You are on page 1of 18

r\o, u.:callynot. for example i.fth!sample is (2.3} tbt mao 1.12..$ wblclt i.J not aaobservatioa i.

a tte sample.

6-1.

X-

L:x,

592 035

1 1

II

74.0044 mm

Samplc,uiaOOt:
8

..,
Ex,
..,

:~:::>,- 592.035
8

- 43813.1803 1

2
(s92.oJs)

43813. 18031 - .!___....L.


= - - - --

n-1

0 000 1569

= 0.0000224 14

--'8 e___

8- 1
( lllll1 )

Samplc&t.llndardck:viarion:
S = ~0.0000224 1 4 = 0.00473 JUJU
n.c: sa mplc &UI Ddn rd deviation tuld also be fo-und using

n-1

L:(x,- x} = 0.0001569

where

I= I

--- ----+------- --+- -------- +---------+ ---------+----- ----diam~ter

73.9920

74. 0000

74 . 0080

74 .0160

74 .0240

74. 0320

ncr~ appmri to be a pot.SibleCMl-tlier ia thtd3t3 set.

Samplevariax:t:

f>,-848 17

,_,

't,x;
,_, -600057949
600057949 -

12

------'-'~

=
=

( 84817)

n- 1
564324.92 - 51302.265
II

Sam pic&tonda rd dcvla tlon:

s=

.JS 1302.265

= 226.5 yards

T~.e sampleaUI Dda rd dtvi.tt rion tuld also be fouod .:sing

~- 12

I:h-x)
,_,

-564324.92

Dot Dia,ram: (ro:u.nditlC was 11Slto ereateWdot Ciag.ram)

-+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-----C
l
6750
6900
70 50
7200
7350
7500
0

6-u . &mpl ea'.tt"age:

35 ). 8
8

X =

43.975

Sample, "ariance:

I >; = 35 1.8
i=l

19

:L:>; =1 6528.403
i=l

16528.043 -

( 35 1.8)

.l....___JC..

n -1

1057.998

= --------"-

8-1

= 15 1.143

Samplestandardde>.iation:

= J l51.143 =1>.'94
Tf!.esamplestandardde-.iationoou.!da lso be found using

t (x,-x/
s=

1J2;.:=1.1- - - -

n -1

where

I:(x,- x) =

1057.998

I= I

Dot Diagram:

+---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+------32 .0
40.0
48.0
56 . 0
64 .0

24 .0
6-13. 11 =
aV3ilable.

6905
O=.;44: Tlte\'8lne.;44 is tlte population mean since: theacttull physical population of a ll flight times during tlt-eoperation is
127

6-15. Samplea,wageof o:ercisegroup:

" ,
I:x
X =

3454.68 = 287 .89


12

i= l

"

Sample varianee ofexercise group:

= 34 54.68
l:x,
= 111852 1.54
l:x?
.,,
2

tx~ s2 = t- 1

[t x.]
1- 1

11 -1
123953.7 1

1 11 852 1.54 - ( 345468)


12
12-1

11 268.52

II

Samplestandsrd deviationofexercise group:

'= ~1

1 268.52 =101>.15

Dot Oi.agtilmof exercise group:

"'

. "''

...'

. ... - . . "')

Sampleaverage of no o:erci~ group:


n

l:x,
X =

i= l

2600.08

"

325.0 10

Sample\"arianoe of no exercise group:

" =26oo.o8
I:\
i= l

= 947873.4
I:x;
i= l

Il -l

94 7873 .4 - ( 2600 08)


8
8 -1

= 10282 1.4 = 14688.77

7
Samplestandardde>.iationof ooo:ercisegroup:

5= ~1 4688.77

=1,1.20

Dot Oi.agtilmof no exercise group:

.~------~~-------L~
,-~-------~~
~0--------~
.~--------~~------~.~----A-JL~
~

"
L-\
i= l

X=

617.

57.47
8

7. 184

f>]2
[
tx;-i= l

";=-~'-------'-'--

! 2 =-

0.00299 = 0.000427

11 - 1

8- 1

s = .J'o.-oo-042-7 = o.o2066

Examples: repcatabilityo! t.J!.e test equipme':lt, time lag btThcen samples. during which the pH of the solution could change, ar..d Opel<~tOr skiU in drawing

tt.es:am pieor using tt.e. instrument.


