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CHAPTE.

Rll

SEctlon lH

s.tx = 157.42- -4"'2


-= 25.348571
14
0

s.\)' = 1697.80 - 43(14572) = - 59.057 143


s
f; = .\y = - 59.057143 =- 2.330
I s
25.34857 1
XX
' = 57?
13' 0 = Y- f3rr
; - (- 2.3298017) [43] =48.013

14

SSR = tJ,Sxy = - 2.3298017(- 59.057143)

= 137.59
SS = Syy - SSR
= 159.71429 -1 37.59143
= 22.123

iP = MS = sse = 22.123
11 - 2

F:
'

b)

12

1.8436

'

y=fio .f3,x

y = 48.0l29fi.!.-2.j.-2()80l7(4.3)
=3799
c)

g = 48.0!29(i:l->.3>980>7f:\.7) = 39:\9

d) e=y-Y=46.l-39.39=6.7l

ll.J. a) Regress.ionAnaJys.is: Rating Pts \'Cf"SUS Yds per AU

C::~ef

:>::cdic:t.o:
CM>::ot.;'l.!'!t.

14 . i9S

'td~

per \t.t.

to. 092

5 . 2187<1

\r.:liy~i~

of

Si. Cocf

9 . 059 1. 51 0 . 128
1 . 298 7 . 84 0 . 000

v~=i~r.cc

ss

:-:s

1672. 5

167:1'. 5

21. 2

Of

Sou:ce
ko;:c::o~i:m

P.c~idl::d :::'0.!'

30

Bl7. 1

t ot-41

31

242"9. 5

"

O. GCO

61 . t1t

S .. = I583.442- ( 223 93) =I 6.422


.....
32

s,y =
/3, =

19 158.49 - ( 223 93)(2? l 4. l)


32

165.727 1

Su, = 165.727 1 = 10.092


sn 16.422

Po = 2731; . I ( I0.092)[ 22~293] = 14.1 95

y= 14.2+ 10.1x

a2 = MS . = SSe
E

= 817.1
11- 2
30

27 .24

Fitted Une Plot


RT.l:~g Fe =-

14.2 + 10.1 daet A~

no,; ------.:._-------------,

100

70

b)

y =14.~-~>10 .1 {7,)):: 89.9.:;

<::)

_f3!:: -10.1
1
- - x iO= 0.99

dl I 0 . I

e) fl = 14.2 ltU(7 .~l) = 87.o~

Th.ereart two residuals


e=y y
e1 = 9f.l.:!- 87.0:1 = 3.18
e!? = 95-87.0:1 = 7.98

i'~:.u~et.er

!r.t.c:.c:cpt.
Slope

br:~:

!..66765

'I.Uuc
- 3 . 19906

0 . 00349

9 . 20836

0 . 03371<11,

212. 60

o.ococo

S-.=4 of SqU:c~

of

2605B3. l2

~c::oidl!:ti

31. 7.:6069

10

l'ot..U ICon. )

:?QC620. Q7

ll

Co:rr.btbr. C;,effic:ic:-;t.
~t. .

.JCVC!

V~:ienc:e

or

:-:::del

St.r.d. ::or of

! 'Of)

l::::.t.i=t.e
- 6 . 3355

\:-.~::;~i~
So~:c:c

St.er.d~:d

Squ::t...-C

f'- P..:t.io

P:ob. .....cvcl

2BOSI!J. 12

14331, . 1,

0 . 00000

Y.e::..r.

3 . 171,6(19

0 . 999933

l.9<121N

=3-7746

tft.J!.ecalculatio ffi were to be done by hand. use f.qua tions{ll])and{u-8).

y = -6.3.').5.:; ~ 9.208j6x
b)

fl = -6.Jl5s 9.2o8jfl(ssl = .:;oo .1~


c) I f monthly temperature inc:rcsscs by 14 F,fl iDCrease.s b)9.208
d)

y = -6jj.S.:;- 9208j6(47) = 4264.:;8


Y=426458
e= y- Y=4~.84 -426458= -1.618

u -7. a)
60

>-

50

40

850

1050

950
X

~:e-dict;?:

Cl>Cf
-16. 509

Stocw

Co:-;~t.::.r,t

9 . 1!0

- 1.6B

0 . 112

0 . 06936

0 . 010~5
16. 2\

(i , (i<l

0 . 000

s.

2 . 706

R- Sq ladj)

R- Sq SO. Cl

ss

::s

Re;::-c~~ior.

""

322'. 50

322'. 50

14 . 03

0 . 000

::o:

11

81>. 51

7 . 3i

!-ot.d

!>

403. 0

Sou::ce

a = 7.3~12

fl = -16..;09,3 ... 0.069$5.54.\'


b) fl = 46.6041
e = y- fl =l.S95~
c) fl = -16..;093 ... 0 .0693.554(950) = 49-.38
u-<). a)
"''~--------------------,

>-

50

40

850

9 50
X

\'es.a lint.'lr regression modcl a ppears to be plausible.


f'::cdicto::

Coo!

Cl>r.~t.l'..r,t

23l . 07
- 3 . 50&.6

19. 9(,

\r.al:,~i~

Reg:c~~br.

t'otal

b)

13. 15

1,.. 03

0 . 4911

- 7 . 14

o.occ
o.oco

R- Sq.::.dj) E6. 2\

"'
'
1

ss

".s

20329

20329

~1 . 04

0 . 000

27GB

39.

2311;

= 398.:>.; andy= '34Al7>- 3SOII;6x

fl = 2:)4.07! - ,l..;08,;6{JO) = 128.814


d) fl = 156.88.3e = 1S.ll75
c)

of V::.:iar.ce

Sot.::cc
:::;,:

St.Dc:v

R- Sq B7. 9i

1050

lH1. a)

2600-

"'2 100-

..

