zang"n: all kinds of
w"ry.!, wy"ry.! (wy"ry.! ) w"rt, wy"rt u"r&(,,
wi"r&(, (w+"r&(,) u"r"t, wi"r"t: to wake
wyspspr"myy wisp,*sp*r"*m&: with all kinds of
xw)n xu-n: sleep
xwymny xw&m*n& ?: *self!existent xw&(t*r: elder
zywr z&w*r: adornment

59 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


The relative!interrogative pronouns also function as relative!indefinite pronouns, e.g., k& whoever, etc.
The other indefinite pronouns are "#& and &#& some, somebody, negated n& ... "#& not ... any(body).
In the plural, and sometimes in the singular, the meaning of the pronouns is person

nom.!acc., gen.!dat. "#& &#&
instr.!abl. "#"
dir. "#&t &#&t
obl. "#&t+ &#&t+


"#& n& "*r*-di nobody knows yt$r yn yylaa
2*n "#" s*fr+t& *ti "fr+t& n& x*2i eycx yyn yytyrfaa eya yytyrfs ealaa Nc
has not been created and blessed by anybody (M264aR)
p*r *nyu "#& "i(&p xusandy" #"rt tral aydnswx Py#y eylaa wyna rp
he rejoices at the misfortune of someone else
k*t"m &#& [...] *nyu &#& whoever ... anyone else ... [...] yylya wyna [...] yylya Matq
x&# "#& s"r *zwart 2*n kya *r!f+ ni/di y"yn yy$wr ayq Nc rwza ras yylaa lyx
he returns to that person from whose mouth ... he came out (M117)

yytzrmw yytylaa Fr . wax (eyylya) eytylaa Fr yyk yymxrm yynwx
x)n& m*rt*xm& k& "arf "#&t+ (&#&t+) x"w*t, "arf "#&t+ um*rzdi
that human being who strikes many persons (and) wipes out many persons

To add indefiniteness to other pronouns, adverbs, or conjunctions the compounds "#2u, "2 or &#2, &2
whatever, (not ...) at all are used. The meaning of these words sometimes approaches thing:

2u "2 x)/*$a whatever you ask for al"wx Caa w%
*nyu "2 x)/*ta (x)/da) ask for anything else! at"wx Caa wyna
rti x) wispu (iru &#2 2&w&#+ "/&t yy"aa eylywyc Clya wry# wpsyw wx ytra
and every good thing is born from this
k& *ti,(*n *f2amb*#+ &#2 p*#ufsen& -)t w$ yynyysfwlp Clyya eyylbmcfa N#ya yyk
anything of the world that is sticking to them (M5030V)
t*wa xw"r "2 xw"2*n"k n&st syyn kancawx Caa rawx aw
your sister is not sickly at all

A similar function is fulfilled in Buddhist Sogdian by the combination "#p*r*m or *"*tu "#p*r*m.

The particle ,2 is found also in k*#"2 any time, k*#"2 ... n& never:

x) -*r& k*#"2 n& )r&z*t ()r&zd) the fruit never drops tzyrwa yyn Calk yyr$ wx

See additional examples below under uses of the subjunctive.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 60
Verbs. The present subjunctive.

Light stems Heavy stems
1 ,n <!n, !n> ,an, ,*n <!n, !n>
2 , <!> ,a <,>
3 ,".t <!t> ,"t, ,at <!t, !t>
1 ? ,&m <!ym> ? ,&m <!ym>
2 ,$ <!*> ,$(a) <!*()>
3 ,nd <!nd, !nd> ,and <!nd, !nd>


Light stems Heavy stems
1 -*rn <)rn, )rn> w&nan <wynn, wynn>
2 -*r <)r> *w&na <wyn>
3 -*r".t <)rt> w&n"4t <wynt>
1 *-*r&.m <)rym> w&n&m <wynym>
2 -*r$ <)r*> w&n*$(a) <wyn*()>
3 -*rnd <)rnd, )rnd> w&nand <wynnd>

Verbs. To be.
The attested present subjunctive forms of to be are:

1 *x"n *u-an
2 ?
3 "t <t>, x"t <xt> u-"t <w)t>, -"t <)t!>
Plur. u-and, -and <w)nd, )nd>

The form x"t is used in the perfect subjunctive.
The suffixe ,k"m can be attached to the subjunctive: Maka$ -"t,k"m he shall be(come)
The subjunctive of the simple past tense is *kt"t <ktt> will have become.

Uses of the subjunctive.
The basic function of the subjunctive is that of prospective or eventual future. It is therefore used in:

1. in main clauses, see relative clauses below.

2. temporal clauses:

k*#a m&$ k*-n *sk*w"t when the day becomes less (BBBd) awksa N$k lym alk

3. final clauses:

w"n) kt,fi [...] n*my"k *ti p*t&#y" n& kun"t anwq yyn aylyp ya kaymn [...] yfk wnaw
in order that he should not belittle and offend you (M117)

yta lyam ydnwalpyx yynw lywtp wnrwpsa w# kamtp rp Nryz wwxqnm l#xctp w#yta
w#yta wnaw aysnx xyzm rp lral w#tra ayxyn rp w#yta lyap kaytx xyzm wk lsyrp yyn
ynwxy yyt$n yta yywk# wrp rywrp an trpzdnm
61 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
ti,(u p*t2*x(*$ mang,x) z&r*n; p*r p*tm"k (u *spurnu p*tw&#*t une x&p$"w*nd+ m&# *ti n& p*r&s*$ k!
m*z&x x*ty"k; p"y*$ *ti,(u p*r n+xy" rt,(u #"r*$ p*r m*z&x xansy" w"n) *ti,(u mand,z*part na p*rw&r*$
p*r) (*k*w& *ti n*-d& ix)n+
and receive it like gold; recognize it fully at (its) measure (as that) of (its) master, so that you do not
come to the great judgement; protect it in depth (= conscientiously), and keep it with great firmness, so that
you do not let it become impure through dry or wet blood (BBBf)
Note: p*rw&r*$ < p*rw&rt,$.

4. relative clauses:

. tayawxp awax (eyylya) eytylaa Fr tanwk ayka kadn Fr ya yyk yymxrm yynwx yra
tazrmw yytylaa Fr ya
rti x)n& m*rt*xm& k& *ti "arf "and"k *kty" kun"t, "arf "#&t+ (&#&t+) x"w"t p*txw"y"t, *ti "arf "#&t+ um*rz"t
and that human being who may perform much bad action, may strike and kill many persons, and may
destroy many persons (BBBe)

Nralram#a aram#a yypwxdnm Cnymayrwr . Cnymysxr$aa Cymzaa rawn ytgnlrs 3 wrp wc
2u p*r) *$r& s*r$angt+ n*w"rt: "z*m+2, "-*r*xs+m&n2, rurty"m&n2 mand,x)p& *(m"r" *(m"rt,#"r*n
whatever greedy, lustful, shameless, (or other) un!good thought I may have thought against the
*injunctions of the three leaders (BBBb)

5. hypothetical clauses:

rt,k*#a 2&w&# "+rt*r &#*2 #*-&( &s"t asya #y$l Clya rtry lywyc alkra
and if later than this (in the future) any harm comes

TEXT 9.1
(Manichean cosmogony contd)

!rm Nmlran#xwr Cna aaw rybma ya yyk kafa#wn yyrsxax yyra 7
eya yyk warp ya qwla ya dnkya# ttcnpsa Qaswwp !ar
. . dnwksa yy#wn Nwkyaa Nwkyaa
ayxyyzm Cnp Lymyrp Nmlran#xwr aax yycx acstp wnaw yra 8
. dnwksa eayymrw Mrwa yra
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 62

. syyn yyrat wx N#yta wk dnwksa kayn#xwr wrp dnaztp yyn rywqcp ya 9
N#yya wk yy#w wrp . Farwp aykw" rp . syyn Crm N#ya wk Naw" C#wn wrp
. syyn rawy N#ya wk zawnayyrf wrp . Cwa#y" wwp eyywayrf wrp . syyn Cxwdna
. yydnyw yyn ya yyk N#rk wrp
wwk lyyspwwp rwx yyny#wn wrp . tsyyn Nagyw yta wk rabm kyyna$ wrp 10
. dnar$ yyn ayyw ya Nbm wrp yy#ya
8 ptznd: Scribal error for ptznnd.
9 This paragraph contains a series of sentences beginning with p*r) ... (*sk*wand) ku *ti ... (they live) in
..., in which ... The forced parallelism makes for some strange literal translations.
w".yy: Gen.!dat. ending for acc. ending.
wy"ndyy: wi"*nde is destroyed 3 sing. middle (see lesson 13).
kw ty.yy prw: ku *ti,(i p*r) is best taken, I think, as in which through it (they ...).

TEXT 9.2

(BBBf) rabm aw yta #as wnaw w#yra asya #y$l clya rtry lywyc alkra
.. tyawxa yn pa#xc aw yta . aynf Nawr wrp


1. Conjugate in the subjunctive the verbs *p*st*w, and -+r,.

2. Translate into Sogdian:

He who does not do any sin shall see paradise.
Do (sing.) well, so that you shall obtain eternal life.
When shall I see my great leader again?
You should (it will be proper for you to) deliver all living beings from (re)births.
He toiled hard, so that his father, mother, wife, and children might be happy.

63 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

)rxsymync "-*r*xs+m&n2: of lust
jwn "/)n: birth (~ gati, Buddh.), child
zmyc "z*m+2: of desire, greed
mbyr! amb&r,: to fill (trans.)
ndwxc and)x2: sorrow
spnc *span2: mansion, guest!house
.mr! .mrt = .mr! .mrt (*)(m"r, ((+m"r,)
(*)(m"rt: to think
.mr *(m"r": thought
wrm )r*m: *calm
xwy! xwt *xw"y, *xw"t: to break, infringe
zwrt = zwrt 2*x("p*t: commandment
fny! f*n*y,: *renounce (sth. for: p*r, +)
frynwz friyanw"z: company of friends
"yr "+r: late
jwky /!ky": (good) health
jy.twc /i(t"w*2 = jy.twc
!k* !k*# = k*#a
mndxwpyy mand,x)p&: lacking goodness
mndzprt mand,z*part: unclean, impure
mr" mar" fem.: meadow
mzyxy m*z&xy": greatness
nmyk n*my"k: belittling
nwrt *n*w"rt: contradiction, provocation (?)
nw.ftk n)("ft"k: flowing with ambrosia
nyxy n+xy": depth, care
pckwyr p*2kw&r: fear
prtw p*rt"w: *bench
prwyrt! p*rw&rt,: to let become
psy* p*s&#: diminishing
pty*y p*t&#y": offense
ptzn! p*tz"n,: to know, recognize
pw!sk p!,s"k: countless
rf r"f: illness
r" r"": plain
rw) *r!f: mouth
rwrtymync rurty"m&n2: of insolence
sr*ng s*r$ang: chief, leader
.ykn ("yk*n: palace
.mr! .mrt = .mr! .mrt
wmrz! um*rz,: to destroy
wrm ur*m: quietness
wty uty": hardship; + -*r, to toil + p*r, (cf.
"amb*n -*r,)
wygn wig"n: destruction
wykn!, wy"n! wik*n,, wi"*n,: to destroy
xw! x"w,: strike
xxsry x"xs*r&: spring
xnsy xansy": firmness
xwcnk xw"2*n"k: sickly
ywr iw"r: separation
yxwn ix)n: blood

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 64

65 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


In series of two or more nouns or adjectives and nouns oblique case endings and plural endings are
sometimes only added to the last word in the series. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as group

1. {Noun + noun (sing./plur.)}

r*w"n tamb"r+ in (?) soul (and) body (for r*w"n+) eyrabm Nawr
x!r m"x+ t*x&z the setting of sun (and) moon (for x!r+) zyyx yyxam rwx
2*n anx*rt p*xr&t+ -&k aside from fixed stars (and) planets (for anx*rt+) Qy$ yyrxp trxna Nc
2*n w"nd t*m+kt #&wt+ from those demons of Hell (for w"nd+ t*m+kt+) yywyl tkymt dnaw Nc

2. {Adj. + noun}

w"x(+k *ti t*n+gir#t spiritual and bodily [...] (for w"x(+kt) lrygyn ya Qy#xaw
w y#x$ Payp /1! wrp lyym yylaa Nawryyrf ya ka$r yynw
une "*r-"k *ti fr+r*w"n "#& m&# p*r) *$r& p*ty"p -*x(i ")t (for "*r-"k+ *ti fr+r*w"n+)
anybody wise and devoted to his soul should divide the day into three parts (Tale B)

3. {Adj. plur. + noun plur.}

-e/d*rt *ti st*-d*rta um"t*nd dntamw atrt$ts yta trt"y$
they were most evil and cruel (for -e/d*rta)

4. {{Adj. + adj.}
+ noun plur.}

t"wand& m*z&x
t "*rtya eayr txyzm yydnwa
on powerful, great mountains (for t"wand&t+ m*z&xt+)

The cardinals:

? ! 1 &w <yw> /0 11 *&w*ts
/! 2 (*)#wa <()*w>, gen.!dat. #i-nu (#(y)-nw) /!0 12 #*w"ts <*wts>
/1! 3 *$r&, (& <*ry>
/11! 4 2*tf"r<ctfr>
O 5 pan3 <pnc> O0 15 pan3*ts <pncts!>
/o 6 *xu(u
/11o 7 **-da <)t!>
/11o 8 **(ta <.t> /11o0 18 *a(ts
/111o 9 *n*wa <nw>
) 10 #*sa <*s>
P 20 200 *#w&s*t
)p 30 (is <.ys> 300 *(+s*t
Pp 40 *2*tf*rs
)pp 50 *p*n3"s
Ppp 60 *xu(*(t
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 66
)ppp 70 *-d"t <)tt>
Pppp 80 **(t"t
)pppp 90 *n*w*t
100 s*t <st> 1000 z"r <zr>

When the simple numerals 2, 7!10 are used before a noun they lose the final ,a: ()#u, **-d, etc.
s&t is a consonant!stem noun and takes the normal case endings.
Numerals can be doubled, e.g., z"r z"r (by) thousands.

The ordinals:

1st *ft*m <ftm> *ft*m+k <ftmyk>
2nd #i-diy, #*-diy <*y)ty, *)ty> #*-d+k <*)tyk>
3rd (*)(t+k <().tyk>, (tiyu <.tyw> thirdly
4th 2*tf"r*m+k <ctfrmyk>
5th pan3*m+k <pncmyk>
6th *uxu((u)m+k <*wxw.myk>
7th *-d*m+k <)tmyk>
8th **(t*m+k <*.tmyk>
9th n)m+k <nwmyk>
10th #*s*m+k <*smyk>

Grammatical agreement with nouns with numerals.
Note the following combinations:

Numeral + numerative:
2*tf"r #-*ra four gates ar$l /11!
2*n pan3 par-*"n+ from the five Gifts eyn$rp Cnp Nc

Numeral + numerative + sing. verb.:
*#u -*"*ne *sti there are two temples ytsa yyn$ /!

Numeral obl. + numerative obl.:
#&w&# #i-nu -*"*nya 2nd*r in these two temples rdnyc ayn$ wn$yl lywyl

Numeral + numerative + pred. plur. + verb plur.:
*#u k*pa xw&(t*rt um"t*nd the two fishes were elders (teachers) dntamw trt#ywx apk wla

Numeral + plural:
#*w"t*s #-*rta twelve gates atr$l /!0
pan3 #-*rtya of the five gates eayr$l cnp
2*n pan3 put+(t+ from the five Buddhas yt#ytwp Cnp N%

Plural + numeral + numerative
*n+t 4 #-*ra the other four doors ar$l /11! tyna

Numeral + plural + plur. verb.:
*$r& k*p+(t um"t*nd there were three fishes dntamw t#ypk /1!
#*w"ts an#*m&t m)n) xand the twelve limbs are these: ... dnx wnwm tymlna /!0

Verbs. The present optative.
The optative forms are the same for light and heavy stems. The endings are the following:

Sing. Plur.
1 ,& <!y> *,&m*n <!ymn>
2 ,& <!y> ,&$ <!y*>
3 ,& <!y> ,&nd <!ynd>
67 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
Light stems Heavy stems
1!3 -*r& <)ry> w&n& <wyny>
1 -*r&m*n <)rymn> *w&n&m*n <wynymn>
2 -*r&$ <)ry*> *w&n&$
3 -*r&nd <)rynd> w&n&nd <wynynd>

The suffixes ,skun and ,k"m can be attached to the optative, as well:

"s&,skun she would take Nwksyysaa
u-&,k"m it may be Makyy$w

Verbs. To be.
The attested optative forms of to be and to become are:

to be to become
1 *u-& <w)y>
2 u-& <w)y>
3 y"t <yt> u-& <w)y>
1 u-&m <w)ym>
2 ?
3 u-&nd <w)ynd>

Note: The optative of the simple past tense: *kti y"t <kty yt> he/it may have become.

Use of the optative.