6-19. a)

x =6s.86F

s= J~Ll 6F

Dot Diagram
-+--------- + ---------+---------+--------- + ---------+----- t~mp

30

so

40

60

70

80

b) RemO\i ng tf!.esmaJiest obs.etvation{jl). the sample mean and standard deo.iation b.."''Ome
X :66.8f>F
s= U).74 P

f>-~1 .

The medianwi.ll equal tle mode when the sample issymmetric,,itha single mode. Tf"l,{'symmrtryimplies tle mode is a t the center of ~.hi:

sample.
6 23 ~'tern-a nd-l eafd isplay for C)'Cits to tSiJure: u.nit = 100 *-represents 1::!00.

1
1
5
10
22
33
(15)
22
11
5
2

OT
OF
OS
Oo
1*
1T
lF
1S
lo
2*
2T

3
7777
8889 9
00 0000011111
2222222 3333
4444 5555555555
66 6677 77777
8888 99
0 11
22

Median = l4$6.:;.Q 1 = 1097.S.aociQj = 173.;.0


No. onlys ont of70 couponssuni\'ed beyond 2000 <:)'Cir..s.

(>2..5 Stem-and-leafdisplay for Problem ~-4 . yield: unit = 1 112 reprcs.eot.s 1:1

1
1
7
21
38
(11 )
41
27
19
7

7o
8*
8T
8F
8S
8o
9*
9T
9F
9S
9o

8
223333
44444444 555555
666666 666 67777777
88 8889 999 99
000000000 01111
22 233333
44444444 5555
66 6677
8

Median= 89.2.jO, Q1 = 86.tOO,andQ = 93.12.5


3

6'7. Samplemro;an isal

(lO; I)=3.;.;th obse" a tioo. trmro;an;Sl<j6.;.

Modes are llO~. l~p.; , and 17.50 wltichare t.J!.c most frequent data.

L" \

X =-"i="''-

Samp!e mean:

98259 = 1403.7
70

629. Do oot use tlte total asanobse:n -ation. T!t..."l'eare 23obsen'ations.


St.~-::.r.d-lc::.f ~f
~=-f

HB)
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
1

!lllibr. :>!

k iL~=-~~

"t;,ur:.

(k.it. .. 100

OOGCOOCOt:OGCOOOll t

0
0

1
1
I

th

Sample median is a t 1:1 = 3843.

X=
Ssmple mean:

..

_,i="''- 4398.8 I91.0


n

Samplevariance: s = 1.;0673.8
Samplestandard deviation: s = 388.2

23

-. 23

6-~1 .

1
1
2
4
5
9
20
26
37
46
(13)
41
33
22
13
8
5
i-

Stem-and!Cilfdisp!ayfor Prob! em6-~. Strength: unit = 1.0

532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
54 0
541
54 2
54 3
544
54 5
54 6
547
54 8

112 r~resents 1::!

9
2
47
6
5678
123 45778888
0 16999
11166677889
123666688
0011222357899
0 11112556
000124 55678
233 4457 899
23569
3 57
11257

05 x 100 = 95 * i = 95.5* 95lh pe1tentile is 5479

100

63;3. Stem-and-leafdisplay for Problem 6-::!..5. Yard: unit = 1.0


Note: Mini tab Msdropped tlt.e\ "aJue to the Mgltt oftltedecimaJ to m.akethisdisp!ay.

22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28

1
5
8

16
20
33
46
( 15 )
39
31

12
4
1

2334
677
00112444
5578
0 111122334444
5555556677899
00001112333 4444
56677888
0000112222233333444
66788999
003
5

100

L:x; I:\

Sample Meanx = i= l

l= l

100

SampleStandard Oeviation

26030.2 = 260.3 ~W'ds


100

100

100

L:x; = 26030.2

and

L:xJ = 67935 12
i=1

i= l
2

t
x]
[
t
x:=
i=J

s2-

i= l

n-1

26030.2 )'
67 93 5 I2 - -"-----,-,...--''100
100-1

= 179.782 yards
and

s = .J'
17-9. 7-8-2 = 13.41 yards
SampJe Median

100

Z60. BS

17798.42
99

63,5. Stem-and-JeafdisplayofProblemf,.:l.7. Rating: unit = 0 .10 112 represents 1.2