1 600'~---------.--~.---.---~
0
s
10
IS
20
2S
X

Yes.a simple linear regression{$1.NI.igttt-line) model seems plausible for tr.issituation,


!>:odict:~:

2625. 39
-36. 962

s ,.. 99. 05
\r;::.lj'~i~

t.S. JS
2 . 967

~-Sq

of

St!.lev

C!>ef

C::~~~tel'\t-

89. Gt

"

0 . 000

57. 90
-12. 4(i

0 . 000

R- S':jladj) - 69. 0\

V::.:i.a.r.~

~u:ee
~n:t~~br.

t:~

ss

!"!"!)!'

lB

!S22E'l9
l 76602

tot..-::1

19

1699421

b) tT

1522819

0 . 000

155. 21

9Bll

98n .~

fJ .. 26'>.,Sj9- j6.96V:
c) fJ = !!.62..;.39- j6.9&2{:lO) = 1886.15
d)

lfth.-:rew~ ooerror, tlt.e\aln.e.s ,.,rouldalllie aJong tf:.e 45 li~. Tr.e plot indicates age is ressoooble trgff'.S,SOt

2600
25()()-

2<00
21002200-

t:
~

2100
2000
1900-

1800

o . ne.

0 . 65JB
0 . 11806

t b:c

S 0 . 2ei2Bl
\.-.llj'~i~

'""'
~

1700

oot .. o . 65B

\'ariable.

2100

r~

0 . 1657
0 . 01(00

R- Sq

9~ . 7t

3 . 97
12. 12

0 . 003
0 . 000

~-Sq!::.dj)

94 . 1\

-:;,! V::.:dc.r.ee

CF

ss

~s

PoC9!'C~~ i ::~r.

13. 344

13. 344

161 . 69

0 . 000

ll:e~idu::.l :':'0:'

0 . 143
lt. . oe1

0 . 01?3

So!:!".c:e

10

l'ot>l

fJ .. 0 .6.;8.0.178.\'

n .. 0.083
b)

y = oJ,.;8 ... o .178b.;l = 3.3~8

c) 0 .178{l) = 0,;.:)4

d) fJ .. 0 .6.;8 ... 0.178(6) .. l.n-6

e = y- fJ =1.9- 1 .7~6 = 0 .174


e)

...
...

33

.. ,..

" 3.0
<

,..

...

l.S

0.5

1 .5

,..

z.s

3.5

...

All the points would liea long tlt.e45 degree line y =fl.Tltat is, the rqression mOOd '"ou.Jdestimate tlevalu.esexactly.At trJs point. tr.eg111ploof
obsenui:vs. predicted indicates tl>.at tlt~simpl e linear rtgression model prmi des a reasomble fit to the data.

ll-l.!).

sc.f.tetpklt Of)' v U
2.7

2.5

!A

..

,., 2.3

2.1

1A

15

10

'

"

"

"'

35

tfs pnssible to fit t~isdata withstraight 1ine mock!, but it's oot a good fit. T~.ere is a cun'Stt.tes~.o\''non the scatter plot.
4

a) TJ!.e regression equation is


y 2. 02 - O. Oa7 x

eocr

~:-odict.o:

sr. Coef

2 . 01977

C?r.~t.er.t.

0 . 0531.3 31!.02

o.cco

1 . 24

0 . 000

0 . 02Bil& 0 . 003966

S 0 . 159159

S:m:-<QC:

UF

ss

;.:s

LJ2iC

LJ2iC

P.c;:-e::.~ior,
~~idt:nl

R-Sqltt~j)

R- Sq 67.7t

66. 4\

52 . 12 0 . 000

0 . 6333 0 . 0253
26 l . 96i3

::-o:

25

t'otttl

Y= 2.02- 0 .0:!87X
u =0 .0~

h) Y = 2.02 .a. O.MB7(ll) : 2.:);3..57


c)

Sc-attet pbt o f y w y-hat


2.7

2.6

..

2.5
2.4
)o.,

2.3

2.2

,_,

2.0

~
2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5
y.flot

2.6

2. 7

2.9

tf the relationship betwten lengtltandagewasddcrministic. IJ!.i' points "''ocld faJ I on IJ!.e45 d<:gree line y = y. Because the points in this plot vary
substantially from tllis line, it a ppears tr.at age is not a reasonablccOOict for tr.e regressor variable in this model.

tet x =engine displacement {em3)aocixold =engi ne displacement (in3).

11-17.

a! Th.eold ~essioneql!3 ti onisy= 39.::1 0.0402JtoJd


Because 1 in = 16J.87 em tlte D<."'W regression equation is

fJ = 39.:! - 0 .0402(x / 16j.S?) = 39.2- 0.00:!,5X.


'

b)

fl, = -0.00>;
a)

ll-19.

b)

T~.eslopesofboth regression JUOdds wi.ll be tl:-esame. but t~.e inter<x""Pt wiJI be shifted.

y = :!13241- J6.9f;l8x

Po= 2625.39

vs.

fi, =- 36.96 18

fi, =- 36.9618

'

I 1-2 1.

a)

T. = flo- flo = I 2.857


0

se(/30 )

1.032

I 2.4 583

P-value = 2[P( T, > 12.4583)] aod P-value < 2(0.0005)= 0.001


'

T. = fl, 1

fJ, =

se(/31 )

2.3445 = 20.387
0. 115

P-value = 2[P( T, > 20.387)] and P-value < 2(0.0005) = 0.001

MS = SSe = I7.55 = 2.1938


E
ll - 2
8

Fo = MSR = 912.43 = 41 5.9 13


MSE 2. 1938
P\'3h:e is near u:ro.
h) Because tt..e P-va.lueoflf!.e F-te.st = o is less titan a= o .o.s. v.e reject tlu:null hypothesis tf>.at jj1 =oat t tteo.os IC\l:l ofsignificance. This is
f.l!. esame result obtained from tr.e n test. l f tf!.eassmnptionsarcvaJid.a csefuJ linear relations.!>jpexists.

= Ms8 = 2.1938

c) u

ll::!;l. a) 1) Tt:~ parameter ofioterest is the trgtf'..SSoOt \'ariableooefficicnt. JS1.


~)

Ho:/Jt=O

:}) Hl:jj11:0
4)

a=o.o.;

5) T!be test statis ticis

J. = MSR = SSR/1
0
MSE SSE I ( 11 -

2),

6) Reject Ho i ffo

> fa,u:! wherefo.o.;,1,1:l = 4 .7.;i.