1. The principal function of the optative is to express a wish:

yylaa wnaw Sm yra Mak yyr$l ra$l Nzap twswa Nc rwn wza yta wnac "wx yylaa lyam yra
Nrk#a Na$ryn wwq tas N#ytra yycnyrz a"y$ Nc raltaw Nw"aa Cnp Bmk#a yrla wwa yta ta$
rti m&# ""*#& x)/ c"n) *ti *zu n!r 2*n )su"d,p"z*n $*-"r $*-*r&,k"m rti m*s w"n) ""*#& -"t *ti *wu
*$r& *(kamb pan3 "/)n w"t#"r 2*n -e/a z*r&n3& rti,(*n s"t k! nir-"n *(k*ran
And he wished a wish thus: As I today from a pure heart shall wish to give a gift, thus shall my wish be,
that I may deliver the living beings of the three worlds (and) the five (places of) birth from evil and (so) I
shall lead them all to nirvana! (VJ)

2. Exhortations:

#*-d+k p*ty"p p*r k*t&-*r+k ark anduxs& yysxwdna kra kyr$yk rp Payp Qy$l
the second part (of the day) he should strive in household work (Tale B)

3. The so!called parabolic optative is used in parables and other tales as a narrative past tense:

.. eyywksa yywqaa alr Nc yywka yyrwm yy#ya ayyk eyy#p#yw Qamcp yywlq
w$ yy#p ya#p rasqy$ yydnmar yy#yra
k*#uti p*2m"k wi(p*(& kya *ti,(i murt& *kuti 2*n "*r#a "ku"d& *sk*w&; rti,(i r"m*nd+ -&k,s"r p*("y
p*"*(t& -)t
like a prince on whose neck a dead dog is hanging, and he is always about to throw it away (M5030R4!9)

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 68
4. In consecutive clauses:

yyzwxry# yyrf dnp Sm ya . . dny$w yyn Qwa"$ dnw"aa wlw eya . . yy$w a" anax ya wnaw
yy$w a#xpsa eylaa
w"n) *ti x"n" /*"da u-&; *ti u#u "/)nd -*/"w*k n& u-&nd; *ti m*s pand fr+ (+rx)z& "#& *sp*x(ta u-&
so that (his) house may be maintained, and (his) wife (and) children do not become miserable; and also
(that) anybody (who is) close, dear, well!wishing could be served [potentialis, lesson 14] (Tale B)

5. In hypothetical clauses:

aytka kadn eyn#tw Nc yta yynatka Nagnz asl Nc yta . yyrwz awanyps Nc ya wnac aplyw
ry$ ytaplyw Man#xa yta Nhw#mrq aw ytra yywspa
w&#p"t 2"n) *ti 2*n sp&n"w" zwart&, *ti 2*n #*sa,z*ng"n *kt"n& *ti 2*n ut*(nya "and"k *kty" *p*st*w&
rti wa karm()h*n *ti *x(n"m w&#p"t+ -+rt
then, if he turns away from *depravity and from the ten kinds of sin and renounces (his) old bad evil!
doing, then at that time he obtains the absolution and the grace (BBBf)

6. In relative!concessive clauses:

yy#y$ eynw y#ra . . ay yyka eayka ky"$ Nagnz Faw wnwm ya yyk yymxrm yynwx yra
ackan ayka kadn acka ax rasmnryp
rti x)n& m*rt*xm& k& *ti m)n) w"f z*ng"n -*/+k *kty" *kti y"t; rti,(i une -*"+(t+ p&rn*ms"r x" *kt2a
"and"k *kty" *n"kt2a and that human being for whom so many kinds of evil deeds may have become
(arisen), before the gods that bad deed done (will be) undone (BBBe)

TEXT 10.1
(Tale B)

ralamrf Lyam ynaamyRam y$ yy#yRf My yRa
. . w y#x$ Payp 3 wrp lyym yylaa Nawryyrf ya ka$r yynw k ..
Nrf dnywksa yydn#wxa ya wnaw Sapsa eyralnwa#xa wawx wrp 1
. . dnynwq yyn ysarfna dn$z ya . yryzaa yyn

69 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
TEXT 10.2
(Manichean cosmogony, contd)

ydnwa ryy# ayqdnwa wrp yta . rwaz wrp dnykrwaz ya . dnx ysyp eyydnmanyw rp ya 11
.dnx ysyp ya wan#rq tytat#rp #ypra . dnanazp yyn Man Cwt#yl ya . dnx
yyayp Nagnz rwyr$ at$a kwmp yydn#w wx N#ra . rabm N#ywyrp syyn aky" N#tra 12
[...] eydnqyw yyn kawa ax N#ra. . w$ yyn yynmyr Calq ya yyk yynynr yycx

(second folio)

Nmlran#xwr wj rastp N#tra Cwsp ya . yyra" Cnawknm# Nc anwk dnarq ya 13
. . Nys ras
wnac ary$n dnzaaa . am Nawadra Nl wawx yp#ykt$a wx taplyw rastp yra 14
. . bmcfa anam aw Mycastp ya
. apsf Cnp dnanwk yymtfa w#yra ytstp dnzaarf rkwn rastpra 15
. dnaly#yn ylw w$ p#y#x wwa yra
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 70

. yyyr /!0 dnTsaw a"ym Crknwcrw yynams asl dncasytp rsrlac lywyc Smra 16
yynams asl Nwm rp ya wnaw dnaly#yn yy#ap ylw yy#p$ wya yra
eynams asl wwa ya yk Nyrfys yy#yrf Pp Mysmra .. dnanwk yyn N$lrp wyl ax
. dnralw#rp rasyksa
10 pysty: pist& (py*st&) adorned, perfect participle (see lesson 10) used as adjective.
.yyr: This word occurs as both light stem (ir good and heavy stem (+r well, very.
13 Note that Sogdian has no indirect speech.

TEXT 10.3
dnatamw r#ywx apk wla rwtra dnatamw t#ypk ytwk ) ynykwt wya wnm" wya wrp
. dnatamw tkayna t#ypk tas tyna ywa apk wla ynwy ytra


1. Conjugate in the optative the verbs *spe(, and p*tr"z,.

2. Translate into Sogdian (the students should not use group inflection):

The house has three doors and five rooms. In every room there are ten angels who are sitting on ten
golden thrones.
Thus he made a wish: May I be delivered from all evil in the world and may I go to Paradise so that I
may be there together with all the angels, powers, and gods.

71 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

"*y ""*#&: a wish
kwc! kw"t "k)2, "ku"d: to hang, suspend
zyr! "z&r,: to harm
zyr! "zir,: to be harmed
)tky.p *-dki(p: the (world) of the Seven
Climes, the whole world
)tmyk *-d*m+k: seventh, 7th
ftmy *ft*mi: first(ly), first of all
ktny *kt"n&: sin
nfrsy anfr"s&: *quarrel, *litigation
nyk *ny"k: grandfather
pstw! *p*st*w, + 2*: to renounce
rdwn mt ard"w"n m"t: the Mother of the
Righteous (Pers.!Parth. word)
spy.! spx.t *spe(, *sp*x(t: to serve
sps *sp"s: service
.kmb *(kamb: world (~ loka, Buddh.)
ws"t!pzn )su"d,p"z*n: pure heart
x.nm *x(n"m: grace
xw.nd *xu(and: *pleased
)"p.y -*"p*(&: son of gods
)jwk -*/"wk: misery
)ryywr -r&w*r: 10,000
c*rstr c! 2"#*rist*r 2,: further down from
*smyk #*s*m+k: tenth, 10th
*y.twc #i(t)2: poverty
frn farn: royal glory, majesty
"r* "*r#: neck
fryrwn fr+,r*w"n: soul!loving, the Hearer
fsp f*sp: rug
jyk /ek fem.: damage
kp k*p, plur. k*p+(t: fish
kpy* *k*p&#: *shop, *stall, *room
krm.whn karm()h*n: absolution
kty)ryk k*t&-*r+k: pertaining to the house
kwty k)t+: a ko/i (zillion)
mn m"n: mind
myj me/ fem.: lens
nktc n"kt2 < n" + *kt2: undone, not done
nm n"m: name
n)yr! n)yrt n*-&r,"t: to deliberate
n.y*! n*(&#, (n+(&#,): to set down
nwmyk n)m+k: ninth, 9th
nyr)n nir-"n: nirvana (Buddh.)
p.y p"(&: guardian
pcmk p*2m"k: resembling
pnd pand: close, relative
pr*)n p*r#*-*n: deceit, harm
ptrz! ptr.t p*tr"z, p*tr*(t: to erect
rtnyny r*tn&n&: made of jewels (Skt. ratna)
rymny r&m*n&: soiled, dirty
spynw sp&n"w": *depravity
.tyk (t+k = *(t+k
.yrxwzy (+rx)z&: well!wisher, friend
twndky t"w*ndky": might, wealth
twkyn *t)k&n: pond, lake
wf w"f: so many
wt*r w"t#"r: living being
!wr ,w*r: there
wrcwnkry ur2)nk*r&: magical
wt.n ut*(*n: old, former
wy*pt(y) w&#p"t(+) < w&# + p"t(+): that time,
wy.p.y wi(p*(& (< wisp*(&): prince (*)x(&(p*t: Lord of the Realm
zwr z"w*r: power
z)nd z*-and: *quarrel
zngn ,z*ng"n: of ... kinds
zyrnyny zern&n&: golden

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 72

73 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


In the preceding lessons we have seen many ways of making nouns from verbs or adjectives. Nouns are
of different kinds. In addition to those formations inherited from Old Iranian, numerous indigenous
Sogdian ones exist. These are summarized and supplemented here. The list is not complete, of course.

A. Nouns from verbs.

1. Noun = present stem, e.g., any"m end, "x*ns fight, #-&( harm, p*r-&r deliberation, u"*( joy,
Sometimes the noun differs from the present stem only by the quality or quantity of the vowel, e.g.,
$*-"r gift ~ $*-*r, to give.

2. Noun = present stem (or root) + &, e.g., py"t& adornment, and with different vowel*sp"s&
servant ~ *spe(, to serve, root *sp*s,.

3. Noun = present stem + ,", e.g., *(m"r" thought.

4. Noun = present stem + ,"mand+, see lesson 5.

5. Noun = past stem + y" (light) or ,+ (heavy), e.g, *kty" deed, act, wy"-*rt+ speech.

B. Nouns from adjectives (or nouns).

6. Noun = adjective + y" (light) or ,+ (heavy), e.g, uty" hardship, (ir"kt+ ((ir*kty") beneficence.

7. Noun = adjective or noun + ,y"k (light) or ,y" (heavy), e.g, x*ty"k judgement, "*r-"ky" wisdom.

8. Noun = adjective + ,"w&, e.g, friy"w& love, &/*n"w& worthiness.
The feminine ,"w*2 (,)2) also makes nouns from adjectives, but is rare, e.g., #*(t"w2, #i(t)2 poverty.

9. Noun = adjective + ,k"w+, e.g, #-anz*k"w+ <*)nzkwy> thickness.

10. Noun = adjective + ,)n+, e.g, m*st)n+ drunkenness, kamb)n+ inferiority, less!ness.

11. Noun = noun + ,#*n&, designating container, e.g., z"k#*n& womb < z"k child.

12. Noun = noun + ,st*n, designating place, e.g., -)#*st*n garden < -)d fragrance, 2+n*st*n China.

13. Noun = noun + ,k*r&, designating action or profession, e.g., "zarmk*r& hurting, zrnk*r&

Many Sogdian verbs can be grouped in pairs of intransitive ~ transitive with passive ~ active or active ~
causative meaning. There are several types, but two of the most common are:

1. Intransitive with short vowel ~ transitive (causative) with long vowel, usually ,&,. The past stems of
such pairs are usually the same for both, e.g.:

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 74
Intransitive Past stem Transitive
s*n, <sn!> to rise, go up s*t <st> s&n, <syn!> to raise, lead up
xur, <xwr!> to eat xurt, <xwrt> xw&r, <xwyr!> to feed
anw*z, <nwz!> to gather *nu(t <nw.t> anw&/, <nwyj!> to gather

2. Intransitive in ,s,, also called inchoatives, e.g.:

p*suxs, <pswxs!> to be purified p*su"d <psw"t> p*s)c, <pswc!> to purify
"y*fs, <yfs!> to be perverted "y*-d <y)t> "y*mb, <ymb!> to pervert
p*tyams, <ptyms!> to end, stop p*tyamt <ptymt> p*ty"m, <ptym!> to end

As we see, the presents in ,s, serve as passive forms of the corresponding transitive verb.
Note the following irregular formations:

)(t, ()(t*y,) <w.t!> to stand )st"t <wstt> )st*y, ()st,) <wsty!> to
n+$, <ny*!> to sit (down) n*st <nst> n*(&#, <n.y*!> to seat, place

Note: It is not certain what the past stem of n*(&#, is.

(Manichean cosmogony, contd)
Students should review the formation of the imperfect in lesson 4.

ar$l /11! /11! tyna Myt Smra . . dnacasytp atr$l wx /!0 /!0 yynams wpsyw rp yra 17
. dnwksa y#yrf ax ya wk lrwa . dnacasnm ras Naaryq raftc rp
. yycx xwsf rwyyr$ asl yywaqzna$l wx yyynams ) ynyw yra
xwsf rwyr$ ayr$ ax Sm N#ytra
dnylp /o /o wr$l wya wya rp . dnwksa ytynams ayw ya yk ar$l /!0 /!0 rptra 18
Dnrcaw )p)p dnanwq dnylp wya wya rp yra . dncasnm
75 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

dnanwq Lypq Pppp asrp wya wya rp zya /!0 /!0 yynrcaw wya wya ayw ya 19
Pppp asrp kyt$l rp yta
tkryn wwa ytra dna#yqyrp yta dnadny$ twyl yta #y#ky eyylyypq aypsyw ayw yta 20
. ryy" ly#xnams wwa rkrp#yw wx rastp yra dna#yqyrp Nyytp yy#yrts Nc
Ly#xa Nams asl Nwm rp yta dnaly#yn kwla rp eyynams kym$a ayw w#yra
. dnanwq watwx yta

dncasytp Nzwrxna yta yyrxc eyn#an rtsrlac yynams asl Nc rastptra 21
. dntamw atrt$ts yta trt"y$ yta trtsyragn"$ yta yk yywyl tkymt dnaw Nctra
Nwm rp eyyrJp /!O yta rxna /1!0 yta . . dnadny$ rdnc yyNzwrxna ayw N#tra
. . dnytsaw raytp ayt$l yynw wya N#ytra . dnanwk tralnwa#xa lbmcfa acsyrtp

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 76

lywyc dnfaw dn$tp yta kar xyw dnx tyts$ yynzwrxna ayw yta yk yywyl wpsyw Nc yta 22
dnacwqam Nzwrxna wwa ytra . dnbmws Nw$ eynams Qycrlac ayw ytra dnfawytp yta
[...] yydnmar wrxc Qycyksa ya wnaw dnytsaw dnyy#ap yy#p$ /! eyya

(end of Manichean cosmogony)


1. Transliterate, transcribe, and translate into English. Then change simple past tense into imperfect and
imperfect into simple past tense. Then write the whole in subjunctive and then in optative.

yyr$ayw kyna$ wrp dnaka dnswx ya . dn#wyw ry# ka#wn Nams yaplyw
dnralr$ Camn Ma" yra dnral#wp ynamyrm y$ y#yrf Nc wc Namrf !ra wp ya

2. Translate into Sogdian:

The #&n led three souls up to paradise.
The demons gathered before the city and deliberated.
Thus they said: Let us gather a large army so that we can kill brave Rustam!
The evil Chinese began to pervert the pure Sogdians.
But the Sogdians departed from China and came to Samarkan0.


yfs! y)t "y*fs, "y*-d: to become perverted
ymb! y)t "yamb, "y*-d: to pervert
zrmkry "zarmk*r&: hurting
kwc! kw"t "k)2, "ku"d: to suspend, hang up
nsc! ns"t ans"2, ans*"d: to arrange
nxr anx*r: star, constellation
nxrwzn anx*r,w*z*n: zodiac
spsy *sp"s&: servant
x.wn*r *x("w*n#"r: ruler
x.y* x(&$: ruler
yjnwy &/*n"w+: worthiness
yw wnyy *)ty &w wine #-itya: one another
yzt &zd: street
)wn -un: bottom
)w*stn -)#*st*n: garden
)yj -e/ fem.: evil
c*rcyk 2"#*r2+k: : inferior, below, which is
c*rsr 2"#*rs"r: down(ward)
c*rstr 2"#*rist*r: most down(ward)
cndr 2and*r: within
cxr 2*xr: wheel
77 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
*)nzkwy #-anz*k"w+: thickness
fswx f*sux: frasang
jm /"m: exquisite
kyrn kir"n: direction; 2*n ... kir"n: from the
side/direction of
mstwny m*st)n+: drunkenness
n.ny n"(*n&: rolling, turning
ny*! nyst n+$, n+st: to sit (down)
nyrk n&r*k: male
prs p*rs fem.: side, flanc
pswxs! psw"t p*suxs, p*su"d: to be purified
pt)nd p*t-and: link, tie, bond
ptwf! p*tw"f,: to weave
ptym! ptymt p*ty"m, p*tyamt: to end, stop
ptyr p*ty"r: opposition, counterpart
ptyn p*t+n: separate(ly)
pw!r" p!,ar": priceless, valuable
pxry p*xr&: planet
p*ynd *p*#&nd: threshold
p.yn p"(&n: guardian
rk r"k: vein
smnx.y* sm"nx(&#: Ruler of Heaven, Rex
sn! st s*n, s*t: to rise, go up
.yrkty (ir"kt+: beneficence
tmyk t*m+k: of darkness, pertaining to Hell
wf! w"f,: to weave
wsty! < wsty!
wy)r wy"-*r: explanation, word
wy.prkr w&(p*rk*r: Spiritus vivens (Vaiiu.
wyx w&x fem.: root
xwsnd xusand: satisfied
xwyr! xw&r,: to feed (somebody, an animal)
yk. yak(: yak2a
zk*ny z"k#*n&: womb
zyrnkry zrnk*r&: goldsmith

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 78

79 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Like nouns, adjectives are of different kinds. In addition to formations inherited from Old Iranian,
numerous indigenous Sogdian ones exist. Following is a list of the most common.