1
2
5

7
9

12
18
(7)
15
8
4

3
2

83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

93
94
95

0
0
000
00
00
000
000000
0000000
0000000
0000
0
0
00

Sample Meso
n

I:: xi

3578 = 89.45
40

X = i- l

"

SsmpleStandard OC\iation
40

40

I::x; = 3578

I::xJ= 320366

and

i= l

i= l

t >?, sl =

I::" x
1=1

2
2

( 3578)

320366 - -'-----'40

i=J

40 - 1

n- 1

3 13.9
39

= 8.05
and
s = J8.05 = 2.8
Sample Mediao

,."

V:~.:i.ehlc

90. 000

"i'i./ 40 or .:;.:;5(;ofthe taste tc.st ersoonsid.......-.edtlt.is partict!lar Pinot Noir trulyo:ceptional


6-37. Stem~nd-leafdisplayfor Problem 6-29. Heigh.t: unit= 0.10 * ''represents 1.2

Fe ma l e Stude n t s

Mal e Stude nts

0
00
00
0000
00000000
0000
00000000
00000
00

.61
1
62
3
63
5
64
9
6 5 17
66 (4)
67 16
68
8
69
3
0 70
1

2
3
7
17
15 )
18
11

65
66
67
68
69
70
71

4
2
1

73
74
75

72

00
0
0000
0000000000
000000000000000
0000000
00000
00
00
0
0

6-39.

LCwor
<:l a ce

1.,1ppor
L1!111t

Lo1nt1t

Ml(JpOlnt

ROl<t.t1VO

FrQqu.&ncy

F'l'Q(J\lQnCY

C\ll'IU laU VQ
Fl'Q(l\JOney

C\lm. Rol.

rrqquenc-.1

------~---WRMM~~-----------~---------~--------~---------------------~--------------

at o r belorw
.000
1
.000
266 . 667
2
266.667
531.333
3
533.333
800.000
4
800 . 000 1066.667
5 1066 . 667 1333.333
6 llll. 323 1600 . 000
7 1600.000 1866.667
8 1866.667 2133.333
9 2133.333 2400.000
above 2400.000

133 . 133
400 . 000
666 . 667
933. 333
1200.000
1466 . 667
1733.333
2000.000
2266 . tHi7

0
0

.0000
.0000

.0143
.0571
.1571
.2429
.2Ul

4
11

17
15
12

.1'?14

.1143
.0286

. 0000

Standard Dwvlation = 4.02.l8S

15

s0

500

7:1:!

1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250

number of c)Cies to failure

0
0

. 0000
. 000 0

1
5

.01<6 3
. 0714

.4714
.6857

16
48
60
68
70
70

. 228 6
. 9571

. 9714
1.0000
1.0000

Frequency ?aDulation tor

6 -4 I.

B:Y.~rc 1s e

6-2S.Y14ld

------------------~----~-------~-----------------------------------~----------------~
LOWilr
RelaUvo&
cumulative CUD.. Rel.
~rt
Midpoint
rrequO?ncy FTequency Fr~ency
Frequency
Limit

class

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a t or belo
77.000
0
0.0000
0
0.0000
1

2
3

s6

7
8
9
10
above

77.000
79. 400
8 1 .800
8.t . 200
86.600
89.000
91.400
93 . 800
96.200
98 .600
101. 000

18.200
80.600
83.000
85.400
87.800
90.200
92 . 600
95 . 000
97. 400
99 . 800

79. 40 0
81.80 0
84 .200
86.600
89.000
91. 400
93 . 800
96. 200
98.600
101.000

1
0

0. 0111
0 . 0000
0 .1222
0.2000
0. 14.44
0.2111
0 .1000
0. U44
0 .0667
0.0000
0.0000

11

18
13

13

0
0
Standard oevlaclon = ;&.llS91

1
1
12

lO
<3

62

71

84
90
90

90

0.0111
0.0111
0 . ll3l

o.nn

0.4778
0.6889
0.1899
0. 9l3l
1.0000
1. 0000
1 . 0000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Median = 89 . 25

tiean = 89.3756

OD

>v
c
>

"o~

LL

0
~

10

'

80

'

'

85

90

95

100

6-43. Histogram8bins:

HistogramofCydes to faUure (16 biu)

"

,....,

"

,--

r-

,--1-

......