7) Usi ng results from Exercise 11-1

SSR = f11sxy = - :tJ.:!">S0l7(-.;9.05i143)

.. 137-59
SSE= Syy- SSR
.. 1.)'!).71 4 ~9- l37-59l4.l
.::22.1~

10

137.59 = 74.63
22.123 / 12
8) Since 74.63 > 4-7 5 reject Ho aodoonclnde tha t oom pres.sl ~strength is significant in predicting intrinsic permesbilityofooncreteat
a= o.o.;. We can t.lterefor-econclude that th.e model spe::ifiesa usdu.l linear relationship betwteo tll.esetwo\"ariable.;.
P- t.\1lue .. o.ooooo2

1.8436 and seuJ1) =


cl

.. ., I

-X 2

II

So:

- +-

se(fto)= u -

fE

8436
= 0.2696
1.
25.3486

1 3 07 142
]= 0.9043
1.8436 - +
14 25.3486

n -2.5. a ) Reg.ressionAnalysis: Rating Pis \'E:rsus Yds ~~ Att


the

:eqre~,ion ~~ti~n i~

1>..-:ti:-.<;: f>t::. 1<1 . 2- 10. 1 Yd::. pe: \tt


P:c;.d.i Ct:O!'

C:>ef

S Cocf

Cor.::.t.u.t

1-1 . !SS

9 . 059

1. 51

0 . 121!"

'(d::.

pi!!' '.tt

10. 092

l . 2SB

7 . 1!<1

0 . 000

5 . 21B74

R-S~

;\r::tiy~i~

67. a

S- :kjidj)

66.1\

of V:tri:t!'lc:c

S:mroc

bF

ss

Y.S

1672. 5
8!.) . 1

1672. 5

R~rc:.:.i~!"l
P.c~idt!!!.l !"!'!)%

30

l'ot:tl

"

~>La

0 . 000

2L2

:?t.B9. 5

Refer to t lt.eANOVA
H0

: ~1 =

Hl:/11<~;0
a = 0 .01

Because tt..e P-valu.e = 0.000 <a= 0.01. reject H(,. (f th.eassumptionsar e\a lid. weoonclnde that theN! is a useful linear tclations.hip betwem f.l!.ese two
\'3riables.
b)

(!

:!.7.~

7.2 = 1.287
se(P 1 ) = ~
-2= ~
s"

se(P0 ) =
c)

1)

16.422

I
11

x2

+-s,-,. = ,

72
-.4...,.,.1= 9.056

27.2 - +32 16 22

The -p.uameterofinteret.t is t~.e regressor variablcooefficient ~1 .


~)

Ho:/J1=10

,l) H1 : P1 ~10
4)

= 0 .01

_ fi,-P,,o

.;) The test statistic is ro -= 0 -

se</i )
1

6) Reject Ho if to

< -laj:!..n::! where -to.oo.;jo = -2.750 or to> to.oo.;jo = 2.7.;0

7) Using tt.e res-ul~ from E.l:ercisc u)~

I = IO.o92- 10 = 0.07 15
0

1.287

8) Bccause0.0715 < 2.7.;0. fail to reject Ho.Tlt.cre is not enongtu:,id.encetooooclndethat tlt.es.lopediffcrs from 10 a t a= O.iH.

1121. ktfcr to tlte ANOVA for E.xercise u) ~S

a) 1) Tlwl paramttcr ofintertSt i.s t~.e reg;rtSSOr \"aria blerodflcicnt. ~1


!1:) H{J:/J1 0

3) 11,:/l,O
4)

o 0.01

51 neoauurisri<is

fo=

MSR
SSR II
MSc = SSe 1 (II - 2)

6) R<jeclllo illo > fa...22 ilerelo.Du.oO = iO.D49


?) u.s~ d~treAihsfram Exercist:10-6

280583.12/ 1 = 74334
37.746089 / 10
.4

; =
IO

8) Sii)OC 743..14-4 > 10.049, ttj ect Ho andooncludt:t.h modtl is tatfW Q 0.01. P-1.-aiUJt <0.000001

..J311 Oil337744.sd.f'i0 1= 1hlt;6;

b)

c) 1) 'r l\t patl'l meter of interest i.s t.ft.e regressor variablecoefficient. l 1


!I) Ho :P1Ul
3) H1 :#1 10
4) <h O.ol

5) Tbt..,.st>listl<is

fJ, - flu,

o = se{jJ,)

6)

Jtdeo Ho iflo < -1o/2.1t-'1 "ilert--tooo.po = -3.J7or to> 'oM5.10 3.17.

7)

UJI~ lht resdts fran: Exen:ise t0--6

9.11- 10
to = 0.0338

- 23.37.

8) Since -2337 < -3-17 t...;a::tHo ando:mcludetbrs.lope:ia DM 10ft a OIJI. P-\2lue o.


d) H0 : f'o

H1: 1\o 1H'l

! = - 6.3355- 0- -3.8
0

1.66765

P\'aluc <0.005. Rtjcx.1 ~~) andoonch:.de that tJ;e intercept .should be iocludOO. in the modtl.
11:1.9. Rtfcr to Ibe ANOVA for Exercise ll7
a) H0 :1J1 0

H1 :jj1 Hl
a=O.O,S

fo =<14.0>79
J.os.J.u = 4.&
/o>/Q.l.u
lbudort. rtjtd Ho P~tce OD0004.

u.efJ 1). 0.010452.4

b)

sd}'i0) = 9&346
Ho:floO

<)

Hl:{1o+.o
o=O.OS

to,. -JI,.iJ8
1.0 2,5.11 .. 2.201

1'<111- -atw

Thud'ore,do 001rfjOd flo. Pvnlut 0.12166.

n;p. RdrrtoANOVA for Exercise lHl

a) llo:/J,O
H1:/h O
a 0.01

/o \$5.2
/.ou>8 ll.28s

lo >la.us

'1"lla1fote. rcjcd tfo. P-wi'Dt < 0.00001.

b) Mljl,l45~68

..#0 )11#>81

c) Ho;/J, ....30
Ht:/3,-. ..30
Q.