1. By far the most common ajective ending is ,&, which is added to old adjectives, e.g., n)(& <nw.y>
immortal (OIr. *anau(a,), (*k*w& dry (OIr. *hu(ka,), *sp&t& <spyty> white (OIr. *spaita,).

2. The ending ,*k is a kind of reinforced variant of the ending ,&, making new adjectives from Sogdian
ones, e.g., (ir and (ir*k <.yrk> good, k*-n and k*-n*k little, few, *sp*t& and *sp*t*k <sptk>

3. The ending ,+k is one of the most common denominal endings, making adjectives from nouns with the
meaning consisting of, pertaining to, etc., e.g. "p+k <pyk> of water, living in water, t*m+k <tmyk>
pertaining to Hell, su"#+k <sw"*yk> Sogdian.
These adjectives sometimes seem to have fem. in ,+2, but there are hardly any that are found in both
masc. and fem., e.g., xurm*zd+2 <xwrmztyc> made by Xormazd.
Composite suffixes containing ,+k are numerous.

4. The suffixes ,"n&, fem. ,"n2, and ,"n+k make possessive adjectives, e.g., put"n& of the buddha, mu""n&,
fem. mu""n2 of the Magi, -*""n+k of the gods, divine.
The fem. ,"n2 is also used as an individual suffix to denote female persons of a specific class, e.g.,
n*")("k hearer, auditor, fem. n*")("k"n2 female hearer, auditrix; #&n"-*r& elect, fem. #&n"-*r"n2
electa; (*m*n Buddhist monk, fem. (*m*n"n2 Buddist nun. In the plural the 2 becomes ( and the n is
lost before it, e.g., #&n"-*r"(t electae.
The noun p*n"n2 co!wife seems to be made in analogy with the last group from a non!attested or
outdated p*n fem. co!wife.

5. The suffix ,2+k, which alternates with ,2+, has two functions, one to make adjectives from nouns, adverbs,
and verbs, e.g., p*ty"m2+k final, *sk&2+k superior, above, 2"#*r2+ and 2"#*r2+k inferior, below, -"w2+
and -"w2+k sufficient (see also Lesson 5).

6. The suffix ,&n& (or ,en&), fem. ,&n2, makes adjectives from nouns and denotes consisting of, relating to
e.g., mar2&n&, fem. mar2&n2 of death, kirmen& worm!eaten, /"r&n& full of poison, r)#en&, fem.
r)#&n2 of copper.

7. The suffix ,k&n makes adjectives of nouns meaning full of, e.g., z"w*rk&n powerful, r"fk&n

8. The suffix ,(+)m&n2 makes adjectives from nouns, e.g., tamb"rm&n2 of the body, #&nm&n2 of the

9. The suffix ,m+k, fem. ,m+2 makes adjectives from nouns, e.g., "zm+k of greed, /*w"nm+2 of life.

10. The suffix ,")n&, fem. ,")n2, literally means kind, color, e.g., z*r")n& of green color, wisp")n& of
all kinds.

11. The suffixes ,k*r& and ,k"r& (,*ng"r&) designate the doer or maker of something, e.g., z&r*nk*r&
goldsmith, "*w"nk*r& sinner, "x"sk*r& fight!maker > soldier, "z*rmk*r& someone who hurts;
*w*/d,k"r& killing, killer, m*st,k"r& intoxicating; *-*/*ng"r& evil!doer, (ir*ng"r& pious.

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 80
13. The suffixes ,-*r& and ,-*r*n designate the holder, bearer, sufferer of something, e.g., ip"k,-*r&
angry, -e/,-*r& suffering, needy, -)#-*r*n incense!holder, -)#*n-*r*n fragrant.

14. The suffix ,"w makes adverbs denoting language: su"#iy"w in Sogdian.

Verbs. The perfect participle.
The perfect participle is a vocalic!stem adjective formed from the past stem (past participle), e.g., *kt,&,
fem. *kt,2a done; ""*t,&, fem. ""*t,2 come, arrived.
The perfect participle is very commonly used as an adjective.

The present perfect.
The perfect participle is also used to form the so!called present perfect, a perfective tense, in which the
emphasis is on the state reached by performing an act or by undergoing a process. It is formed from the
simple past tense by substituting the perfect participle for the past stem. The perfect participle is then
declined like an adjective. It has all the modes. Examples:

Present perfect indicative intransitive (I have/had entered and am now inside):

Indicative Preterite
1 t*"*t& &m <t"ty ym>
2 t*"*t& &( <t"ty y.>
3 t*"*t& *sti <t"ty sty> t*"*t& um"t <t"ty wmt>
fem. t*"*2a *sti <t"tc sty>
1 t*"*t&t &m <t"tyt ym>
2 *t*"*t&t *s$a* <t"tyt s*>
3 t*"*t&t xand <t"tyt xnd> t*"*t&t um"t*nd <t"ty wmtnd>

Instead of &m I am, etc., we also find *sk*w,, e.g., t*"*t& *sk*we you have entered and u-,, e.g., xart&
-)t may have passed.
Feminine and modal forms are rare.

2"f m&$ xart& *sti [...] -*/"w wa"$ [...] yysa yyrx lym Fac
as many days have passed [...] increase (M767iR)
-*/"*st& um"t he had mounted (the horse) (M 127V11)) tamw yyts"$
"/it&t um"t*nd they had been born (Kaw G 17!18) dnamw yyy"aa
w"f*r&# s!( xart& -)t 2"f*r&# p*t(m"r u-& ey$w ram#tp Llyrfac w$ eyrx #ws Llyrfaw
however many minutes have passed, let the count be that much (M767iV)
p*r""*t&t *skwand they have arrived (and are now here) dnwksa tytarp

Present perfect indicative transitive!passive (I have been bound, I am bound):

Indicative Simple past
1 -*st& &m <)sty ym>
2 -*st& &( <)sty y.>
3 -*st& *sti <)sty sty> -*st& um"t <)sty wmt>
fem. -*s2a *sti/x*2i <)sc sty/xcy>
1 -*st&t &m <)styt ym> !
2 *-*st&t *s$a* <)styt s*> !
3 -*st&t xand <)styt xnd> -*st&t um"t*nd <)styt wmtnd>

81 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
eysa yys$p yynzwrxna Nc dn$p wx yykar yynyaw yta
*ti w"ten& r"kt+ x) p*t-and 2*n anx*rw*zn+ p*t-*st& *sti
and the tie of the windy veins is tied to the zodiac (KawK)
"z xuti 2end*r p*tmu"d& *sti yysa yywmp rdnyc yywx zaa
8z (it)self is clad inside (wears the body as a garment)
rti w"n) p*ts*"2a x*2i x" rux(n""*r*#m*n Nmlran#xwr aax yycx acstp wnaw yra
and thus is the Light Paradise (now) constructed

dnfaw dn$tp yta kar xyw dnx tyts$ yynzwrxna ayw yta yk yywyl wpsyw Nc yta
*ti 2*n wispu #&w*t+ k& *ti wya anx*rw*zn+ -*st&t xand w&x r"k *ti p*t-and w"f*nd
and from all the demons that are (now) bound to the zodiac they wove roots, veins, and ties

Present perfect subjunctive transitive!passive:

*k(r)t& *sti x"t shall have been made ax yysa yyrka
u#*rt& *sk*w"t shall have been established awksa yyrlw

Present perfect indicative transitive!active.
Here, the perf. participle is invariable. Only progressive forms attested:

1 -*st& #"ram <)sty *rm> lit. I hold bound
1 -*st& #"r&m <)sty *rym>

Nwksmral yywmtp yk wyr yyn#y$l rapm Nar
"*r"n tamb"r #-&(en& "*r+w k& p*tmu"d& #"r*m,skun
the heavy, harmful self that I (have put on and) am (now) wearing (BBB)
Nwksmyral yyxcp wasy[w yta] ayqywacyw yy#y$
-*"+(t+ wi2"w+ky" [*ti] wist"w p*t2*xt& #"r&m,skun
we have accepted the testimony [and] oath of the gods (and are now bound by them) (M116R)

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 82
TEXT 12.2
(Tale B)

raasxam#w wwk ya . cnyrz am Nc eyylya r yyk yyralnyl wara eycx xnwx yra 1
rwaz ya wa w% Nfya wnaw Myamrf ras ka#wn xam# yyrlk yra . . w$ kalar
. ayrrf yynawr lpyx rp alsxwdna dnmar Maka$
yy#r yya ar yyrzyw [wwx] ya . . alral eay#a rp Nwa#p ya . Naamrf anm ya 2
lpraq yx rp yyra . . Nyyl rpza ycx eywx ya wc Mrala#na xam# yyk lpraq
.. alsyyrp Naw" Qycnwkyaa wwk wyrp anm ya wnaaw alsxwdna
yyr$ayw kyna$ wrp dnaka dnswx ya . dn#wyw ry# ka#wn Nams yaplyw 3
83 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

. dnralr$ Camn Ma" yra dnral#wp ynamyrm y$ y#yrf Nc wc Namrf !ra wp ya
dn#xcyp wnz$a eya
y#x$ Payp 1! rp Lyym 4
yylaa Nawryyrf ya ka$r yynw k .. ralamrf yam ynaamyram y$ yy#yrf My yra
wnaw Sapsa eyralnwa#xa wawx wrp . . w y#x$ Payp /1! wrp lyym
. . dnynwq yyn ysarfna dn$z ya . yryzaa yyn Nrf dnywks yydn#wxa ya
Cyrx Nakrp !a$ yydnqarp yy#ka wrp yysxwdna kra kyr$yk rp Payp Qy$l 5
. . dny$w yyn Qwa"$ dnw"aa wlw eya . . yy$w a" anax ya wnaw Nlarp ya
. . yy$w a#xpsa eylaa yyzwxry# yyrf dnp Sm ya
5 spx.t: predicative instr.(!abl.).
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 84
TEXT 12.1

[... dn]#yw yyra
yyy"aa eyydn#yw N% yk
eywyl Nc[.......... dn]amw
eyymyn N#yy[a ... dn]anyz

zyxrwx Nc yymyn ya . Naryk Nsrwx
Nmalp ayr xyzm 11! rp Naryk
/!0p wwk wwlp yyrryms wk
yyk . . dnralrk#a ras lnk
Eyzaaa N% e[ydn]wy"law
eya#rp ralyp eydn#yw
Man N"ywnayra yya . amw
. . dnary"

85 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

1. Conjugate in the present perfect p*r&s,, "y*fs,, and p*tmen3,.

2. Translate into Sogdian using the perfect tense:

My work has now been finished. All men have been delivered. They have no more sin(s). They have all
gone to the Light Paradise, before the great god Z&rw#n.
I have done everything which you told me to do.
Did you (plur.) see the two statues which have now been fashioned and placed in the temple?
The chief saw the enemies coming (= saw the enemies that they were coming) and thought thus: Either
Rustam has been killed or he has fled to into the city.

3. Translate into Sogdian:

Those spirits, upon seeing the angel, became extremely happy, and all gathered before him.
And then those powerful spirits said thus to the beneficent angel.


pyk "p+k: of water, living in water
xskry "x"sk*r&: soldier
ykwncyk "yk)n2+k: eternal
zrmkry "z*rmk*r&: someone who hurts
)jngry *-*/*ng"r&: evil!doer
)zn **-z*n: *recognition, *hospitality
k.! > k.!
ryn wyjn ary"n w&/*n: (Zor.) the Aryan
Expanse, the mythical homeland of the
zprt *zpart: pure
)wcy(k) -"w2+, -"w2+k: sufficient
)"nyk -*""n+k: divine
)"nyk -*""n+k: of the gods, divine
)yj)ry -e/,-*r&: suffering, needy
c*rcy 2"#*r2+ = c*rcyk 2"#7r2+k
*)y.ny #-&(en&: harmful
*yn)ry, fem. *yn)rnc #&n"-*r&, #&n"-er"n2,
plur. #&n"-er"(t: male/female elect
*ynmync #&nm&n2: of the religion
")ty "*-d&: *strenuous, exhausting
"wnkry "*w"nk*r&: sinner
krp* k"rp*#: way (?)
k.! ()k.t! k*(, (*)k*(t,: till, sow
kyr! k.t k&r, *k*(t: to till
mrymny mar+ m"n+: Mar Mani
mstkry m*st,k"r&: intoxicating
mw"ny, fem. mw"nc mu""n&, mu""n2: of the
n"w.knc n*")("k"n2 fem.: female hearer
nmc )r! n*m"2 -*r,: to do homage, obeisance
nymy n&m&: one half
p*! p*#: foot (of mountain)
p*mn p*#"m*n: skirt (of mountain)
pnnc p*n"n2 fem.: co!wife
pr*n p*r"$*n: sale
prkn! prknd p*r"k*nd,: to scatter, sow
ptrkn p*t*rk"n: estate, inheritance
ptymcyk p*ty"m2+k: final,
rfkyn r"fk&n: diseased
r* r"$ fem.: road
r.t r*(t: straight
rw*ny, fem. rw*ync r)#en&, r)#&n2: of copper
smyr"r s*m+r"*r: Mt. Sumeru, the mountain in
the middle of the world
.mnnc (*m*n"n2 fem.: Buddist nun
.yrngry (ir*ng"r&: pious, beneficent
tw t"w: might
tmbrmync tamb"rm&n2: of the body
w* jywndy w"# /+wand&: (Parth.) the Living
wtny w"ten&: of wind, windy
w*yr! w*rt u#&r, u#*rt: to hold out, arrange
wycwky wi2"w+ky": testimony
wysp"wny wisp")n&: of all kinds
wyzr wiz*r: straight
xryc xr+2: purchase
xwrsn x!rs*n: sunrise, east
xwrtxyz x!rt*x&z: sunset, west
xwsnd xusand: happy, content
ypk)ry ip"k,-*r&: angry
zyn! zyt zin, zit: to take (from); passive: to be
deprived (of: c,)
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 86

87 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Formation of nouns and adjectives. Prefixes.
The most common prefixes are the following (they all produce heavy stems):

"w, co!: "w,m*r"z coworker, collaborator;
mand, un!, non!: mand,z*p*rt <mndzprt> unclean, mand,z*p*rty"uncleanness, mand,x)p&
lacking goodness, mand,m"n& <mndmny> careless, mand,m"n*ky" carelessness;
n", un!: n",su-d un!bored, n",p*#*k2+k unlawful, n","*r-&n& ignorant, n","*r*-d&
n), un!, non!: n),r&/+ displeasure, dislike, n),"*r-+ ignorance;
p!, !less: p!,ar" priceless, invaluable, p!,sk*-d& without support, p!,s"k: countless.

A compound is a word formed by combining two or more words into one. The most usual compounds
are of the type noun + noun, adj. (past partic.) + noun, numeral + noun, noun + verbal noun/adjective.
Compounds can be nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Compounds can be endingless or take a typical nominal or adjectival ending.
Following are examples of some common types (combinations of prepositions and pronouns are not
considered here):

1. Noun + noun:
a. Nouns. Most compounds in this category have the meaning X of Y: kan$-*r gate of the city, city
gate < kan$ + #-*r; +(k*t& house of the women, womens quarters, harem < +n2 + k*t& house; -*"p*(&
son of gods < -*" + *p*( son + ,&; "x"sw"#& battlefield < "x"s fighting + w"# place. The
traditional Indian name for these compounds is tatpuru9a, literally, his son.
b. Nouns. A few compounds in this category have the meaning X and Y: z"$mur$ birth and death,
transmigration (of souls), sams"ra < z"$ birth + mur$ death (from Parthian z"dmurd?). The
traditional Indian name for these compounds is dvandva, literally, couple.
b. Adjectives. Most compounds in this category have the meaning whose X is (in, for, etc.) Y, having
the X of (in, for, etc.) Y: z&r*n-"m having the color of gold, gold!colored < z&r*n + -"m color;
"x"sr&/& whose pleasure is in fighting > warlike, soldier < "x"s fighting + r&/ pleasure; x*r")(&
having the ears of a donkey > hare < x*r donkey + ")( ear + ,&; r*t*n-"m+k (like) having the color
of jewels< r*t*n jewel + -"m + +k. The traditional Indian name for these compounds is bahuvr+hi,
literally, whose rice is plenty, having much rice.

2. Noun + participle:
a. Adjectives. In one category we find nouns and adjectives meaning Yed by (to, in, etc.) X: #&w,
ny"t& possessed by demons < #&w + ny"t& taken, seized; p*2"w"yu"d& joined to quarreling,
quarrelsome < p*2"w" quarrel + yu"d& joined, attached (to).
b. Adjectives. In another category we find a few adjectives meaning whose X is Yed, having (ones) X
Yed or having Yed X: fr"n-*st& whose breath is obstructed < fr"n breath + -*st& bound,
obstructed; (ir*kt& having done good, pious < (ir + *kt&.