I-ll
n

2
0

'I'
200

!".00

000
1100
IC
1700
2al()
C)da tofabe Of .rurilumtHtcoupcns

2m

Hist ogram 16 bim:

H.istogum.of PetCent*gc of cotton (8 l i n$)

'
0

laO
l ?.a
ll.G
34.<1
35.2
360
f'IRltntl!!lohotton-.lnf!W1wileuMd to

36.8

37.(;

.,._,.,.fKtq,.. men~ ._irts

Yes. bothoftl:-em g_hetl:-esamesimilar information.

6-45.

Hist ogram

Histogram of Energy

~ 10

The data areskewed.

6-47. The h.istog.~<~m for the spot wclds.M.srstrength data sltowsthat thed.<lb a ppear to be oormallydistributed {tJ!.esameshape that a ppears
io Ute stem leaf-disgram).

20 -

_--l

.-I

'

S320 5340 S300 5300 5400 5420 5440 S400 S4SO SSOO

shear strength
6-49. Yes. the ~istogram oft.hedistanced3ta sf!.o,..-s the same shape as tl'.estem-andAeafdisplay in l'Jiercise6f.l3.

20

,r-

2<!) 228 236 244 252 260 268 276 284 292

distance
6.51. Yes, the J!.istogNm oftJ!..ev.;ne rating dsta sltows the same shape as IJ!.estcm-andleafdisplayioo:etcis.e 6-:}.5.

2
1

85

95

90

rating

V:t:d11.0lc
t.i:r!C':

V:t!'i;:.blc
ti=

"

:-".Clll'\

2. 1, 1.5

SeUev

:-:edi:t:-.
2 . 1,1,0
......~ x i:nc..on

Mi:-.~

3. LSO

1 . 750

0 . 53~

01

03

1 .91 ~

2. 973

a.) Sllmple Mean: l415


SllmpleStaOOard Deviation: 0-543
b.) Box Plot - The:reare ooontliers in tJ!.edata.

Boxp1otof PerClenta:ge

lO

''
2.0

0. 1.1?9

655 Oc.scriptiveStatisti<'S

952. (,1.

9S3. 0G

St.iJcJ

952. -ioi

.J. C9

957. 00

:-:e~r;

1.03

O>

01
9<9. 5{1

1/..-:.::ieblc
948. CO

!'': ::Cen

955. OC

a) Sample Mean: 95 ~.44


Sample Variance: 9-53
Sample standard lk\iation: 3.09
b) Median: 9.:i3; aoyincrease.in ii'.i! largest temperature measurement v.ill not affoct the median.
c)

Box plot of Tefl'll'lrature

957
956

955

~ 9S4
!1. 953

! 952

95>
950
949
948

6-5 i'. Oescriptiw Statistics ofO ting joint temperaturedata

'"

V.:tr ~ llbiC'l

"""'

.:'.c::.r.
65. 1!6

~4

. 00

St.UeJ

rr.:'. c::.r.

66. t:.G

S Y.c::.r

1. CJ

l:t. t6

Ol

03

5E . 50

iS. CO

a) Median=67.SO
[.m,er Quartile: Q 1=58.so
Upper Quartile: Qj=75.00

V:::ri.::.hlc

""""
/n::i.-:hlc

""""

.:'.::xb:::n

Jl . Qii

b)

GLSO

:!b~

V.1::ilthlc

"""'

Y.c::ikr.

Data ''lith !owe.st point remm<OO


~:

~nn

35

66. 66

~~i:::n

bE:. OO

!'::~nn

St.Dev

67. 35

i0. 14

Y.ir. ~~:n

~::.x i=::=

Q1

03

t.O. OO

fN. OO

60. 00

15. 00

~nn

l.E2

The mean and median h.a\oe increasedand the standard d:e\i.ation and difference bet\.o.een t~.i! upper and IOb'et qusrti !e has decres..~.

c) Box Plot: The box plot indicates tha t there isanolltlier int.l'.edata.