10

0.01

_ -36.96 18- (- 30) =- .

2.9668 1

2 3466

r.oo~.18 2.878

ro!.1.. ,4/2,18
Tbrrdort.do not rejt Ho. p.,.,k e = 0.01.53(2) = 0.0;306.
d)

Ho;fl

:fl o

H1
0
0. 0.01

... 57.8957

'..oos.ss1.878

'o >IQ/2.1& theftfort. fl'j1 He,. P--'1.-oaiGt < 0..00001.

() HolPo'Jc,o

"': fJ0. >.100

a O.oJ

I - 2625.39-2500 = 2.765 1
0
45.3468
r.o1,18 a.s,.~2
ro > ra,18 tlttrefort r(jecc llo. P-vaiL'1! = o.oo64.

Ho

. lljj. a) Refer toANOVA for Exercise 11-13.


:13,
. =

a= 0 .01
Bees use the P\'SJt.-e = o.ooo <a= 0.01. rtjec:t f-lo.There is evidence ofa linear relationship ~een tf!..ese f\\.o \"aria bits.

b) IT =0.08;)

n.e standard errors for tJu: parameters can beobtaiood ITom theoompnter output or calculated as follows.

0.083 = 0.014
420.9 I
I

:r2

ll

s=

- +-

= \

10~0c:,.
9'
I
.:..:
.,.1 = 0. I 657
0.08 ,> -1
I + 420.9 I

c) l)n.e parameter of interest is tr.e intercept jlo .

3) H,:fioO
a= O.Ol

4)

fio

5) Th.eteststatis hc is

1o = se<J3o)

6) Reject Ho ifro < -faJ'J.Jt-'J. w~.ere - ro.oos.9 = -3.2.50 or ro > ta,''J..n-'J. wh.ere ro.oo.s.9 = ,l.'J..;O.
7) Using tr.eresults from t.urcise lll3

0.6578

to = 0.1657

3.97.

8) Because to = ,3.97 > ,l.'J..SO reject Ho andoonclnde t.Jt.e ioteroept is not zerosta = OiJl .

ll3.;. a ) Ho

:fi1 =O

Hl : fJ11<0

a=o.os
Because t~.e P\'Sit:e = 0.310 >a= 0 .05-, fa il to rtjec:t f.fo.Tltere is not snfficient C\i d'enceofa linear relationship between these tv.ovariab!es.

r:.-,e

:e;:c~~i-o:-.

B.'!!

cqt:et;im-: b

l3. B *- 0 . 256 \gc

'qe

Sf. Coef

13. 20

9 . 1<1

1.51

O. l i <l

0 . 255

0 . 2340

LG9

0 . 310

S 5 . 53982
;\:-.:tly~ i~

C-!>ef

R- Sq

1-1 . 6\

R-~~:tdJ)

2 . >1\

l>f V.1::i::r.ce

Of

ss

:-'S

Rcg::c~~io:-,

3G. 6E'

3G. 6E'

1.20

0 . 310

~c~id~::ti

'

:H-1 . 1?3

Sot!::oe

'!'l>t.nl

:-:o:-

30. 69

251. 5!

cJ se(/30 ) =

2 I
IT

- 2
X

- +ll

sn

I 38.2562
= 30.69 + S O, ? = 9. I 4 I
1
9
6 .>4-

d = IJ O- (I 2.5)1 = 0.331
n 3J.
5.5/3 II I6.422
Assume a= o.o,s. from Cltart Vll {e) and interpolating between thecutVf'.S for o = 30 and n = 40 .{~ 0-5.5

5eai0M ll5 ano U-6

ll39 la{~.M- = lo.o1,;.12 = 2.179

a) 9.;%oonfideoce inten 'tllon{j1


'

'

,B1~taj2.n- 'J.st({Jl)
- 2J.-298:t r.0-2.5 ,l2 {o .2696)
-2~,S~'J..l79(0 .26)>6)

'
-2:()1'J3:s.f3l S-3.742:3

9.;%oonfick:noe in1er:aJ onfi0 .

b)

'

'

/3 o ~ r.o"2.5,l'J.setfio)

48.0130 ~ 2.179{0.;9.;9)
'

46.7145 s

fJ() s 49.$ll.;.

c) 9.;9Goonfideoce inten'al onp wh.enxo = 'J.,s.

1.,.1<, =
IJ.,

Ylto

48.0130 - 2.3298(2.5) = 42.1885

,2

<

.Ql,_ .12

(1

[1 + (x S-xil
0

JJ

"-".,--~
XX

,----,---"-------..,.
1
2 5 3 07 14 2
42.1885(2.179) 1.844[ - + ( -
) )
14
25.3486
42.1885 2.179(0.3943)
4 1.3293 <l'y" < 43.0477

d) 9.;%oo prediction inten "SIwh.en xo = 'J..;.

-xll

, 2[
1 (x0
Yo ' .o2;.12 a 1+;;+ s,

,----;-------:1
2 5 3 07 14 2
42.1885 2.179 1.844[1 +- + < -
) ]
14
25.34857 1
4-2.1885 ~ 'J..179(140.;G)

39.1'J.57 s Yo s 4,5.'J...:P3
It is ~ider because it depends on botbthcerrorsassociated ,\;th the fitted model and tf!.e future observation.
11--41. ta;'J..n-'J. = ro .O'J...SjO = 'J..O<f.'J.'
a)

'

9.;'%oonfidence interval on/3 1


'

/31 i

faJ2,1l-'J.~ l)

l0:09'J. t ro.O'J...S.JO (1.287)


l0.09'J. ~ :U)4'J.{J.2.87)

7464

sf; s12.720
1

'
b)

9.;%oonfideoce intervaJon/J0

{J o atan->,.,jlol

14.195:! ro.0"2.5jO (-().0.;6)


14.195:! ~.04'J.(9.0.;6)
'
-4.297 sf3o s 3-2.687
c)

'

9.;9Goonfideoce inten'al for the mean rating w~.en fl!.ea\W'ageyatds per attempt is 8.0 P. = 14.195+10.092{8.0) = 9<1.-()jl

ii. t0.025:30
2

8 7
1
94.93 1 2.042 27.2[ - +( - )
32 16.422
9 1.698 ~ JL

~ 98.164

d) 9.;% prediction ioter\'8J onxo = 8.0

8 7
1
94.93 1 2.042 27.2[1 +- + ( - )
32 16.422
83.801</L ~ 106.06 1

11-43. RegressionAoolysis: Ussge\'ef'SllSTemperature


1'!-.e '!'cg:e~::.iW": cqu~ttior. b
0::-:lgc:t . - 6 . 34 .. 9 . 2"1 ~:'tttl::C

Predict;')!'