3. Noun/adjective + present participle or active verbal noun.
Compounds in this category have the meaning Ying X: wisp,"*r-"k knowing all < wisp + "*r-"k;
"and"(k)k*r& evil!doer < "and"k + ,k*r&; k*("w*rz& tilling < *k*(" furrow + w*rz, to work (the
land); anx*rk*s& astrologer < anx*r star + k*s, to see; z"yx&z& creeping on the earth < z"y + x&z,
to creep; -*r+-*ren& fruit!bearing < -*r + -*ren&; -e/+-*r"n miserable: < -e/ + -*r,.

4. Adj./past participle + noun:
a. Nouns. Compounds in this category have the meaning of their components: (irn"m good name,
fame < (ir + n"m; n&(m)m&$ south < n&m half + m&$; )su"dp"z*n a pure heart < )su"d + p"z*n
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 88
heart, mind.
b. Adjectives. Some compounds in this category are bahuvr+his: whose Y is X: su-d,")( whose ears
are pierced, having pierced ears < su-d + ")(; *kt*sp"s whose service is performed > obliging;
sr"t" having twelve faces < #*w"t
s + r&t.
c. Adjectives. Some compounds in this category have the meaning who is X (and) Y: wisp*sp*r"*m&
all (covered with) flowers < wisp + *sp*r"*m&.

Verbs. Passive.
We have seen that passive in Sogdian can be expressed in a variety of ways:

Intransitive verbs in ,s, are the passive of the corresponding transitive verb, e.g., p*suxs, ~ p*s)c, be
purified ~ purify.

There are a few present stems that have corresponding passive present stems of different kinds, among
them: xwen, <xwyn!> to be called ~ xw&n, <xwyn!> to call; "zir, <zyr!> to be harmed, be hurt ~
"z&r, <zyr!> to harm, hurt; /"ir, <j"yr!> to be called ~ /"&r, <j"yr!> to call kir, <kyr!> to be
done ~ kun to do.

Some verbs can express the passive by middle endings: w&nde is seen.

In the simple past tense and the present perfect tenses a transitive verb inflected intransitively has passive
meaning, e.g., -*st&m I was bound; p*t*-d&t &m we have been burned (and are now roasted).

If no special present stem is available, then a present passive is formed with the perfect participle and the
auxiliary to become. The perfect participle is then declined like an adjective.

Indicative Simple past
1 -*st& u-"m <)sty w)m> -*st& *kt&m <)sty ktym> I was (became)
2 -*st& u-e <)sty w)y> -*st& *kt&( <)sty kty.>
3 -*st& -)t <)sty )wt> -*st& *kti <)sty kty>
fem. -*s2a -)t <)sc )wt>
1 -*st&t u-&m <)styt ym>
2 *-*st&t -)$a <)styt )w*>
3 -*st&t u-and <)styt w)nd> -*st&t *ktand <)styt ktnd>


Present passive indicative:

p*$*"d& -)t he is pulled out w$ yyalp

Present passive progressive:

Nwksdnarwx yyk dnx twyl Malq . Nwksw$ yytrwx yyk ycx wc
2u x*2i k& xurt& -)t,skun, k*$"m #&w*t xand k& xurand,skun
What is it that is eaten? Which demons are they who are eating? (BBB)

Present passive subjunctive:

u#*rt& u-"t shall be arranged ta$w yytrlw

Qy$l Nwa#xa N# rasp . dna$w yyrfs Qaypsa wrp ky$l yywnp yynwy#xa xyzm Nc wnac
. . yyxamt#w yywn raq Mak w$ wyrp . yynwy#xa xyzm yxam#w yynsaa . Makw$ yaz Mak wrp
89 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

2"n) 2*n m*z&x *x(&w*n+ p*tn*w+ #*-d+k p*r) *sp*ty"k s*fr+t&t u-and, p*ts"r (*n *x("w*n #*-d+k p*r)
k*t"m z"y -)t,k"m: "st*n& u(t*m"x+ m*z&x *x(&w*n+ p*rew -)t,k"m k*t"r n*w& u(t*m"x+
when they shall be created anew by the great king, a second time, in completeness, then in what earth
shall their ruler be: shall he be in the first Paradise together with the great king or in the New Paradise?

a$ yytyz a$ yyn N"ya rpw#yta yk yynyrwx wpsyw yta warp Nwksalrwx yta wc yycx wc ytra
yyxamt#w yyn#xwr Nc Nywxy ya yynbm yyt$ Nc
rti 2u x*2i 2u *ti xur$askun *p*r"w,*ti wispu xuren& k& *ti,(u,p*r &/*n n& -"t zit& -"t 2*n "*-d& "amb*n+
*ti ixw&n 2*n rux(n+ u(t*m"x+
And what is it that you are eating? For he who eats everything that is not worthy (= good) for him will
be deprived of (will have wasted his) strenuous effort and (will be) excluded from the Light Paradise.

Present passive optative:

-*st& u-& should be bound yy$w yyts$

Passive simple past indicative:

yyray$ karf ky#ap Nwyrfa yya ralyp rayp yyn$wx eayknamdnksq eayknam#y" NC wwc
yyka yyrp yynalym ycywx yyfar eaynp yylar Lym ap#xa
2u 2*n /i(t*m"n*ky" k*tsk*nd*m"n*ky" xu-n+ p*ty"r pi#"r *ti *fr+w*n p"(+k f*r"k -y"r+ *x(*pa m&$ r"$+
p*t*nya r"f+ xw&2+ mi#"n+ p*r*"d& *kti
whatever prayer and hymn has been left out on account of ill will, with destructive purpose, during
sleep, for the sake of harm in the morning (or) in the evening, at night (or) at day, on the road, in *privacy,
in the the middle of sickness (or) pain (BBB)

. Myka ya$" ydnrwx raa . ywlrp yy"yr ky"$ . Myka yysxna eydn$n yzaa rp ... wc
dnaryw yna$zyn aram#a Qy"$ kadn lyx rp Cw#y" Nrzp kapy kwlx Nyq rp
2u p*r "z+ n*-and+ anx*st& *kt&m, -*/+k r&/+ p*r#!t&, "t*r xurand& /*-"t& *kt&m;
p*r k&n x*#!k ip"k p*tzarn /i(t)2, p*r x&# "and"k -*/+k *(m"r" niz-"n&t wi"r"t*nd
if I have been goaded by the rein(s) of greed, polluted by evil pleasure, been bitten by devouring fire, by
revenge, *resentment, anger, rage, hatred, (if my) passions have been awakened by that foul, evil thought

Passive simple past subjunctive:

Maywk#tp Nhw#mrq as aka yyrp aklp Mwn kycnm"xam Naryq anm Nc wc
2u 2*n m*na kir"n m"x/*m*n2+k n!m p*#ka p*r*"d& *kt"t s"t karm()h*n p*t(kw*yam
if the Monday rule (and) law has been omitted by me I say absolution for (it) all! (BBB)

A non!human agent in passive sentences can be expressed by p*r, as in the example above (simple past
A human agent is rarely expressed in passive sentences. If an agent is present it may be expressed by the
preposition 2*, or an expression such as 2*n ... kir"n from the side of, as in the example above (past

2*n "#" s*fr+t& *ti "fr+t& n& x*2i eycx yyn yytyrfaa eya yytyrfs ealaa Nc
has not been created by anybody (M264aR)

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 90
TEXT 13.1


Llymyrp rp yysa yywmp rdnyc yywx Casyp rabm wnwm yyk zaa alwyl eya
Nams wyrpa yyyyc kycky$ Nwl ky%rdnyc eydnwq Cnwxna dnamar ayr$l Cnp
. . Nwksw$ yy#n yyzap 1 yylymp eynalym awla yydnwq

TEXT 13.2
(Tale D) $$

. . Mysxrz xam ya ayacna yynrwz lyx wasyw wasyw ya ar$ alan az$lyw [...] 1
yyn C[...] ya anwk wasyw [...] lywn ya z$lyw [...] Mrplyma$a wwk [...] yra
. . awasyw amn

ayryr ya alyw xyzm anax ya rtwk dnk rp yymk . . ramy# rqawx yra 2
ras yyyc ya ky#xaw wk rqawx eya . . awa[syw amn y]ra . ysa kyc[...]
. Nsya alyw wwp arwms lymyc ya a$w wnac k . . adnwk wasyw wnaw
. . Manwk y#w" yyc kyrwms lymyl ya Makmsaa w#ya . . . [...] rasp
[Note: kwnd is middle (Lesson 15)]

ya yynrwz lynwy lyx rasp . . anwk watsyw wnwm yylym kym /11o wnac eyra 3
alyw wwp wyrpa yymar yynz yydnwa eya yyaz Nl rqawx yra .. yacnm awacp
k a#wa kancxwdna ylap rx Nykaram# zaam yra . . yy"yn ras Bmz wwk
Nwa$ dnp ras anax wnac a$l . . Mralk yk wasyw wrp Maka$w wnac
. . asya [...] Mnryp apcp awl yymyra

91 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM

1. Decline in all forms of the passive the verbs p*txw"y, and wi"r&(,.

2. Translate into Sogdian:

And the collaborators of the demons who were in the heavens were all bound there.
And guardians were placed over them, so that they would not escape and so that they would not be
released but be tortured for all eternity.
And whatever evil sin may have been committed in heaven and on earth, on account of that, all evil
humans have been imprisoned together with Satan and Greed in the depth of the earth.


fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: praise, create(?)
stny "st*n&: initial, first
wmrz "w,m*r"z: coworker, collaborator
xs "x"s: battle, fight
xsryjy "x"sr&/&: whose pleasure is in fighting
xsw*y "x"sw"#&: battlefield
zyr! *"zir,: to be harmed, be hurt
ktsps *kt*sp"s: obliging
ncy! nct an2"y, an2"t: to calm down, end
ndwxcnk and)x2*n"k: anxious
ntrxs! ntr"t antr*xs, antr*"t: be tortured
nxrksy anx*rk*s&: astrologer
nxr anx*r: star
nxwnc anxwan2: dispute, fight
)tmy* *-dam&$: a week
nxsty anx*st&: goaded
sptyk *sp*ty"k: completeness
ync +n2 f.: woman
y.kty +(k*t&: house of the women, womens
quarters, harem
)w! -"w,: to approach
)jyk -*/+k: evil (adj.)
)jy)rn -e/+-*r"n: miserable
)ykcyk b&k2+k: outer
cendrcyk 2end*r2+k: inner
cytyy 2&t&: ghost
*)t #-"t: perhaps
*wtsryty #*w"t
s!r"t": having twelve faces
*ywnyty #&w,ny"t&: possessed by demons
frk f*r"k: tomorrow
frn)sty fr"n-*st&: whose breath is obstructed
"ndkry "and"(k)k*r&: evil!doer
"rmyy "*r"m&: wealth
"w. ")(: ear
"zn "*zn: treasure
j)! j)t /*-, /*-"t: to bite
j"yr! /"ir,: to be called
jw.y : *sacrifice?
jy.tmnky /I(t,m"n*ky": ill will
*knd kand: family
k.wrzy k*("w*rz&: tilling (the fields),
ktskndmnky k*tsk*nd,m"n*ky": destructive
kty k*t&: house
kwtr k)t*r: family (Sanskrit gotra)
kyn k&n: hate, revenge
kyrn kir"n, see grammar
mxjmncyk m"x/*m*n2+k: of Monday
mndmny mand,m"n&: careless
mndmnky mand,m"n*ky": carelessness
n!p*kcyk n",p*#*k2+k: unlawful
n!"r)yny n","*r-&n&: ignorant
n!"r)ty n","*r*-d&: incomprehensible
n)nd n*-and: reins
nm! n*m,: to let, permit (+ infinitive)
n"* n*""#": prayer, request; ~ -*r,: to request
nw!"r)y n),"*r-+: ignorance
nwm n!m: rule
nw!ryjy n),r&/+: displeasure, dislike
nwy* n*w&#: invitation
nymy* n&(m)m&$: south
nyz)ny *niz-"n&: passion
p*y p"$+: still
p.yk p"(+k: hymn
pzy p"z&(?): part
pcw p*2"w": turmoil, quarrel
pcwyw"ty p*2"w"yu"d&: quarrelsome
pcpt p*2p"t: this time
p*ynj! p*"t p*$enj p*$*"d: to pull (out)
prw ty p*r"w,*ti: for (because)
pr*w! pr*wt p*r#*w, p*r#!t: to sully, pollute
pt)ty p*t*-dy: burned, scorched
ptmy*y p*tm&$&: daily
ptn p*t*n: *solitude, *privacy
ptnwy p*tn*w+: anew, again
ptzrn p*tzarn: anger
pw!sk p!,s"k:: countless
pww wy*) p!,wi#"-: without injury
pyrnm p&rn*m: before
r) r"f: sickness
rtn)myk r*t*n-"m+k: (like) having the color of
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 92
ryj r&/: pleasure
rytry *r&t*ry": *decline
smwtr s*mutr: ocean (Sanskrit samudra)
smwtryk s*mutr+k: of the ocean
sw)t"w. su-d,")(: whose ears are pierced,
having pierced ears
.mr! (*m"r,: to think
.mrkyn (*m"rk&n:thoughtful
.yrkty (ir*kt&: having done good, pious
w* w"#: place, seat
wx.yk w"x(+k: spirit
wy*) wi#"- : harm, damage, injury
wy*)zt: ?
wy"rs! wy"rt wi"r"s, (w+"r"s,) wi"r"t: to awake
wysp"r)k wisp,"*r-"k: knowing all, omniscient
wyspspr"my wisp*sp*r"*m&: all (covered with)
wystw wist"w: oath; wist"w, kun,: to swear an
wystw! wist"w,: to swear
x*wk x*#!k: resentment
xr x*r: donkey
xr"w.y x*r")(&: hare
xwkr xw"k*r: merchant
xwyc xw&2: pain
ypk ip"k: anger
yxwyn ixw&n: separate (from), excluded (from)
zyxyzy z"yx&z&: creeping on the earth
zmb zamb: shore
zrxs! zr"t z*r*xs, z*r*"d: to be saved, delivered
zwrnyy zurn&: time, moment
zyrn)m zern-"m: having the color of gold, gold!

93 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM



In Sogdian words are frequently doubled, either by repeating the same words twice (gemination) or
by combining two words of the same meaning (synonyms). Some of these combinations are compounds,
others retain the independent status of the two words.

Geminated compounds are usually intensive, that is, emphasizing the meaning of an adjective, or
distributive, that is, noting several occurrences of what is indicated by the noun or adjective.
1. Nouns: r&t,r&t& (r&t,r&t+?) in many respects, in various respects; k)s,k)s in various/many places,
from place to place.
2. Adjectives: (+r(+r very much, "yk)n,"yk)n for ever and ever; z"r+,z"r+ with great compassion.
3. Adverbs. Some compounds in this category are distributives: k*-na,k*-nu little by little.

Repetition of synonyms is a very common feature of translated text. Sometimes one of the pair is a
foreign word, while the other is indigenous Sogdian. Examples: n!m p*#ka law (with n!m < Greek
nomo), y)k f*s)k teaching, "x"s )xun2 struggle, s"t wispu all, z*ri(t& p*tri(t& lacerated, "wart
n*warti turning to and fro, uzdi f*ruzdi flies here and here.

The so!called potentialis is a verbal construction with two different functions. 1. It expresses ability and
is then translated by means of the auxiliary can, be able, 2. it expresses completion of action in the past
and is then translated as a pluperfect, optionally with an additional finished, completely, or similar.
Active forms take the auxiliary kun, to do, intransitive and passive forms the auxiliary -*w, to
The main verb is in a form made from the past stem. Light stems take the ending ,u (in Sogdian script)
or ,a; heavy stems take no ending.

1. active:

n& /*"da kunam I cannot uphold (observe) Manwk ea" yyn
Manwk warfp Saxaa kycmnryp Sm yta yyn
n& *ti m*s p&rn*m2+k "x"s p*tf*r"wt kunam
I am unable any more to remember the first struggle (BBB)
*kta kun&m,k"m we shall be able to do Mak Mynwk aka

1. passive:

2&m&#+ 2"f u"da u-"t p*2"y*t,k"m f*rm"y yamrf Maqyacp a$w aw Fac yylymyc
it will be useful to tell as much of this as can be said (BBBd)
rti,(i x) n"yuk"w+ n& "p"t -)t w$ apaa yyn yywakwyan wwx yy#yra
and its depth cannot be reached (Cosm.)