Box plot of Tefl'll'lrature


957

956
955

5954
p53

9S2

95>
950

949
948

6-59. The box plot s.J!.ows tbesame b.'lsic information as tt,e stem-and-leaf plot b1:t ina ditferi!nt forma t. n ,eolltliers tr.at were separated
from the nujo portionoffl!.estem and leaf plot a res~.own !teN! separated from tt.ewhis km-s.

lk>~plot of Bllllon

of kilowatt hours

1800

1600

.c

.-I.
'l;

1'100
1200
1000

"

8<X)

&

;;

ii

600

'

400
200

64>1. This plot.ils the stem-and-leafone. indicates thst fl!.edata fall mostlyinooe region and thst fl!.e messnrements toh-std t.f!.e codsoftl:-e
range ate more rue.

Box pi~ of Weld Sttergtll

ssoo

fi.

S<SO

"'"0
~

5400

SlSO

64>.}. Wecans.ee that tJt.e ""-o<tistribntioniseem to be centered at different va.lues.

Boxptot of Femal e, Mala


76

74
72

;,)

ll

68
68

64
62

.....

8)

Female

64>.;. All disttibJ:tioma:reoenteredatabont tl.esame, oahre, bnt h:nedifferent variances.

Boxplotof Hl!tl Dose, Contrd , Control_ I , Q>ntrd_2

"""'
'""
"""

"' '""

'

1000

sco
0

.......
""'"""

""""'

sec:uon65
64>7. Stem-and-lcafdisplaytOr Force: unit = ! 1!2 repre.s.ents 12

3
6
14
19
(5 )
17
14
10
3

17
19
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

559
357
00 445599
1399
00239
00 5
5679
15 55999
159

n me Serln f'fotof P\ill~ff force


200

'"
,.,
J,., \ 1 , /I

'Ill

~ : \j \ ~

'li ""

100

\j

\j \j vJ.
'

~L---------r-----~--~~--~--~--"

rn tlt.-e timeseries plot tft.ere a ppears to be a do'h-mvard trend beg,inning. after timejO. Tlt.estem-and-lesfplot does oot re~oea l this.

6.f>9. Stem-and-leaf of Wolfer sunspot N = 100


~ef

t.lr:it. t. 0

l1

Ol2'2~ 1-156i777766B

29

00123~456G61

39

so

2
l

00lt.55617Q9

5~

(,

0!.123~567762

38

04579

Oil ~:H~1 2l?

3~

0223"66712

:?J

!.P

2~

2356

il:i

024666

10

lC.I

11

'

12
13

2~5

lt.

!.5

i1E.
-1

n.edata 8 ppe3ts to decrease bet'\,,.teO 1791) aDd 18.35. tf'. estem aod leafpJot indicates skewed data.

10

ro

1~

oo

oo

100

67!. St.c:n-erd-l~:f o! N~~:- of e~t.hql;ekc~ N !10


~ef

t.lr:it. l. 0

>

,"

.,

e&:eE

OCCllH

222J'JJJ.n

30

44411 55555555555

t9

G6EEGG6677i

HJ)

BE'I!E1!8t?l?89999

t.<

OOOOUlll!l

37

25
20

'>

2'22222:223333
(4455

1<

10

GGG61171

01

'
'
'
3

15

..

22

'Nme Series Plot

Time Seri es Pl ot of Number of Earthquakes

1900 1910

1921

1932

1943

1954
Year

1965

1976

1987

1998

2009

G-n
Normal P robabli ty Plot for 61
Pisoton Ring Diameter
NL h tun.ues9 S'M. Cl

~.,

..

~~
o..,

.
.

lO

"
'

10

20

ID

"'

Data

TJ!.e pattern of the data indicates that the sample may oot come from a normally distributed population or that the largest obsen':!tion is ao outlier. Note
t he slight bending do\~-nwardofthesampledsta a t botllendsofthegraph.

6-7.;. Tlbere is no evideoct to doubt tJ!.at data are normally distributed


Narral Prcballli\Y Plot b r 65
Visual Accanodation Data

..