Coef

C:>r.::.t:~..r,t.

t'~T.":ti!:'C

t. 942'81

- 6 . 336

i . b66

9 . 20BJ6

0 . 0331,

ss

:O!S

lOC. Oi.

'

2CCSE3 2CCSE3 14334 . 36 0 . 000

'

38
!1

t'ot.cl

-3. CO O. OO:i
272. 6< 0 . 000
R-Sq~ttdJ)

R-Sq ,.,. 100. 0\

0!-'

C::~ef

!>E

::'60621

a) 9.:10~6 - !l::1!!8(0 .0.J3n) = 9 .101 s ~1 s 9 20836 '"' 2.2::18{0.0:);3:77) = 9 .93;::1

h) - 6.3l5.50 - 2.12.8(J.6676.;) = -n.M:i s

c)

fiQ s -6..3:).5.;0

::1.~8(1 .6676.; ) = -1.0.;0

1
55 46 5 2
>]
500. 124 (2.228) 3.774609[ - + ( 12 3308.9994
500. 124 1.4037586
498.72024 < ~1"1<, ~50 1.52776
5 46 5 2
500. I 24 ( 2.228 ) 3.77 4609[ I +12+
I (3308.9994
S ) ]

d"'

.'jOO.J~ : 4..;.50.'jf>44

495.57344 s Yo s .;04.67456
It is v.idet because the pro'ldiction iotervaJ i ncludes errors for both tlt.e fined model and for a future ohservstion.

ll-45. 3 ) 0 .0$689 s

pl s 0 .10 183

b) -47.087><.80 <>4.069>

c)

1
9 10 939 2
46.6041 (3. 106) 7.32495 1[- + (
) ]
13
67045.97
46.6041 2.51440 I
44.0897

< l"yl<, < 49. 1185)

46.6041 (3. 106) 7.32495 1[1 + -1 (9 10 - 939)2 ]


13 67045.97

d)

46.6041 -: s .n 9:166
37.8:198 s Yo s .;..;~784

ll-47 a) :lOl,S,S.!l: s fJ 1 s ::!66.:;90

b) -4.670 15 sfio s -2.346:>6

c)

30 245
128.814 (2.365)
398.2804[.!..+
(
.
9 ..:.1....,675-1,-.4-::2""14:....
128.814 16.980 124
111.8339 ~ I"JI<, < 145.7941

l.l-49. a ) -43 .1964 s

b) >;:J0.09<.Bo

c)

/3 1 s -30.727:1;m.c,~

(20 -1 3.3375) ]
1886. 154(2.10 1) 98 11.2 1 - + "-------=-''-20
1114.66 18
1886. 154 62.370688

1823.7833 < JL)\<, ~ 1948. 5247

d)

--~----------~
2
1 (20 - 13.3375) ]
.
1886. 154(2. 10 1) 98 11 .2 1 I +
+
[
20
1114 66 18

18.%.154 :t ::m.2.5:175
)668:9013 s Yo s 2103 4067

U.$1. Ktftr to lite Minitabo ntpnt in Exercise lHJ

r<l/2.n-2

a)

'o.oos.9,. 3.2.50

~eonfi&nceirrt.m:~lforfi 1

fJ 1' '4/M,..11)
0.J78. to.OO.S-9 (0.014)
O.li8 3-2$0(0.01.4)
0.>32$

fJ1 U235

b) 99'<comd<mti111...alooP0
.
.
Po f4/Ln2,.JJol

os?& ato.oos.t<o.s6.5?)

0.6518. 3.2$0(0.11'>57)
O.U9' {J0 ",191)

c:) 9,5'-iotmfid.eru ilrter\'81on~tw}!.enxo = 8

f'y!Xo OA'>,S80.1?8(8) :!.08:!

...
2.082~2.262

l (8 - 10.09f)
.
o.osJ[II+
420 91

SWf\lH

J)53 Rdcr 1:() the Minitabontput in E.xercise 11.,;~.

a) R o.6r.>
The modtl aooount.s for 67 .2:% ofthoe\'ariability in tl..cd.au..
b) 'rhtrt is no major ~partur~ from the normalityas.s:um1rtion in 11te following graph.

Hotr'I'UII ~bill;)' Plot o l fl ~-~ ~~


(fUCOOo'_. it lt.10'-tN

' H
t)

10

0
ll:ddu l

10

r~te us.umprionofooruta.nt variance a ppears reasonable,

Rt:siduU VNs tilt Fitted Vllut:s


( fe;!JC.! 'X

10

c litH-o ;I~

..

..

10
15

..

7S

..

"

An.4Vtit~t

..

llS5 Use the t('SultsofExercise u -s toaBSwer tJ!..e following qu-estiom.

a ) R = 99.91)6%: n ..e proportionofvaria bilityexpla inod bytlte modt:l.


b) Yes. oonnalityseems to be satisfi ed becausetJ!.edsta appesr to tall aJong tlt.estraight line.

99.9
99

9S

80

:/

so
20

/
/

0 .1

-z.s

~. 6

l.4

5.4

c) Tt.i!:re might be: I O\\"et variance at tl'.e middlesettingsof'x. Howe-.w, thisdsta does not indicatea seriotsdepartu.re !Tom the assumptions.

Pbtof RESiduals ~rsus r,.mpat1.11e

Pbt ofRESidJals VfSUS Predicted


5.4

3Af~--~--~--~--~--~

3.4

1A f~---4----~--4----f---4H

.0.6

215

l::t:=:;:ll=:;::=l=;:=f
1&3

280

380

480

sao e.oo

21

31

P~dl~d values

-41

Sl

61

71

81

Temperature

u -.;7. a) R = 0.879397
b) ~o<tepa rtures fromoon;t.l.nt ' a riaooeare noted.
Residuals Ve rsus t he F'rtted Values

Resicilals Versus x
(r~~e .,_ yt

(r~~e .,_ ~

"'

.. 1..