2. active:

2"n) xwart *sp*t& xurt kunand dnanwk rwx yypsa trwx wnac
when they had finished eating the food

2. intransitive:

2"n) x" put+(t nista -and when the Buddhas have sat down dn$ atsyn t#ytwp ax wnac
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 94
TEXT 14.1
(Tale E)

95 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
[...] eyysapsa Nc . . . dnzaa yymxtrm [ynawm] 1

. ralay# lpyx yydnmar #yp yra . w# yyrwn rwaa eyynalym ayw" N#yyw lyam 2
dnpsalrm eyya #yy$ ynw rry yra . ttsfyaa yyn ayrrf Cymnawr wx yra
. w$ ymanry# yta yt$w lyam rasmnryp yyt#ytwp yta
[Note: "w)ty is middle (Lesson 15)]

. . yt[...]tyw aly[w wp] yta yyt$[w yynaly]m yyfan lpyx ynw watwx [...] yynwx wnac 3
[...] any" ya [...] aykymrarw$ [...] ya ayyrf [...] aynr [...] wnaw [...] ynawm
. . [...] yta Pwx Qwnam [...]k My Smy#ra

Nar$y"yy$ wyza ya yy$ay dnmar [...] wnm" rwayn rp ywlq [...]aa ya wnac 4
ryy# Ncsaxw ya yyazrt w" ear$l Nc yy$ay wk Sm Lym? [...] Nwkszaw#
. Nwksz aw# Nykyram# ya kancxwdna

rzrp ayrm aw wnaw yy#ta ryy" #wytp rxw rasrlac eayr$ Nc yyapcp yra 5
yyw an wx yyfra am yy"$ kycnyw awt yynw# #yp . Nwksyysyyraz w" yymya
Maqmdny$ an" wnaw yyftra yy#wn #xaw anm yyrlk alktra Maqyaycp yyn
. Maky$w Nar$ry# yynaw"? ya

#ya] yk a$ya ww asp wnaw ras rxnw lywyk wk yyksa eytrm wxra 6
[wnaw] rasrlac yyksa Nc yy#ytra . Nwksyysyyraz wnaw eamat y[a yk
eynmalp yyr [...] wr xyyzm? [...] rasnaryq yksa [...] . . . anwk yynctap
yta yk dnwksa [#y$ Fr] rdnyc an$ lywyl [...] yytsa Nasyy$ [...]
[dnx] trtlrwk# yn$k yysaps[a Nc #yp dnx] tynr$ayw

yynynryz ? ytsa yyn$ /! wyna Myt [...] yyksa yyrzwaa yyr [rp Smtra] 7
dnwksa #y$ wc rdnyc ayn$ wn$yl lywyl yra. yycx yynykanky$l [ya]
dnya" yyn wyrp yyymxrm #yp dnx tynynrpsyw as
[...] yydnw#xa dnwksa ayn$ ayw ya yk t#y$ tynlwr wwa yylaa Maq yra

TEXT 14.2
(IB 4981a, LeCoq, Man. Min.)
rp yyk yyrp Lpyx q yyn rawy ; ; yynwk aw ar%ap yyfa yyk yysa [...] ta$ yycytp ry#
ea" yyn kayp"wkrp Qawxcp /11! Namrf /11! kasp kycnm"xam rp ya aykwncraz lpyx
yylaa wyn Nrf aa an eyman an y%x yyamrf yy$ wx wnac Manwk
.dn$w awksa ... yynax ... r$anyl wwx ... yta ... wnaw eyrnwq ynaa yyn [...]


1. Conjugate in the potentialis the verbs any*ms, and "yamb,.

2. Translate into Sogdian:

Through faith one can obtain (= can be obtained) wealth and every happiness.
At day the stars cannot be seen, at night the sun cannot be seen.
We cannot understand gods greatness.
What do you think: Can you kill the demons and not be killed yourself?
I shall give them a sword so that they can cut off the bonds in which they are bound for eternity.
When the Buddha had finished speaking the entire assembly rejoiced and began to practice piety and
good deeds.
When you have heard what the prophet shall explain to you, at once go to the monastery and tell the
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 96

1!jwny &w,/w"n&: one life through
wrt! "wart,: to turn hither
wzr "w*z*r: *slope
yfs! y)t "y*fs, "y*-d: to be perverted,
xs wxwnc "x"s )xun2: struggle
xw.ndy **xu(*nd&: *satisfied
ztyw *zd&w: exiled
)"yystn -*"ist"n: place of gods
)yjy)rn -e/&-*r"n: dejected
cyndr 2end*r: inside
frkrnd! f*rkrand,: to cut
frwz! frw.t f*ruz, f*ru(t: to fly (forth)
"w)! ")-,: to praise
"yrtr "+rt*r: later
jy! /"y,: to speak, talk
j"w /*"u: very
j"w, jw"! /*"u /u",: hard, cruel
jmn /*m*n: time (point of, stretch of time)
jyn /en" : body
kwjpyk ku/by"k(?): *zeal
mnwk m"n!k: similar (to), like
mw"ny mu""n&: Magian
my*ny m&#"n+: among, amidst
n"w.! n"w.t n*")(, n*"u(t: to listen to
nwrt! n*wart,: to turn thither
nywr ny"w*r: another time
n!wyyt n",w+t: unseen
nf n"f: people
nktynyy n"kt&n&: of silver
nn"my n",n*""m&: untimely
pcrt p"2r"t: reward
ptc"nyy p"t2*"n&: answer
pcxwq p*2xw"k: obstacle
pcyy! p*2y"y,: to help
przr parz*r: very
pt)nd p*t-and: bond
ptry.! ptry.t p*tr&(, p*tri(t: to tear up
ptycy *p*t+2+: facing
ptsk p*ts"k: regulation
pxwy! pxwst p*xw"y, p*xust: to cut off
py.t pi(t: but
rwnmyc r*w"nm&2: of the soul
.kwr* (kr$: difficult
.wnyy ()n&: that (dem. pron., lesson 3)
.yr)rn (+r-*r"n: happy
tr"tzyy tr*"dz"y&: depressed
trny tarny": submissiveness
wx. w"x(: word
wxscn ux"s2*n: troubled
wxr, wnxr wa(n)x*r: voice
wy)rny wy"-*rn&: endowed with speech
wyncyk w&n2+k: visible
wysprtnyny wisp*rt*n&n&: studded with jewels
(Sanskrit ratna)
wz! w.t uz, u(t: to fly
xn"r xan"*r: sword
xwp x)p: good, skillful
y)! y"-,: to wander, rove
ywkfswk y)k f*s)k: teaching
zrcnwky z"r2*n!ky": pity, mercy
zryy!sy! z"r&,say,: to be pitiful
zry.! zry.t zr&(, zri(t: to tear asunder
zyrnynyy zernen&: of gold


97 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM


Middle forms are rare in Sogdian. The paradigms have been analogically remade after the 3 singular.
The following forms have been registered by Sims!Williams:

Present ind. Imperfect Optative (Precative)
Light stems Heavy stems
1 ,tu <!tw> ,&tu <!ytw>
2 ,ti <!ty> ,&ta <,yt>
3 ,te <!ty> !ta <!t> ,t <!t> ,&t, ,&te <!yt, !yty>
3 ,tand <!tnd, !tnd> ,tand <!tnd, !tnd> ,&t&nd <!ytynd>

The 3 singular present middle is used as passive, both of passive and active present stems, but
occasionally we find old middle intransitive forms without passive meaning:

syn Qycwanyw Qra yyry" y$ xn#yrn yyk Nan#wrtsy#wd eya rawy
iw"r *ti D)(istr)(n"n k& N*r&(anx -*"i /"irte ark w&n"w2+k n&st
but the work of the Friend of the Lights, who is called god N&r".anx, is not visible (M118iV)

alry" [...] kycnanyw an [...] yy"aa [...] zyyx yyxam rwx [...] Nwqsynyw[...] kyclbmcfa
**f2amb*#2+k [...] w&nde,skun [...] x!r m"x+ t*x&z [...] "/*t&t+ [...] n",w&n"n2+k [...] /"&r*$a
... of the world is being seen ... the rise of sun (and) moon ... the ones born ... invisible ... you call

yytwn$a yyn Nwqyaa yta yyk Cnyary"$a Nrp#rp Qyna$ eyra
arti -*""n+k par(p*r*n *-/ir&n2 k& *ti "yk)n n& *-n)te
and a divine pavement made of diamonds (vajra), which for ever does not tremble (Cosm.)

The imperfect middle has the same functions, but it is most often just middle rather than passive:

wwtsaa yynrwx ayr$l yy#p yytrwrp /! tk tralwtw wnaw
w"n) u"du #"rt k*t *#u p*rw*rt& p*(& #-*rya xurni "stu
he said: Twice I have taken = found (?) blood behind the door (Man. Let. 1)

*ti k! -*"+(t s"r "fr+w*n2+k kunda adnwk Qycnwyrfa ras #y$ wk ya
and he sent his praise to the gods (BBBe)

wt#yn# yrwpk Nc wyraw asxy Ma#xc wwtydnwaa awt rp
p*r t*wa ""und&tu 2*x("m ixsa w"r&tu 2*n k*p!r+ (*n&(*tu
I would like to cover you in salve, to rain perfume upon you. I have been covered by the snow of
camphor (?) (M137iiV)

2u m*na ""*#& "*w&te -+r&tu 2*n -*"a a$ Nc wyry$ eyytyw yylaa anm wc
whatever wished!for thing I may need may I obtain it from god! (M337R)

ty$w yydn"ya yyt#y$ Nc aykdnwxnrf [...] tw yyn yyt#wx yta kcwm ratfa yynrf xam#
(m"x farn+ *ft"r m)2*k *ti xu(t& n& ")t [... (m"x] farnxund*ky" 2*n -*"+(t+ &/*nd& u-&t
your Excellency does not need too many teachers and masters [... may your ... and] splendor be worthy
from (the point of view of) the gods! (M483)
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 98
No exhaustive description of the Sogdian subordinate clauses exists. Only some common types are
therefore described here.

A. Temporal clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as k*#a when, 2"n) when, as,

Gdazyadnc da rawpsyw yka Lyamrf dnzaa wya . awksa N$k Lym alk
k*#a m&$ ka-n *sk*w"t, &w "z*nd f*rm"y*$ *kti Wispuhr ad 2and"t+,z"dag
when the day gets less, tell (them) to perform a parable: The prince and the *Cand#la son (BBBd)

dnay"yn ytra dn$n yyzawna Nwm wx yra Syrp ras Bmzpaa wk wnac
2"n) k! "pz*mb s"r p*r&s arti x) m*")n anw"z& n*-and arti n+/*yand
when he came to the shore, then the entire crowd came out to meet (him) (TaleJ)

Nwm yynw yta Salyw "rk xyzm watwx wx yra adnw wtw #xaw yynwy yyrm wx wnac yra
ryy" at$lm
rti 2"n) x) martiy y)n& w"x( u"du unda rti x) xut"w m*z&x kar/ w+#"s *ti une m*")n m*"#*-da /+"&r
and when the man had spoken this speech the lord marveled at the great wonder and he called all his
priests (SghS)

B. Hypothetical clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as k*#a, k*#, k*t if:

Maky$w Nar$ry# yynaw"? ya Maqmdny$ an" wnaw yyftra yy#wn #xaw anm yyrlk Lktra
rt,k*# k*$r& m*na w"x( n*")(e rt,fi w"n) /*n" -nd*m,k"m *ti &w /*w"n+ (+r-*r"n u-&,k"m
And if you listen to my word(s) now, then I shall bind such knowledge to you that you shall be happy
one (entire) life (Tale E)

C. Consecutive clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as w"n) ... *ti or w"n) *ti so that:

ynw ratk yta yyralnyl Maq wya ya wnaw Nyl rp t$aw lrwk#a wnaw dny$ ynhw#mrk ytra
Camn yy$ rp tka#wn yn yta tralnyl yn rtry Lywy% ytra yy$w yyts$ Nhw#mrq yka#wn
. dnalyrtp yn wyrpa ynw ra$l rp yta . yydnsw$ rp yta
rti karm()h*n+ -nd w"n) *(kr$ w"-*t p*r #&n w"n) *ti &w k*t"m #&n#"r+ *ti k*t"r un n*")("k+
karm()h*n -*sti u-& arti 2&w&# "rt*r n& #&n#"rt *ti n& n*")("kt p*r -*"e n*m"2 *ti p*r -!s*nd+, *ti p*r
$*-"r un *prew n& p*tr&$*nd
and the withholding of the absolution is so seriousit says in the religionthat, were the absolution to
be withheld from any one elect or hearer, then after that neither elects nor hearers shall mix with him at the
worship of God and the fast and the alms!giving (BBBf 27!35)

ynwxy yyt$n yta yywq# wrp Llrywrp an trpzdnm w#yta wnaw aysnx xyzm rp Lral w#tra
. yynamry# yta xwta# ttrywrp ytwx Nfyta wnac Lyam
rt,(u #"r*$ p*r m*z&x xansy" w"n) *ti,(u mand,z*p*rt na p*rw&r*$ p*r) (*k*w& *ti n*-d& ixuni m&#
2"n) *ti,f*n xuti p*rw&r*t ("tux *ti (+rm"n&
keep it with great diligence so that you do not cause it to become unclean through dry or wet blood, in
the same way it itself causes you to be happy and good!spirited! (BBBf 56!61)

D. Final clauses.

w"n) k*t,fi [...] n*my"k *ti p*t&#y" n& kun"t anwq yyn aylyp ya kaymn [...] yfk wnaw
in order that he should not belittle and offend you (M117)

. ar$l $y#x ; yy#yw yamrf q wnaw aw# Nawk#p rp yyyr yynwq# yynw
un (*kl)n+ r&t+ p*r p*t*(k*w"n (*wa w"n) k*t f*rm"y tuti,(i, x*(i-d $-*r"t
he went face to face with 7aql4n to speak (with him) so: Order (her) that she should give him milk!
(BBBe 15!18)

99 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
TEXT 15.1
(M 549; Murder of the Magi)

iiR1 / [..............................................]ww iiR8 / mzyx n(z)r /y pr*)n p/yscnd
iiR2 / [.................................]"rywyy prw iiR9 / ww rwnspsyy oo r/y cnw x
iiR3 / [................]s(m)[]m wnw /yh iiR10 / rw()[ns]psyy p/sxsyy oo r/yy yw
iiR4 / prywy* mryncnd w m"wn xwrmz/yc iiR11 / [................] qw"wnyy w./yy/ *wn
iiR5 / *m oo /y.n )/ )yryy /y zwr iiR12 / [] r/y.n wr* )w/ xw
iiR6 / w".yy /y xwsndyy wyyh m"wn iiR13 / [........] (xw) qw"wnyy w)/// x
iiR7 / *yw./yyc(y) *myy oo r/yy nwkr [./](y)w iiR14 / [........................](x) spnd . . .
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 100

iiV1 / prp[........................................] iiV8 / p/.qfnd sk wxwnnd ryynd
iiV2 / zpr/qryy [................................] iiV9 / ryy.nd (f)/rnd /y "ryw prw zyy
iiV3 / r/y ywnyy* kw[w "]ryw[..............] iiV10 / frp.nd oo r/y pncm!x [qn]**
iiV4 / wj"**/ r/y )w/ xw ywxn p.yyk[.] iiV11 / kyy jym/ xwyndyy wr* r[......]*
iiV5 / spyy p/xwng ryy/ ()ngrnd /yh iiV12 / sp* r/y w nfryyn[.................]
iiV6 / "w.yy s oo r/x nn*)mbn *n iiV13 / jmykyy mnd"ryy [.............]
iiV7 / [y](n)c/yy wyy y/qwy /yysnd "w*(y) iiV14 / qn* [..........................................]

101 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
TEXT 15.2

M7800 ii

2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 102

/ o wy*)" cn o o p.q/ *ywtyy o

R 1 / wnrmyy )ry xwr/*rnd oo
R 2 / r/yy cnw p.k/ wptnd
R 3 / r/yy m"znd cn xx/yy
R 4 / p /yy cn wndy )ryy
R 5 / xwr/ /yy my*[ry )]"yy q.n
R 6 / w.y k/w*rnd m"znd
R 7 / /qw./ oo wy*p/yy mrcync
R 8 / .mr z prywy** *w
R 9 / p.q/ *yw/ .qlwn /yy
R 10 / pysws p/[ymw]xs /yy pr
R 11 / .klwnyy z)k [kw ]pryk/
R 12 / p.k/ sr f[rm]y k/
R 13 / .mx skyy sr n
R 14 / /kw.* p .mx s[n](?)
R 15 / xcy oo ywr k*ryy .m[]x
R 16 / .w* o /yy nyrk s/ryc
R 17 / pryw pcwz* /y 1 *)/y
R 18 / pryw [)r]xsyy ryj .kr*
R 19 / zynd zn* /y mr/ mr/

V 1 / xyp* pjwq/ mn sr
V 2 / )r* /yy zw 1 wnw cy*c
V 3 / pr./ymkn kyy sk/r
V 4 / pr skyy sr /kw. nyz ny
V 5 / )wtkm [oo ]r/yy wy.nd
V 6 / p.k/ m[wn]w prmn p/ycx.nd
V 7 / /y my* k/w*rnd 20!20!20!20
V 8 / zr pjwqt wnyy .klwn /yy
V 9 / pyswsyy pyrnmsr "/*rnd
V 10 / r/yy wy.[nd] p/ycx.nd
V 11 / /y i p[r 1 w]ykyy(?) /"/nd
V 12 / r/yy [iiii )]rywr pjwwq ww
V 13 / .klwn xwr/*r/ /yy iiii
V 14 / [)r]ywr x pysws r/y i
V 15 / [*)]/y pryw pcywznd r/y
V 16 / wnw w)nd q/ mncyq
V 17 / .mr kw my.[yy])"w sr
V 18 / *ryym wnw k/ [xwn]y ky cn
V 19 / mx jy/ kww )"y.//


1. Conjugate in the imperfect middle and the precative the verbs mir, and "s,.

2. Translate into Sogdian:

The animals said: Who shall now be suitable (as) king over us? There is none better than you. Now, all
animals have approved Your Excellency as absolute king and are now about to make you king. For a half
of Your Excellencys body is like a mans and a half like an animals. Let us now go quickly, and you
shall sit (down) on the throne and be king over the animals.