ML (fi'U~~s 9~ 0

Ml sff!l3'~

.,"

Me;m

Cl97S

S'Oe'l

l \.SOO)

~ .,

iilO
f::!fo

""'
"'

"- <>

!l

10

'
0

so

e1

oo

ro

&:'l

Datl

6-n .
Nama I Probe bility Plot b r tempe mtlJ re
Data li'a n eJercise 613

., .

.,
""

;;s.a;n

S1w

11.'!16!1!1

r"

~ ao

/l''

"ro

~so

<>so

.,.

"- >

..
10

'

Ml.f:~
Me;r..

,.

/..

50

ro

ro
Data

.,

""

100

Tt.edata a ppear to be apprm:imately oonnaJ!ydistribnted. Howatt, thi!:te aresome<k!partt:.rrs from the line at ti'.eeorlsoftt.edistti!mtion.

Normal Probability Plot for Cycles to Failure


Dat a from Exercise 6-1

Ml. sfmates

.,

....

llal.78

see-..

5~634

95

c: oo

~ 70
Q.~

"'"'
)!)

""
10

""'

Data

The data a ppear to beapproximatelynormallydistribl!tcd. However, fl!.erearesomedep.'lrt~>tes from th.e line a t tl>.eends oft~.edistribu.tion.

Normal Probability Plot for 6-22 ... 6-29


M.. Estirn~te~ - 9 5960

...
95

go

., "" ~

<.J
~

70 -

/ .

so -

~ so
40

/:

30 20 -

,/

10 -

.'""""
..'""""
~

,...:

'

/.

60

70

65

75

Data
Both populations seem to be normally distributed: morec)\'er. t.J!.e lines seem to be roughly parallel
\"arianoe and differ only in th.e\aJueoftheir mean.

supplernenta 1Exercls.5

ind:icati~:~g

that the population." ma) ha''e the same

supplemerua1E>:erds.es

6-Sj. Bas.."'<ion tr.edigidot plot and time series pl ots oft~.esedata, ioC.'Ichycar tJ!.e temperature has a similar distribution. [neach )-ut, t~.e
tempm~tnreinc:r-eases nntiJ tJ!.e midyear and tJ!.en it starts to decrease.

0oqXotof2000,2001,2002, 2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009

2000
2001
2003
2004

2006
20C6
2007
2006

..

2002

...

200&

12.6

14.4
13.8
15.0
Global Tempera ture

13.2

15.6

1 6.2

Time S..ries Pl otof2000, 2001,2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, ...


17

V~e

200>

2001

+
~"""

' """
_, """

~=
.,. 2001
- + - 2W'

"""

23

St.c.n:-:o_"':d-1e~r

...e~f

Unit

!)f Glob:tl

!'e:r~pC :-e.tu:-c

56789
Non til

0 . 10

12

231~~

tz

555566666G6G67717i8BB999

,.
42

13

1222:233344-H.:

..

13

555566

Hl)

14

1:122233:33;11

5556666,.

50

"

t5

2"2"33333<1411

15

55555GG619

16

oc-oooo u u t 1.12222:122333:33.: H.~

,.

12

N ll7

29

39

10

'Nmc~es plot by month O\t:r tO )"-<~ts

Time S..ries PI ot of Global Te"1'8rature


17

j\
I

13

I
I Ii
I, IH
J

12

'

'

24

12

36

.a'

60
Month

72

'
96

'

108

f,.Ss . The u.ncmplo)ment rate is steady from 21)02002, tt.en it sta.rts irx:reasing. till :1004 and thendecreascssteadilyfrom 2004 to :!008nnd
t.f>.en ioc:reasc.; againdram.aticaJiy in ~009. lt reacln ifs peak up tiJI oow.