~
&0

-----------------------------~ -------

------- ~ ------------------------------

10

_,

10

20

30

80

130

180

Rtt ed VthJe

c)

Norm.alityassumptionappe:n s reasomble.

Normal Probability Plot of the Residuals


(re:;por.:;e l:l y)

1 0.
20.

~\().

llo-

.,.
.,

l .S

1.0

-l>s

0.0

O.:l

N onnai SCOI'e

1.0

1.S

'"'

HS9 a ) R = 8.5.::!:2%
b) Assumptiomappea.r tt.asonsble. but fl!.ere isa suggestion that \'tHiabilityincreasesslightly\<.ith y.

Residu als Ve ~s x

Residuals Vers.Js the Frtt ed VaU!s

(~top.:.rn ~ y)

..i

'

a::o

(~~ iii)' ~

..,

'

1(

--- ... ---------------------------------

&o ---

. . .

J>. - - - - - - - - __ : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

... .

o.o

o.2

o..

o.o

o..s

1.0

1.2

1 _.

u;

u1

,.

10

fitted \hUe

c) Normalityasswnption maybe questionable. Tf!..ere is some heooio.g" awayfmm a line io the ta.ilsoftlte nortlU'll probability plot.

Nof'mal Pro bability Plot o f t he Reskluals


(r~p:rnel:;

'

u-61. a) R = o.8961)8J89%oftiw,'8riabilityisexplained byf.l!.e model.

b) Yes. the two points with res.idu.aJs mtl.<:h. larger i n magnih:.de than t~.eotlt-erssrem unusual
Normal Probabiit y Plot of the Reskluah
(ff~~(,~

i:

y)

,~------------------------------~

.I

100

Residual

..

c) R newmoctcl =0.9573

t arget. bteiluse t~.e model is better ab!etoaooonot for t.Jt.e\'8riahilityio t.bedata l'lith tJt.ese l'\o.-ooutl)iQ& data points remo\'ed.
2
c) lT old mOOcl = 98u.21
2
lT w,mode:! = 402:!.93
\'es, rf:du.oed more t~.anso%. hecal!Si! t.J!.e 1'\t.o remo,'fld pointsacoounttd for a large amount ofttturor.
ll~.}. \'e.s, wh.eo tJt.e re.s.idulsare standardized t.Jt.e unusual residuaJsare easier to identifY.
1.072:3949- 0 .700Sn4 -(Uj82:!l80.648804.) - 0 :!j.;j0824 - 2.1686819 046ScU92
0~137 0.0982u60,s9458iJO.:lO.:P:!44 -0.8806j-:)60.]9:l1072 0 .724l91)0
-0 4737526 0 .~.:l2146 () .10888.;9 () $749"'-.59 1.03~187 -0 1774419

u-6.;. Using

z,
n- 2

Also.

Booau.se the square of a t random \'8.riab!e ...,ith n-2 degrees 9f freedom is a~ Frandom \'atiab!e with 1 and n:! dqrees of freedom. the usually t-te.st th.at
iuquh-aJent tooompatipgjo = ro to/a,1,n-2 = r aj:!,n-2

oomp<~res ~ro l to raf'i,n-'J

0 9 23
- ( ) = 207 . Reject H 0 :/31 = 0 .
1- 0.9
23R2
b) Becac:sef.o.;,l.i3 = 4-:lB.Ho is rejected if I- R2 > 4.28
Tllat if H., ;, r<i"i!oo ;r
l

j0 =

~R ?4->8(>-R )
27.~ >4.28

R- > 0.157

!17.3. a)

4 . 59061

J . i04

Cocf SH C:>ef

5 . 50.1

0 . 1!~

L71

~-Sqi~dJ)

k- Sq 89.9i

BB. G1

ss

149.1. 1 !.493.7

16&:. 6

70. B&'

0.000

2l.t

t662.3

'

= .5.S0'""6.;j.\'
\'es, because the P vahti': = o , tf!.e t;v('SS.ion modcl i.s significant at a= o.o.s.
4

b) ,. =

Jo.s99 =

o.948

c) Hn:P =o
H1 :P :;~~: o

.J~o.""89,..,.9 =

,. =

o.948

ro .02$.8 = ~.j'C)6
r0 =842..5 > ro.o2...;.S = 2.J06
Reject~~,.

~]
<p< ranh[arcranb
n- 3

ranh(arctauh rdl

ranl{arcrau h 0.948 0. 7898 ::;; p < 0.9879


11

,~;:~ 3 ] <p< ran+rciaoh

r+

~]
n- 3

0.948+

,/;~~ 3 ]

7.5. Refer to tf!.e Minitaboutput in Exercise 11 3.


4

a)
b)

Jo.672

r=
H0 :P =O

0.820

H1:P= o
10

r~ = 0.82,/32- 2 7.847

~1- 0.822

J1- r2

r.o2.5.30-= 2.042
ro > r.oi_;jO

Reject f-lo.Tf!.e P-vah:.e < o .ooo.s.


c)

tauh[arcran h(0.082}0.660 s

96
19 6
] < p < ranb[arciao b(0.082)+
J
J 32- 3
,/32- 3
1.

p s 0 .91)9

d) Ho:P =0.7
Hl:

P= o.;

1/ 2

zo =(arct.anhR-arctanhPoXn-3)

112

.to ={arctan lu).82-arctan h 0 .7)(S-2-3)


.to= l.j6
Za/2 = Z.0.02.!; = 1.9(>
IZd < .to.o15
Fail to R..iect H(). Tf!.e p.,aJne = 2{0.0.594) = o.u88
~rll-9

nn .

a) Yes. loy = ln!lo'"' ~1 1nx -'"' tne

b) No

c)

\'('S,fny = ln~0

Yes,
d)

... xln!l1 1ne

- = {30

+ {!1- + e
X

1S

,.,

10 -

s-

..
...
..
r ....