frywncyk "fr+w*n2+k: blessing
"wnd! "wst ""und, ""ust: to cover
pzmb "pz*mb: shore
s "s: taking
znd = zynd
ftr *ft"r: much, many
ngrnd angr"nd: cutting
nzr anz*r": damage
pryk *p"r+k: other, remaining
p.yk *p(&k: spilling
spnd *spand: *sacred
.kwr* *(kur$: heavy, serious
wpt! (wpt!) wpst )p*t, (w"p*t,) )p*st: to fall
xwsndy *xusandy": satisfaction
jndy &/*nd&: worthy
cy*c, mistake for y*c
)wsndy -!s*nd+: fasting
)yry -+r&: obtaining, success
cxsm 2*x("m: salve
*wn #*w"n: forward
dw.ystrw.nn D)(istr)(n"n (MPers.): Friend of
the Lights
*yw.tyk #&w"(t+k: ?
frnkwndy farnxund*ky": glory
frp.! f*rp"(,: to throw
ftr! f*t*r,: pull out
"w*y ")#&: vessel
jmyky /*m+ky": ?
jn /*n": knowledge
jymt */+m*t: city name
kpwr k*p!r: camphor
krj kar/: miracle
k.n ka(n = kar(n: form
kw"wny ku"un&: proper name, offspring of
mncyk m"n2+k: intentional(?)
m"*) m*"#*-: Magian

103 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
mnd"ry mand,""*ry": ?
mrt mrt mart mart: individually
my*ry!)" mi$ri-*", mi(i-*": the Third
Messenger (< god Mi0ra)
nfryn n*fr+n: curse
nn*)mbn n*n*,#-"mb*n: Lady Nana
nmyk n*my"k + kun,: to belittle, put down
nry.nx n*r&(anx: Man. deity
p p" = prty p"r,ti: for
prmn, mistake for frmn
prwrty p*rw*rt&: turn, time
p.k p*("k: abortion
p.y p*(+: after (+ loc.)
ptmwxs! (ptymwxs!) ptmw"t p*tmuxs,
(p*t+muxs) p*tmu"d: to don, put on (a garment)
ptsxs! pts"t p*ts*xs, p*ts*"d: to be constructed
pt.kf! p*t(k"f,: to smash
ptxwng p*txwang: murder
pty*y p*t&#y": offense
pysws p&s)s: female archont, maker of Adam
and Eve
ry! r"y,: to weep
rwnspsy r*w"nsp"s+: soul!service
ry.! r&(,: to tear
ryt r&t: face
.klwn (*kl)n: male archont (prince of darkness),
maker of Adam and Eve
.ny.! (*n&(!: to cover
.yrmny (+rm"n&: good!spirited, happy
twty tuti = *ti
txyz t*x&z: (sun!)rise
wr! w"r,: to rain
w*s! (imperf. wy*s!) u#"s, (w+#"s,): to marvel,
wnrm un"r"m: forest retreat(?)
w. w*( = *(: memory, mind
wxwn! uxun,: to call
wyk w*y"k: a place
wy*)" wi#-"": discourse
wynwcyk w&n"w2+k: visible
wyspwhr d cnd/yzdg Wispuhr ad 2and"t+,
z"dag: the Prince and the Murderers Son
(MPers. tale)
xx x"x: well (of water)
x.y)t x*(i-d: milk
xwrn xurn: blood
xw.ty xu(t&: teacher
yxs ixsa: perfume
ytkw itku: bridge
ywxn yuxn fem.: blood
z)k z*b"k:
zprtkry z*partk*r&: purifying (or z*partk*r+:


1 = &w: one 5
1!jwny &w,/w"n&: one life through 14
3 7$r&: three 6
12 = #7w"t7s: twelve 8
100 stu: a hundred
cy*c, mistake for y*c 15
)r! "t "-7r, ""7t: to bring 5
)rxsy "-7r7xs&: lust 6
)rxsymync "-7r7xs+m&n2: of lust 9
*y "#&: any 6
fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: praise, create(?) 13
frywncyk "fr+w7n2+k: blessing 15
"z! ".t """z, (m"""z,, """z,) ""7(t: to begin 4
"*y ""7#&: a wish 10
"wnd! "wst ""und, ""ust: to cover 15
jwn "/)n: birth (~ gati, Buddh.), child 9
jy! jit "/7y, "/it: to be born 7
kwc! kw"t "k)2, "ku"d: to hang, suspend 10
p "p fem.: water 3
py! pt "p"y, "p"t: to consider, imagine, fathom 8
pyk "p+k: of water, living in water 12
pzmb "pz7mb: shore 15
s! yt "s, &t: to take 8
s "s: taking 15
stny "st7n&: initial, first 13
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 104
tr "t7r: fire 4
wmrz "w,m7r"z: coworker, collaborator 13
wrt! "wart,: to turn hither 14
wzr "w7z7r: *slope 14
xs "x"s: battle, fight 13
xs wxwnc "x"s )xun2: struggle 14
xskry "x"sk7r&: soldier 12
xsryjy "x"sr&/&: whose pleasure is in fighting 13
xsw*y "x"sw"#&: battlefield 13
xw.ndy *7xu(7nd&: *satisfied 14
yfs! y)t "y7fs, "y7-d: to be perverted, compromised 14
yfs! y)t "y7fs, "y7-d: to become perverted 11
ykwn "y7k)n: eternally 1
ykwncyk "yk)n2+k: eternal 12
ymb! y)t "yamb, "y7-d: to pervert 11
z "z fem.: desire, greed, Hyle (the dark and evil feminine principle) 4
zmyc "z7m+2: of desire, greed 9
znd = zynd 15
zrmkry "zarmk7r&: hurting 11
zrmkry "z7rmk7r&: someone who hurts 12
zynd "zend: parable, story 1
zyr! *"zir,: to be harmed, be hurt 13
zyr! "z&r,: to harm, torment 10
zyr! "z&r,: to harm 12
)jngry 7-7/7ng"r&: evil!doer 12
)jyrynyy 7-/ir&n&: made of diamonds; from vajra, cf. Khotanese va:ira, 8
)nw! 7-n7w, (7-n),): to tremble, shake 8
)tmy* 7-dam&$: a week 13
)tky.p 7-dki(p: the (world) of the Seven Climes, the whole world 10
)yp 7-y"p: *reach 8
)zn *7-z7n: *recognition 12
cy*c 72&#2: *something(?) 6
*w 7#u (7#7w): two (before noun) 5
fcmb** 7f2amb7#: the world 5
fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: bless 7
fryn! fryt "fr+n, "fr+t: to bless 7
ftr 7ft"r: much, many 15
ftmw 7ft7mu: firstly 5
ftmy 7ft7mi: first, first of all 10
ftmyk 7ft7m+k: first, 1st 10
hwyy ahw"y: Eve 7
jndy &/7nd&: worthy 15
krtny!kry 7k7rt"n+,k"r&: sinner 7
k.! > k.! 12
kt! > w)! kt!
ktny 7kt"n&: sin 10
ktsps 7kt7sp"s: obliging 13
kty, fem. ktc 7kt&, 7kt2: done 3
kty 7k7ty": act, deed 2
kwc! kw"t "k)2, "ku"d: to suspend, hang up 11
kwt 7kut, plur. 7kut+(t: dog 5
mbyr! amb&r,: to fill (trans.) 9
ncy! nct an2"y, an2"t: to calm down, end 13
ndwxc and)x2: sorrow 9
ndwxcnk and)x27n"k: anxious 13
ndwxs! anduxs,: to strive, toil 6
ndxs! nt"t and7xs, (mand7xs,) and7"d: to flee 6

105 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
n*my an#7m&: limb 4
nfrsy anfr"s&: *quarrel, *litigation 10
ngrnd angr"nd: cutting 15
n"w an""w: *haste 5
n"ty, fem. n"tc an"7t&, an"7t2: entire, complete 3
nsc! ns"t ans"2, ans7"d: to arrange 11
nsp ansp": carpet 6
nspt! ansp7t,: to rise, rouse oneself 8
nst *ans
t: *mischief 6! an(p7n, (man(p7n,): to rest 4! an(p7r(7n),: to tread (upon) 8
nwyj! nw.t anw&/, 7nu(t: to gather (trans.) 5
nwz! nw.t anw7z, 7nu(t: to gather 3
nxr anx7r: star 13
nxr anx7r: star, constellation 11
nxrksy anx7rk7s&: astrologer 13
nxrwzn anx7r,w7z7n: zodiac 11
nxsty anx7st&: goaded 13
nxwnc anxwan2: dispute, fight 13
nxz! nx.t anx7z, (manx7z,) anx7(t: to rise 4
ny 7niy: other 2
nyk *ny"k: grandfather 10
nym any"m: end 7
nyms! nymt any7ms, any7mt: to be finished, done for 7
nzr anz7r": damage 15
pryk 7p"r+k: other, remaining 15
pryw 7prew = pryw 6
ps!, prs! f.t 7ps, (7p7rs,) f7(t: to ask (+ acc. + gen.!dat. or c,) 4
psk 7ps"k fem.: wreath 8
pstw! 7p7st7w, + 27: to renounce 10
p.yk 7p(&k: spilling 15
pyr 7py"r: last night 8
rdwn mt ard"w"n m"t: the Mother of the Righteous (Pers.!Parth. word) 10
rk ark fem.: work 2
rtw 7rt"w: righteous 3
rtwspy 7rt"w7spy": righteousness, the community of the righteous 7
rtxw.t artxu(t: light (as one of the five elements) 4
rty rti: and 3
ryn wyjn ary"n w&/7n: (Zor.) the Aryan Expanse, the mythical homeland of the Iranians 12
sktr 7sk"t7r: higher, further, any more 6
skw! skwt 7sk7w, 7skw"t: to dwell, be 3
skycyk 7sk&2+k: hight, tall 2
skysr 7sk+s"r: upward 6
sp 7sp: horse 1
sps 7sp"s: service 10
spsy 7sp"s&: servant 11
sp* 7sp"#: army 8
spnc 7span2: mansion, guest!house 9
spnd 7spand: *sacred 15
spr"m 7sp7r"7m: flower 8
spty 7sp7t&: full, complete 2
sptyk 7sp7ty"k: completeness 13
spy.! spx.t 7spe(, 7sp7x(t: to serve 10
stknjl 7st7kan37l: of bone 7
., w. 7(, u(: memory, mind 6
.kmb 7(kamb: world (~ loka, Buddh.) 10
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 106
.kwr* 7(kur$: heavy, serious 15
.mr! .mrt = .mr! .mrt (7)(m"r, ((+m"r,) (7)(m"rt: to think 9
.mr 7(m"r": thought 9
.kr! .krt > .kr! .krt
.tyk 7(t+k: third 7
ty 7ti: and 2
wfs! w)d )fs, )-d: to sleep 6
wj"*! (wj"*!) wj"st )/"7#, (w"/"7#,) )/"7st: to dismount 4
wpt! (wpt!) wpst )p7t, (w"p7t,) )p7st: to fall (down) 15
wpt! wpst (wpt) )p7t, (w"p7t,) )p7st: to fall 6
wr* )r7$: there 11
wrm )r7m: *calm 9
wryz )r&z,: fall down 8
wst(y)! wstt )st7y, (w"st7y,) )st"t: to place 4
wswxs wsw"t )suxs, (w"suxs,) )su"d: to be purified 7
wsw"tpzn )su"dp"z7n: a pure heart 10
wsw"ty, fem. wsw"tc )su"d&, )su"d72: purified, pure 3
w.t(y)! (w.ty!) wstt )(t(7y), (w"(ty,) )st"t: to stand 4
wtk )t"k: place 7
wyjtkry 7wi/d,k"r&: killer, murderer 8
x.wn 7x("w7n: a rule 8
x.wn*r 7x("w7n#"r: ruler 11
x.nm 7x(n"m: grace 10
x.nk 7x(n7k: graceful 8
x.ywny 7x(&w7n&: ruler 8
x.ywnymyc 7x(&w7n&m+2 fem.: royal 8
x.y* x(&$: ruler 11
xwy! xwt 7xw"y, 7xw"t: to break, infringe 9
xwsndy 7xusandy": satisfaction 15
xw.nd 7xu(and: *pleased 10
y* &#: this 3
y*c &#72: any 6
y*c ... ny/n &#2 ... n&/na: no, not, dont ... any (thing), nothing 3
y*y &#&: person, somebody 6
yjn, yjn &/7n: worthy 8
yjnwy &/7n"w+: worthiness 11
ync +n2 f.: woman 13
yny, yny &n&: this 3
ys!, ys! "t &s, ""7t: to come 3
y.kty +(k7t&: house of the women, womens quarters, harem 13
yw &w: one.kry 7(k7r&: in pursuit 4
yw wnyy *)ty &w wine #-itya: one another 11
ywtc &wt"2: single 6
yzt &zd: street 11
zprt 7zpart: pure 12
ztyw 7zd&w: exiled 14
zw 7zu: I (subject) 3
zwrt = zwrt 9
zy my* 7z(y)+ m&$: yesterday 7
)ry -"r&: rider 6
)rycyk -"r&2+k: riding animal 8
)w! -"w,: to approach 13
)wcy(k) -"w2+, -"w2+k: sufficient 12
)" -"": garden 7
)", plur. )"y.t, )"n -7", -7"+(t, -7""n: lord, sir 2
)"nyk -7""n+k: of the gods, divine 7
)"n -7"7n neut.: temple 5

107 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
)"p.y -7"p7(&: son of gods 10
)"yystn -7"ist"n: place of gods 14
)jwk -7/"wk: misery 10
)j"*! )j"st -7/"7#, (-"/"7#) -7/"7st: to mount (a horse) 8
)jngry -7/7ng"r&: evil!doing 6
)jy)rn -e/+-7r"n: miserable 13
)jyk -7/+k: evil (adj.) 13
)r! )wrt/)rt -7r, -urt/-art: to carry, bring 3
)rt -7r"t: brother 1
)ry -7r&: fruit 8
)ry -7riy fem.: air 3
)ryywr -r&w7r: 10,000 10
)ryy)ryny -7r&-7r&n&: fruit!bearing 8
)w*ndy, fem. )w*ndc -)#and&, -)#an2: fragrant 3
)w*n)rn -)#7n-7r"n: *perceptive 8
)w*stn -)#7st7n: garden 11
)wn -un: bottom 11
)wrtrmyky -urt"r7m+ky": patience 8
)wsndy -!s7nd+: fasting 15
)x.! )"t -7x(, -7"d: to distribute 6
)yryy -y"r+: the next morning 5
)yj -e/ fem.: evil 11
)yj)ry -e/,-7r&: suffering, needy 12
)yjy)rn -e/&-7r"n: dejected 14
)yk -&k: outside 6
)yksr -&k,s"r: outward, away 6
)ynd! )st -end, -7st: to bind, lock 4
)yr! )yrt -+r, -rt/-+r7t: to obtain, be successful 5
)yry -+r&: obtaining, success 15
c*r 2"#7r: down (below) 6
c*rcy(k) 2"#7r2+, 2"#7r2+k: inferior, below 11
c*rsr 2"#7rs"r: down(ward) 11
c*rstr c! 2"#7rist7r 2,: further down from 10
c"wny 2",")n&: of what kind 8
cf 2"f: as much as, how much 8
cfry* 2"fr&#: just as much as, just how much 8
cfy* 2"f&#: just as much as, just how much 8
cnw 2"n): as, when, like 6
cprm 2",p7r7m: as long as, how long 8
cf! c)t 27f, 27-d: to steal 4
cknc py*r 27k7n"2 pi#"r: why, for what reason 4
cndn 2and7n: as much as, how much 8
cndr 2and7r: within 11
crm 2arm: skin, hide 8
ctfrmyk 27tf"r7m+k: fourth 4
cw ty 2u 7ti: whatever that 6
cw 2u: what 3
cxr 27xr: wheel 11
cxsm 27x("m: salve 15 29x("p7t: commandment 9
cxw* 27x!#: Jewish 4
cyn 6+n: Chinese 4
cyndr 2end7r: inside 14
cynstn 6+n7st7n: China 3
cytyy 2&t&: ghost 13
*m #"m fem.: creation 3
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 108
*r! j"t #"r, /7"d: to hold, keep, maintain 6
*)nzkwy #-anz7k"w+: thickness 11
*)r $7-"r: gift(!giving) 5
*)t #-"t: perhaps 13
*)r #-7r: door, gate 5
*)r! *)rt (*)r!) $7-7r, ($"-7r,) $7-art: to give, given 1
*)tyk #7-d+k: second, 2nd 4
*)y. #-&(: harm 5
*)y.ny #-&(en&: harmful 12
*rjywr /y"w7r: heart 4
*rwn 7rw"n: Throana, Dunhuang 7
*rwnp*y #r!n,p"$&: shooting with bow (and arrows) 5
*rwnstn #r!n7st7n: quiver 8
*s #7sa: ten 1
*smyk #7s7m+k: tenth, 10th 10
*st)ry #7st-7r&: guide, representative 7
*t, plur. *ty.t #7t #7t+(t neut.: wild animal 5
*wn #7w"n: forward 15
*wtsryty #7w"t
s,r&t&: having twelve faces 13
*w"t, plur. *w"trt #u"d, #u"drt fem.: daughter 2
*wr #!r: far, distant 3
*y*ym #&#&m: diadem 8
*y*ym)r #&#&m-7r: diadem!carrying 8
*yk #&k: letter 8
*yn #&n fem.: religion 7
*yn)ry, fem. *yn)rnc #&n"-7r&, #&n"-er"n2, plur. #&n"-er"(t: male/female elect 12
*ynr #&n"r (or #+n"r): dinar 1
*yn*r, *yn*ry #&n#"r, #&n#"r&: holder of the religion, (good) Manichean 3
*ynmync #&nm&n2: of the religion 12
*ynyfrn #&n+,farn: the Glory of the Religion 5
*y.twc #i(t)2: poverty 10
*yw #&w: demon 2
*yw.tyk #&w"(t+k: ? 15
*yw*t #&w#"t: demon!made 4
*ywnyty #&w,ny"t&: possessed by demons 13
dw.ystrw.nn D)(istr)(n"n (MPers.): Friend of the Lights 15
fny! f7n7y,: *renounce (sth. for: p7r, +) 9
frk f7r"k: tomorrow 13
frn)sty fr"n-7st&: whose breath is obstructed 13
fr"z! f7r""z,: to begin (to do) 6
frkrnd! f7rkrand,: to cut 14
frmn f7rm"n fem.: order, command 6
frmy! frmt f7rm"y, (fr"m"y,) f7rm"t: to order, command; + infinitive (see next lesson) 6
frmrz! (frmrz!) frm.t f7rm7rz, (fr"m7rz,) f7rm7(t: ruin 4
frn farn: majesty, glory 8
frnkwndy farnxund7ky": glory 15
frp.! f7rp"(, (fr"p"(,): to urge on 8
frp.! f7rp"(,: to throw 15
frtry f7rt7ry": increase, improvement, furtherance 6
frwrt frurt, f7rw7rt in art"w f7rw7rt: the ether (as one of the five elements) 4
frwz! frw.t f7ruz, f7ru(t: to fly (forth) 14
fry friy: dear 2
frynwz friyanw"z: company of friends 9
frytr, fytr f7ry"t7r, f7y"t7r: more 6
frywy friy"w+: love 6
fry.ty f7r&(t&: angel 1