Time Series Plot of Unefl1lloyment

26

13

39

52
65
78
Month in 1999 - 2,009

91

104

117

6-8]. a) Samp!e1 Rang.e=4


Sample2 Range= 4
Yes. fl!.e twoappesr tof'.l:hibit tl:-esamevariability.
b) Sample lS = 1.604
&tmple2s= 1.85:1
No. sample 2 has a largerstandardde\iation.

c) Tt.e s:am pie range is a N!lativelycrude measn.re o( tft..e .sample \'aria hili~as oompa red to tft..e samplestandard deviation sinoe tft..e sta OOard
de\i.ation u:scs tlti! information from C\W)'data point in tft..essmple ,~Jt.o:teas the range use; IJ!.e infonnationoontaintd inonlytv.-odata points
- the minimum and maximum.
6-8!). From tJ!.estem-sndlesfdiagram. the distribution looks like tftennifonn distribution. Prom the timeseries pJot. tlt.-:reisan inc:ressing
trend in energyoonsu.mption.
Stc::n- u-..d- leef of

r.goe:~n ~

2~

...e:f U!'lit 100

'

>
>

0011

7
9

10

>
>

"

l3

233
7

<31

12

23

10

-1455

001

...
667

TIme Series PI ot of Enge<gy

2500

1982

1985

191!l

1991

'

1914
Year

1997

2000

20Ql

2003

IS

~ 10

5 -

0 ,_----,----,-,----,-,---_J
bdex

10

20

30

40

SO

60

70

80

90

There a ppears to be a C)'clicvsria tion in lite data with t~.-e high \'aln-eoffl!.eC)'clegeo.."'tiilly iocreasing.. Tlbe high \'aJnesarednring tlt.ev.intcr f!..oliday
mont.Jt$.
b) We miglt.t draw aoot.hetcyclc. with the peak similar to the last ~-es r'sdata h '!)(,Y)at about t2:7 t~.onssnd: bottles.

6-93.

St em- and- leaf displ ay f o r Pr oblQil\ 2- Js , unit = 1 12

a)

1
9

represo>nts 1 2

OT 3
OF U 44 5SS

19

OS 6666777777

(7 )

Oo 9999 999

15
12

1'
lT
1F
lS
1o

S
3

111
22233
4$
77
999

b) Sample A \Wage= 9.3~


SampleStandard Deviation= 44858
c)

The time series pJot indicates therew~sa n iocrease inU..ea\'erage number of nonconforming springs during fl!.e40 d:ays. [o particular, U..e inc:rease
ooc:uroiduring the last 10 days.

61).;. n,egolf OOW'Se ysrdsgedata a ppear to bes.kev.ed.AJso, fl!.ere isanoctl)ing data point Sf)()\'(! 7500 yards.

'

7500 7400 Q)

rn

7300

_...J

'E
"' 7200

~7100

7000
6900 -

6200 6-<p.

Normal Pro bability Plot fo r Temperat ure

...,

./

.,

NL Estim.-tes
M C1

4.&.~

ltil349l

~so

"ro

.. ..
..

a.~"'..,

>0

10

'

..

/
"

Datl

"

,.

Tltereappeats to be no aideocethat tlbcdats are not oonnallydistribnted. Tlterearesome repeat points iot~data that Cit use some points to fa ll off the
lioe.

6-99.

285

"'

"0

275 -

~ 2EO

Q)

~
.!!l

255 245
23$ -

225

The plot iDdicat.-s that most baJJs ''fill fa ll somew~.ere in the ~0-:175 rsnge. lngeneral, t.Jt.e population is gronped more toh--ard the hig.hmdoftJ!.e
region. This same typeofinform.ationool!.ld have btcnobtained from the stem-and-leafgrapllof problem f>-2..).

6 HH.

1100

j_

1000

..

900

cI_

sao -

700 ~

600

Tria12

Tria11

Tria13

Trial 5

Tria1 4

o There is a diffcreoef: in tl:-e\'3riabilityoft~.e measurements in the: triaJs.Trial! r.as ttt.e most \'atiability in t~.e measurements. Trial
j h:asa small amount ofvariabilityintf!.e msingroupof measurements. but f.l!.ereare: foil! outliers. TriaJ 5 a ppears to have tlbe
least \'aria bility '~itlbout anyoutliers.
o All oftt.e. trials except Trial Htppeat to beoenteredaro.-008.;0. Tri.al1 h.asa I>JgJ.er mcamoaJ~
o AIJ fh~ triaJsappest to fum-: mcaslltements that are greater than tlte: true: vahreof734.:;.
o Tbedifferencein t.J!.e mMsurements in TriaJ 1 mayiodicatea start-up effect in t.J!.ed.sta.
Thcreoould be some bias in the measurements that is centering t.J!.edata ahow tft.e"true~ vah.te.
610j. a)
-ettf