0 .

o, __~soo
"
-r'-~__T
---; ----r---.---;----rJ
soo
0

1000 1

2000 2500 3000 3500

Residuals Versus t he Fitted Values


(1~0"1 SoeiS )')

,~--------~.~--~-----------,

.'l. .
..... ... . . .-. .
"
.

... 1

~0

~~--------~ --- ! - . ----- ~---------------

~1

_,

_,_

_,

~-----------.-----------,------~

10

Fitted Value
b)

c) Ho :J$1 =0
H1 :/~j = =o

a=o.o.;

fo = 12:!.0 3
f o >/o.o.;.l48
Reject 11(). Conclude t.J!.at regression mociel issignifiesnt a t a= o .os .

d) No. it s._--erns thevariaooe is oot oonstant. there is a funnel sJ!.ape.

The fitted logistic regression model is


' -

e)

y=

I+

exp[-(S.JJ~? I- O.OO ISSx)]

- 077

y - I + exp[- (- 7.04706 + 0.00007 J8x, + 0.987886x2J] - . .Ye.s. tt~ tNinsformatioosubHb<es tlw>Oriaoe<.

$e..""t10n lHO

u-81. a ) Tlt.e fitted logistic regression modcl is Y= 1+exp[- (5.JJ97 1-0.00I55x)r


n.e Mini tab ti:.Su.lt iss~.0\.\'0 bei O\'o'
Binary Logistic Regression: Number Failing,SampJe Size. \ttSllS load.x{psi)
!.ir.k f'l:.r.ctior::

~ i t.

P.e~~:-.~ ll'lfo=.~t. i !)."l


V~'!'i::.ble

!'.~
S~le

V:lue

F::.iiirq , r
S i :e, n

Cour,t

S1:0cec:<:i

JSJ.

f:il~e

!o~t

690

Odd~

sr.

0 . 5-15693
O. QOCtS75
'!..D;-~i kt:::!.i~od
Te~t

t.Mt aU

95\ Ct

C!>ef

9 . 79
-9. 8.3.

0 . 000
O. GCO

LOC

t.QO

1.01:

-421 . 1?56
~1-:>pe~ c~ ~:-o :

G ... 112. -160, Of'

t, f'-Veluc C. OOO

b) Th.e P\'Silli': for the test oftheooclficient of load is ncar 1.ero. T1terdor~. load has a significant effect on failing pcrfonnance.

n-83. a ) Tf! Mioitab resultsa resltown belo\\


llinary Loglo;tie Regression: yversu.o; lneome xt, Age x:t
~i r.k

f'u:-;etit)r.:

Re~p:m::.c

'l:t:i:!hic

...ogi~

I r,f-o=t.i-or.
V=luc

{;m~:-;~

10

H>:cr.t.)

to

P:c:ikt.:):

s;,;

C:M:~f

-7. 0<1706

<1 . 67.U.6

C. OC0013B
0 . 9S7Q66

O. OOOC63:7

~:-;:.ttl r.t

t r,c:xoc x l.

'iC x2

ClXlf

t
-l. 51.

0 . 521351!'

1..16
La;

"""'
ibtio

95l Ct
:.~:

iJppc:-

O. D2

0 . 241

l.OC

1.00

1.00

0 . 061

2 . 69

0 . 96

7 . 55

-:>?- :.ikcliho:xi ,.. -1.0. 541

re:.t

~h=t

=11 :.lope:. =: c

zc:~ :

C 6 . 6,4, bf 2,

~-V=l~

0 . 03:6

b) Because the P-vsJtze = 0.036 < a= 0.05 wecanooncln<ie tltat a t least oneoftheooefficients(ofinoomeandag.e) is not equal touroat the
o.os ll!\l!l ofsignificance. TJ!.o: indhidu.al t.testsdo oot genera te P-vslncs less thano.o.:;.bnt this mig.~.t be due tooorrclatioo ~een tf!.e
inrlepend.eot vsriahles. Tttu -test for a ooefficient assl!mes it is f.h.e last vsriable to enter f.h.e model. A model might ~ cit.Jt.eor income or oge.

but a fter onevsriab!e is intlt.e model, theoodficient z-test for t~.eother \"ariable may not significa nt becanseoftheir oorrelation.
c) Tlteodds ra tio is changed byth..c factor o:p(~1 ) = ocp(0.00007:)8) = 1.00007 for f!\oeryunit increase in income '~i thage lteldoonstant.
Similarly, odds ratio i sc~.a.ngcd bytf!.e fa ctor o:p(IJ1) = exp(0.987886) = 2..686 for f!\ott)' Unit ioc:rease in age ,,; th. income )',eld oonstant. More
reaJistically, if iooomech.aoges by S1000. tJ!.o:odds ra tio is Changed bytJ!.o: factor o:p(1000~1 ) = exp(0.0738) = l .On '~i th age h.cldoonstant.
d) At x 1 = 45000 a ncha = 5 from p.art(a )

' =

I
= 0 77
I +exp[- (- 7.04706 + 0.00007J8x1 + 0.987886x2 ) ]

e) T~..e Mini tab resul ts a res~.own below


Binary l.oglo;tie Kegre.o;sion: ynrsu.o; l.neome x1, Agen
~i r.k

f'u:-;etit)r.:

Re~p:m::.c

'l:t:i:!hic

...ogi~

I r.f-o=t.i-or.
V=luc

{;m~:-;tc

10

H>:cr.t.)

to

06.i:.
P:c:ikt:):

Coof

~:-;:.ttl r.t

t r,c:xoc x l.

0 . 314351
-0. 00014U

S C:M:~f
(. 3:9401

-2. 16169

0 . 0001412
:t-. CQl54

rr.c:xoc x l "'o;c x2 0 . OOOlOU

O. OOC0630

'iC x2

~-~i kclir~od
rc~t.

t.het a.ll

0 . 05
-!.00

H~t.io

95l C I.
:.:n.c: Uppor

0 . 961
O. J!B
2-. 231

L.OO

l.CO

l.OC

-!.. lE.