109 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
frytt fr+t"t fem.: love, charity 5
fryyrwn fr+,r7w"n: soul!loving, the Hearer 10
fsc f7s"2,: to teach 6
fsp f7sp: rug 10
fswx f7sux: frasang 11
f.yws f7(y"w7s: gentleman 6
ftr! f7t7r,: pull out 15
"*wk ""$uk: throne 1
")ty "7-d&: *strenuous, exhausting 12
"mbn "amb7n: trouble, exertion, toil, hardship 7
"mbn)ry "amb7n,-7r& who suffers hardship 7
"n "7n: skill, craft 7
"ndk "and"k: bad, foul 3
"ndkry "and"(k)k7r&: evil!doer 13
"r "7r: mountain 6
"rmyy "7r"m&: wealth 13
"rn "7r"n: heavy 5
"r) > "rf
"r) "ar- = "arf 8
"r)! "r)t "7r-, "7r-"t: to know, understand 3
"r)k "7r-"k: wise 5
"r)ky "7r-"ky": knowledge 2
"r* "7r#: neck 10
"rf "arf: much, many 3
"ryw "7r+w fem.: self, soul 4
"w! "7w,: to be necessary; + infinitive 5
"wn "7w"n: sin 7
"wnkry "7w"nk7r&: sinner 12
"wnwcy "7w"n,w"2+: forgiveness for sins 7
"w)! ")-,: to praise 14
"w*y ")#&: vessel 15
"w. ")(: ear 13
"yr "+r: late 9
"yrtr "+rt7r: later 14
"y.yp "i(&p: harm 8
"zn "7zn: treasure 13
jm /"m: exquisite 11
jr /"r fem.: poison 3
jrny /"ren&: poisonous, full of poison 7
jy! /"y,: to speak, talk 14
j)! j)t /7-, /7-"t: to bite 13
j"rt /"art: quickly 3
j"w /7"u: very 14
j"w, jw"! /7"u /u",: hard, cruel 14
j"yr! j"yrt /7"&r (/+"&r,) /7"&rt (?): to call 4
j"yr! /"ir,: to be called 13
jmn /7m7n: time (point of, stretch of time) 14
jmnw /7mnu: time, hour 5
jmyky /7m+ky": ? 15
jn! jyt /7n, /it: to strike, play (an instrument) 6
jn /7n": knowledge 15
jw! /7w,: to live 5
jwn /7w"n fem.: life 2
jwky /!ky": (good) health 9
jwndy /wand& (masc. and fem.): living 5
jw.y : *sacrifice? 13
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 110
jyk /ek fem.: damage 10
jymt */+m7t: city name 15
jyn /en" : body 14
jy.twc /i(t"w72 = jy.twc 9
jy.tmnky /I(t,m"n7ky": ill will 13
jy.twc /i(t)2: hatred 6
krp* k"rp7#: way 12
ks k"s: pig 3
k)n k7-n: less, too little 5
k)nyxn k7-n+x7n: *meager remnant 7
!k* !k7# = k7#a 9
k* k7#a: when(ever) 6
k*ry k7$r&, k7(&: now 5
k*wty k7#uti: that 6
kmbwny kamb)n+: inferiority, lessness 8
kmby kamb+: less, too little 6
*knd kand: family 13
kn* kan$ fem.: town 4
kn*)r kan$-7r (< kan$,#-7r): city gate 4
kp k7p, plur. k7p+(t: fish 10
kpwr k7p!r: camphor 15
kpy* *k7p&#: *shop, *stall, *room 11
krn k7r"n: pure, clean 6
krj kar/: miracle 15
krjywr k7r/y"w7r: marvel, wonder 8
krm.whn karm()h7n: absolution 10
krnwncy q7rn7w"n2y": craft 7
kr.n kar(7n: form 8
kr.nw kar(n"w: beauty 5
k.! ()k.t! k7(, (7)k7(t,: till, sow 12
k.wrzy k7("w7rz&: farmer 8
k.wrzy k7("w7rz&: tilling (the fields), agriculture 13
k.n ka(n = kar(n: form 15 k7(t7r: smaller 6
kt kt: that, if 2
ktr k7t"r: or, whether 7
ktr ... ktr k7t"r ... k7t"r: either ... or 7
ktskndmnky k7tsk7nd,m"n7ky": destructive purpose(?) 13
kty k7t&: house 13
kty)ryk k7t&-7r+k: pertaining to the house 10
kw"wny ku"un&: proper name, offspring of Ahriman 15
kwjpyk ku/by"k(?): *zeal 14
kwn! krt kun, 7k(7r)t: to do 6
kws k)s: side 6
kwtr k)t7r: family (Sanskrit gotra) 13
kwtsr kuts"r: where(to) 4
kwty k)t+: a kot%i (zillion) 10
ky ty k& 7ti: whom 4
kyn k&n: hate, revenge 13
kyr! k.t k&r, 7k7(t: to till 12
kyrn kir"n, see grammar 13
kyrn kir"n: direction; 27n ... kir"n: from the side/direction of (see grammar lesson 13) 11
kyrmny kirmen&: worm!eaten 8
ky.! k&(,: to decrease 8
ky.tyc ke(t+2: (ground) for tilling, farmland 8
kyty k&ti < k& 7ti 7
mn m"n: mind 10

111 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
mncyk m"n2+k: intentional(?) 15
mnwk m"n!k: similar 14
mnwk m"nuk: similar 8
mt m"t fem.: mother 1
mxjmncyk m"x/7m7n2+k: of Monday 13
my* = my* m&#: thus 7
m*y* m7#&#: here 6
m"*) m7"#7-: Magian 15
m"wn m7")n: entire 3
mnd"ry mand,""7ry": ? 15
mndmnky mand,m"n7ky": carelessness 13
mndmny mand,m"n&: careless 13
mndxwpyy mand,x)p&: lacking goodness 9
mndzprt mand,z7part: unclean, impure 9
mrz m7r"z: workman 3
mrc mar2 fem.: death 3
mrcyny, fem. mrcync mar2en&, mar2en2: deadly 3
mr*spnd m7r$"sp7nd: element, the sons of Primal Man (Xorm9zd) 2
mr" mar" fem.: meadow 9
mr" m7r", plur. m7r"+(t: bird 5
mr"rt m7r""rt: pearl 3
mr"rt!swmby m7r""rt,s!mb&: pearl!borer 4
mrt mrt mart mart: each and every one 6
mrt mrt mart mart: individually 15
mrtsr marts"r: hither 3
mrtxmny m7rt7xm"n&: of men 8
mrtxmy m7rt7xm&: man, person, human being, people (plur.) 5
mrty martiy: man 1
mrymny mar+ m"n+: Mar Mani 12
mrync! m7r&n3,: to destroy 5
ms m7s: also 5
mstkry m7st,k"r&: intoxicating 12
mstwny m7st)n+: drunkenness 11
msytr m7sy"t7r: greater 6
m.y)" M7(+-7": the Third Messenger (Mi0r) 5
mw"ny mu""n&: Magian 14
mw"ny, fem. mw"nc mu""n&, mu""n2: of the Magi 12
mwrty murt&: corpse 2
my* m&$: day 1
my*, my* m&#: thus 1
my*ny m&#"n+: among, amidst 14
my*ry!)" mi$ri-7", mi(i-7": the Third Messenger (< god Mi0ra) 15
myj me/ fem.: lens 10
myn! m&n,: to dwell 7
myr! mwrt mir, murt: to die 3
mzyx, fem. mzyxc m7z&x, m7z&x2: big, great 2
mzyxy m7z&xy": greatness 9
nf n"f: people 14
n!"r)ty n","7r7-d&: incomprehensible 13
n!"r)yny n","7r-&n&: ignorant 13
nktc n"kt2 < n" + 7kt2: undone, not done 10
nktynyy n"kt&n&: of silver 14
nm n"m: name 10
nmr n"m7r: sweet 6
nn"my n",n7""m&: untimely 14
n!p*kcyk n",p7#7k2+k: unlawful 13
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 112
n.ny n"(7n&: rolling, turning 11
n!sw)t n",su-d: un!bored 7
n!wyyt n",w+t: unseen 14
nywkwyy n"y!k"w+: depth; from n"y!k deep 8
n)nd n7-and: reins 13
n)ty, fem. n)tc n7-d&, n7-d2: wet 3
n)ynd! n)st n7-end, (n+-end,) n7-7st: to attach 8
n)yr n7-&r: deliberation, planning 6
n)yr! n)yrt n7-&r,"t: to deliberate 10
nfryn n7fr+n: curse 15
n"* n7""#": prayer, request; ~ -7r,: to request 13
n"w.! n"w.t n7")(, n7"u(t: to listen to 14
n"w.k n7")("k: hearer 5
n"w.knc n7")("k"n2 fem.: female hearer 12
n"w.kny n7")(7k"n&: of the hearers 8
n"w*n n7")#7n: dress, garment 8
nm! n7m,: to let, permit (+ infinitive) 13
nmc )r! n7m"2 -7r,: to do homage, obeisance 12
nmny n7m"n&: regret 7
nmy! nmt n7m"y, (n+m"y,) n7m"t: to judge 4
nmyk n7my"k: belittling 9
nmyk n7my"k + kun,: to belittle, put down 15
nn*)mbn n7n7,#-"mb7n: Lady Nana 15
npk n7p"k: hostage 4
npyk n7p&k: sth. written 8
npys! npx.t n7p&s, n7p7x(t: to write 3
npy.n n7p&(7n: grandson 5
np*! npst n7p7#, (n+p7#,) n7p7st: to lie down 6
nry.nx n7r&(anx: Man. deity 15
n.y*! n7(&#, (n+(&#,): to set down 10
nwrt *n7w"rt: contradiction, provocation (?) 9
nw!"r)y n),"7r-+: ignorance 13
nwkr n!k7r: now 1
nwm n!m: rule 13
nwmyk n)m+k: ninth, 9th 10
nwr n!r: today 1
nwrt! n7wart,: to turn thither 14
nw!ryjy n),r&/+: displeasure, dislike 13
nw.ftk n)("ft"k: flowing with ambrosia 9
nw.y, fem. nw.c n)(&, n)(2: immortal 3
nwy n7w&: new 5
nwy* n7w&#: invitation 13
ny n&: not 2
ny ... ny n& ... n&: neither ... nor 8
nys! (nyys) nyt ny"s, (n+y"s) ny"t: to take 4
nywr ny"w7r: another time 14
nyz n7y"z: need (+ infinitive, e.g., there is no need to do sth.) 6
ny*! nyst n+$, n+st: to sit (down) 11
nyjy! nyjt, njyt ni/7y,(n+/7y,) ni/7t, n7/it (ni/d): to go out 6
nymy n&m&: one half 12
nymy* n&(m)m&$: south 13
nyr)n nir-"n: nirvana (Buddh.) 10
nyrk n&r7k: male 11
nyxy n+xy": depth, care 9
nyz)ny *niz-"n&: passion 13
p p" = prty p"r,ti: for 15
p p": short form of p"r,ti 6

113 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
pcrt p"2r"t: reward 14
p*y p"$+: still 13
pmpw.t p"mbu(t: consort, spouse, wife (from Pers. b"mbi(n, b"mbu(n) 8
pr(w)ty p"r(u),ti: but (instead) 6
prty p"r,ti: for 7
pr"zy p"r7"zy": excellence 8
p.y p"(&: guardian 10
p.yk p"(+k: hymn 13
p.yn p"(&n: guardian 11
ptc"nyy p"t27"n&: answer 14
pzy p"z&(?): part 13
pcw p72"w": turmoil, quarrel 13
pcwyw"ty p72"w"yu"d&: quarrelsome 13
pckwyr p72kw&r: fear 9
pcmk p72m"k: resembling 10
pcpt p72p"t: this time 13
pcwz! p72w7z, (p72+w7z,): to meet, get together (also sexually) 6
pcxwq p72xw"k: obstacle 14
pc"t > ptcx.! 8
pcyy! p72y"y,: to help 14
p*! p7#: foot (of mountain) 12
p*mn p7#"m7n: skirt (of mountain) 12
p*)r! (p*)r) p7$-"r, (p"$-"r): to hurry, rush 8
p*k p7#k fem.: judgement 2
p*wfs! p7#ufs, (impf. =): to stick, cling 5
p*y p7#&: foot soldier 8
p*ynd *p7#&nd: threshold 11
p*ynj! p*"t p7$enj p7$7"d: to pull (out) 13
p".ty p7"7(t&: (to be) about to (do) 6
pjwk p7/!k: abortion 6
pnnc p7n"n2 fem.: co!wife 12
pncmyk pan37m+k: fifth 8
pnd pand: close, relative 10
pr p7r: on, etc. (preposition) 2
prkn! prknd p7r"k7nd,: to scatter, sow 12
prw ty p7r"w,7ti: for (because) 13
pr*n p7r"$7n: sale 12
pr)"n par-7"7n: gift 2
pr*)n p7r#7-7n: deceit, harm 10
pr*w! pr*wt p7r#7w, p7r#!t: to sully, pollute 13
prky.! (pryky.) prk.t p7rk&(, (p7r+k&() p7rki(t: to imprison 4
prm p7r7m: (all the way) to; postposition + acc. 4
prmn, mistake for frmn 15
prs p7rs fem.: side, flanc 11 p7r(p"r: trampling 4
pr.prn par(p7r7n: pavement 8 p7r(t"k: preparation, equipment 5
pr.ty! p7r(t"y, (p7r+(t"y,) p7r(t"t: to prepare 4
pr.trn! pr.trt p7r(t7r7n, (p7r+(t7r7n,) p7r(t7rt: to spread 6
prtw p7rt"w: *bench 9
prtr part7r: higher, foremost 7
prwrty p7rw7rt&: turn, time 15
prwy*! p7rw&#,: to seek 5
prwyrt! p7rw&rt,: to let become 9
prxs! (pr"t) pr"t p7r7xs, (p"r7xs,) p7r7"d: to be left (over), remain 4
prxy p7rx&: payment, wages 2
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 114
prys! pr"t p7r&s, p7r""7t: arrive 7
pryw = pryw (7)p7rew: together (with); postposition with instr.!abl. 6
przr parz7r: very 14
ps! fr.t, f.t p7s, f7r(t, f7(t: to ask, investigate 3
psk p7s"k fem.: wreath, crown 2
pswc! p7s)2,: to purify 6
pswxs! psw"t p7suxs, p7su"d: to be purified 11
psy* p7s&#: diminishing 9
p.k p7("k: abortion 15
p.y! p7("y,: to throw 5
p.twn p7(t"w7n: order, command 6
p.y p7(+: after (+ loc.) 15
pt)nd p7t-and: bond 14
pt)nd p7t-and: link, tie, bond 11
pt)ty p7t7-dy: burned, scorched 13
ptcx.! ptc"t (pc"t) p7t27x(, (p7t+27x(,) p7t27"d: to receive, accept 8
pt"w*! pt"wst p*t")#, p7t"ust: hide, conceal 5
pt"w.! pt"w.t p7t")(, , p7t"u(t: to hear, heard 1
ptjymc p7t7/y"m72: *quarrel 4
ptkr p7tk"r": shape 8
ptmk p7tm"k: measure 8
ptmwk p7tm)k: garment, dress 8
ptmwxs! (ptymwxs!) ptmw"t p7tmuxs, (p7t+muxs) p7tmu"d: to don, put on (a garment) 15
ptmync! ptmw"t p7tmen3,(p7t+men3,) p7tmu"d: to don, put on clothes 7
ptn p7t7n: *solitude, *privacy 13
ptnwy p7tn7w+: anew, again 13
ptr p7t7r: father 1
ptrz! ptr.t p7tr"z, p7tr7(t: to erect 10
ptrkn p7t7rk"n: estate, inheritance 12
ptrwp p7tr)p: *fortress 7
ptry*! ptryst p7tr&$, p7trist: to mix, mingle 7
ptry.! ptry.t p7tr&(, p7tri(t: to tear up 14
ptrysty, fem. ptrysc p7trist&, p7tris2: mixed 3
ptsc! pts"t p7ts"2, p7ts7"d: to build, construct 5
ptsk p7ts"k: construction 5
ptsk p7ts"k: regulation 14
ptsr p7ts"r: again, once more 1
pts"ty, fem. pts"t% p7ts7"d&, p7ts7"t2: prepared, constructed 3
ptstt p7t7st"t: opposition, resistance 6
ptsxs! pts"t p7ts7xs, p7ts7"d: to be constructed 15
ptsynd! p7tsend, (p7t+send,): to agree 8
pt.kf! p7t(k"f,: to smash 15
pt.kwy! pt.kwt p7t(kw7y, p7t(kw"t: to say 3 p7t(m"r: count 7
ptwf! p7tw"f,: to weave 11
ptxryn! ptxryt p7txr+n (p7t+xr+n) p7txr+t: to hire, rent 4
ptxwy! ptxwst p7txw"y, p7txust: to kill. 3
ptxwng p7txwang: murder 15
ptym! ptymt p7ty"m, p7tyamt: to end, stop (trans.) 11
ptymcyk p7ty"m2+k: final, 12
ptyp p7ty"p: part, time (3 times) 4
ptyr p7ty"r: opposition, harm, counterpart 11
ptycy *p7t+2+: facing 14
ptyms! ptymt p7ty7m
s, (p7t+y7ms!) p7tyamt: to end, stop (intrans.) 5
pty*y p7t&#y": offense 15
pty*y p7t&#y": offense 9