-of Orow:-.i:-q !btc ~

35

0 . 10

Unit. ~

'

St.c:r.-~l"'ld-lc;U

:nee

11

lt

129
0455i
1279
5
59

15

12

13
17

It)

to

"n
0356
11 "
,
" 559"9
' n
'
13

11

12

15
16

19

20

'Nme Series Plots

Time Series Plot of Drowning Rate

225

.."'"
~

"17.5-

200 \

g> IS O-

\)\ /\
~

;:

\;

125-

JOo7.5-

5.0- ' - - - . , - - - - - . - - - - . - - - - . - - - - . - - - - . - - - '


1m1m1m1%1 1 1 1~ 1~1 & 1~ ~
Year

b) Oescripthl:~'tatistics:

Oro"'-ning Rate
Ql
0 . E'20

Vttr i.ehlc

4 . 853

5 . 200

E'. 000

~:e-:iien

10. 500

03
!5. 600

:lex ~

c) Greater awati!llC5Softf!.edangersand drowning pte\'ention programs might fum~ beeneft'ecti\'t.


d) Tl'oe summarystatistics assume a stable distribution and may oot ad..-.quately summarize the data because of the trend p~nt.

t[ xi]'-

I>i = 62572

6-1 05.

f= l

559504

n= 9

I= I

[t\
]
L x;9

i=l

sz =

..<'=
: .IL-_ _....:.:.
n __

62572 - 559504
- - --'9<-- = 50.61
9- 1

,-- n - 1
S= ~50.6 1 = 7.11
&btract j(land mu.Jtiply by 10

[t.xT

I>?=25792oo

i=-1

n= 9

22848400

t
x]
[
t x~ -

2579200 - 22848400

,------'n - 1

---..,..---'9'----= 5061.1
9 -1

i=l

r
n
= ..!i:.IL -_ _....:.:__ _

S = ~506 l.l = 71.14

Yes. tt.e rescaling is bya factor of 10.Ttterefore.s and swocld be r.-:.scaled by mu.ltipl)i.ng .~ by 10 {NSnlting iqp06l.l )ands by 10 (71.14).
SUbtNictingjO from eachvaJu hss ooeft'e::tootlte\oarianoeor standatdde\iation. n Js is becac.se \'laX b ) = o V(X).

2
.ot
2
n
2
X) and
Xi the quantity
Xi - X) v.ill besmaller gi\'e ntttat.f t: Jl. This is
i=-1
i= l
i=-1
bccauseX is based on th.eva l ll.(Soft~.e xj 's. Thevalll.('of p maybe quitedifferent for this sample.
11

6-107.

6-109.
TJ!..e results in oc:

Oft!bctwoq~U~ntities L:(Xi x =8;3.5.oo<r

I:(

,u.) ,

2::(

sx = 10-5 '"F

.Y? -~ -i/9X = ;3' 5j9(1l:l.;.OO) = 43>-WC


sy = b sx = <5/9) (lO,S) = j.t.0:!8C
6-m . Yes, in iltiscase. since no upper bound on the last electronieoomponent isava ilable, use a measure ofoorttallocation that is not
dependent on tltis value. Tl>-..111measure is tt.e median.
Xr4) \Sl
63 75
Sample Median =
= (>!) howos

c)

X11 = 65.8 ii

inches

n = 37 s. = 2.106

x.
""

n+l

= 37(65.81) + 64 = 65 _76
37 + I
'7
(37 -1)4.435+ J (64 - 65.81!f
= \1---------~
37~+
~'--------37

2.o98

6-llj. Tlt.e trimmed mean is pulled to,~a rd the median byeliminating outliers.
a) 10% T rimmed Mean = 89.29
b) ~o%TrimmedMea n =S.').l9

Olfterenct is ' l!f)'smsll


c) No. tft.edltfereOOESan!\'ef)'S.m.all,dn.e to a w:ry la rgeda ta set with no significant m:tliers.