O. C9

o.cc

5 . 04

1. 61

C. l07

l.CO

1.00

1.00

-. 275
~lope:.

a-:-c zc:.:>: C

ll.li5, Of' 3:, P- V.=lt.-e O. OU

Because t~- PvsJ ne = 0.107 there is oof!\idenc:e: that a n interaction term is r~ui rcd io f.h.e model.

St~pplemerna I flterds.e$

n-8.5. a)
Plotofyvs x
21

1.9

y 1.6

0.7

1.1

1.5

1.3

1.7

1.9

2.1

Yes., a linear rdationsltip.smns plausible.

bl

c)

Tbe test statistic is j 0 =

fo

1.96613/ 1
0.0000623515/ 8

ssR l k
SS / (>t - p )
252263 9
'

:l) Ho : /~1 =O

j)

Hl :/3l= o

4) a= o .o.;

!.o.;) Thetest statisticis

SSR/ k
SSEI (n - p )

6) Reject Ho iffo > fa.l.swherefo.o.;,l.8 = .;..'J;27) Using the results from tJ!.eAKOVA table

966131 1
1.
= 252263.9
0.00006235 15/ 8

f.0 =

8) Because 2..;2-2&$ > 5.3-2 reject Ho andoonclude t!tat tlbe ro:gression model is significant a t a = o.o.;. P-vaJue"' o

d)

95 p9 rc9nt confiden c9 intrvals for C09fficient estimates


Estimate

Standard 9 rro r

- 0.96682
1. S4 376

CONSTANT
X

0.00 4SS
0.00l07

Lowe r Limit

- 0. 97800
l .Sl667

Upper Limit

- 0 .9SS6S
1. ssoss

l,sjf,C,!: ~l!: l-5508.;


e) :l) Ho:

31

llo =O

H1 : l~o=o

4) 0=0.0.;

TI1e test statistic is 1

o-

.;) The test statisticis

I
(,) Reject Ho if

- 0.96682
0.00485

-1 99.34

flo

se<fio>

w~.....,.~ -to.o2.,;.8 = -~jO(,orto > to.02.,;.8 = 2.j06.

7) Using the results from tt.etableabcwe:

0.7
O.f:.

>. 0.5 -

0 .4

0.3 -

0.2
0~

0.<

05

0.0

0.7

0.6

0.9

1.0

8) Siocc -199.34 < -:!j06 reject Ho andooncludetJ!.e: intercept is significant a t a= o.o.;.


ll-87.

...

....

~
......

t.....

-0.\

.,

..

.,

.....

= 1~+<1..;07.;xwf!.erey = 1jy.No. t he model docs not seem reasonable.


TILe residual plots indicate a po.ssibleoutlier.
ll-89.

y = 0.79l6x

E\'efl tbougb yshcnild be wo wltenx is wo. because t.herq.ressor\ariabledoes not usuallyassu.meva.lues near wo,s model with an intercept fits this
data better. Witl'.ol!t an intero..""Pt. the residu.als plots are not satisfactory.

U-91. a)

....
0.7

...

...

..

"'

O.G

0.1

0.&

Qt

1.0

b) )': 0.6714-2964.<
c) Analysisof\'ariaru
~~.reo

"'

~nttor:
~;n<ho4l

~otAl

Lnor

'

'

ss

""
0 . 0369!

0.036~~

C. !3ot98

p
L6(

O. :N.i

0.02250

0 . 1111?9

R 214 ?'W.
El:au.ac the p.,oaJu.e > o.os. reject the null hypotlw:s.iuDdooncludethat tf!.(! mOOd

Is a1anifieant.

d) Tbcruppea.rs to beCill"Wturtin thedat.t. Tbcrt:isa Cipintht middltahhe nonnaJ probability plot and tht plot ahhe ,..._id~~.&l& vcrstl.S

t.hr fitted \'altlfS s.bo\>.'S etln'ltlltC!.

..

....

...
j ..
...

"'

;il

j~~

.l!

.....,...

..

OS

fdtedVaUe

..

ll"fi. Th.eoorrelationooefficient for the : p.'lirsofdata (xj,Zj),,i li oot be near t.nity. l t ,,; 11 be near wo.Tlbedats for tlbe p.<~i rs(xi, Zj ) wltcrc
2
Zj = Yi will oot faJI aJong tt.e line Yi= Xj. v;hich }!.asa slope near nnityaOO g.hua oorrelationooefficient near u.nity. Tltcsed:ata will fa il ona

lineyi =

F
Y,

=F

"'

a)

MS

tf!..3:t 1\asa slope near woanctgi\'0'..\a mu.chsmai!crcorrelationooefficient.

L_,(Y, - fio- f3,x;)


ll- 2

I:eJ
II - 2

E(e;)= E(Y;) -E(/30 )- E(/3 1 )X; = 0


V(e1) = <1 2[J- (l -+ (x,;:i'J' )] Therefore,
n
n
E(MS ) = I:E(e; )

I:V(e;)

n- 1

11- 2

I:a2 [1 -

(; + <,; t )]

=
?

"

n- 2
a [n - I - I]
11 - 2

a2

= s., [ s"' +fl,2]=" 2+fl,2s"'


a

.,.z

V(/3,) = SA, .
n

s'C( = I: <xi - x)2 ,


i=l

b) Using W.cfsct th.atSSR = MSR., we obtain

E(MSR) =

E(/3{S~,) = S"' {v(/3,)+ [E(/31 lf }

!H OI.

.,.2

V(/3,) = s

.Tominimize V(/3, ),

"'

choosing approximately 1:-..a lfoftltcobservstions at eacn endoftltc: range of>:.


From a _ptilctical per:;po::(l\'e. this allocation as:;umcs the linear model bet\\een Y and x holds thr-oughout tJ!.e ra!'.ge of x a!'.d obsming Y at on!y n-o x
values prohibits \l!ril)i ng the liot.'lrityassu.mption. lt is often prefeN~b! e toobtainsomeobser\'ationsat intennediate valnesof x.

sJ.

y = y + r- (x - x )
SX

lHOj..

s
s=
"

= -Y + - ..,.(x - -x )
=

"

"

"

Y+f\t- f31x = /30 +f3 1x