115 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
ptyn p7t+n: separate(ly) 11
ptzn! p7tz"n,: to know, recognize 9
ptzrn p7tzarn: anger 13
pw!r" p!,ar": priceless, valuable 11
pwr*nk pur#ank: leopard 8
pws! pwt p!s, p!t: to rot 8
pw!sk p!,s"k: countless 9
pw!sk p!,s"k:: countless 13
pw!sk)ty p!,sk7-d&: *helpless 7
pwt, plur. pwty.t put (bud), put+(t: Buddha 2
pwtny put"n&: Buddhist 4
pww wy*) p!,wi#"-: without injury 13
pxry p7xr&: planet 11
pxwy! pxwst p7xw"y, p7xust: to cut off 14
pyt! pyst py"t, pyast: to adorn 7
pyty py"t&: adornment 7
py* p+#: elephant 3
py*r pi#"r in cn ... py*r 2*n ... pi#"r: because of 12
pyn! p+n,: to open 5
pyrnm p&rn7m: before 13
pyrnmsr p&rn7ms"r: before, in front of 5
py.t pi(t: but 14
pysws p&s)s: female archont, maker of Adam and Eve 15
r) r"f: sickness 13
r* r"$ fem.: road 12
r*tk r"$,t"k: guide 6
rf r"f: illness 9
rfkyn r"fk&n: diseased 12
r" r"": plain 9
rk r"k: vein 11
rmnd(y) r"m7nd(+): always 6
ry! r"y,: to weep 15
rm r7m: people 2
r.t r7(t: straight 12
rtn)myk r7t7n-"m+k: (like) having the color of jewels 13
rtnyny r7tn&n&: made of jewels (Skt. ratna) 10
rtu r7tu: 10 seconds 5
rwn r7w"n: soul 4
rwnmyc r7w"nm&2: of the soul 14
rwnspsy r7w"nsp"s+: soul!service 15
rw) *r!f: mouth 9
rw*! rwst r)#, rust: to grow 7
rw*ny, fem. rw*ync r)#en&, r)#&n2: of copper 12
rwrtymync rurty"m&n2: of insolence 9
rwstm Rust7m: proper name 3
rwx.n rux(7n: light (adjective) 2
rwx.n"r*mn rux(n""7r7#m7n fem.: the Light Paradise 2
rwx.nyk rux(ny"k: light 3
rx. R7x(: name of Rustams horse 2
ryj r&/: pleasure 13
rymny r&m7n&: soiled, dirty 10
ry.! r&(,: to tear 15
ryt r&t: face 15
ryt r&t: face, respect (in many respects) 8
rytry *r&t7ry": *decline 13
sc! s"2,: it is proper, necessary (for sb. to do); impersonal verb 3
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 116
sk s"k: number 7
sn s"n: enemy 6
sr s"r: toward; postposition + gen.!dat.; but k! ... s"r to, toward + acc. 4
sr)" s"r-7": tower 4
st s"t: all, everything 3
st s"t: every, all 5
sfryn! sfrynt sfr+n, (s+fr+n,) sfr+n"t: to create 4
sfrywn s7fr+w7n: creation 5
s"tmn s7"d7m"n: all 6
skwy sk"w+: height 8
smn sm"n: heaven 6
smnx.y* sm"nx(&#: Ruler of Heaven, Rex Honoris 11
smwtr s7mutr: ocean (Sanskrit samudra) 13
smwtryk s7mutr+k: of the ocean 13
smyr"r s7m+r"7r: Mt. Sumeru, the mountain in the middle of the world 12
sn! st s7n, s7t: to rise, go up 11
sps > sps
spynw sp&n"w": *depravity 10
sr*ng s7r$ang: chief, leader 9
st! s7t,: a hundred 2
st)t st7-d: hard, harsh, fierce 6
stryc, plur. stry.t str+2, str+(t: female, woman 2
sw)t"w. su-d,")(: whose ears are pierced, having pierced ears 13
sw"*yk Su"#+k: Sogdian 3
swmb! sw)t smb, su-d: to bore 3
syk s7y"k fem.: shade, shadow 2
sym s&m: fearful 7
syn! st s&n, s7t: to raise, lead up 6
.twx ("tux: glad, happy 1
.twxy ("tuxy": happiness 4
.ykn ("yk7n: palace 9
.fr (7f"r: shame 6
.klwn (7kl)n: male archont (prince of darkness), maker of Adam and Eve 15
.kr (7k7r: sugar 6
.kr! .krt (7k7r, ((+k7r,) (7kart: to lead, pursue 4
.kwr* (kr$: difficult 14
.kwy, fem. .wkc (7k7w&, (uk2: dry 3
.mr! (7m"r,: to think 13
.mr! .mrt = .mr! .mrt 9
.mrkyn (7m"rk&n:thoughtful 13
.mn (7m7n: Buddhist monk 3
.mnnc (7m7n"n2 fem.: Buddist nun 12
.mnkwny (7mn7kw"n&/7m7nkuw"n&: belonging to 7imnu (Ahrimen, Satan) 6
.mnw (7mnu: Ahrimen, Satan 5
.ny.! (7n&(!: to cover 15
.tyk (t+k = 7(t+k 10
.w! xrt (7w, xart: to go 3
.wnyy ()n&: that (dem. pron., lesson 3) 14
.yr (ir: good 2
.yr (+r: well, very 3
.yrk (ir"k fem.: goodness 2
.yrkty (ir"kt+: beneficence 11
.yr)rn (+r-7r"n: happy 14
.yrkty (ir7kt&: having done good, pious 13
.yrmny (+rm"n&: good!spirited, happy 15
.yrnm (+rn"m: fame 4
.yrngry (ir7ng"r&: pious, beneficent 12

117 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
.yr.yr (+r,(+r: extremely < (+r very 5
.yrxwzy (+rx)z&: well!wisher, friend 10
try t"r+ (t"riy): darkness 4
tw t"w: might 12
twndky t"w7ndky": might 10
twndy t"wand&: mighty, strong 7
t"w t7"u: you (thou) 3
tkw.! t7k)(, (t+k)(,): to look (at) 4
tm t7m: darkness 6
tmbr > tnbr
tmbrmync tamb"rm&n2: of the body 12
tmyk t7m+k: of darkness, pertaining to Hell 11
tnbr, tmbr tamb"r fem.: body 4
tnygyrd t7n+gird: bodily (Parthian word) 8
tr"tzyy tr7"dz"y&: depressed 14
trny tarny": submissiveness 14
trsk t7rs"k: Christian 3
tr.! t7r(,: to flee 6
twj! tw"t t)/, tu"d: to pay, redeem 7
twkyn *t)k&n: pond, lake 10
twty tuti = 7ti 15
txyz t7x&z: (sun!)rise 15
tym t+m: again 5
tys! t"t t+s, t7"7t: to enter 7
w)! w"t w"- u"d: to say 4
wc! w"t w"2, u"d: to release, send 4
wcrn w"27r7n: bazaar 4
w* jywndy w"# /+wand&: (Parth.) the Living Spirit 12
w* w"#: place, seat 13
wf w"f: so many 10
wf! w"f,: to weave 11
wf w"f:so much 8
wfry* w"fr&#: just so much 8
wfy* w"f&#: just so much 8
w"wny w",")n&: of that kind 8
wnw w"n): thus 3
wnw ty w"n) 7ti: so that, in order that 5
wprm w",p7r7m: so long 8
wr! w"r,: to rain 15
wsty! < wsty! 11
w.ty! > w.t! 4
wt w"t: wind 4
wt*r w"t#"r: living being 10
wtny w"ten&: of wind, windy 12
wx. w"x(: word 14
wx.k w"x(7k: spiritual 8
wx.yk w"x(+k: spirit 13
w)! kt! u-, 7kt,: to become 3
w)yw u-yu: both, as well as 8
w)yw ... w)yw u-yu ... u-yu: both ... and 8
w*s! (imperf. wy*s!) u#"s, (w+#"s,): to marvel, wonder 15
w*w u#u, u#7w fem.: wife 5
w*y* u#&#: there 4
w*yr! w*rt u#&r, u#7rt: to hold out, arrange 12
w"ry.!, wy"ry.! (wy"ry.! ) w"rt, wy"rt u"r&(,, wi"r&(, (w+"r&(,) u"r"t, wi"r"t: to wake 8
w". u"7(: joy 7
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 118
w".!, impf. wy"w.! u"7(, (w+"u(,): to rejoice 4
w".ndy u"(and&: joyous 3
wmrz! um7rz,: to destroy 9
wn un (w7n) fem.: tree 1
wnrm un"r"m: forest retreat(?) 15
wndn wand7n: so much 8
wnyk un+k: *captive 4
!wr ,w7r: there 10
wrcwnkry ur2)nk7r&: magical 10
wrcxwndqywar2xund7ky": magic 8
wrm ur7m: quietness 9
wrnkyn ur7nk&n: believing, faithful 5
wrtn wart7n: chariot 5
w. w7( = 7(: memory, mind 15
w.tmx u(t7m"x: Paradise 3
wt.n ut7(7n: old, former 10
wty uty": hardship; + -7r, to toil + p7r, (cf. "amb7n -7r,) 9
wxscn ux"s27n: troubled 14
wxr, wnxr wa(n)x7r: voice 14
wxwn! uxun,: to call 15
wyk w7y"k: a place 15
wy)r wy"-7r: explanation, word 11
wy)rny wy"-7rn&: endowed with speech 14
wy)rt w7y"-art: speech, exposition 7
wycwky wi2"w+ky": testimony 12
wy*) wi#"- : harm, damage, injury 13
wy*snyq wi#"s7n+k: wondrous 5
wy*pt(y) w&#p"t(+) < w&# + p"t(+): that time, then 10
wy*pty w&#p"t+: at that time, thereupon 7
wy*)" wi#-"": discourse 15
wy*)zt: discourse (?) 13
wygn wig"n: destruction 9
wy"rs! wy"rt wi"r"s, (w+"r"s,) wi"r"t: to awake (intr.) 13
wy"ry.! > w"ry.!
wy"w.! w+"u(, > w".! u"7(,
wykn!, wy"n! wik7n,, wi"7n,: to destroy 9
wyn! wyt w&n w+t: to see 3
wyn w+n" fem.: lute, vin$" 2
wynwcyk w&n"w2+k: visible 15
wyncyk w&n2+k: visible 14
wysp wisp: every, each, all 5
wysp"r)k wisp,"7r-"k: knowing all, omniscient 13
wysp"wny wisp")n&: of all kinds 12
wysprtnyny wisp7rt7n&n&: studded with jewels (Sanskrit ratna) 14
wyspspr"my wisp7sp7r"7m&: all (covered with) flowers 13
wyspwhr d cnd/yzdg Wispuhr ad 2and"t+,z"dag: the Prince and the Murderers Son (MPers. tale) 15
wyspzngn wisp,zang"n: all kinds of 8
wystw wist"w: oath; wist"w, kun,: to swear an oath 13
wystw! wist"w,: to swear 13
wy. w&(: pasture, grass 4
wy.prkr w&(p7rk7r: Spiritus vivens (Vaiiu. Upar4kairiia) 11
wy.p.y wi(p7(& (< wisp7(&): prince 10
wytr! wit7r, (w+t7r,): to depart 4
wyx w&x fem.: root 11
wyzr wiz7r: straight 12
wz! w.t uz, u(t: to fly 14
xn x"n" fem.: house 1

119 2/5/08 - 3:30 PM
xw! x"w,: strike 9
xx x"x: well (of water) 15
xxsry x"xs7r&: spring 9
x*wk x7#!k: resentment 13
xn"r xan"7r: sword 14
xns xans: firm, strong, secure 5
xnsy xansy": firmness 9
xr x7r: donkey 13
xr"w.y x7r")(&: hare 13
xryc xr+2: purchase 12
x.y)t x7(i-d: milk 15 (7)x(&(p7t: Lord of the Realm 10
xtw x7tu: judge 3
xtyk x7ty"k fem.: judgement 3
xwcnk xw"27n"k: sickly 9
xwkr xw"k7r: merchant 13
xwr xw"r fem.: sister 5
xw)n xu-n: sleep 8
xw*nyk Xu#7n+k: Khotanese 4
xwj! xw.t x)/, xu(t: to desire, require, ask for (from somebody = c,) 4
xwnx, hwnx x)n7x: that 3
xwny x)n&: that 3
xwp x)p: good, skillful 14
xwr! xwrt xur, xurt: to eat 4
xwrmztyk, fem. xwrmztyc xurm7zd+k, ,+2: Ohrmazdian 3
xwrn xurn: blood 15
xwrsn x!rs7n: sunrise, east 12
xwrt xwart: food 4
xwrtxyz x!rt7x&z: sunset, west 12
xwsnd xusand: happy, content 12
xwsnd xusand: happy, content 7
xwsnd xwsand: satisfied 11
xw.ty xu(t&: teacher 15
xwt xut: self 4
xwtw xut"w: lord, king 1
xwt.y xut7(&: *structure 7
xwyc xw&2: pain 13
xwycqwy xw&2k"w+ fem.: explanation 4
xwymny xw&m7n& ?: *self!existent 8
xwyn! xwen,: to be called 3
xwyr! xw&r,: to feed 11 xw&(t7r: elder 8
xy* x&#: that 3
xyp* x&p7$: own 6
xyp*wnd x&p$"w7nd: master, lord, owner 2
y)! y"-,: to wander, rove 14
yxy y"x&: brave 3
y*w *i#!: *shape 7
yk. yak(: yaks&a 11
ypk ip"k: anger 13
ypk)ry ip"k,-7r&: angry 12
ytkw itku: bridge 15
ywr iw"r: but 6
ywr iw"r: separation 9
ywkfswk y)k f7s)k: teaching 14
ywny y)n&: this 3
2/5/08 - 3:30 PM 120
ywny* y)n&$: at once, right away 3
ywxn yuxn fem.: blood 15
yxny ix7n&: *remainder (?) 7
yxs ixsa: perfume 15
yxwn ix)n: blood 9
yxwyn ixw&n: separate (from), excluded (from) 13
zk*ny z"k#7n&: womb 11
zmty z"m"t&: son!in!law 5
zn! z"n,: to know 7
zrcnwky z"r27n!ky": pity, mercy 14
zryy!sy! z"r&,say,: to be pitiful 14
zty z"t&: son 3
zwr z"w7r: power 10
zwrkyn z"w7rk&n: powerful 2
zy z"y fem.: earth 3
zyxyzy z"yx&z&: creeping on the earth 13
z)k z7b"k: 15
z)nd z7-and: *quarrel 10
zmb zamb: shore 13
zn! zt z7n, z"t: to bear (children) 6
zngn ,z7ng"n: of ... kinds 10
zprtkry z7partk7r&: purifying (or z7partk7r+: purification) 15
zr"wny z7r")n&, fem. z7r")n72: green 7
zrw)" z7rw",-7": God Zurw#n, the Father of Greatness 1
zrxs! zr"t z7r7xs, (*z+r7xs,) z7r7"d : to be delivered 5
zrxs! zr"t z7r7xs, z7r7"d: to be saved, delivered 13
zrync! zr"t z7r&n3, z7r7"d: to deliver 6
zry.! zry.t zr&(, to tear asunder 14
zwrnyy zurn&: time, moment 13
zwrt! zwst z7wart, zust: to turn (back), return 3
zyn z7y"n: *offspring, children 6
zyn z&n: weapon, armor 5
zyn! zyt zin, zit: to take (from: c,); passive: to be deprived (of: c,) 12
zynyxwry z&n+,xw"r+: protection 6
zyrn zrn: gold 1
zyrnkry zrnk7r&: goldsmith 11
zyrnynyy zrnen&: of gold 14
zyrn)m z&r7n-"m: having the color of gold, gold!colored 13
zywr z&w7r: adornment 8